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1

Reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of RDX and HMX explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our study of RDX and HMX, two of the most commonly used explosive materials, in bulk pellets with reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the frequency range of 0.3-3 THz. The maximum entropy method was utilized to correct our raw reflection data against the phase error due to the relative displacement between the sample and the reference. Both the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k in the terahertz region were acquired for these two explosives without a Kramers-Kronig analysis. Both RDX and HMX exhibit a series of distinct peaks not quite detectable in the more conventional transmission-type measurements due to their high terahertz absorptivity. Our results are compared with the literature data on powder samples.

Choi, Kyujin; Hong, Taeyoon; Ik Sim, Kyung; Ha, Taewoo; Cheol Park, Byung; Hyuk Chung, Jin; Gyeong Cho, Soo; Hoon Kim, Jae

2014-01-01

2

Identification of concealed materials, including explosives, by terahertz reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method for extracting the characteristic features of covered materials, including hexogen, in the range from 0.5 to 1.8 THz. This time-domain spectroscopy-based technique takes into account only part of the signal reflected from a covered sample and analyzes it by using the Fourier transform. The obtained power spectrum has distinctive peaks that correspond to peaks measured in the transmission configuration and can be used for further identification of the materials.

Palka, Norbert

2014-03-01

3

Evaluation of drug crystallinity in aqueous suspension using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy has recently been demonstrated to be a novel technique for the investigation of the solid-state properties of pharmaceutical materials. In this study, we directly measured the crystallinity of a drug suspended in water, using a terahertz pulsed attenuated total reflection (ATR) method. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine is classified as a poorly soluble drug; its most stable crystalline form is known as form I. Transmission spectra, collected from 0.2 to 2.0 THz (6.6 to 66 cm(-1) ), of nifedipine crystals had a strong absorption peak at 1.2 THz (40 cm(-1) ) at room temperature. When the nifedipine crystals were mixed with poloxamer 188 and suspended in water, the resulting spectra measured using the ATR method had a peak at the same frequency as in the spectra obtained in transmission mode. Furthermore, the peak area was proportional to the amount of crystals. The upward sloping baseline in the spectra, corresponding to water absorption, decreased stepwise with increasing amounts of crystalline particles. We confirmed that the spectra gave excellent quantitative results, using partial least-squares regression analysis. The results suggest the possibility of using this method for qualitative and quantitative assessments of crystalline drugs in suspension. PMID:24037861

Takebe, Gen; Kawada, Yoichi; Akiyama, Koichiro; Takahashi, Hironori; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Hiramatsu, Mitsuo

2013-11-01

4

Extracting accurate complex refractive index from solid pellets based on time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex filtering method for eliminating systematic and random noises of THz-TDS is proposed. This method is the combination of deconvolution and wavelet filtering algorithms. A self-reference method for extracting the complex refractive index of material accurately is also proposed in order to avoid a phase shift due to the misplacement between the surfaces of the reference and sample using the time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy. The basic idea of self-reference method is that the first and the second peaks of the reflection spectrum of solid pellets are regarded as the reference and sample signals, respectively. Thus more information of samples can be extracted because of a longer optical path, and meanwhile, phase error can be avoided by obtaining the reference and sample signals through a single measurement. According to the Fresnel formulas, we deduce the expression of complex refractive index and then design an iterative algorithm for solving it. We choose the glucose solid pellets as samples to test the self-reference method. After measuring the time-domain reflection spectrum, we adopted the complex filter method for filtering and utilized the self-reference method to extract the complex refractive index. Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT), the characteristic absorption spectrum of multiple glucose molecules in the THz absorption spectroscopy was obtained by the simulation analysis on the vibration of multiple glucose molecules. The results indicate that the absorption peaks appear in the absorption coefficient curves at the corresponding frequency positions which are approximately consistent with the results of the simulation based on DFT. So the methods we proposed can help improve the retrieval accuracy of complex refractive index.

Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yu; He, Yingfeng; Sun, Ping; Zou, Yun; Jia, Qiongzhen; Yang, Qinghua

2014-11-01

5

A quantitative study for determination of sugar concentration using attenuated total reflectance terahertz (ATR-THz) spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of our research was to use ATR-THz spectroscopy together with chemometric for quantitative study in food analysis. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are main component of sugar both in fresh and processed fruits. The use of spectroscopic-based method for sugar determination is well reported especially using visible, near infrared (NIR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. However, the use of terahertz spectroscopy for sugar determination in fruits has not yet been reported. In this work, a quantitative study for sugars determination using attenuated total reflectance terahertz (ATR-THz) spectroscopy was conducted. Each samples of glucose, fructose and sucrose solution with different concentrations were prepared respectively and their absorbance spectra between wavenumber 20 and 450 cm-1 (between 0.6 THz and 13.5 THz) were acquired using a terahertz-based Fourier Transform spectrometer (FARIS-1S, JASCO Co., Japan). This spectrometer was equipped with a high pressure of mercury lamp as light source and a pyroelectric sensor made from deuterated L-alanine triglycine sulfate (DLTGS) as detector. Each spectrum was acquired using 16 cm-1 of resolution and 200 scans for averaging. The spectra of water and sugar solutions were compared and discussed. The results showed that increasing sugar concentration caused decreasing absorbance. The correlation between sugar concentration and its spectra was investigated using multivariate analysis. Calibration models for glucose, fructose and sucrose determination were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration model was evaluated using some parameters such as coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of calibration (SEC), standard error of prediction (SEP), bias between actual and predicted sugar concentration value and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) parameter. The cross validation method was used to validate each calibration model. It is showed that the use of ATR-THz spectroscopy combined with appropriate chemometric can be a potential for a rapid determination of sugar concentrations.

Suhandy, Diding; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Ogawa, Yuichi; Kondo, Naoshi; Ishihara, Takeshi; Takemoto, Yuichiro

2011-06-01

6

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz absorption spectra and dispersion of biologically important substances such as sugar, water, hemoglobin, lipids and tissues are studied. The characteristic absorption lines in the frequency range of a terahertz spectrometer (0.1-3.5 THz) are found. The refraction indices and absorption coefficients of human tooth enamel and dentine are measured. The method of terahertz phase reflection spectroscopy is developed for strongly absorbing substances. Simple and reliable methods of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy are developed. (biophotonics)

Nazarov, M M; Shkurinov, A P; Kuleshov, E A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tuchin, V V [N. G. Chernyshevskii Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

2008-07-31

7

Ultrabroadband reflective polarization convertor for terahertz waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We design and experimentally demonstrate an ultrathin, ultrabroadband, and highly efficient reflective linear polarization convertor or half-wave retarder operating at terahertz frequencies. The metamaterial-inspired convertor is composed of metallic disks and split-ring resonators placed over a ground plane. The structure exhibits three neighboring resonances, by which the linear polarization of incident waves can be converted to its orthogonal counterpart upon reflection. For an optimal design, a measured polarization conversion ratio for normal incidence is greater than 80% in the range of 0.65-1.45 THz, equivalent to 76% relative bandwidth. The mechanism for polarization conversion is explained via decomposed electric field components that couple with different resonance modes of the structure. The proposed metamaterial design for enhancing efficiency of polarization conversion has potential applications in the area of terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communications.

Cheng, Yong Zhi; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Upadhyay, Aditi; Headland, Daniel; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rong Zhou; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Abbott, Derek

2014-11-01

8

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, continuous-wave (CW) terahertz spectrometer has been constructed to investigate the flexibility and dynamics of small biological molecules. Hydrogen bonding interactions, torsional vibrations, and conformational changes are expressed in this far-infrared region of the spectrum. Terahertz (THz) radiation (0 - 4 THz or 0 - 133 wavenumber) is generated at the difference frequency of two near-infrared pump lasers by optical heterodyne mixing at the surface of a solid-state photomixer. This spectrometer has been used to probe the low-frequency vibrational modes of several members of the vitamin B-complex including riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and biotin. Interpretation of these unique THz spectra has been aided by low-frequency Raman experiments as well as ab initio predictions for normal mode frequencies and intensities. Instrumental details, vitamin B-complex analyses, and preliminary results for myoglobin and other large biomolecules will be presented.

Korter, Timothy; Plusquellic, David; Hight Walker, Angela; Heilweil, Edwin

2002-03-01

9

Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper contains recent results of studying the ability of human body disease diagnosis with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In vitro skin cancer samples (squamous cell carcinoma, epithelioid cell melanoma, infiltrating carcinoma) were studied experimentally with terahertz pulsed spectrometer. The parametrical in vitro images of skin cancers are presented. The ability to make early tooth cariosity diagnosis with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was also shown experimentally. The results of studying the in vitro tooth samples are presented and discussed.

Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Koroleva, Svetlana A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Volodarskaya, Svetlana I.; Novitskaya, Ekaterina V.; Perov, Artem N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2014-03-01

10

Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

2011-03-01

11

Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated that terahertz pulsed imaging is able to distinguish between rat tissues from different healthy organs. In this paper we report our measurements of healthy and cirrhotic liver tissues using terahertz reflection spectroscopy. The water content of the fresh tissue samples was also measured in order to investigate the correlations between the terahertz properties, water content, structural changes and cirrhosis. Finally, the samples were fixed in formalin to determine whether water was the sole source of image contrast in this study. We found that the cirrhotic tissue had a higher water content and absorption coefficient than the normal tissue and that even after formalin fixing there were significant differences between the normal and cirrhotic tissues' terahertz properties. Our results show that terahertz pulsed imaging can distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue due to differences in absorption originating from both water content and tissue structure.

Sy, Stanley; Huang, Shengyang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yu, Jun; Ahuja, Anil T.; Zhang, Yuan-ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2010-12-01

12

Toward practical terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is a promising technology for the identification of explosive and pharmaceutical substances in adverse conditions. It interacts strongly with intermolecular vibrational and rotational modes. Terahertz also passes through many common dielectric covering materials, allowing for the identification of substances in envelopes, wrapped in opaque plastic, or otherwise hidden. However, there are several challenges preventing the adoption of terahertz spectroscopy outside the laboratory. This dissertation examines the problems preventing widespread adoption of terahertz technology and attempts to resolve them. In order to use terahertz spectroscopy to identify substances, a spectrum measured of the target sample must be compared to the spectra of various known standard samples. This dissertation examines various methods that can be employed throughout the entire process of acquiring and transforming terahertz waveforms to improve the accuracy of these comparisons. The concepts developed in this dissertation directly apply to terahertz spectroscopy, but also carry implications for other spectroscopy methods, from Raman to mass spectrometry. For example, these techniques could help to lower the rate of false positives at airport security checkpoints. This dissertation also examines the implementation of several of these methods as a way to realize a fully self-contained, handheld, battery-operated terahertz spectrometer. This device also employs techniques to allow minimally-trained operators use terahertz to detect different substances of interest. It functions as a proof-of-concept of the true benefits of the improvements that have been developed in this dissertation.

Brigada, David J.

13

A Concealed Barcode Identification System Using Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concealed terahertz barcode/chipless tag to achieve remote identification through an obstructing material using terahertz radiation. We show scanned terahertz reflection spectral images of barcodes concealed by a thick obstacle. A concealed and double- side printed terahertz barcode structure is proposed, and we demonstrate that our design has better performance in definition than a single-side printed barcode using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This technique combines the benefits of a chipless tag to read encoded information covered by an optically opaque material with low cost and a simple fabrication process. Simulations are also described, along with an explanation of the principle of the terahertz barcode identification system.

Guan, Yu; Yamamoto, Manabu; Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Tripathi, Saroj R.; Takeya, Kei; Kawase, Kodo

2015-03-01

14

TIME-RESOLVED TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF DIELECTRICS  

E-print Network

TIME-RESOLVED TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF DIELECTRICS PETR KUZEL AND JAN PETZELT Republic. Using the method of time-domain terahertz-transmission spectroscopy we measured the far Terahertz pulses; far infrared; time-resolved spectroscopy INTRODUCTION The time-domain terahertz-transmission

Ku?el, Petr

15

Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures  

SciTech Connect

The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

2009-01-01

16

Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays made from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottky diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.; O'Hara, John F.; Han, Jiaguang; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili

2009-02-01

17

Developments and advances in nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Nonlinear terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a rapidly developing field, which is concerned with driving and observing nonlinear material responses in the THz range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this thesis, I present ...

Brandt, Nathaniel Curran

2014-01-01

18

Metamaterial-Enhanced Nonlinear Terahertz Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We demonstrate large nonlinear terahertz responses in the gaps of metamaterial split ring resonators in several materials and use nonlinear THz transmission and THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy to study the nonlinear responses ...

Hwang, Harold Young

19

Research on time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a set of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system using electro-optic crystals. Conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based on Fourier-transform for spectra analysis, which mixes the frequency components of the entire temporal terahertz waveform in one frequency domain; therefore, it yields different terahertz spectra from a same terahertz pulse with different scanning lengths. We introduce a new technique for the joint time-frequency analysis of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based on wavelet-transform technique. With this technique, the frequency components in different time locations are clearly exhibited on a two-dimensional plane; therefore, the noise in the pulse tail cannot affect the frequency in the main pulse. This technique clearly separates the frequency of terahertz from that of its echo in the time domain; therefore, the interference spectrum occur in Fourier-transform is naturally removed. By varying the shape of analysis wavelet, high time resolution and high frequency resolution are easily obtained. The absorption coefficients of envelope, plastic, foam and cotton have been measured with the wavelet technique.

Deng, Yuqiang; Sun, Qing; Liu, Feng; Wang, Changlei; Xing, Qirong

2010-10-01

20

Measurement precision analysis for terahertz absorption spectrum of explosive materials by using terahertz transmissione spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz absorption spectrum of explosive materials can be measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy operated in transmission mode. In this paper, the absorption characteristics of four explosive materials in spectral range of 0.1-3 THz are studied. It shows that even for the same materials, the spectral absorption peak value in the same measurement condition is a little different. So the measurement precision of the terahertz time domain spectroscopy is very important for the feature extraction and identification of explosive materials. This work investigates the measurement precision of terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Some factors that affect the measurement precision of the terahertz time domain spectroscopy are analyzed and discussed.

Yang, Zhe; Yin, Qingyan; Li, Hongguang

2013-08-01

21

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Biological Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Following recent developments in instrumentation, the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum, lying between the microwave\\u000a and infrared regions, now offers considerable potential for the study of the structure, dynamics and function of biological\\u000a systems. The energies involved in many key biological processes lie in the terahertz frequency range, such as protein conformational\\u000a changes and the collective motion of DNA

J. W. Bowen

22

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Large-Area Graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene is predicted to possess exotic nonlinear electromagnetic properties, which may lead to novel terahertz (THz) applications. THz dynamic conductivity measurements allow us to probe the dynamics of such 2D quantum relativistic Dirac fermions (DF). Here, we used THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to measure large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, as well as optical absorption spectroscopy from

L. Ren; T. Arikawa; B. F. Cruz; M. Z. Jin; J. Kono; Z. Jin; J. M. Tour; A. K. Wojcik; A. A. Belyanin; Y. Takemoto; K. Takeya; I. Kawayama; M. Tonouchi

2010-01-01

23

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used to study properties of nonpolar amorphous materials. Terahertz absorption spectra and refractive indices were measured in a number of glasses, lubricating oils, and polymers, and the results were correlated with material properties.

Mira Naftaly; Robert E. Miles

2007-01-01

24

Pre- and post-processing for tomographic reconstruction of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Reflection-type terahertz tomography is obtained using time-domain spectroscopy. Due to different velocities of the terahertz ray in free space and inside a sample, the tomographic transverse plane is not obtained by a simple reconstruction using time index. A pre-processing method is proposed to compensate for the different velocities of the terahertz ray for tomographic reconstruction. Maximum intensity projection, averaging, and short-time Fourier transform are proposed as post-processing methods along the depth direction for the terahertz tomography. Log-scale display is also suggested for a better visualization. Some experimental results with the pre- and post-processing are demonstrated. PMID:24105540

Hong, Hye-Jin; Park, Jinho; Park, Hochong; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Ahn, Chang-Beom

2013-08-26

25

Extending applicability of terahertz spectroscopy for biosensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) vibrational resonance spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising technique for fingerprinting biological molecules. Absorption spectra in this frequency range (0.1-10 THz) reflect molecular internal vibrations involving the weakest hydrogen bonds and/or non-bonded interactions, which are species specific. Of prime importance is improving detection sensitivity of molecules with low absorption characteristics in the THz gap. Also of importance is the characterization of biological molecules in the THz gap (10-25 cm-1) by physical parameters (refractive index and absorption coefficient) rather than sample dependent parameters (transmission, reflection) and extending spectroscopy to the low THz range where remote sensing is most viable. To address the sensitivity issue, it is shown that periodic arrays of rectangular slots with subwavelength width provide for local electromagnetic field enhancements due to edge effects in the low frequency range of interest, 10-25 cm-1 (300-750 GHz). Periodic structures of Au, doped Si and InSb were studied. InSb is confirmed to offer the highest results with the local power enhancements on the order of 1100 at frequency 14 cm -1. InSb and Si have large skin depths in the frequency range of interest and so the analysis of their structures was done through the Fourier expansion method of field diffracted from gratings. Au however has small skin depths at these frequencies compared to the thickness. Surface impedance boundary conditions were employed to model the Au structure, for which the Fourier expansion method was unsuitable owing to the huge magnitude of Au permittivity. The applications possibly include development of novel bio-sensors, with the strongly enhanced local electromagnetic fields leading to increased detection sensitivity, and monitoring biophysical processes such as DNA denaturation. Transmission and reflection data from parallel, independent experiments are utilized in the Interference Spectroscopy Technique model based on thin film interference to calculate the fine structure of refractive index and absorption coefficient of biological molecules (DNA, proteins) in the THz gap. As to spectroscopy in the low THz range (3-10 cm-1), a noise source was used in free space configuration in the FT-IR set-up to obtain transmission and reflection data of biological molecules that act as fingerprints.

Parthasarathy, Ramakrishnan

26

Beam waist measurement for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments.  

PubMed

Classical masking aperture methods are found to be mostly inaccurate to determine the terahertz beam size in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) experiments, owing to complex diffraction effects. Here, we present a simple and reliable method for measuring beam waists in terahertz TDS. It is based on the successive diffraction by an opaque disk followed by a small circular aperture. PMID:20364163

Podzorov, Alexander; Wojdyla, Antoine; Gallot, Guilhem

2010-04-01

27

Metallic phase transition investigated via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

E-print Network

using transmission- and reflection-based terahertz TDS arrange- ments. A remarkable phenomenon that can transmission. Since the terahertz radiation transmission is mediated via coherent near-field coupling to the particle's size, conductivity, and shape. This sensitivity fa- cilitates transmission-based terahertz TDS

Chau, Kenneth

28

A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The terahertz band lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. It is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Unique absorption spectra due to intermolecular vibrations in this region have been found in different biological materials. These unique features make terahertz imaging very attractive for medical applications in order to provide complimentary information to existing imaging techniques. There has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of biologically related applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques, and a number of applications such as molecular spectroscopy, tissue characterization and skin imaging are discussed. PMID:21512652

Sun, Yiwen; Sy, Ming Yiu; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Ahuja, Anil T; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2011-01-01

29

Science Experimenter: Reflectance Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides construction details for a simple reflectometer that can be utilized for the observational technique known as reflectance spectroscopy. Includes background discussion, applications, calibrating techniques, and typical results. (JJK)

Mims, Forrest M., III

1991-01-01

30

Resonant terahertz reflection of periodic arrays of subwavelength metallic rectangles  

E-print Network

by ex- tinction spectroscopy, plays an important role in surface en- hanced Raman scattering, biosensors-domain spectroscopy and is attributed to the contributions from the dipole localized surface plasmons of isolated to as plasmonic crystals, have demonstrated enhanced terahertz transmission, prima- rily due to resonant

Oklahoma State University

31

Terahertz Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Biomolecules. , Jhenny Galanb  

E-print Network

Terahertz Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Biomolecules. Jing Xua , Jhenny Galanb , Gerry Ramianc-scale collective vibrational modes; as chiral objects, this absorption should be coupled with significant circular dichroism. Terahertz circular dichroism (TCD) is potentially important as a biospecific sensor, unobscured

Xu, Jing

32

Spectroscopy of Nafion in terahertz frequency range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results on the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of polymer Nafion. Using THz pulse spectroscopy and refined post-processing algorithms based on the ill-posed spectroscopic inverse problem analysis, we find the complex dielectric permittivity of Nafion to be in the range 0.15-1.5 THz. The results in the low-frequency (gigahertz) range agree well with known measurements. We find that the complex dielectric permittivity can be described well using the double-Debye model with relaxation times of 7.20 ± 0.05 ps and 0.12 ± 0.05 ps. This result is discussed briefly from the viewpoint of the appearance of a segregated structure in the "Nafion-water" system.

Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.

2014-09-01

33

New Development for Terahertz Spectroscopy in Lille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz domain is particularly interesting for spectroscopy of atmospheric species since the rotational spectra of light molecules like water or methanol have their absorption maximum in this range. Up to few years ago the source commonly used in terahertz domain were the backward wave oscillators. These radiation sources provide relatively high output power (several milliwatts) in the frequency range up to 1.2 THz However the BWOs are not easy to handle: they need high voltage supply (2 - 6 kV), water cooling, magnetic field up to 1 Tesla, and a phase locked loop to give accurate frequency measurements. With the arrival of telescopes working in the THz range, great improvements were achieved in the development of solid state devices based on Schottky diodes. The new spectrometer in Lille take advantage of this development and is now based on a frequency multiplication chain using these devices. The spectrometer covers more than 80% of the frequency range 0.05 - 1.5 THz, and we need about 150 hours to record the spectra in this range with high resolution. We will present two short-term projects for the spectrometer. The first one is to increase the frequency range up to 1.9 THz in order to have the full coverage of Herschel telescope. The second one is to speed up the experimental setup. Recently we have shown that one can obtain high resolution and high precision broadband spectra with a high recording rate using a DDS synthesizer in the phase-locked loop of a BWO1. Such fast-scan spectroscopy is particularly interesting for unstable species2,3. Our project is to couple a DDS synthesizer with a 10 - 20 GHz reference synthesizer and a frequency multiplication chain to obtain fast-scan solid state spectrometer. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. This work was also done under Ukrainian-French CNRS-PICS 6051 project

Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Alekseev, E. A.

2014-06-01

34

High-resolution broadband terahertz spectroscopy via electronic heterodyne detection of photonically generated terahertz frequency comb.  

PubMed

We report an alternative approach to the terahertz frequency-comb spectroscopy (TFCS) based on nonlinear mixing of a photonically generated terahertz pulse train with a continuous wave signal from an electronic synthesizer. A superlattice is used as a nonlinear mixer. Unlike the standard TFCS technique, this approach does not require a complex double-laser system but retains the advantages of TFCS-high spectral resolution and wide bandwidth. PMID:25360955

Pavelyev, D G; Skryl, A S; Bakunov, M I

2014-10-01

35

Terahertz technology for imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum has unique properties that make it especially useful for imaging and spectroscopic detection of concealed weapons, explosives and chemical and biological materials. However, terahertz energy is difficult to generate and detect, and this has led to a technology gap in this frequency band. Nonlinear diodes can be used to bridge this gap by translating the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These terahertz components rely on planar Schottky diodes and recently developed integrated diode circuits make them easier to assemble and more robust. The new generation of terahertz sources and receivers requires no mechanical tuning, yet achieves high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper reviews the basic design of terahertz transmitters and receivers, with special emphasis on the recent development of systems that are compact, easy to use and have excellent performance.

Crowe, T. W.; Porterfield, D. W.; Hesler, J. L.; Bishop, W. L.; Kurtz, D. S.; Hui, K.

2006-05-01

36

Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) was assessed as a nondestructive evaluation technique for aircraft composites. Damage to glass fiber was studied including voids, delaminations, mechanical damage, and heat damage. Measurement of the material properties on samples with localized heat damage showed that burning did not change the refractive index or absorption coefficient noticeably; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by TDS transmissive imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. The depth of delaminations was measured via the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections after the main pulse. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging. PMID:18852814

Stoik, Christopher D; Bohn, Matthew J; Blackshire, James L

2008-10-13

37

Fundamentals of Measurement in Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has emerged as a main spectroscopic modality to fill the frequency range between a few hundred gigahertz to a few terahertz. This spectrum has been known as "terahertz gap" owing to limited accessibility by conventional electronic and optical techniques. Over the past two decades, THz-TDS has evolved substantially with enhanced compactness and stability. Since THz-TDS is becoming an industrial standard, the performance and precision of the system are of prime importance. This article provides an overview on terahertz metrology, including parameter estimation, signal processing, measurement characteristics, uncertainties, and calibrations. The overview serves as guidance for metrology and further developments of THz-TDS systems.

Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Naftaly, Mira

2014-08-01

38

Far-infrared signature of animal tissues characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

E-print Network

terahertz transmission characterization of animal tissues taken from pork and rats. The power absorptionFar-infrared signature of animal tissues characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy terahertz time-domain spectroscopy characterization of various animal tissues obtained from pork and rats

39

Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers  

E-print Network

1 Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers N. Jukam) 251108" #12;2 Abstract The gain and loss in a terahertz quantum cascade laser based on a longitudinal optical phonon depopulation scheme is studied using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. At laser threshold

Boyer, Edmond

40

Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used to study the properties of non-polar materials. Terahertz absorption spectra and refractive indices are measured in a number of glasses and oils. The results are correlated with material properties.

M. Naftaly; A. P. Foulds; M. R. Stringer; R. E. Miles; A. G. Davies

2004-01-01

41

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Large-Scale Graphene on Various James Allred,1  

E-print Network

UG-9 Terahertz Spectroscopy of Large-Scale Graphene on Various Substrates James, we are interested in its electron mobility for potential incorporation in high frequency terahertz have investigated the dependence on various substrates of THz transmission and optical conductivity

42

Focus free terahertz reflection imaging and tomography with Bessel beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broadband terahertz (THz) reflection imaging system with high spatial resolution over a large depth of field is reported. A THz axicon lens producing a truncated THz Bessel beam with a linear focus exceeding 120 mm in length, and with the diameter of the central lobe less than 2 mm was used for imaging in a reflection geometry employing a pulsed THz time-domain spectrometer. With numerical post-processing, it was possible to reconstruct the three dimensional shape of the scanned object.

Busch, S. F.; Town, G. E.; Scheller, M.; Koch, M.

2015-03-01

43

Nondestructive Evaluation of Rubber Compounds by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubber compounds were investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Terahertz absorption spectra of crude rubbers and additives were measured as well as those of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber compounds, which included the additives. It was found that carbon black, which is one of the additives and serves as a filler, dominates the terahertz absorption owing to its metallic characteristics. Thus, terahertz spectroscopy is a useful method for rapid nondestructive inspection during the rubber production.

Hirakawa, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Yoshitomo; Gondoh, Toyohiko; Mori, Tetsuo; Takeya, Kei; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Ohtake, Hideyuki; Hirosumi, Tomoya

2011-12-01

44

Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

2013-03-01

45

Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use terahertz (THz) transmission spectroscopy to obtain the frequency dependent complex dielectric constants of water, methanol, and propylene carbonate, and solutions of lithium salts in these solvents. The behavior of the pure solvents is modeled with either two (water) or three (methanol and propylene carbonate) Debye relaxations. We discuss the effects of ionic solvation on the relaxation behavior of

M. L. T. Asaki; A. Redondo; T. A. Zawodzinski; A. J. Taylor

2002-01-01

46

Deviation of optical constants extracted in terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simulation with a Lorentz oscillator model to evaluate the accuracy of the extracted optical constants in terahertz transmission spectroscopy. The contributions of various error sources including the deflection of the incident angle, the delay-line timing error, and two other kinds of noises are analyzed. It is revealed that the influence of the deflection angle is an approximate

Xinlong Xu; Xiumin Wang; Li Wang

2006-01-01

47

Identify paraffin-embedded brain glioma using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refractive indices, absorption coefficients and complex dielectric constants spectra of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the range of 0.2 - 2.0 THz. The spectral differences between glioma and normal brain tissues were obtained. Our results indicate that, compared with normal tissue, glioma had higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the suitable frequency components for different methods of glioma imaging (intensity imaging, coherent imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging) are analyzed.

Li, Ze-ren; Meng, Kun; Chen, Tu-nan; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Li-guo; Liu, Qiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Fei; Zhong, Sen-cheng; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

2015-01-01

48

Conformational characteristics of ?-glucan in laminarin probed by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the binding-state-dependent power absorptions, refractive indices, and dielectric constants of triple-stranded helices (TSHs) and single-stranded helices (SSHs) ?-glucans in laminarin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The SSH ?-glucan was obtained from a TSH ?-glucan laminarin by a chemical treatment with NaOH solution. The power absorption of TSH ?-glucan increased more rapidly than that of the SSH ?-glucan with the frequency increment. The refractive index and dielectric constants of TSH ?-glucan were also larger than those of the SSH ?-glucan. This result implies that terahertz-TDS is a very effective method in classifying the conformational state of ?-glucans.

Shin, Hee Jun; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sung In; Won Kim, Ha; Son, Joo-Hiuk

2009-03-01

49

Terahertz spectroscopy of quantum 2D electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy permits the coherent motion of charges to be examined in a diverse range of two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. Studies of the THz conductivity and magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional quantum systems are reviewed, including cyclotron resonance spectroscopy and the transverse conductivity in the Hall and quantum Hall regimes. Experiments are described that demonstrate quantum phenomena at THz frequencies, principally coherent control and enhanced light–matter coupling in electromagnetic cavities.

Lloyd-Hughes, James

2014-09-01

50

Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz transmission of a chalcogenide family of glasses is reported. The glasses were processed using established methods for non-oxide glasses. Transmission through the samples was measured using a THz spectrometer. The transmission and optical properties of the glasses are summarized. The results show promise of these glasses for application as THz windows.

S. K. Sundaram; B. J. Riley; J. V. Crum

2008-01-01

51

Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) radiation offers innovative sensing and imaging technologies that can provide information unavailable through other conventional electromagnetic techniques. With the advancement of THz technologies, THz sensing will impact a broad range of areas. This thesis focuses on the use of THz spectroscopy for sensing applications including explosives detection, pharmaceutical identification and biological characterization. Using both a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system and a Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometer (FT-FIR), a THz spectral database of explosives and related compounds (ERCs) in the range of 0.1-20 THz was established. The transmission measurements show good agreement with the diffuse reflectance measurements, which are more feasible for practical applications. Density Functional Theory was employed to calculate structures and vibrational modes of several important ERCs and the calculated spectra are in good accordance with the experimental data in the 3-20 THz range. The detection and identification of the explosive RDX using diffusely reflected THz waves were also demonstrated. THz-TDS was applied successfully for pharmaceutical study, such as investigating drug interactions, as well as identifying hydrated and anhydrous drugs, based upon the intermolecular vibrational modes of drug substances. Dehydrations and complex solid state reactions of pharmaceutical materials were studied with THz-TDS and the reaction kinetics was successfully probed. These investigations have opened new avenues for using THz technologies in pharmaceutical science and industry. THz spectra of amino acids, purines and other biomolecules were recorded. Most of these solid-state biocompounds have THz spectral features in the 0.1-3.0 THz range. THz spectroscopy of solid-state proteins and bioactive protein micro suspensions in organic media was studied and their THz absorption features may reflect their collective vibrational modes which could be used to probe their functional 3D conformation states. Owing to the high sensitivity of differential THz-TDS, it was successfully used to sense the minute change of biological cell monolayers. The results point to a new way for biosensing applications via differential THz-TDS. As a powerful sensing technique, THz spectroscopy will continue to make profound contribution to the understanding of basic physics, chemistry and biology problems, as well as to the technological applications in chemical and biomedicine sensing areas.

Liu, Hai-Bo

52

Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

. These spectra have been measured with femtosecond terahertz pulse transmission spectroscopy. These liquidsFar-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse by femtosecond terahertz (fs THz) pulses.1 This paper reports the absorption and dispersion spectra of several

53

Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry were used to investigate charge trapping in polymer field-effect transistors fabricated on a silicon gate. The hole density in the transistor channel was determined from the reduction in the transmitted terahertz radiation under an applied gate voltage. Prolonged device operation creates an exponential decay in the differential terahertz transmission, compatible with an increase

J. Lloyd-Hughes; T. Richards; H. Sirringhaus; E. Castro-Camus; L. M. Herz; M. B. Johnston

2006-01-01

54

Tablet Content Analysis Using Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of pressed tablets with acetaminophen content between 60 mg and 120 mg were scanned in the terahertz spectral region\\u000a (2 cm?1–120 cm?1) in transmission mode. Tablet acetaminophen content was determined by a standard HPLC method. Despite the lack of discernible\\u000a spectral features and the tablets being opaque above 45 cm?1, a working partial least squares model could be constructed. The results show the

John A. Spencer; Everett H. Jefferson; Ajaz S. Hussain; David Newnham; Thomas Lo

2007-01-01

55

Narrow-Line Waveguide Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Aspirin and Aspirin Precursors  

E-print Network

Narrow-Line Waveguide Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Aspirin and Aspirin Precursors N. LAMAN modes of the molecule. Here, this technique has been demonstrated with aspirin and its precursors spectroscopy; Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy; Far infrared; Waveguide; Aspirin; Benzoic acid. INTRODUCTION

56

Reflection type of terahertz imaging system using a high-T{sub c} superconducting oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A reflection type of imaging system is shown at sub-terahertz frequencies generated from high-T{sub c} superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction mesa structures fabricated by single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} to demonstrate how the sub-terahertz imaging technique using monochromatic radiation is powerful and unique for the variety of practical applications. Several examples are discussed in detail and are compared to other terahertz imaging systems.

Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Markovi?, B.; Mirkovi?, J. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-01-13

57

Time-resolved terahertz transmission spectroscopy of dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the method of time-domain terahertz-transmission spectroscopy we measured the far-infrared complex dielectric function at room temperature in the range of 3 to 80 cm for a variety of samples: Li2Ge7O15 (LGO), (CH3 NHCH2 COOH)3. CaCl2 (TSCC), high-permittivity microwave ceramics, etc. The precision of the measurements and subsequent evaluation of the dielectric function is discussed.

Petr Kužel; Jan Petzelt

2000-01-01

58

Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

59

Transmission and reflection properties of terahertz fractal metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial.

Radu Malureanu; Andrei Lavrinenko; David G. Cooke; Peter Uhd Jepsen; S. Xiao; L. Zhou

2010-01-01

60

Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively.

Ruth M Woodward; Bryan E Cole; Vincent P Wallace; Richard J Pye; Donald D Arnone; Edmund H Linfield; Michael Pepper

2002-01-01

61

Terahertz and FTIR spectroscopy of 'Bisphenol A'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain terahertz (0.2-2 THz) and FTIR (400-4000 cm-1) spectra of 'Bisphenol A' are presented. An average refractive index of 1.34 from 0.2 to 2 THz and an absorption peak at 1.69 THz that is considered as the twisting of aromatic rings with hydroxyl groups along the shared carbon atom are found. The simulated results by using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP 6-311++G (3df, 3pd), B3LYP 6-31G (3df 3pd) and B3LYP 3-21G after anharmonic corrections are well agreed with the experimental results. Furthermore, Pulay's Method is adopted to overcome the incapability of DFT in describing C-H and O-H stretching interactions to match with experimental values.

Ullah, Ramzan; Li, Han; Zhu, YiMing

2014-02-01

62

Independent determination of the complex refractive index and wave impedance by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy  

E-print Network

-domain terahertz spectroscopy H. Nemec a , F. Kadlec a , P. Kuzel a,*, L. Duvillaret b , J.-L. Coutaz b a Institute by temporal windowing of time domain waveforms measured in the transmission or reflec- tion geometry. We Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Since time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TDTS

Ku?el, Petr

63

Reflective terahertz (THz) imaging: system calibration using hydration phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing continues to gain traction in the medical imaging community due to its unparalleled sensitivity to tissue water content. Rapid and accurate detection of fluid shifts following induction of thermal skin burns as well as remote corneal hydration sensing have been previously demonstrated in vivo using reflective, pulsed THz imaging. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of this technology were recently confirmed in a parallel 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging study, in which burn areas are associated with increases in local mobile water content. Successful clinical translation of THz sensing, however, still requires quantitative assessments of system performance measurements, specifically hydration concentration sensitivity, with tissue substitutes. This research aims to calibrate the sensitivity of a novel, reflective THz system to tissue water content through the use of hydration phantoms for quantitative comparisons of THz hydration imagery.Gelatin phantoms were identified as an appropriate tissue-mimicking model for reflective THz applications, and gel composition, comprising mixtures of water and protein, was varied between 83% to 95% hydration, a physiologically relevant range. A comparison of four series of gelatin phantom studies demonstrated a positive linear relationship between THz reflectivity and water concentration, with statistically significant hydration sensitivities (p < .01) ranging between 0.0209 - 0.038% (reflectivity: %hydration). The THz-phantom interaction is simulated with a three-layer model using the Transfer Matrix Method with agreement in hydration trends. Having demonstrated the ability to accurately and noninvasively measure water content in tissue equivalent targets with high sensitivity, reflective THz imaging is explored as a potential tool for early detection and intervention of corneal pathologies.

Bajwa, Neha; Garritano, James; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Nowroozi, Bryan; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Sanghvi, Sajan; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

2013-02-01

64

Tunable terahertz wave Goos-Hänchen shift of reflected terahertz wave from prism-metal-polymer-metal multilayer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme to manipulate the Goos-Hänchen shift of a terahertz wave reflected from the prism-metal-polymer-metal interface via external voltage bias. By adjusting the external voltage bias, the refractive index of the nonlinear polymer can be changed, so the lateral Goos-Hänchen shift is dynamically tuned. The relation among the Goos-Hänchen shift, prism and the nonlinear polymer is investigated in theory analysis and simulation. Using this scheme, the Goos-Hänchen shift can be tuned without changing the original structure of the proposed device. Numerical calculation results further indicate that the proposed structure has the potential application for the integrated terahertz wave switch.

Li, Jiu-Sheng; Wu, Jing-fang; Zhang, Le

2015-01-01

65

Taurid Compex reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taurid complex is a massive stream of material in the inner part of the Solar System. Its name is related to the Taurid meteor shower. This complex is characterized by a cluster of objects having low-inclination (i < 12°), large-eccentricity (0.64--0.85) orbits with semimajor axes spanning the range 1.8--2.6 au. The largest body of the Taurid Complex is the comet P/Encke, and this complex contains more than 20 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). There is an important lack of information concerning the physical parameters of the Taurid complex. The observational campaign for observing NEAs of the Taurid complex was started in 2011 in order to provide valuable spectroscopic data for characterizing the surfaces of the complex members. The paper presents near-infrared spectroscopy using IRTF/SpeX obtained remotely from Paris Observatory and Bucharest Observatory for the following asteroids: (2201) Oljato, (4183) Cuno, (4486) Mithra, (5243) Heracles, (6063) Jason, and (269690) 1996 RG_3. We will present a detailed analysis of these spectra which allows their association with several minerals and laboratory spectra of meteorites.

Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, A.

2014-07-01

66

Spectroscopy of several drugs in the terahertz region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measure the absorption spectra of six drugs, atenolol, furosemide, tropicamide, lobeline hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and promethazine hydrochloride, in the frequency range of 0.3 THz to 2.0 THz. Furosemide, tropicamide, and promethazine hydrochloride show distinct absorption features, whereas atenolol, lobeline hydrochloride, and propranolol hydrochloride exhibit no obvious absorption peaks. The use of THz-TDS makes it possible to rapidly distinguish the drugs with characteristic absorption peaks. Our results demonstrate that THz-TDS is highly sensitive to the structure and spatial arrangement of molecules. As a result, THz-TDS will have potential exploitation in pharmaceutical fields.

Liu, Guifeng; Ma, Shihua; Song, Xiyu; Zhang, Peng; Li, Haixia; Wang, Wenfeng

2009-07-01

67

Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy of electron transport in GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved terahertz (THz) electromodulation spectroscopy is applied to investigate the high-frequency transport of electrons in gallium nitride at different doping concentrations and densities of threading dislocations. At THz frequencies, all structures reveal Drude transport. The analysis of the spectral response provides the fundamental transport properties, such as the electron scattering time and the electrons' conductivity effective mass. We observe the expected impact of ionized-impurity scattering and that scattering at threading dislocations only marginally affects the high-frequency mobility.

Engelbrecht, S. G.; Arend, T. R.; Zhu, T.; Kappers, M. J.; Kersting, R.

2015-03-01

68

Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

2011-11-01

69

Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930

Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter

2013-01-01

70

Terahertz spectroscopy of methanimine and its isotopologs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Methanimine (CH2NH) is a simple molecule composed of methylene and imine. The molecule has been detected toward the Galactic center, star-forming regions, circumstellar envelopes, and other galaxies since 1973. In previous studies, the rest frequency of methanimine has been measured for normal species up to the 650-GHz region, but its 13CH2NH, CH2 15NH, and CH2ND isotopologs were limited to the 100-GHz region. Aims: If a rotational temperature of 100 K is assumed for methanimine, the highest intensity falls at approximately 1.5 THz. In addition to normal methanimine, the 13CH2NH, CH2 15NH, and CH2ND isotopologs in their ground-vibrational states were observed in the frequency range of 120-1600 GHz to provide accurate rest frequency information. Based on this study, the calculated rest frequencies below 2 THz should be sufficiently precise and support observations using all ALMA and Herschel/HIFI observational bands. Methods: Methanimine was generated by pyrolysis of diaminoethane (DAE) vapor at 850 °C. 13CH2NH and CH2 15NH isotopologs were measured with their natural abundance, and deuterization of DAE was performed by mixing normal DAE with deuterated water, D2O, and then pyrolyzed. This gives the deuterated isotopolog of methanimine, CH2ND. Spectral measurements were performed by using the 23 kHz source-frequency modulated terahertz spectrometer at Toho University. Results: Both a- and b-type transitions up to 1.6 THz for the three isotopologs and the normal species were measured. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the three isotopologs were accurately determined. For normal species (CH2NH), both electric quadrupole and nuclear spin-rotation coupling constants for nitrogen nucleus were determined, while for the 13CH2NH and CH2ND species, only electric quadrupole-coupling constants for nitrogen nucleus were determined. Conclusions: Our spectral line frequencies are suitable for a future astronomical search for these isotopologs of methanimine. The 1? frequency accuracy up to 2 THz is lower than 100 kHz. The full line list is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A28

Motoki, Yuta; Isobe, Fuya; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaori

2014-06-01

71

Limitation in thin-film sensing with transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Thin-film sensing with a film thickness much less than a wavelength is an important challenge in conventional transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Since the interaction length between terahertz waves and a sample film is short, a small change in the transmitted signal compared with the reference is considerably obscured by system uncertainties. In this article, several possible thin-film measurement procedures are carefully investigated. It is suggested that an alternating sample and reference measurement approach is most robust for thin-film sensing. In addition, a closed-form criterion is developed to determine the critical thickness, i.e., the minimal thickness of a film unambiguously detectable by transmission-mode THz-TDS. The analysis considers influences from the Fresnel transmission at interfaces and the Fabry-Pérot reflections, in addition to the propagation across the film. The experimental results show that typical THz-TDS systems can detect polymer films with a thickness down to a few microns, two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength. For reasonably accurate characterization, it is recommended that the film thickness be at least ten times above this limit. The analysis is readily extended to biomolecular and semiconductor films. The criterion can be used to estimate the system-dependent performance in thin-film sensing applications, and can help to ascertain whether an alternative terahertz sensing modality is necessary. PMID:24515057

Withayachumnankul, Withawat; O'Hara, John F; Cao, Wei; Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Zhang, Weili

2014-01-13

72

IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 4, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 1998 353 Optical Pump-Terahertz Probe Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Pump-Terahertz Probe Spectroscopy Utilizing a Cavity-Dumped Oscillator-Driven Terahertz Spectrometer in the transient terahertz spectra. Index Terms--Cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire, optical pump-tera- hertz probe

Scherer, Norbert F.

73

Terahertz reflection and emission associated with nonequilibrium surface plasmon polaritons in n-GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface plasmon polaritons are investigated in heavily doped n-GaN epitaxial layers. The grating etched on the surface of the epitaxial layer is used to convert photons into the surface plasmon polaritons and vice versa. The spectral study of reflection demonstrates the possibility of nonequilibrium surface plasmon polaritons excitation due to terahertz radiation scattering on the grating. Terahertz electroluminescence is investigated under lateral electric field. The luminescence spectrum demonstrates a significant contribution of nonequilibrium surface plasmon polariton scattering to terahertz radiation emission.

Melentyev, G. A.; Shalygin, V. A.; Moldavskaya, M. D.; Panevin, V. Yu; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Nykänen, H.; Riuttanen, L.; Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.

2015-01-01

74

Scanning Fabry-Perot filter for terahertz spectroscopy based on silicon dielectric mirrors  

E-print Network

the possibility of a compact terahertz Fabry-Perot spectrometer that can operate in low resonance order to realizeScanning Fabry-Perot filter for terahertz spectroscopy based on silicon dielectric mirrors Justin W., 2114 New Victor Rd., Ocoee Fl 34761 ABSTRACT A scanning Fabry-Perot transmission filter composed

Peale, Robert E.

75

Development of Fiber-Coupled Compact Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Imaging Head  

E-print Network

Development of Fiber-Coupled Compact Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Imaging Head Ryotaro INOUE, 2006; published online October 6, 2006) The development of a fiber-coupled compact terahertz time-hemispherical lenses with no parabolic reflectors. The THz transmission image of an IC card clearly shows

Tonouchi, Masayoshi

76

Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy of Nonpolar Materials and Relationship with Composition and Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used to study properties of non-polar materials. Terahertz absorption spectra and refractive indices are measured in a number of glasses, lubricating oils, and types of paper. The results are correlated with material properties.

M. Naftaly; A. P. Foulds; R. E. Miles; A. G. Davies

2005-01-01

77

Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene Zhengzong Sun,  

E-print Network

Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene Lei Ren, Qi Zhang, Jun Yao into the electromagnetic response of Dirac fermions in graphene but also demonstrate the key functionalities of large-area-size single- layer graphene device with a gate electrode, which can modulate the transmission of terahertz

Kono, Junichiro

78

Semiconductor Nonlinear Dynamics Study by Broadband Terahertz Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor nonlinearity in the terahertz (THz) frequency range has been attracting considerable attention due to the recent development of high-power semiconductor-based nanodevices. However, the underlying physics concerning carrier dynamics in the presence of high-field THz transients is still obscure. This thesis introduces an ultrafast, time-resolved THz pump/THz probe approach to the study of semiconductor properties in the nonlinear regime. The carrier dynamics regarding two mechanisms, intervalley scattering and impact ionization, is observed for doped InAs on a sub-picosecond time scale. In addition, polaron modulation driven by intense THz pulses is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The observed polaron dynamics verifies the interaction between energetic electrons and a phonon field. In contrast to previous work which reports optical phonon responses, acoustic phonon modulations are addressed in this study. A further understanding of the intense field interacting with solid materials will accelerate the development of semiconductor devices. This thesis starts with the design and performance of a table-top THz spectrometer which has the advantages of ultra-broad bandwidth (one order higher bandwidth compared to a conventional ZnTe sensor) and high electric field strength (>100 kV/cm). Unlike the conventional THz time-domain spectroscopy, the spectrometer integrates a novel THz air-biased-coherent-detection (THz-ABCD) technique and utilizes selected gases as THz emitters and sensors. In comparison with commonly used electro-optic (EO) crystals or photoconductive (PC) dipole antennas, the gases have the benefits of no phonon absorption as existing in EO crystals and no carrier life time limitation as observed in PC dipole antennas. The newly development THz-ABCD spectrometer with a strong THz field strength capability provides a platform for various research topics especially on the nonlinear carrier dynamics of semiconductors. Two mechanisms, electron intervalley scattering and impact ionization of InAs crystals, are observed under the excitation of intense THz field on a sub-picosecond time scale. These two competing mechanisms are demonstrated by changing the impurity doping type of the semiconductors and varying the strength of the THz field. Another investigation of nonlinear carrier dynamics is the observation of coherent polaron oscillation in n-doped semiconductors excited by intense THz pulses. Through modulations of surface reflection with a THz pump/THz probe technique, this work experimentally verifies the interaction between energetic electrons and a phonon field, which has been theoretically predicted by previous publications, and shows that this interaction applies for the acoustic phonon modes. Usually, two transverse acoustic (2TA) phonon responses are inactive in infrared measurement, while they are detectable in second-order Raman spectroscopy. The study of polaron dynamics, with nonlinear THz spectroscopy (in the far-infrared range), provides a unique method to diagnose the overtones of 2TA phonon responses of semiconductors, and therefore incorporates the abilities of both infrared and Raman spectroscopy. This work presents a new milestone in wave-matter interaction and seeks to benefit the industrial applications in high power, small scale devices.

Ho, I.-Chen

79

Effect on influenza hemagglutinin protein binding with neutralizing antibody using terahertz spectroscopy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectroscopy is sensitive to probe several aspects of biological systems. We have reported the terahertz dielectric spectrum is able to identify the type of the charges in the hydrogen-bonded antibodies' networks in our previous work. Recently we demonstrate a highly sensitive THz-TDS method to monitor binding interaction of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) against its target antibody F10. The terahertz dielectric properties of HA was strongly affected by the presence of a specific antibody. Protein solution concentration or even molecular binding interaction can also affect the terahertz signal. This enables us to detect the specificity and sensitivity of antibody-antigen binding under THz radiation.

Sun, Yiwen; Zhong, Junlan; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin

2014-11-01

80

Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a graphene-based electro-absorption modulator achieving extraordinary control of terahertz reflectance. By concentrating the electric field intensity in an active layer of graphene, an extraordinary modulation depth of 64% is achieved while simultaneously exhibiting low insertion loss (?2 dB), which is remarkable since the active region of the device is atomically thin. This modulator performance, among the best reported to date, indicates the enormous potential of graphene for terahertz reconfigurable optoelectronic devices. PMID:22862777

Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Yan, Rusen; Rafique, Subrina; Zhu, Mingda; Li, Wei; Liang, Xuelei; Gundlach, David; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kelly, Michelle M; Jena, Debdeep; Liu, Lei; Xing, Huili Grace

2012-09-12

81

Determination of tetracycline hydrochloride by terahertz spectroscopy with PLSR model.  

PubMed

Antibiotic residues in agricultural and food products are of great concern to legislatures and consumers. Reliable techniques for rapid and sensitive detection of these residues are necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) in powder and solution form was detected and quantified using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to build calibration models. The results obtained in this study indicated that the PLSR model for powder samples was excellent and could be used for quality control. However, the PLSR model for solution samples was not robust and needed to be improved. Overall, THz spectroscopy combined with PLSR model had its potential for the rapid and non-destructive prediction of TC-HCl residue without sophisticated methods, although the accuracy was not high for solution samples which should be improved in future study. PMID:25306365

Qin, Jianyuan; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin

2015-03-01

82

The generation of high field terahertz radiation and its application in terahertz nonlinear spectroscopy  

E-print Network

In this thesis research, I implemented a terahertz generation scheme that enables high-field near-single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulse generation via optical rectification in a LiNbO3 (LN) crystal. I also developed a method ...

Yeh, Ka-Lo

2009-01-01

83

"Developing terahertz spectroscopy to be used for the study of bio-materials."  

E-print Network

for fingerprinting biological molecules and species with broad potential applications such as biomedicine biological species, food contamination control, water quality monitoring and others. The spectral range below and medical applications. Our research encompasses optical and terahertz spectroscopy of biological

Acton, Scott

84

Developments in time-resolved ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies  

E-print Network

Prior to the advent of high energy pulsed femtosecond lasers, the field of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was stagnated by the lack of both high power THz sources and sensitive THz detectors. Over the past few years, it has ...

Teo, Stephanie M

2014-01-01

85

Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

2009-04-01

86

Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk [Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jae [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-19

87

High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging for nondestructive  

E-print Network

.4290) Nondestructive testing. References and links 1. W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, IHigh-speed terahertz reflection three- dimensional imaging for nondestructive evaluation Kyong Hwan of the imaging system to nondestructive evaluation, a THz reflection 3D image of an artificially made sample

88

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of D2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric spectrum of D2O between 15 GHz and 2 THz was measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy. The motivation of this work is to gain an understanding of liquid water dynamics on a molecular level. To achieve this, we use a correction to the dielectric response of polar molecules known as the reduced polarization. This correction allows us to relate the macroscopic quantity of the permittivity to the microscopic correlation function in a manner appropriate for polar liquids. Similar to previous studies on H2O, evidence is shown of correlated and anti-correlated dipole-dipole interactions in liquid D2O. More interestingly, the spectra also reveal dynamics that could be intimately related to the density anomaly of water.

Torcedo, Jojit; Tom, Harry

2010-03-01

89

Amplification and modelling of bioaffinity detection with terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new bioaffinity sensor based on pulsed terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is able to sensitively detect the presence of ultra-thin bound biomolecular layers. The protein avidin and lipid biotin are noted for their very high binding affinity, and the ease for which they can be attached to residues with importance in many biosensing applications. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the pulsed THz spectrometer to thin avidin layers and to avidin amplified with micron-sized agarose beads. The experimental results can be simply modelled by considering transmission of the THz radiation at the thin film interfaces. We detect less than 10.3 ng/cm2 avidin, giving the THz system a detection capability of sub-thin solid films better than ellipsometry and reflectometry techniques.

Mickan, Samuel P.; Menikh, Abdellah; Munch, Jesper; Abbott, Derek; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

2002-11-01

90

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cotton sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of cotton is measured using time-domain spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, from 0.1 to 1.5 THz. An effective medium approximation is used to model the combined cotton and air comprising the samples, and the refractive index of cotton fibers determined. The imaginary part of the refractive index varies across this frequency range with corresponding attenuation coefficient increasing from ˜ 2 to ˜ 12 cm-1, while the real part remains constant at n ˜ 1.144. The effect of moisture content is systematically examined and absorption of the samples determined. Concealed material detection was tested by measuring the 1.44-THz absorption band of representative substance D-Glucose embedded in cotton sheets.

Zhu, Yanhan; Holtz, Mark; Bernussi, Ayrton

2012-10-01

91

Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

2015-01-01

92

Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

2015-04-01

93

Application of wavelet transforms in terahertz spectroscopy of rough surface targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, it has been shown that scattering of terahertz waves by surface roughness of a target can alter the terahertz absorption spectrum and thus obscure the detection of some chemicals in both transmission and reflection geometries. In this paper it is demonstrated that by employing Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) coefficients, wavelet-based methods can be used to retrieve spectroscopic information from a broadband terahertz signal reflected from a rough surface target. It is concluded that while the commonly used direct frequency domain deconvolution method fails to accurately characterize and detect the resonance in the dielectric constant of rough surface lactose pellets, wavelet techniques were able to successfully identify such features.

Arbab, M. Hassan; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Thorsos, Eric I.; Chen, Antao

2010-02-01

94

Terahertz spectroscopy of concrete for evaluating the critical hydration level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete, a mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, sand and filler material (if any), is widely used in the construction industry. Cement, mainly composed of Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) reacts readily with water, a process known as hydration. The hydration process forms a solid material known as hardened cement paste which is mainly composed of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. To quantify the critical hydration level, an accurate and fast technique is highly desired. However, in conventional XRD technique, the peaks of the constituents of anhydrated and hydrated cement cannot be resolved properly, where as Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has low penetration depth and hence cannot be used to determine the hydration level of thicker concrete samples easily. Further, MIR spectroscopy cannot be used to effectively track the formation of Calcium Hydroxide, a key by-product during the hydration process. This paper describes a promising approach to quantify the hydration dynamics of cement using Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. This technique has been employed to track the time dependent reaction mechanism of the key constituents of cement that react with water and form the products in the hydrated cement, viz., C-S-H, Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. This study helps in providing an improved understanding on the hydration kinetics of cement and also to optimise the physio-mechanical characteristics of concrete.

Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Nallappan, Kathirvel; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

2014-03-01

95

Pulsed Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy of Liquid CHCl3, CCl4, and their Mixtures B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer*,  

E-print Network

Pulsed Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy of Liquid CHCl3, CCl4, and their Mixtures B. N. Flanders are measured by pulsed terahertz time domain transmission spectroscopy. The absorbance spectrum for neat CHCl3

Scherer, Norbert F.

96

Quantitative analyses of tartaric acid based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz wave is the electromagnetic spectrum situated between microwave and infrared wave. Quantitative analysis based on terahertz spectroscopy is very important for the application of terahertz techniques. But how to realize it is still under study. L-tartaric acid is widely used as acidulant in beverage, and other food, such as soft drinks, wine, candy, bread and some colloidal sweetmeats. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to quantify the tartaric acid. Two methods are employed to process the terahertz spectra of different samples with different content of tartaric acid. The first one is linear regression combining correlation analysis. The second is partial least square (PLS), in which the absorption spectra in the 0.8-1.4THz region are used to quantify the tartaric acid. To compare the performance of these two principles, the relative error of the two methods is analyzed. For this experiment, the first method does better than the second one. But the first method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of materials which has obvious terahertz absorption peaks, while for material which has no obvious terahertz absorption peaks, the second one is more appropriate.

Cao, Binghua; Fan, Mengbao

2010-10-01

97

Dielectric Properties of Diesel and Gasoline by Terahertz Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have investigated the dielectric properties of diesel and gasoline in the Terahertz (THz) spectral region. We present frequency dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and dielectric constants calculated from the transient measurements of the fuel oils between 0.1 and 1.1 THz. Observed weak absorption coefficient of fuel oils is explained by transient dipole moments induced by collisions between individual molecules. Fuel oils were modeled successfully with Debye model to investigate the relaxation dynamics after interaction with the electric field. Significant differences in relaxation times of molecules in diesel and gasoline are attributed to the differences in their intermolecular forces. Dispersion forces are much greater in diesel due to the longer hydrocarbon chains (C8-C40) compared to that (C4-C12) of the gasoline. This leads to a comparably faster relaxation right after THz electric field is applied. Clear differences in optical properties offer a simple yet effective way to discriminate fuel oils from each other by using THz spectroscopy without any danger of combustion or decomposition of the samples. Such an approach may also be used for the quality determination of either fuels. The study presents the great potential of THz spectroscopy to study very complex mixtures like fuel oils by the use of instantaneous THz wave/matter interactions and relaxation dynamics of the constituent molecules.

Arik, Enis; Altan, Hakan; Esenturk, Okan

2014-09-01

98

Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the analysis of artists' materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging have been actively studied in these decades. THz waves (0.1-10 THz) are non-invasive, can penetrate opaque materials, and can be used to obtain fingerprint spectra whose characteristics depend upon molecular and intermolecular behavior. Unlike the mid-infrared region, no commercial spectral library is available for the THz region. Consequently, a spectral database of artists’ materials was developed in order to include THz spectroscopy among conservation science techniques. Most pigments and some synthetic polymers have characteristic fingerprint spectra in the THz region. With this technique most of these materials used in paintings can be identified alone or as paint, a combination of pigments and binders. Although the meaning of the spectral features has so far not been fully explained, previous studies on optical materials suggest that phonon absorption and the behavior of hydrogen bonds contribute to their spectral features. Examples of THz spectra of various art materials are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using a conventional Fourier transform system.

Fukunaga, Kaori; Picollo, Marcello

2010-09-01

99

Investigation of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity Using Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonequilibrium response of both conventional and high-Tc superconductors is investigated using terahertz pulse spectroscopy. This technique has gained popularity in recent years and is now widely accepted as a useful spectroscopic tool for examining carrier dynamics of materials. A near single-cycle, picosecond width electromagnetic transient centered in the THz region is used as the probe in a typical pump-probe fashion along with an optical pump pulse. This THz pulse is ideal for the measurement of superconducting systems, being on the same energy scale as the gap. The time resolved response of various samples after optical excitation by a femtosecond laser pulse is reported as a function of pump fluence and temperature. Linear spectroscopy will also be used, where the ratio of the transmission coefficient in the superconducting state to that in the normal state Ts/Tn is used to monitor the superconducting gap in conventional samples. *We acknowledge financial support from NSERC, CFI, iCORE and CIPI.

Cooke, David; Hegmann, Frank A.

2003-03-01

100

Gelatin embedding: a novel way to preserve biological samples for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample dehydration has traditionally been a challenging problem in ex vivo terahertz biomedical experiments as water content changes significantly affect the terahertz properties and can diminish important contrast features. In this paper, we propose a novel method to prevent sample dehydration using gelatin embedding. By looking at terahertz image data and calculating the optical properties of the gelatin-embedded sample, we find that our method successfully preserves the sample for at least 35?h, both for imaging and spectroscopy. Our novel preservation method demonstrates for the first time the capability to simultaneously maintain sample structural integrity and prevent dehydration at room temperature. This is particularly relevant for terahertz studies of freshly excised tissues but could be beneficial for other imaging and spectroscopy techniques.

Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2015-04-01

101

Gelatin embedding: a novel way to preserve biological samples for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Sample dehydration has traditionally been a challenging problem in ex vivo terahertz biomedical experiments as water content changes significantly affect the terahertz properties and can diminish important contrast features. In this paper, we propose a novel method to prevent sample dehydration using gelatin embedding. By looking at terahertz image data and calculating the optical properties of the gelatin-embedded sample, we find that our method successfully preserves the sample for at least 35?h, both for imaging and spectroscopy. Our novel preservation method demonstrates for the first time the capability to simultaneously maintain sample structural integrity and prevent dehydration at room temperature. This is particularly relevant for terahertz studies of freshly excised tissues but could be beneficial for other imaging and spectroscopy techniques. PMID:25768394

Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin; Parrott, Edward P J; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2015-04-01

102

High-Q terahertz bandpass filters based on coherently interferingmetasurface reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present compact and easy-to-realize terahertz bandpass filters\\u000a\\u0009with Q values in the order of 500. The filters are based on coherently\\u000a\\u0009interfering reflections from two parallel metasurfaces applied to\\u000a\\u0009the boundaries of a semiconductor disk. By changing the thickness\\u000a\\u0009of the semiconductor disk and the dimensions of the metasurface structures,\\u000a\\u0009the filter can be optimized for various terahertz frequencies.

Norman Born; Marco Reuter; Martin Koch; Maik Scheller

2013-01-01

103

High-Q terahertz bandpass filters based on coherently interfering metasurface reflections.  

PubMed

We present compact and easy-to-realize terahertz bandpass filters with Q values in the order of 500. The filters are based on coherently interfering reflections from two parallel metasurfaces applied to the boundaries of a semiconductor disk. By changing the thickness of the semiconductor disk and the dimensions of the metasurface structures, the filter can be optimized for various terahertz frequencies. Moreover, a precise tuning of the resonance frequency is possible via the temperature of the structure or its angle with respect to the propagation direction. PMID:23503256

Born, Norman; Reuter, Marco; Koch, Martin; Scheller, Maik

2013-03-15

104

Niobium direct detectors for fast and sensitive terahertz spectroscopy M. O. Reese, D. F. Santavicca, and D. E. Prober  

E-print Network

Niobium direct detectors for fast and sensitive terahertz spectroscopy M. O. Reese, D. F the performance of a niobium hot-electron bolometer designed for laboratory terahertz spectroscopy. The antenna of a niobium Nb hot-electron detector that addresses these needs. The detector is an antenna-coupled bolometer

105

Interfacial Electron Transfer and Transient Photoconductivity Studied with Terahertz Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectroscopy is distinguished from other far infrared and millimeter wave spectroscopies by its inherent phase sensitivity and sub-picosecond time resolution making it a versatile technique to study a wide range of physical phenomena. As THz spectroscopy is still a relatively new field, many aspects of THz generation mechanisms have not been fully examined. Using terahertz emission spectroscopy (TES), THz emission from ZnTe(110) was analyzed and found to be limited by two-photon absorption and free-carrier generation at high excitation fluences. Due to concerns about the continued use of fossil fuels, solar energy has been widely investigated as a promising source of renewable energy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been developed as a low-cost alternative to conventional photovoltaic solar cells. To solve the issues of the intermittency and inefficient transport associated with solar energy, researchers are attempting to adapt DSSCs for water oxidation and chemical fuel production. Both device designs incorporate sensitizer molecules covalently bound to metal oxide nanoparticles. The sensitizer, which is comprised of a chromophore and anchoring group, absorbs light and transfers an electron from its excited state to the conduction band of the metal oxide, producing an electric current. Using time-resolved THz spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides was evaluated as a function of the chromophore, its anchoring group, and the metal oxide identity. Experiments for studying fully functioning DSSCs and water oxidation devices are also described. Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrin chromophores have been designed and synthesized for use in photoelectrochemical water oxidation cells. Influences on the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from the chromophores into TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles due to changes in both the central substituent to the porphyrin ring and degree of fluorination of ring substituents were analyzed. Due to the high reduction potentials of these sensitizers, injection into TiO2 was generally not observed. Injection timescales from the porphyrins into SnO2 depended strongly on the identity of the central substituent and were affected by competition with excited-state deactivation processes. The carboxylate anchoring group is commonly used to bind DSSC sensitizers to metal oxide surfaces but is typically not stable under the aqueous and oxidative conditions required for water oxidation. Electron injection efficiency and water stability of several alternative anchoring groups, including phosphonic acid, hydroxamic acid, acerylacetone, and boronic acid, were evaluated. While all of the anchoring groups exhibited water stability superior to carboxylate, the hydroxamate anchor had the best combination of ease of handling and electron injection efficiency. The effects on photoconductivity due to metal oxide morphology and the addition of dopants were also analyzed. Mixtures of anatase and rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles are known to exhibit cooperative effects which increase the efficiency of DSSCs and photocatalysis relative to the pure-phase materials. Through analysis of TRTS measurements, the mechanism of this synergistic effect was found to involve electron transfer from the lower-mobility, higher surface area rutile nanoparticles to anatase particles, resulting in a higher charge collection efficiency. In addition to morphology, doping has been investigated as a means of expanding the spectral range of visible absorption of photocatalysts. Doping ZnO nanowires with manganese(II) was found to significantly decrease the electron mobility, and doping with cobalt(II) increased the timescale for electron trapping. These differences can be understood by considering the changes to the band structure of ZnO effected by the dopants. Preliminary analyses of the solvent and electrolyte dependence on the electron injection rate and efficiency suggest that electron injection can be affected by

Milot, Rebecca Lee

106

Terahertz spectroscopy of dry, hydrated, and thermally denatured biological macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is an effective technique to probe the intermolecular and collective vibrational modes of biological macromolecules at THz frequencies. To date, the vast majority of spectroscopic studies have been performed on dehydrated biomolecular samples. Given the fact that all biochemical processes occur in aqueous environments and water is required for proper protein folding and function, we hypothesize that valuable information can be gained from spectroscopic studies performed on hydrated biomolecules in their native conformation. In this study, we used a THz-TDS system that exploits photoconductive techniques for THz pulse generation and freespace electro-optical sampling approaches for detection. We used the THz spectrometer to measure the time-dependent electric field of THz waves upon interaction with water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and collagen gels. By comparing these waveforms with references, we simultaneously determined each sample's index of refraction (n) and absorption coefficients (?a) as a function of frequency. Our data show that the properties we measure for the water, PBS and collagen are comparable to those reported in the literature. In the future, we plan to examine the effect that both temperature and pH have on the optical properties of other biological macromolecules. Studies will also be performed to compare our results to those generated using molecular dynamics simulations.

Lipscomb, Dawn; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope; Thomas, Robert J.; Peralta, Xomalin; Wilmink, Gerald J.

2012-03-01

107

Optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy utilizing a cavity-dumped oscillator-driven terahertz spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terahertz spectrometer capable of steady-state and time-resolved measurements over the 0.1-3.5-THz spectral region has been built. This spectrometer routinely produces and detects terahertz pulses that exhibit signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 6000 in the time domain and a spectral noise door of magnitude 2.7×10-4. Hence, the spectrometer achieves nearly four decades of dynamic range in the frequency domain. Two

Bret N. Flanders; David C. Arnett; Norbert F. Scherer

1998-01-01

108

Probing structure and phase-transitions in molecular crystals by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of ultra-fast laser techniques for the generation and detection of broadband terahertz pulses, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has become a versatile tool for vibrational spectroscopy of molecular systems in the far-infrared. Due to their highly collective and delocalized character vibrational modes in this part of the spectrum are highly sensitive to molecular structure and arrangement within a molecular crystal. Here we utilize this sensitivity to differentiate between the enantiopure amino acid L-cysteine and its racemic crystalline DL-form. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy we are able to observe temperature induced solid-state phase transitions in polycrystalline DL-cysteine, as well as in polycrystalline benzoic acid. The dynamics of the transitions is studied by tracing the temperature dependency of spectral features that are assigned to certain conformational phases.

Franz, Morten; Fischer, Bernd M.; Walther, Markus

2011-12-01

109

Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive diagnostic tools able to provide information on the materials and preservation state of artworks are crucial to help conservators, archaeologists and anthropologists to plan and carry out their tasks properly. In this frame, technological solutions exploiting Terahertz (THz) radiation, i.e., working at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, are currently deserving huge attention as complementary techniques to classical analysis methodologies based on electromagnetic radiations from X-rays to mid infrared [1]. The main advantage offered by THz spectroscopy and imaging systems is referred to their capability of providing information useful to determine the construction modality, the history life and the conservation state of artworks as well as to identify previous restoration actions [1,2]. In particular, unlike mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides fingerprint absorption spectra depending on the intramolecular behavior, THz spectroscopy is related to the structure of the molecules of the investigated object. Hence, it can discriminate, for instance, the different materials mixed in a paint [1,2]. Moreover, THz radiation is able to penetrate several materials which are opaque to both visible and infrared materials, such as varnish, paint, plaster, paper, wood, plastic, and so on. Accordingly, it is useful to detect hidden objects and characterize the inner structure of the artwork under test even in the direction of the depth, while avoiding core drillings. In this frame, THz systems allow us to discriminate different layers of materials present in artworks like paints, to obtain images providing information on the construction technique as well as to discover risk factors affecting the preservation state, such as non-visible cracks, hidden molds and air gaps between the paint layer and underlying structure. Furthermore, adopting a no-ionizing radiation, THz systems offer the not trivial benefit of negligible long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Recently, the interest on THz technology is also growing up thanks to the development of flexible and compact commercial systems having source and detector probes coupled by means of optical fiber cables and that do not require complex optical alignments. These features allow us to reconfigure the measurement configuration easily; thus transmission, normal reflection and oblique reflection data can be collected according to the constrains and objective of the survey to be performed. Moreover, they open the way to on field applications. An example of last generation THz systems is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) marketed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment. Such a system is designed to perform both transmission and reflection spectroscopy and imaging measurements in the range from 60GHz to 3THz; with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz. A review of the literature assessing potentialities and open challenges of THz spectroscopy and imaging in the frame of cultural heritage preservation will be provided at the conferences, with a specific focus on the diagnostic capabilities of last generation systems. REFERENCES [1] K. Fukunaga, I. Hosako, Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology, C. R. Physique, vol. 11, pp.519-526, 2010. [2] G.Fillippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E.J. Gualda, J.M. Manceau, S. Tzortzakis, Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of Cultural Heritage, Appl. Phys. A, vol.106, pp.257-263, 2012.

Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

2014-05-01

110

High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy with a single tunable frequency comb.  

PubMed

We report an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the spectral resolution of a recently proposed single-comb terahertz spectroscopy [Opt. Lett.39, 5669 (2014)]. The improvement is achieved by using a femtosecond optical pulse train with a tunable repetition rate. Terahertz comb with tunable spectral line spacing generated by the train is detected via nonlinear mixing with a harmonic of a CW signal from a microwave frequency synthesizer. By applying this technique to the low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved a 100 kHz spectral resolution in measuring separate absorption lines of the rotational manifold of fluoroform (CF3H). PMID:25607192

Skryl, A S; Pavelyev, D G; Tretyakov, M Y; Bakunov, M I

2014-12-29

111

Hot photocarrier dynamics in organic solar cells measured by transient absorption and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of charge transfer and carrier dynamics in films of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and buckmisnsterfullerene (C60) by investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS). We compare terahertz photoconductivity dynamics in composite and multi-layered films of C60 and ZnPc. The few picosecond terahertz photoconductivity dynamics arise from autoionization and recombination between C60 molecules and cooling of hot photocarriers following from charge transfer between C60 and ZnPc.

Lane, Paul A.; Cunningham, Paul D.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2014-10-01

112

Character research on 2.52 terahertz coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of terahertz (THz) is a major research area in the 21st century. THz imaging is an important research direction. The single-frequency continuous-wave THz technology is combined with coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging in this article. Under the given system parameters, the transverse response character of 2.52THz (118.83?m) coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging is emulated and analyzed. The results of emulation show that coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging is feasible in THz region.

Yang, Yong-fa; Li, Qi; Hu, Jia-qi

2014-12-01

113

Terahertz time-domain and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of traditional Korean pigments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representative traditional Korean pigments (oyster shell white [hobun], massicot [miltaseung], indigo [jjok], azurite [seokcheong], malachite [seokrok], and red lead [yeondan]) have been studied with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) over the spectral region of 0.1-7.5 THz. Both the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were simultaneously and independently determined in the terahertz region without a Kramers-Kronig analysis while the absoprtion coefficient spectra were acquired in the infrared region. All pigments studied in the present work exhibited a set of characteristic absorption peaks unique to the pigment species in addition to a background that increased with increasing frequency. Our study demonstrates that terahertz and infrared techniques can be useful identification and diagnostic tools for the traditional Korean pigments used in heritage buildings and artworks.

Hong, Taeyoon; Choi, Kyujin; Ha, Taewoo; Park, Byung Cheol; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kwon, Jy Eun; Lee, Sanghyun; Kang, Dai Ill; Lee, Han Hyoung

2014-03-01

114

Ultrafast conductivity in a low-band-gap polyphenylene and fullerene blend studied by terahertz spectroscopy  

E-print Network

; published 24 June 2009 Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations of charge then drops down rapidly within 1 ps, and we demonstrate that this decrease occurs essentially by two generated. The hole interchain transport is much slower, nevertheless, it is a prerequisite for collection

KuÂ?el, Petr

115

Charge carrier relaxation and effective masses in silicon probed by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge transport in silicon is investigated on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, which is driven into depletion, accumulation, or inversion. Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy provides momentum relaxation times as well as conductivity effective masses of electrons and holes. At room temperature the conductivity effective masses of electrons and holes are close to those values reported for cryogenic temperatures.

Engelbrecht, S. G.; Reichel, A. J.; Kersting, R.

2012-12-01

116

Uncharacteristic behaviour in low temperature of conductive polypyrrole detected by temperature-dependent terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductive polypyrroles are characterized using temperature-dependent terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. At 100K, THz radiation power started to level off and an absorption peak is manifested. This is attributed to the disorder generated during synthesis and doping processes, which plays a critical role in the microscopic disorder and\\/or structural amorphous regions of the polymer.

A. Quema; R. Quiroga; L. Rempillo; G. Diwa; E. Estacio; H. Murakami; S. Ono; N. Sarukura

2005-01-01

117

Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz (THz) transmission spectroscopy is used to measure the oxidation kinetics of copper thin films evaporated on silicon substrates. The transmission of broadband THz pulses from 1 to 7 THz through the copper film is measured while it gets oxidized at an elevated temperature in ambient air. The change in the transmitted THz electric field is correlated with the growth

G. K. P. Ramanandan; G. Ramakrishnan; P. C. M. Planken

2012-01-01

118

Electronic response in mesoscopically disordered zinc oxide probed by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectroscopy is applied for characterizing the high frequency transport of electrons in polycrystalline ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Electromodulation of the charge carrier density provides the frequency dependent conductivity of the electron gas. Amplitude and phase of the high frequency response are well reproduced by the Drude-Smith model.

Engelbrecht, Stefan G.; De Angelis, Ludovica; Tönnies, Marc; Kersting, Roland

2013-11-01

119

Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy of Phonon-Depopulation Based Quantum Cascade Lasers  

SciTech Connect

A 3.1 THz phonon depopulation-based quantum-cascade-laser is investigated using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. A gain of 25 cm{sup -1} and absorption features due to the lower laser level being populated from a parasitic electronic channel are highlighted.

Rungsawang, R.; Dhillon, S. S.; Jukam, N.; Oustinov, D.; Madeo, J.; Tignon, J. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, UMR8551 CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, F-75005 Paris (France); Colombelli, R. [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, Universite Paris Sud, UMR8622 CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Dean, P.; Salih, M.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E.; Davies, A. G. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2011-12-23

120

Analysis of drugs-of-abuse and explosives using terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that, through coherent measurement of the transmitted terahertz electric fields, broadband (0.3-8THz) time-domain spectroscopy can be used to measure far-infrared vibrational modes of a range of illegal drugs and high explosives that are of interest to the forensic and security services. Our results show that these absorption features are highly sensitive to the structural and spatial arrangement of the molecules. Terahertz frequency spectra are also compared with high-resolution low-frequency Raman spectra to assist in understanding the low frequency inter- and intra-molecular vibrational modes of the molecules.

Burnett, Andrew; Fan, Wenhui; Upadhya, Prashanth; Cunningham, John; Linfield, Edmund; Davies, Giles; Edwards, Howell; Munshi, Tasnim; O'Neil, Andrew

2006-02-01

121

Application of terahertz spectroscopy and molecular modeling in isomers investigation: Glucose and fructose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectra of glucose and fructose have been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room temperature. Because they have the same molecular formula, the differences of the THz spectra can be attributed to their molecular structures and the arrangement of molecules in unit cell. In this paper, gaseous-state theory has been employed to simulate the isolated molecule of these two isomers. The results indicate that experimental THz spectral features (0.5 - 4.0 THz) of glucose and fructose arise from the mixture of intramolecular and intermolecular modes, involving hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds, and with the intermolecular modes dominating.

Zheng, Zhuan-Ping; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liang, Yu-Qing; Yan, Hui

2012-04-01

122

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in ultrafast lasers and semiconductor technologies have facilitated access to the terahertz (THz) frequency range for spectroscopic and imaging purposes. THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is commonly used to acquire spectral data having high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) over a broad range of THz frequencies. THz-TDS instrumentation is commercially available, thereby enabling novel applications of THz time-domain (TD) imaging and spectroscopy

Ryan M. Smith; Mark A. Arnold

2011-01-01

123

Advances in terahertz spectroscopy of high-T(c) superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 15 years much effort has been expended in the search for an understanding of the high temperature cuprate superconductors. As yet, however, the underlying mechanism of superconductivity in the cuprates remains undiscovered. In fact, there exists no satisfactory explanation of the normal state out of which the superconductivity arises. One experimental probe, important in investigating both of these phenomena, has been the optical conductivity. A gap exists, however, in the measured spectra of the cuprates in the crucial range 0.1 THz < nu < 1.0 THz, where hv ? kBT. The absence of such data prevents a full understanding of the optical conductivity. Using a coherent experimental technique, known as time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, we have measured the conductivity of an important cuprate system, Bi2Sr2CaCu2Og+delta (BSCCO). These measurements cover the frequency range from 0.1--1.0 THz and a wide range of doping delta. These measurements enable a step forward in our understanding of both the superconducting and normal states of BSCCO, as well as the transition between them. In the superconducting state, we find that the conductivity includes an additional contribution beyond the conventional two: the normal fluid (quasiparticles) and the superconducting condensate. We observe a low frequency collective mode (v ? 0.3 THz) whose spectral weight varies with temperature proportionally to that of the condensate. The fraction of the condensate spectral weight which is drawn into the collective mode increases greatly with increased with doping. Furthermore, once the collective mode contribution is recognized we are able to extract the transport scattering rate of the quasiparticles, 1/tau. We find 1/tau to vary approximately as kBT/ h below Tc. The transition from the superconducting to the normal state proceeds by the loss of phase coherence of the superconducting order parameter. This process continues to temperatures more than 10 degrees K above the disappearance of the true Meissner state at Tc The process is governed by the unbinding and motion of thermally generated vortex anti-vortex pairs, whose creation energy and dynamics are controlled by the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter in the absence the vortices. Other than indirectly through the magnitude of the order parameter, doping levels do not greatly affect this behavior. The conductivity in the normal state, above the range dominated by the phase-incoherent superconductivity, shows interesting dependencies on both temperature and doping. In the overdoped sample studied, 1/tau varies as T?1.7 and is not proportional to the resistivity. This finding contradicts the widely held belief that the resistivity in the cuprates is linear in T because the scattering rate is proportional to T. A model based on a scattering rate which is anisotropic is consistent with these findings. However, our data, as well as Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES), also appear consistent with the Marginal Fermi Liquid phenomenology. With doping decreased into the underdoped range, tau is no longer a power law in T, but shows a marked decrease for temperatures below T*, the onset of the 'pseudogap' regime. In addition to the primary findings, supporting work will be discussed. These include measurements of non-linear conductivity and conductivity in the presence of a magnetic field. The implications on the above results will be discussed.

Corson, John Frederick

124

Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. I - Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate analytic solution is derived for the radiative transfer equation describing particulate surface light scattering, taking into account multiple scattering and mutual shadowing. Analytical expressions for the following quantities are found: bidirectional reflectance, radiance coefficient and factor, the normal, Bond, hemispherical, and physical albedos, integral phase function and phase integral, and limb-darkening profile. Scattering functions for mixtures can be

Bruce Hapke

1981-01-01

125

Measurement and analysis of the diffuse reflectance of powdered samples at terahertz frequencies using a quantum cascade laser.  

PubMed

We report terahertz (THz) diffuse reflectance measurements of bulk powdered samples at a frequency of 2.83 THz using a narrowband quantum cascade laser. Samples studied comprise polydisperse powders with absorption coefficients extending over two orders of magnitude from ?3 cm(-1) to >200 cm(-1). Diffuse reflectance measurements are used to obtain the effective absorption coefficient of these samples from the backscattering cross-section, predicted under the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) in the T-matrix formulation and in conjunction with the Percus-Yevick pair distribution function. Results are compared with effective absorption coefficients obtained from THz time-domain spectroscopy measurements on pressed pellet samples, and show good agreement over the range of effective absorption coefficients studied. We observe that the backscattering cross-section predicted under the QCA is strongly dependent on both the real and imaginary components of the complex permittivity of the sample, and we show that reliable determination of the absorption coefficient from diffuse reflectance measurements therefore requires knowledge of the sample's refractive index. This work demonstrates the applicability of diffuse reflectance measurements, using a THz frequency quantum cascade laser, to the high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of bulk powdered samples at THz frequencies. PMID:21476752

Dean, P; Burnett, A D; Tych, K; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Cunningham, J E; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G

2011-04-01

126

Identification of Potential Estrogenic Environmental Pollutants by Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using magnetically enhanced terahertz radiation from InAs, various naphthols, which exhibits estrogenic like activity and are potentially mimic natural hormones, are studied. The experimental results show that the naphthols, depicted by the position of the hydroxyl (-OH) component at different carbon atom sites of the naphthalene compound, are distinguishable based on the absorption of THz radiation. It is found that

Alex Quema; Hiroshi Takahashi; Masahiro Sakai; Masahiro Goto; Shingo Ono; Nobuhiko Sarukura; Ryu Shioda; Norihide Yamada

2003-01-01

127

Limitation in thin-film detection with transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

E-print Network

In transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), the thickness of a sample is a critical factor that determines an amount of the interaction between terahertz waves and bulk material. If the interaction length is too small, a change in the transmitted signal is overwhelmed by fluctuations and noise in the system. In this case, the sample can no longer be detected. This article presents a criterion to determine the lower thickness boundary of a free-standing film that can still be detectable by free-space transmission-mode THz-TDS. The rigorous analysis yields a simple proportional relation between the sample optical length and the system SNR. The proposed criterion can help to decide whether an alternative terahertz thin-film sensing modality is necessary.

Withayachumnankul, Withawat

2011-01-01

128

Chemometrics applied to quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Chemometrics was applied to qualitative and quantitative analyses of terahertz spectra obtained in transmission mode. A series of mixtures of three pure analytes, namely, citric acid, D-(-)fructose, and ?-lactose monohydrate under various concentrations, was prepared as pressed pellets with polyethylene as binder. Then, terahertz absorbance spectra were recorded by terahertz time domain spectroscopy and analyzed. First, principal component analysis allowed one to correctly locate the samples into a ternary diagram. Second, quantitative analysis was achieved by partial least-squares (PLS) regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The concentrations were predicted with values of relative mean square error lower than 0.9% for the three constituents. As a conclusion, chemometrics was demonstrated to be very efficient for the analysis of the ternary mixtures prepared for this study. PMID:24738647

El Haddad, Josette; de Miollis, Frederick; Bou Sleiman, Joyce; Canioni, Lionel; Mounaix, Patrick; Bousquet, Bruno

2014-05-20

129

Progress of ultrafast terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: Raman inactive soft mode in quantum paraelectric SrTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the complex dielectric constants of quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 (STO) bulk single crystals by using the ultrafast and broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) with the reflection configuration. The observed complex dielectric dispersion consists of the Raman inactive TO1 soft mode and is well reproduced by damped harmonic oscillator model where the resonant frequency and the damping constant are 2.75 THz and 0.63 THz, respectively, in good agreement with the previous reports. The ultrafast THz-TDS used in this study employs the technique of high-speed asynchronous optical sampling and Cherenkov type THz generator. The sampling time of one scan is about 10 milliseconds and available frequency of the THz source is from 0.5 to 7 THz. The reflection configuration combined with the ultrafast system enabled to detect the dispersion of a STO bulk sample which has high permittivity and opaque in the THz region.

Mori, Tatsuya; Igawa, Hikaru; Kojima, Seiji

2014-03-01

130

The versatile terahertz reflection and transmission spectrometer with the location of objects of researches in the horizontal plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental setup of versatile pulse terahertz reflection and transmission spectrometer and operation concept were described. Using this setup the temporary forms of THz signal reflected from and transmitted through the samples like amino acids, dental tissue and normal were obtained. The possibility of structural determination of powdered media was demonstrated using this method.

Balbekin, N. S.; Grachev, Ya V.; Smirnov, S. V.; Bespalov, V. G.

2015-01-01

131

Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly examines methods for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and principles of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy, an advanced informative method for studies of complex biological and nanostructured systems. Some of its practical applications are described. Using a number of steroid hormones as examples, we demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics methods and computer simulation allows one to gain information about the structure of molecules in crystals. A 'terahertz colour vision' method is proposed for analysis of pulsed terahertz signals reflected from biological tissues and it is shown that this method can be effectively used to analyse the properties of biological tissues and for early skin cancer diagnosis.

Angeluts, A. A.; Balakin, A. V.; Evdokimov, M. G.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Ozheredov, I. A.; Sapozhnikov, D. A.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

2014-07-01

132

Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy: A Brief Review  

SciTech Connect

The Terahertz (THz) window of the electromagnetic spectrum has been partially explored but almost unexploited commercially. In recent years there has been an increased interest and a technological boost in THz research for detection systems, material characterization and imaging. Among many hot topics the researchers are interested in medical applications, and protein characterization. We present a general overview of the field showing some of the handicaps and promises of this region of the electromagnetic spectru000.

Vargas-Luna, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre CP 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Huerta-Franco, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre el Trabajo, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 530, Lomas del Campestre, CP 37150, Leon Gto. (Mexico)

2008-08-11

133

Investigating the use of terahertz pulsed time domain reflection imaging for the study of fabric layers of an Egyptian mummy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first use of terahertz time domain reflection imaging involving textiles on part of a complete human mummy, still in original wrapping. X-ray technique has been used extensively to investigate anatomical features, since X-ray pass through the wrapping. Terahertz waves, on the other hand, can penetrate into non-metallic materials and its reflection depends on the refractive index of materials at the interface, such as textiles and the air. The mummy of Kharushere (ca. 945-712 B.C.) was examined by using Terahertz time domain reflection imaging in the Egyptian galleries of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Experimental results suggest that the Terahetz imaging is a promising technique for probing the fabric layers surrounding Egyptian mummies, although it is still very limited in its current state. In the future it could become a useful complement to CT scanning when materials with low radiographic density and contrast are being investigated

Fukunaga, K.; Cortes, E.; Cosentino, A.; Stã¼nkel, I.; Leona, M.; Duling, N.; Mininberg, D. T.

2011-08-01

134

Tuning photoinduced terahertz conductivity in monolayer graphene: Optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-pump terahertz-probe differential transmission measurements of as-prepared single layer graphene (AG) (unintentionally hole doped with Fermi energy EF at ˜-180meV), nitrogen doping compensated graphene (NDG) with EF˜-10 meV, and thermally annealed doped graphene (TAG) are examined quantitatively to understand the opposite signs of photoinduced dynamic terahertz conductivity ??. It is negative for AG and TAG but positive for NDG. We show that the recently proposed mechanism of multiple generations of secondary hot carriers due to Coulomb interaction of photoexcited carriers with the existing carriers together with the intraband scattering can explain the change of photoinduced conductivity sign and its magnitude. We give a quantitative estimate of ?? in terms of controlling parameters—the Fermi energy EF and momentum relaxation time ?. Furthermore, the cooling of photoexcited carriers is analyzed using a supercollision model which involves a defect mediated collision of the hot carriers with the acoustic phonons, thus giving an estimate of the deformation potential.

Kar, Srabani; Mohapatra, Dipti R.; Freysz, Eric; Sood, A. K.

2014-10-01

135

Terahertz transmission spectroscopy by Josephson oscillator and cold-electron bolometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

For sensitive wideband spectroscopy at TeraHertz frequencies one needs a wide-range electrically tunable THz source and a sensitive detector. In this paper a superconducting normal metal cold electron bolometer (CEB) was used as a broadband sensor. Bolometers were integrated with broadband log-periodic antenna designed for 0.2-2 THz frequency range and double-dipole antennas designed for 300 and 600 GHz central frequency.

Mikhail A. Tarasov; Leonid S. Kuzmin; Evgueni Stepantsov; I. Agulo; A. Kalabukhov; A. Kidiyarova-Shevchenko; Tord Claeson

2004-01-01

136

Determination of the water content in petroleum products using terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content in polyglycol oils is investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS). These oils are able to dissolve a certain percentage of water. Changes in the absorption coefficient and refractive index are observed related to the amount of water added to the pure oils. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Beer-Lambert and Lorentz-Lorenz-theory, respectively, exhibits an

Stefan Gorenflo; Ulrike Tauer; Iliyana Hinkov; Armin Lambrecht; Hanspeter Helm

2006-01-01

137

Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to investigate the water content in synthetic oils. For this purpose, water was added to polyglycol oils, which are able to dissolve a certain percentage of water. Applying THz-TDS, changes in the absorption coefficient and refractive index are observed and characterized. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Beer–Lambert and Lorentz–Lorenz-theory, respectively,

Stefan Gorenflo; Ulrike Tauer; Iliyana Hinkov; Armin Lambrecht; Richard Buchner; Hanspeter Helm

2006-01-01

138

Broadband terahertz spectroscopy: principles, fundamental research and potential for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz radiation (also called T-rays) can be employed for spectroscopy and imaging, from the laboratory to industrial applications. In this paper we give an overview of how broadband optoelectronic THz techniques (i.e. using optical lasers to achieve THz generation and detection) can be implemented, and give examples of their unique use in solid-state physics, and in biological and industrial applications.

Zouaghi, W.; Thomson, M. D.; Rabia, K.; Hahn, R.; Blank, V.; Roskos, H. G.

2013-11-01

139

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy of a 15x15-mm^2 single-layer graphene film on Si using broadband THz pulses. The THz images clearly map out the THz carrier dynamics of the graphene-on-Si sample, allowing us to measure sheet conductivity with sub-mm resolution without fabricating electrodes. The THz carrier dynamics are dominated by intraband transitions and the THz-induced electron motion is

J. L. Tomaino; A. D. Jameson; J. W. Kevek; M. J. Paul; A. M. van der Zande; R. A. Barton; P. L. McEuen; E. D. Minot; Yun-Shik Lee

2011-01-01

140

Imaging molecular adsorption and desorption dynamics on graphene using terahertz emission spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Being an atomically thin material, graphene is known to be extremely susceptible to its environment, including defects and phonons in the substrate on which it is placed as well as gas molecules that surround it. Thus, any device design using graphene has to take into consideration all surrounding components, and device performance needs to be evaluated in terms of environmental influence. However, no methods have been established to date to readily measure the density and distribution of external perturbations in a quantitative and non-destructive manner. Here, we present a rapid and non-contact method for visualizing the distribution of molecular adsorbates on graphene semi-quantitatively using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the waveform of terahertz bursts emitted from graphene-coated InP sensitively changes with the type of atmospheric gas, laser irradiation time, and ultraviolet light illumination. The terahertz waveform change is explained through band structure modifications in the InP surface depletion layer due to the presence of localized electric dipoles induced by adsorbed oxygen. These results demonstrate that terahertz emission serves as a local probe for monitoring adsorption and desorption processes on graphene films and devices, suggesting a novel two-dimensional sensor for detecting local chemical reactions. PMID:25116593

Sano, Y.; Kawayama, I.; Tabata, M.; Salek, K. A.; Murakami, H.; Wang, M.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Kono, J.; Tonouchi, M.

2014-01-01

141

Imaging molecular adsorption and desorption dynamics on graphene using terahertz emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Being an atomically thin material, graphene is known to be extremely susceptible to its environment, including defects and phonons in the substrate on which it is placed as well as gas molecules that surround it. Thus, any device design using graphene has to take into consideration all surrounding components, and device performance needs to be evaluated in terms of environmental influence. However, no methods have been established to date to readily measure the density and distribution of external perturbations in a quantitative and non-destructive manner. Here, we present a rapid and non-contact method for visualizing the distribution of molecular adsorbates on graphene semi-quantitatively using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the waveform of terahertz bursts emitted from graphene-coated InP sensitively changes with the type of atmospheric gas, laser irradiation time, and ultraviolet light illumination. The terahertz waveform change is explained through band structure modifications in the InP surface depletion layer due to the presence of localized electric dipoles induced by adsorbed oxygen. These results demonstrate that terahertz emission serves as a local probe for monitoring adsorption and desorption processes on graphene films and devices, suggesting a novel two-dimensional sensor for detecting local chemical reactions. PMID:25116593

Sano, Y; Kawayama, I; Tabata, M; Salek, K A; Murakami, H; Wang, M; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, P M; Kono, J; Tonouchi, M

2014-01-01

142

Terahertz time-domain-spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:fiber laser and GaBiAs photoconducting components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a terahertz time-domain-spectroscopy system that is based on photoconductive components fabricated from low-temperature-grown GaBiAs epitaxial layers and activated by femtosecond 1.03 mum pulses emitted by an Yb:fiber laser. Experiments performed with the laser pulses of different durations have evidenced that the spectral range of the system is limited by the photoexcited carrier lifetime. The optical to terahertz conversion

V. Pacebutas; A. Biciunas; S. Balakauskas; A. Krotkus; G. Andriukaitis; D. Lorenc; A. Pugzlys; A. Baltuska

2010-01-01

143

Onset detection of solid-state phase transition in estrogen-like chemical via terahertz transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state phase transition onset in an endocrine-disrupting estrogen-like chemical (1,4-naphthol) is detected using terahertz transmission spectroscopy. The appearance of two absorption peaks and the sudden upsurge of terahertz-radiation power at 210 K indicate the onset of the solid-state phase transition. Differential scanning microscopy reveals a first-order phase transition at around 240 K while temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction analysis shows the occurrence

Alex V. Quema; Masahiro Goto; Masahiro Sakai; Riadh El Ouenzerfi; Hiroshi Takahashi; Hidetoshi Murakami; Shingo Ono; Nobuhiko Sarukura; Gerardo Janairo

2004-01-01

144

Characterization of degradation using reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semi-classical model of the reflectance of a complex material is modeled. Model selection techniques using this reflectance model are developed to detect molecular vibration modes measured using infrared spectroscopy. An inverse problem methodology is then used to ascertain the underlying vibrational modes associated with varying concentrations of different chemical species. These two techniques are developed to characterize the extent of material degradation through the detection of spectra associated with the chemical processes underlying the degradation process. These methods are validated using data from samples of ceramic matrix composites. The samples considered were exposed to varying amounts of thermal treatment to ascertain the effectiveness of these methods to detect degradation.

Criner, A. K.; Cherry, A. J.; Cooney, A. T.; Katter, T. D.

2014-02-01

145

Brill transition of nylon-6 characterized by low-frequency vibration through terahertz absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of opening a route toward new applications of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to studies of polymer science, the conformations and structural transitions of polycaprolactam (nylon-6) were investigated by THz spectroscopy in the ?, ?, pseudo-hexagonal, and amorphous phases. A Brill transition from the ? form to the pseudo-hexagonal form was detected at 160 °C from a temperature variation of the peak intensity at 6.6 THz in the second-derivative spectrum of nylon-6. In the amorphous phase, a glass transition was observed at 60 °C, and a new anomaly was found at 110 °C.

Suzuki, Hal; Ishii, Shinya; Sato, Harumi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Morisawa, Yusuke; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Uchiyama, Tetsuji; Otani, Chiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi

2013-06-01

146

[Preliminary research on insect damage detection in pecans using terahertz spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Pecan is an important nut in US, however, the inner insect influences pecan's quality a lot. To realize the nondestructive detection of insect damage in American pecans rapidly and efficiently, preliminary research on insect damage detection in pecans was conducted based on terahertz spectroscopy. Firstly, a set of native pecan nuts were collected and were manually sliced with a thickness of about 1, 2 and 3 mm and with a size of about 2 cm(length) X 1 cm(width) for every pecan nutmeat; Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. Secondly, the absorption spectra of the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University, and the spectral characteristic of the slices was analyzed. Thirdly, the absorption spectra of the alive manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil were collected, and due to the high contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. Finally, the transmission experiment was conducted with the whole pecans. The results from the preliminary study show a potential application of THz technology for insect damage detection. This research provides a reference for further understanding terahertz and exploring sample preparation methods, test methods, data acquisition and optical parameters calculation methods, and developing nondestructive detection system for insect damage in American pecans based on terahertz technology. PMID:25095406

Li, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Zhang, Bao-Hua

2014-05-01

147

Characterization of plasma treated surfaces for food safety by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physico-chemical approach to modify surfaces not only for use in medicine, but also for preservation of food is nowadays widely studied to lower the risks of increased number of bacterial pathogens that are in a direct contact with people. Food safety is very important part of preserving sustainability during crises, especially after the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli outbreak in Europe in 2011. One of the possibility how we can protect food against various pathogens is the modification of packing materials that are directly in contact with preserved food. This contribution deals with the characterization of modified surfaces with antibacterial properties via Terahertz spectroscopy. For the purpose of this paper, three monomers were used for grafting onto air radiofrequency plasma activated low density polyethylene surface, which created a brush-like structure. Next, the antibacterial agents, Irgasan and Chlorhexidine, were anchored to these surfaces. These antibacterial agents were selected for supposed effect on two most frequently occurring bacterial strains - Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Materials were further tested for the presence of antibacterial agent molecules, in our case by means of terahertz spectroscopy. Each material was tested on two spectroscopes - the SPECTRA and the OSCAT terahertz instruments.

Sulovská, Kate?ina; Lehocký, Marián.

2014-10-01

148

Detection of porosity of pharmaceutical compacts by terahertz radiation transmission and light reflection measurement techniques.  

PubMed

We report on the non-destructive quantification of the porosity of pharmaceutical compacts (microcrystalline cellulose tablets) by using both optical and terahertz techniques. For the full analysis of the porosity of pharmaceutical tablets, the results obtained in both cases have shown that optical and terahertz techniques are complementary. The intrinsic refractive index of microcrystalline cellulose was estimated using the effective refractive index obtained from the time delay of the THz pulse together with the Bruggeman model for effective media. Once this intrinsic refractive index is known, the unknown porosity of the tablet can be estimated with the aid of the measured effective refractive index as well as the thickness of the pharmaceutical tablet. The method was tested using a set of thirteen tablets having different porosities. It is shown that the error in the estimation of the unknown tablet's porosity is less than 1%. In addition, surface roughness was measured by using an optical interferometer and gloss by using a diffractive-optical-element based glossmeter. The measurement was achieved by scanning the tablets with a probe beam and detecting the reflected light. The surface roughness and gloss data show relatively good correlation with the porosities of the tablets. PMID:24530384

Bawuah, Prince; Pierotic Mendia, Alessandra; Silfsten, Pertti; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Zeitler, J Axel; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

2014-04-25

149

Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz—Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS2-lithium grease than that of lithium grease.

Tian, Lu; Zhou, Qing-Li; Zhao, Kun; Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Song-Qing; Zhao, Hui; Bao, Ri-Ma; Zhu, Shou-Ming; Miao, Qing; Zhang, Cun-Lin

2011-01-01

150

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Study of Silica Aerogels and Adsorbed Molecular Jiangquan Zhang and D. Grischkowsky*  

E-print Network

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Study of Silica Aerogels and Adsorbed Molecular Vapors Jiangquan time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) study of hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica aerogels, and the adsorption of several molecular vapors in the hydrophilic silica aerogel. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic

151

Soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser surgery gives the possibility to work remotely which leads to high precision, little trauma and high level sterility. However these advantages are coming with the lack of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Therefore additional means are required to control tissue-specific ablation during laser surgery supporting the surgeon regardless of experience and skills. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from four various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the four tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerve as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating soft tissues as guidance for tissue-specific laser surgery by means of the diffuse reflectance.

Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre

2009-07-01

152

Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs  

PubMed Central

Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5?MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10?7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy. PMID:24448604

Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-01-01

153

Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of high-pressure flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser spectroscopy in the visible and NIR is widely used to study flame behaviour in internal combustion engines and turbines, but is inapplicable at high pressures because high soot concentration renders flames opaque; however they remain transparent to THz radiation. We use THz time-domain transmission spectroscopy to characterise gaseous species in flames. A specially designed high-pressure burner vessel has been

M. Naftaly; M. R. Stringer; R. E. Miles; J. Bassi; Y. Zhang

2005-01-01

154

[The error analysis and experimental verification of laser radar spectrum detection and terahertz time domain spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many chemical agent explosives show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons and chemical agent, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to chemical agent explosives. A kind of device on laser radar detecting and real time spectrum measuring was designed which measures the laser spectrum on the bases of Fourier optics and optical signal processing. Wedge interferometer was used as the beam splitter to wipe off the background light and detect the laser and measure the spectrum. The result indicates that 10 ns laser radar pulse can be detected and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. The combination of laser radar spectrum detecting, THz-TDS, modern pattern recognition and signal processing technology is the developing trend of remote detection for chemical agent explosives. PMID:20496663

Liu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Hui

2010-03-01

155

In-vitro terahertz spectroscopy of rat skin under the action of dehydrating agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we present the results of study of rat skin and rat subcutaneous tumor under the action of dehydrating agents in terahertz (THz) range (15-30 THz). Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) spectra were obtained with infrared Fourier spectrometer Nicolet 6700 and then they were recalculated in the transmittance spectra with Omnic software. Experiments were carried out with healthy and xenografted tumor in skin tissue in vitro. As the dehydrating agents 100% glycerol, 40%-water glucose solution, PEG-600, and propylene glycol were used. To determine the effect of the optical clearing agent (OCA), the alterations of terahertz transmittance for the samples were analyzed. The results have shown that PEG-600 and 40%-glucose water solution are the most effective dehydrating agent. The transmittance of healthy skin after PEG-600 application increased approximately by 6% and the transmittance of tumor tissue after PEG- 600 and 40%-glucose water solution application increased approximately by 8%. Obtained data can be useful for further application of terahertz radiation for tumor diagnostics.

Kolesnikov, Aleksandr S.; Kolesnikova, Ekaterina A.; Tuchina, Daria K.; Terentyuk, Artem G.; Nazarov, Maxim; Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2014-01-01

156

Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We used a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an integrated injection seeded source and amplifier for THz time-domain spectroscopy. A THz input pulse is generated inside a QCL by illuminating the laser facet with a near-IR pulse from a femtosecond laser and amplified using gain switching. The THz output from the QCL is found to saturate upon increasing the amplitude of the THz input power, which indicates that the QCL is operating in an injection seeded regime. PMID:22344163

Maysonnave, J; Jukam, N; Ibrahim, M S M; Maussang, K; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Steenson, D P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

2012-02-15

157

Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Glass Composites Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is presented as a tool for characterization of the hydroxyapatite (HA)-glass composites. The materials under investigation are composites of HA and a calcium zinc silicate glass. Our results show that the refractive index and dielectric constant in THz frequencies provide a reliable determination of glass content of these composites. In addition, the THz-TDS is used to morphological changes in HA during simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation. Our results demonstrate that the THz-TDS can be a promising non-destructive tool.

Yatongchai, C.; Wren, A. W.; Sundaram, S. K.

2015-01-01

158

Simultaneous composition and thickness measurement of paper using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present a noncontact method for quantitative composition and thickness monitoring of flat sheet products using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We apply the method to obtain simultaneous measurement of thickness and moisture content of paper sheets. The paper is modeled as an effective medium of water mixed with fibers, and model parameters are estimated from fits to the measured transmission amplitude. We demonstrate the method on two different paper samples and obtain uncertainties that are comparable with existing sensor technology. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that these uncertainties can be reduced further by at least an order of magnitude.

Mousavi, Payam; Haran, Frank; Jez, David; Santosa, Fadil; Dodge, John Steven

2009-11-20

159

Vibrational frequencies of anti-diabetic drug studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of seven anti-diabetic pills have been investigated. For gliquidone, glipizide, gliclazide, and glimepiride, an obvious resonance peak is found at 1.37 THz. Furthermore, to overcome the limit of density functional theory that can analyze the normal mode frequencies of the ground state of organic material, we also present a method that relies on pharmacophore recognition, from which we can obtain the resonance peak at 1.37 THz can be attributed to the vibration of sulfonylurea group. The results indicate that the veracity of density functional theory can be increased by combining pharmacophore recognition.

Du, S. Q.; Li, H.; Xie, L.; Chen, L.; Peng, Y.; Zhu, Y. M.; Li, H.; Dong, P.; Wang, J. T.

2012-04-01

160

Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

2008-03-01

161

Investigation of thermal denaturation of solid oxytocin by terahertz dielectric spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the thermal denaturation of solid oxytocin using terahertz time domain spectroscopy(THz-TDS). When the peptide is heated up from 25°C to 107°C and cooled down to 25°C again, an irreversible decrease in its THz absorption coefficient and refractive index is observed. The corresponding frequency-dependent permittivity during heating is fitted by the Debye model with single relaxation time. The relaxation times during temperature rising agree very well with Arrhenius equation with the activation energy of 3.12kJ/(K•mol) as an indicator for its thermal denaturation difficulty.

Li, Xiangjun; Yang, Xiaojie; Liu, Jianjun; Du, Yong; Hong, Zhi

2014-07-01

162

Characterization of subwavelength plastic fiber utilizing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first characterization of a simple subwavelength-diameter plastic wire by using wideband terahertz timedomain spectroscopy. The propagation characteristics including waveguide dispersion, group velocity, and attenuation constant of various plastic wires with different diameters and refractive indices are studied. The experimental results show the subwavelength plastic wire has extremely low waveguide dispersion and low attenuation constant (<0.01cm-1) at its THz transmission band due to much reduced fractional power delivered inside the lossy core, which is consistent with the theoretical calculations. With the large evanescent-fields, the subwavelength plastic wire has capability to integrate with micro-fluid channel for sensitive bio-sensing applications.

You, Borwen; Liu, Tze-An; Peng, Jin-Long; Pan, Ci-Ling; Lu, Ja-Yu

2009-02-01

163

Multichannel terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system at 1030 nm excitation wavelength.  

PubMed

We present Terahertz (THz) imaging with a 1D multichannel time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system which operates with a photoconductive array of 15 detection channels excited by a 1030 nm femtosecond fiber laser. The emitter and detector are photoconductive antennas based on InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer heterostructures (MLHS). We characterized the THz optics and the resolution of the system. The performance is demonstrated by the multichannel imaging of two samples. A simultaneous measurement of 15 THz pulses with a pixel pitch of 1 mm increases the measurement speed of the TDS system by factor 15. PMID:24921495

Brahm, Anika; Wilms, Annika; Dietz, Roman J B; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

2014-06-01

164

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy of a 15x15-mm^2\\u000asingle-layer graphene film on Si using broadband THz pulses. The THz images\\u000aclearly map out the THz carrier dynamics of the graphene-on-Si sample, allowing\\u000aus to measure sheet conductivity with sub-mm resolution without fabricating\\u000aelectrodes. The THz carrier dynamics are dominated by intraband transitions and\\u000athe THz-induced electron motion is

J. L. Tomaino; A. D. Jameson; J. W. Kevek; M. J. Paul; A. M. van der Zande; R. A. Barton; P. L. McEuen; E. D. Minot; Yun-Shik Lee

2011-01-01

165

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing of dental composites  

PubMed Central

We apply terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing process of three different light-curing dental composites. Exact knowledge of the sample thickness is required for a precise determination of the THz dielectric parameters, as the materials exhibit shrinkage when they are cured. We find very small but significant changes of the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient during stepwise light exposure. The changes in the refractive index are correlated with changes in the density of the materials. Furthermore, the refractive index and the sample thickness are found to give the most reliable result for monitoring the curing process of the dental composites. PMID:23162722

Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Lippert, Sina; Koch, Martin; Berg, Andreas; Katletz, Stefan; Wiesauer, Karin

2012-01-01

166

In vivo spectroscopy of healthy skin and pathology in terahertz frequency range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) technology and, in particular, THz pulsed spectroscopy have attracted considerable interest in the scientific community. A lot of papers have been dedicated to studying the ability for human disease diagnosis, including the diagnosis of human skin cancers. In this paper we have studied the THz material parameters and THz dielectric properties of human skin and pathology in vivo, and THz pulsed spectroscopy has been utilized for this purpose. We have found a contrast between material parameters of basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin, and we have also compared the THz material parameters of dysplastic and non-dysplastic pigmentary nevi in order to study the ability for early melanoma diagnosis. Significant differences between the THz material parameters of healthy skin and pathology have been detected, thus, THz pulsed spectroscopy promises to be become an effective tool for non-invasive diagnosis of skin neoplasms.

Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Reshetov, Igor V.; Gavdush, Arseniy A.; Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2015-01-01

167

A versatile and reconfigurable setup for all-terahertz time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A versatile optical setup for all-terahertz (THz) time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy was designed and tested. By utilizing a dual THz pulse generator emitter module, independent and synchronized THz radiation pump and probe pulses were produced, thus eliminating the need for THz beam splitters and the limitations associated with their implementation. The current THz setup allows for precise control of the electric fields splitting ratio between the THz radiation pump and probe pulses, as well as in-phase, out-of-phase, and polarization dependent pump-probe spectroscopy. Since the present THz pump-probe setup does not require specialized THz radiation optical components, such as phase shifters, polarization rotators, or wide bandwidth beam splitters, it can be easily implemented with minimal alterations to a conventional THz time domain spectroscopy system. The present setup is valuable for studying the time dynamics of THz coherent phenomena in solid-state, chemical, and biological systems. PMID:22667602

Elezzabi, A Y; Maraghechi, P

2012-05-01

168

An impact of multiple wave reflections in a flat sample on material parameter reconstruction using THz pulsed spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is dedicated to studying the accuracy of sample material parameter reconstruction using terahertz (THz) pulsed spectroscopy. The technique for characterizing the material parameters of thin flat samples allowing to take into account multiple wave reflections in a flat have been considered. While transmitting through the resonant sample, THz pulse undergoes multiple reflections, which result in satellite pulses in THz waveform. The accuracy of material parameter reconstruction strongly depends on the number of satellite pulses. We have analytically estimated an impact of satellite pulses on material parameter reconstruction by considering the local linearization of theoretical sample transfer function based on the model of quasi-Fabry-Perot-resonator.

Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Tsapenko, Konstantin P.; Nosov, Pavel A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2015-01-01

169

Optical pump Terahertz probe transmission spectroscopy of YBCO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our facility uses optical pump THz probe transmission spectroscopy to study the quasiparticle dynamics in Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) thin films. The recovery of the film exhibits two components, a fast response on the order of several ps and a long tail that lasts nanoseconds. In this presentation, the behaviour of the film in both the fast and long

Anna Kristoffersen; John Nam

2005-01-01

170

Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal ...

Fitzmaurice, Maryann

171

Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of GEO Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on optical reflection spectroscopy of geosynchronous (GEO) objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. These observations were obtained using imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to determine the composition of these objects by comparing these spectral observations with ground-based laboratory measurements of spacecraft materials. The observations are all low resolution (1 nm after smoothing) obtained through a 5 arcsecond wide slit and using a grism as the dispersing element. The spectral range covered was from 450 nm to 800 nm. All spectra were flux calibrated using observations of standard stars with the exact same instrumental setup. An effort was made to obtain all observations within a limited range of topocentric phase angle, although the solar incident angle is unknown due to the lack of any knowledge of the attitude of the observed surface at the time of observation.

Seitzer, Patrick; Cardona, Tammaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Bedard, Donald

2013-01-01

172

Time-domain terahertz study of defect formation in one-dimensional photonic crystals  

E-print Network

Time-domain terahertz study of defect formation in one-dimensional photonic crystals Hynek Ne mec of the photonic structure is a mirror image of the other one are studied by means of terahertz time-domain transmission and reflection spectroscopy. The structure with defect is decomposed into building blocks: two

Ku?el, Petr

173

Frequency-Comb-Assisted Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a metrological-grade THz spectroscopy based on the combination of a THz frequency-comb synthesizer (FCS) and a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL). The QCL, emitting at 2.5 THz, is phase locked to the free-space THz FCS, and its frequency is swept across a methanol transition by tuning the comb-repetition rate, which is ultimately disciplined by the Cs primary frequency standard. The absolute frequency scale provides an uncertainty of a few parts in 10-11 on the laser frequency and 10-9 on the line-center determination, ranking this technique among the most precise ever developed in the THz range.

Bartalini, S.; Consolino, L.; Cancio, P.; De Natale, P.; Bartolini, P.; Taschin, A.; De Pas, M.; Beere, H.; Ritchie, D.; Vitiello, M. S.; Torre, R.

2014-04-01

174

Terahertz spectroscopy for the study of paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy constitute promising technique for biomedical applications as a complementary and powerful tool for diseases screening specially for early cancer diagnostic. The THz radiation is not harmful to biological tissues. As increased blood supply in cancer-affected tissues and consequent local increase in tissue water content makes THz technology a potentially attractive. In the present work, samples of healthy and adenocarcinoma-affected gastric tissue were analyzed using transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The work shows the capability of the technique to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in dried and paraffin-embedded samples. Plots of absorption coefficient ? and refractive index n of normal and cancer affected tissues, are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissues are discussed.

Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

2015-01-01

175

Non-destructive inspections of illicit drugs in envelope using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.

Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin

2006-09-01

176

High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 ??m. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers (??/????) as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 ??m. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition. The study shows that high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals may prove to be a very important tool in the laboratory, in the field using field-portable spectrometers, from aircraft, and from satellites looking at Earth or other planetary surfaces. -from Authors

Clark, R.N.; King, T.V.V.; Klejwa, M.; Swayze, G.A.; Vergo, N.

1990-01-01

177

Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

2009-01-01

178

Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

2013-05-01

179

Detection of POPs in soil by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz transmission spectra of three different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) are measured by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the terahertz region of 0.2-1.8THz. The spectral dependence of the absorption for individual three kinds of POPs is extracted from the transmission data. Computational chemistry using the B3LYP density functional method is used to study structure and internal rotations in POPs, where results strongly suggest that frequencies of the POPs internal rotor correspond to the observed spectra. The absorption coefficient for the soil/aldrin mixture is 19.64cm-1 at 1.41THz, 20.91cm-1 at 1.57THz, 13.69cm-1 at 1.78THz. For soil/dieldrin mixture, the frequency positions of prominent absorption features at 1.29, 1.4 and 1.56THz are observed. The absorption coefficient for the soil/dieldrin mixture is 16.73cm-1 at 1.29THz, 18.85cm-1 at 1.4THz, 24.5cm-1 at 1.56THz. There exhibits three strong absorption peaks coefficient of the soil/endrin mixture at the frequency of 1.58THz and 1.67THz. The absorption coefficient of the soil/endrin mixture is 6.24cm-1 at 1.58THz, 12.58cm-1 at 1.67THz. There is reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment. The results show that the THz-TDS can be used to study POPs in soil quality evaluation or safety inspection further.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2011-11-01

180

Detection of POPs in soil by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz transmission spectra of three different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) are measured by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the terahertz region of 0.2-1.8THz. The spectral dependence of the absorption for individual three kinds of POPs is extracted from the transmission data. Computational chemistry using the B3LYP density functional method is used to study structure and internal rotations in POPs, where results strongly suggest that frequencies of the POPs internal rotor correspond to the observed spectra. The absorption coefficient for the soil/aldrin mixture is 19.64cm-1 at 1.41THz, 20.91cm-1 at 1.57THz, 13.69cm-1 at 1.78THz. For soil/dieldrin mixture, the frequency positions of prominent absorption features at 1.29, 1.4 and 1.56THz are observed. The absorption coefficient for the soil/dieldrin mixture is 16.73cm-1 at 1.29THz, 18.85cm-1 at 1.4THz, 24.5cm-1 at 1.56THz. There exhibits three strong absorption peaks coefficient of the soil/endrin mixture at the frequency of 1.58THz and 1.67THz. The absorption coefficient of the soil/endrin mixture is 6.24cm-1 at 1.58THz, 12.58cm-1 at 1.67THz. There is reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment. The results show that the THz-TDS can be used to study POPs in soil quality evaluation or safety inspection further.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2012-03-01

181

Terahertz Spectroscopy of the Amidogen Radical, NH2.  

PubMed

The rotational spectrum of the NH2 radical in its &Xtilde;2B1 ground vibronic state was investigated between 614 and 1003 GHz. One hundred fifty-nine newly observed lines (188 hyperfine components) of six rotational transitions with 0 spectroscopy, as well as microwave optical double resonance (MODR) and recent FIR laser sideband data, were also used in the fit. A large set of spectroscopic constants reproduces the input data within experimental uncertainties and permits the precise prediction of low-N, low-Ka transitions of interest for the astrophysical community. In particular, the astrophysically important 111-000 transition of ortho NH2 was observed near 952.57 and 959.50 GHz. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10191163

Müller; Klein; Belov; Winnewisser; Morino; Yamada; Saito

1999-05-01

182

Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy of magnetite (110) surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) has been used to measure the optical anisotropies of bulk and thin-film Fe3O4(110) surfaces. The spectra indicate that small shifts in energy of the optical transitions, associated with anisotropic strain or electric field gradients caused by the (110) surface termination or a native oxide layer, are responsible for the strong signal observed. The RAS response was then measured as a function of temperature. A distinct change in the RAS line-shape amplitude was observed in the spectral range from 0.8 to 1.6 eV for temperatures below the Verwey transition of the crystal. Finally, thin-film magnetite was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(110) substrates. Changes in the RAS spectra were found for different film thickness, suggesting that RAS can be used to monitor the growth of magnetite (110) films in situ. The thickness dependence of the RAS is discussed in terms of various models for the origin of the RAS signal.

Fleischer, K.; Verre, R.; Mauit, O.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Farrell, L.; Byrne, C.; Smith, C. M.; McGilp, J. F.; Shvets, I. V.

2014-05-01

183

Electron density measurement of inductively coupled plasmas by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)  

SciTech Connect

The electron densities of argon inductively coupled plasmas were measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). At a low pressure, the electron densities were also measured with a Langmuir-type double probe and the validity of THz-TDS electron-density measurement in a plasma has been corroborated. As the input radio-frequency (RF) power increases, the plasma density and gas temperature increase, which makes the probe measurement less reliable or even impossible, due to the large heat load to the probe surface. On the contrary, the THz-TDS measurement is unaffected by the gas temperature and becomes more reliable due to the higher electron density at higher input power for plasma generation.

Ando, Ayumi; Kurose, Tomoko; Kitano, Katsuhisa; Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Reymond, Vivien [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); ENSPS, Universite de Strasboug, Boulevard Sebastien Brant BP10413 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Kitahara, Hideaki; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tani, Masahiko [Resarch Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui City, Fukui Prefecture 910-8507 (Japan)

2011-10-01

184

Terahertz spectroscopy on Rb1-xFe2-ySe2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of superconducting and non-superconducting Rb1-xFe2-ySe2 [1] have been investigated by terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy as a function of temperature. In the superconducting samples, we observe the signatures of the superconducting transition [2] and an isosbestic point in the temperature dependence of optical conductivity in the vicinity of 100 K, which could be related to the reported phase separation in these compounds. In the non-superconducting samples, the optical conductivity exhibits features which can be interpreted in terms of spin wave excitations in agreement with neutron experiments [3].[4pt] [1] V. Tsurkan et al. Phys. Rev. B 84, 144520 (2011)[0pt] [2] A. Charnukha et al. Phys. Rev. B 85, 100504 (2012)[0pt] [3] Miaoyin Wang et al. Nature Communications 2, 580 (2011)

Wang, Zhe; Fisher, Jonas; Schmidt, Michael; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Deisenhofer, Joachim

2013-03-01

185

Detection of harmful residues in honey using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been applied for the detection and discrimination of harmful chemical residues in honey. Three antibiotics (sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, and tetracycline) and two acaricides (coumaphos and amitraz) were characterized in the THz frequency regime between 0.5 THz and 6.0 THz. All chemical substances present distinct absorption peaks. THz transmission measurements of honey mixtures with antibiotics have been performed, revealing that antibiotic residues are traceable in highly absorptive food products, such as honey, at concentrations down to 1% weight percentage, thanks to their THz fingerprints. Moreover, multiple antibiotics were identified in their mixture with honey, pointing out the potential of the technique to be used in the near future as a fast, real-time technique for detecting and discriminating multi-residues strictly related to food safety issues. PMID:24160877

Massaouti, Maria; Daskalaki, Christina; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Koulouklidis, Anastasios D; Tzortzakis, Stelios

2013-11-01

186

Longitudinally resolved measurement of plasma density along femtosecond laser filament via terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a longitudinally resolved measurement of plasma density along femtosecond laser filament in air via terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. By applying a needlelike high-voltage direct current (DC) electric field on the laser filament and scanning it along filament, the longitudinal evolution of amplified THz emission has been demonstrated. The peak frequency of the DC electric field biased THz emission is proportional to the plasma density inside the laser filament. This latter phenomenon was used to characterize the plasma density. Longitudinal distribution of plasma density of ˜1015 cm-3 along laser filament has been experimentally recorded. The technique demonstrated is very simple and helpful for understanding the THz generation process through laser filamentation.

Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Jingjing; Wei, Yingxia; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Chin, See Leang

2014-08-01

187

Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

Yamashita, G.; Matsubara, E.; Nagai, M.; Kanemitsu, Y.; Ashida, M.

2014-12-01

188

Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

2015-01-01

189

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene  

E-print Network

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy of a 15x15-mm^2 single-layer graphene film on Si using broadband THz pulses. The THz images clearly map out the THz carrier dynamics of the graphene-on-Si sample, allowing us to measure sheet conductivity with sub-mm resolution without fabricating electrodes. The THz carrier dynamics are dominated by intraband transitions and the THz-induced electron motion is characterized by a flat spectral response. A theoretical analysis based on the Fresnel coefficients for a metallic thin film shows that the local sheet conductivity varies across the sample from {\\sigma}s = 1.7x10^-3 to 2.4x10^-3 {\\Omega}^-1 (sheet resistance, {\\rho}s = 420 - 590 {\\Omega}/sq).

Tomaino, J L; Kevek, J W; Paul, M J; van der Zande, A M; Barton, R A; McEuen, P L; Minot, E D; Lee, Yun-Shik; 10.1364/OE.19.000141

2011-01-01

190

Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used for the quantitative detection of sulfur content in gasoline. Models of chemo metrics methods and partial least squares (PLS) were built to measure THz-TDS and the sulfur content. All of the samples were divided into two parts. One part was used for calibration and the other one for validation. In order to evaluate the quality of the models, the correlation coefficient ( R) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of calibration and validation models were calculated. The value of R and RMSE were close to 1 and 0 within acceptable levels, respectively, indicating that the combination of THz-TDS and PLS is a potential method for further quantitative detection.

Qin, FangLi; Li, Qian; Zhan, HongLei; Jin, WuJun; Liu, HongLan; Zhao, Kun

2014-07-01

191

Spectroscopy studies on the selected nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds in the terahertz region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, vibrational properties of a series of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) compounds with the substituted nitro group at different positions have been investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room temperature. The experimental results show large difference among absorption spectra of several NPAHs and their corresponding parent PAHs compounds in 0.1~2.2 THz region, which probably originated from the difference of NPAHs' molecular structure and lattice vibrational modes. All the experimental NPAHs vibrational modes showed distinct fingerprint absorption in THz region. The study indicates that THz-TDS technology can not only give a new experimental method to identify and analyse such different kinds of NPAHs environmental pollutants, but also provide a useful suggestion for further assessing the possible relationships between the NPAHs optical properties and the effects of the substituted nitro group position to better know their photoreactivity and biochemical activities.

Du, Yong; Liu, Jianjun; Hao, Guohui; Guo, Changsheng; Hong, Zhi

2011-08-01

192

Materials for terahertz science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz spectroscopy systems use far-infrared radiation to extract molecular spectral information in an otherwise inaccessible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Materials research is an essential component of modern terahertz systems: novel, higher-power terahertz sources rely heavily on new materials such as quantum cascade structures. At the same time, terahertz spectroscopy and imaging provide a powerful tool for the characterization of

Bradley Ferguson; Xi-Cheng Zhang

2002-01-01

193

Specular Reflection and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the occurrence and effects of specular reflection in mid-infrared spectra of soils have shown that distortions due to specular reflection occur for both organic (humic acid) and non-organic fractions (carbonates, silica, ashed fraction of soil). The results demonstrated explain why the s...

194

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 2, MARCH 2013 151 High-Resolution THz Transmission and Reflection  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 2, MARCH 2013 151 High-Resolution THz Transmission and Reflection Measurements and Consequent Understanding of Resonant Hole-TDS characterization of the transmission and reflection of a thin metal hole-array in op- tical contact with a 10 mm

Oklahoma State University

195

Terahertz transmission of a Ba1-xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex transmission coefficient for millimeter and submillimeter waves incident on a Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 thin film (82 nm) has been measured over a frequency range of 200-1200 GHz at temperatures above and below Tc using coherent time-domain spectroscopy. We observe a dramatic change in both the magnitude and phase of the terahertz transmission in the superconducting state caused by a rapid

F. Gao; J. F. Whitaker; Y. Liu; C. Uher; C. E. Platt; M. V. Klein

1995-01-01

196

Molecular recognition and interaction between uracil and urea in solid-state studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy characterization, we observe that urea is able to recognize and interact with uracil efficiently even in the solid phase without involving water or solvents. A cocrystal configuration linked by a pair of hydrogen bonds between uracil and urea was formed. The terahertz absorption spectrum of the cocrystal shows a distinct new absorption at 0.8 THz (26.7 cm(-1)), which originates from the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Both mechanical milling and heating can accelerate the reaction efficiently. Density functional theory was adopted to simulate the vibrational modes of the cocrystal, and the results agree well with the experimental observation. Multiple techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed to investigate the reaction process, and they presented supportive evidence. This work enables in-depth understanding of recognition and interaction of urea with nucleobases and comprehension of the denaturation related to RNA. We also demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy is an effective and alternative tool for online measurement and quality control in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. PMID:25386785

Yang, Jingqi; Li, Shaoxian; Zhao, Hongwei; Song, Bo; Zhang, Guoxin; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhu, Yiming; Han, Jiaguang

2014-11-20

197

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Anomalous behaviours of terahertz reflected waves transmitted from GaAs induced by optical pumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond pump-terahertz probe studies of carrier dynamics in semi-insulating GaAs have been investigated in detail for various pump powers. It is observed that, at high pump powers, the reflection peaks flip to the opposite polarity and dramatically enhance as the pump arrival time approaches the reflected wave of the terahertz pulse. The abnormal polarity-flip and enhancement can be interpreted by the pump-induced enhancement in the photoconductivity of GaAs and half-wave loss. Moreover, the carrier relaxation processes and surface states filling in GaAs are also studied in these measurements.

Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhou, Qing-Li; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

2009-12-01

198

Fiber-remote reflectance spectroscopy with an optimized diffuse reflectance sensor system  

SciTech Connect

A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system is described which can operate in a contact and non-contact mode on powders, slurries and other diffusely scattering materials. Diffuse reflectance spectra are presented for a number of samples including common household materials. A comparison is made of the probe with a Bio-Rad diffuse reflectance accessory. Second derivative spectra are shown of a calibration mixture of polymer additives. The use of the diffuse reflectance system for non-destructive tablet hardness measurements is discussed. Sensor multiplexing for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, is reviewed.

Driver, R.D.; Grim, K.P.; Dewey, G.; Brubaker, M.L. [Galileo Electro-Optics Corp., Sturbridge, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

199

EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are within the THz spectral region providing an additional benefit. His review describes the principle, characteristics, and applications of terahertz molecular imaging, where the use of nanoparticle probes allows dramatically enhanced sensitivity. Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang and colleagues in China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and the US report exciting developments for optoelectronics [11]. They describe work on plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) where interference leads to a sharp transparency window that may be useful for nonlinear and slow-light devices, optical switching, pulse delay, and storage for optical information processing. While PIT has advantages over the cumbersome experimental systems required for EIT, it has so far been constrained to very narrow band operation. Now Zhang and colleagues present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz in the terahertz regime. 'We can foresee a historic breakthrough for science and technology through terahertz research,' concluded Masayoshi Tonouchi in his review over five years ago as momentum in the field was mounting [12]. He added, 'It is also noteworthy that THz research is built on many areas of science and the coordination of a range of disciplines is giving birth to a new science.' With the inherently multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology research it is not so strange to see the marriage of the two fields form such a fruitful partnership, as this special section highlights. References [1] Williams B S, Kumar S, Hu Q and Reno J L 2006 High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers Electron. Lett. 42 89-91 [2] Köhler R et al 2002 Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser Nature 417 156-9 [3] Mittendorff M, Xu M, Dietz R J B, K¨unzel H, Sartorius B, Schneider H, Helm M and Winnerl S 2013 Large area photoconductive THz emitter for 1.55 ?m excitation based on an InGaAs heterostructure Nanotechnology 24 214007 [4] Chen H-T, Padilla W J, Zide J M O, Gossa

Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

2013-05-01

200

Feasibility of using terahertz spectroscopy to detect seven different pesticides in wheat flour.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of detecting pesticides using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy in high-density polyethylene and/or wheat flour mixtures. The absorption spectra of seven pesticides (dicofol, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, daminozide, imidacloprid, diethyldithiocarbamate, and dimethyldithiocarbamate) were measured in the frequency range 0.1 to 3 THz at room temperature. Five of the seven pesticides exhibited specific absorption peaks in the low-energy THz range. The two remaining pesticides had no specific absorption peaks in this frequency range, but they exhibited different frequency-dependent refractive indices. The absorption coefficients of imidacloprid increased with its increasing weight ratio in high-density polyethylene, and the fitted power absorptions and refractive indices using a Maxwell-Garnett effective medium model were comparable to the measured data. Imidacloprid was also identified from its characteristic absorption peaks in wheat flour mixtures, and a linear relationship between the absorption coefficient and the weight ratio was observed. Our results show the potential of detection of selected pesticides in foods, such as wheat flour, using THz spectroscopy. PMID:25474054

Maeng, Inhee; Baek, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hwa Yeon; Ok, Gyeong-Sik; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

2014-12-01

201

Terahertz chiroptical spectroscopy of an ?-helical polypeptide: a molecular dynamics simulation study.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy has provided incisive information on the structure of biological molecules. Here, using a molecular dynamics simulation method, infrared vibrational circular dichroism and vibrational optical rotatory dispersion spectra of a right-handed ?-helix in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are calculated. Both the autocorrelation function of an electric dipole moment and the cross-correlation function of electric and magnetic dipole moments of the ?-helix are calculated and Fourier-transformed to obtain THz absorption and optical activity spectra, which reveal characteristic features of the helical polypeptide structure. The anharmonicity and delocalized nature of the low-frequency modes in the THz frequency domain are taken into account to obtain statistically convergent results on the THz optical activity spectra. In addition, the magnitude of the THz vibrational optical activity signal of the ?-helix is directly compared with those of typical, previously studied mid- and near-infrared chiral molecules. We anticipate that THz chiroptical spectroscopy that has not yet been demonstrated experimentally would provide highly important and complementary information on protein structure and dynamics. PMID:25343745

Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

2014-11-13

202

Preliminary study on quality evaluation of pecans with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for pecan quality evaluation. A set of native pecan nuts collected in 2009 were used during the experiment. Each pecan nutmeat was manually sliced at a thickness of about 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm and a size of about 2cm (length) ×1cm (width). Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. The absorption spectra for the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University. The test results show that nutmeat, shell, and inner separator had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.2-2.0 THz. To study the capability of insect damage detection of the THz spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of insects (living manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil) were also collected. Due to high water contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for quality detection of bio-products. However, since bio-products mostly have high water content and are handled under an environment with certain levels of water content, practical issues needs to be further investigated to make the THz technology a feasible tool for quality evaluation.

Li, Bin; Cao, Wei; Mathanker, Sunil; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Ning

2010-11-01

203

Standoff Detection of Hidden Explosives and Cold and Fire Arms by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Active Spectral Imaging (Review)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and standoff spectral imaging for detection of explosives and cold and fire arms hidden, for example, under clothing, were reviewed. Special attention was paid to different schemes for practical implementation of these methods. Progress in this direction and existing problems and the prospects for their solution were discussed. Issues related to sources and receivers of terahertz radiation were briefly discussed. It was noted that interest in quantum-cascade lasers as compact sources of terahertz radiation and the potential of using them at room temperature were increasing.

Skvortsov, L. A.

2014-11-01

204

In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi is performed. The in vivo THz dielectric characteristics of healthy skin and dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi are reconstructed and analyzed. The dielectric permittivity curves of these samples in the THz range exhibit significant differences that could allow non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplastic nevi, which are melanoma precursors. An approach for differentiating dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi using the THz dielectric permittivity is proposed. The results demonstrate that THz pulsed spectroscopy is potentially an effective tool for non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplastic nevi and melanomas of the skin.

Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Reshetov, Igor V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2015-02-01

205

Estimating soil quality indicators with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid estimation of soil quality is needed for determining and mapping soil variability in site-specific management. One technology that can fulfill this need is diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light reflected from the soil in the visible and near infrared wavelength bands. Reflecta...

206

Does Spectral Format Matter in Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near- and more recently, mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have come to be extensively used to determine the composition of products ranging from forages to drugs. In these methods, spectra are generally collected as (Reflectance or R) and transformed to log (1/R) according to the Beer-...

207

Terahertz metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in

Hou-Tong Chen; John F. O'Hara; Abul K. Azad; Willie J. Padilla; Richard D. Averitt; Antoinette J. Taylor

2009-01-01

208

Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and applications on drugs and explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many materials of interest to the forensic and security services, such as explosives, drugs and biological agents, exhibit characteristic spectral features in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. These spectral features originate from inter-molecular interactions, involving collective motions of molecules. Broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system have been used to analyze a number of drugs-of-abuse and explosives that are of interest to the forensic and security services. These samples ranged from crystalline powders, pressed into pellets, to thin sheets of plastic explosives, and all being measured in transmission geometry in the frequency range 0.1 - 8 THz. To well understand the nature of the observed spectral features and the effects of thermal broadening on these far-infrared signatures, temperature-dependent THz-TDS measurements have also been performed at temperatures as low as 4 K, especially for two types of cocaine. Well-resolved low-frequency absorption peaks were observed in the frequency range 0.1 - 3 THz with high resolution. Some of absorption peaks were found clearly to become more intense and shift to higher frequencies as the temperature was reduced. The results confirm that the low-frequency collective modes are highly sensitive to the structural and spatial arrangement of molecules. Furthermore, a number of common postal packaging materials made from paper, cardboard, even several types of plastic, have been tested with drug sample to assess the ability of THz-TDS in a hostile detection environment.

Fan, W. H.; Zhao, W.; Cheng, G. H.; Burnett, A. D.; Upadhya, P. C.; Cunningham, J. E.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

2008-03-01

209

Monitoring plant drought stress response using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present a novel measurement setup for monitoring changes in leaf water status using nondestructive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Previous studies on a variety of plants showed the principal applicability of THz-TDS. In such setups, decreasing leaf water content directly correlates with increasing THz transmission. Our new system allows for continuous, nondestructive monitoring of the water status of multiple individual plants each at the same constant leaf position. It overcomes previous drawbacks, which were mainly due to the necessity of relocating the plants. Using needles of silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings as test subjects, we show that the transmission varies along the main axis of a single needle due to a variation in thickness. Therefore, the relocation of plants during the measuring period, which was necessary in the previous THz-TDS setups, should be avoided. Furthermore, we show a highly significant correlation between gravimetric water content and respective THz transmission. By monitoring the relative change in transmission, we were able to narrow down the permanent wilting point of the seedlings. Thus, we established groups of plants with well-defined levels of water stress that could not be detected visually. This opens up the possibility for a broad range of genetic and physiological experiments. PMID:24501000

Born, Norman; Behringer, David; Liepelt, Sascha; Beyer, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Koch, Martin

2014-04-01

210

Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

2011-08-01

211

Observation of the inverse giant piezoresistance effect in silicon nanomembranes probed by ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The anomalous piezoresistance (a-PZR) effects, including giant PZR (GPZR) with large magnitude and inverse PZR of opposite, have exciting technological potentials for their integration into novel nanoelectromechanical systems. However, the nature of a-PZR effect and the associated kinetics have not been clearly determined yet. Even further, there are intense research debates whether the a-PZR effect actually exists or not; although numerous investigations have been conducted, the origin of the effect has not been clearly understood. This paper shows the existence of a-PZR and provides direct experimental evidence through the performance of well-established electrical measurements and terahertz spectroscopy on silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs). The clear inverse PZR behavior was observed in the Si NMs when the thickness was less than 40 nm and the magnitude of the PZR response linearly increased with the decreasing thickness. Observations combined with electrical and optical measurements strongly corroborate that the a-PZR effect originates from the carrier concentration changes via charge carrier trapping into strain-induced defect states. PMID:25375958

Jang, Houk; Kim, Jaeseok; Kim, Min-Seok; Cho, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hyunyong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

2014-12-10

212

Solid Material Characterization of Freeze-Dried Gabexate Mesilate Containing D-Mannitol by Terahertz Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study is to characterize polymorphic forms and intermolecular interactions of freeze-dried pharmaceuticals containing additives by terahertz (THz) spectroscopy as a, process analytical technology tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-dried gabexate mesilate/D-mannitol products containing 17-75 mol% gabexate mesilate were obtained using a conventional freeze-dryer. Freeze-dried products and physical mixtures of gabexate mesilate and mannitol with various drug contents were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and THz. The XRD and DSC results indicated that freeze-dried mannitol was obtained as a mixture of ? and ? forms of mannitol from a plain solution, but the freeze-dried product of the gabexate mesilate/mannitol mixture consisted of crystalline gabexate mesilate and the pure ? form of mannitol. Similar to the results of XRD and DSC, THz before the freeze-drying of gabexate mesilate was almost the same as that after. In contrast, the THz of mannitol before freeze-drying had specific peaks due to the ? form, but that after had peaks due to ? and ? forms. To clarify the polymorphic forms of the freeze-dried products, the THz were analyzed by least squares regression. The calibration models used to predict the amounts of gabexate mesilate and mannitol had sufficient accuracy and linearity, respectively. Two decomposed THz in FGMs had specific peaks due to the ? form of mannitol or gabexate mesilate.

Otsuka, Makoto; Fukura, Naomi; Abe, Hiroyuki

2013-02-01

213

Probing phase transitions in simvastatin with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Simvastatin is known to exist in at least three polymorphic forms. The nature of polymorphism in simvastatin is ambiguous, as the crystal structures of the polymorphs do not show any significant change in crystal packing or molecular conformation. We utilize terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to characterize each of the polymorphs and probe the phase transitions in the range of 0.2-3.0 THz and for temperatures ranging from 90 to 390 K. In form III, vibrational modes are observed at 1.0, 1.25, and 1.7 THz. For form I, we find that the spectrum is dominated by a baseline corresponding to libration-vibration motions coupled to the dielectric relaxations, which is characteristic of a disordered hydrogen bonding material but with additional broad vibrational modes at 0.8 and 1.4 THz. In addition, the baseline shifts with temperature similar to that observed in disordered materials. This background absorption exhibits pronounced changes around the phase transition temperatures at 232 and 272 K. The results are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, which indicate that changes in the rotational freedom of the ester tail in the molecule govern the polymorphism in simvastatin. PMID:25615410

Tan, Nicholas Y; Zeitler, J Axel

2015-03-01

214

Combined theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory in which either or both reflected sunlight and thermally emitted radiation contribute to the power received by a detector viewing a particulate medium, such as a powder in the laboratory or a planetary regolith, is considered theoretically. This theory is of considerable interest for the interpretation of data from field or spacecraft instruments that are sensitive to the near-infrared region of the spectrum, such as NIMS (near-infrared mapping spectrometer) and VIMS (visual and infrared mapping spectrometer), as well as thermal infrared detectors.

Hapke, Bruce

1995-01-01

215

Terahertz reconfigurable devices using graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the first demonstrations of broadband graphene terahertz modulators as well as recent progress on reconfigurable terahertz devices using graphene. Although atom-thick, single layer graphene is capable of efficiently tuning terahertz absorption meanwhile introducing negligible insertion loss. Recent developments in terms of transmission-mode and reflection-mode electro-absorption modulators are reviewed. Moreover, an application of these devices is presented and discussed: arrays of graphene electro-absorption modulators as electrically reconfigurable patterns for terahertz cameras.

Sensale Rodriguez, Berardi; Xing, Huili G.

2013-09-01

216

Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of electronic and vibrational responses in condensed matter systems  

E-print Network

In this work, I describe experiments utilizing high-field terahertz (THz) pulses to initiate nonlinear responses in several classes of materials. We have developed several methods for interrogating the nonlinear THz response ...

Hwang, Harold Young

2012-01-01

217

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of fibrous proteins.  

PubMed

UV-visible diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of the fibrous proteins wool and feather keratin, silk fibroin and bovine skin collagen are presented. Natural wool contains much higher levels of visible chromophores across the whole visible range (700-400 nm) than the other proteins and only those above 450 nm are effectively removed by bleaching. Both oxidative and reductive bleaching are inefficient for removing yellow chromophores (450-400 nm absorbers) from wool. The DR spectra of the four UV-absorbing amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, cystine and phenylalanine were recorded as finely ground powders. In contrast to their UV-visible spectra in aqueous solution where tryptophan and tyrosine are the major UV absorbing species, surprisingly the disulphide chromophore of solid cystine has the strongest UV absorbance measured using the DR remission function F(R)(?). The DR spectra of unpigmented feather and wool keratin appear to be dominated by cystine absorption near 290 nm, whereas silk fibroin appears similar to tyrosine. Because cystine has a flat reflectance spectrum in the visible region from 700 to 400 nm and the powder therefore appears white, cystine absorption does not contribute to the cream colour of wool despite the high concentration of cystine residues near the cuticle surface. The disulphide absorption of solid L: -cystine in the DR spectrum at 290 nm is significantly red shifted by ~40 nm relative to its wavelength in solution, whereas homocystine and lipoic acid showed smaller red shifts of 20 nm. The large red shift observed for cystine and the large difference in intensity of absorption in its UV-visible and DR spectra may be due to differences in the dihedral angle between the crystalline solid and the solvated molecules in solution. PMID:22218994

Millington, Keith R

2012-09-01

218

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmospheric water vapor from 0.4 to 2.7 THz.  

SciTech Connect

We conducted broadband absorption measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the ground state, X {sup 1}A{sub 1} (000), from 0.4 to 2.7 THz with a pressure broadening-limited resolution of 6.2 GHz using pulsed, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). We measured a total of seventy-two absorption lines and forty-nine lines were identified as H{sub 2}{sup 16}O resonances. All the H{sub 2}{sup 16}O lines identified were confirmed by comparing their center frequencies to experimental values available in the literature.

Allman, Ronald E.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

2005-10-01

219

Broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of ferroelectric LiTaO3: Phonon-polariton dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowest frequency IR active A1(z) and E(x) modes of a ferroelectric congruent lithium tantalate crystal were studied by the broadband polarized Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy using the coherent THz radiation from 0.2 to 6.5 THz. The dispersion relations of the real and imaginary parts of a polariton wave vector were determined from the complex extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices for the A1(z) and E(x) symmetry phonon-polaritons, respectively. The observed complex dispersion relations of two symmetries are in agreement within the experimental uncertainty with the calculated dispersion curves by the damped harmonic oscillator model.

Kojima, Seiji; Mori, Tatsuya

2014-11-01

220

Ultrafast insulator–metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide studied using optical pump–terahertz probe spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We studied the ultrafast dynamic behavior of the photoinduced insulator–metal phase transition in VO2 thin film using optical pump–terahertz probe spectroscopy with different excitation fluences and at different temperatures. We observed two processes in the insulator–metal phase transition in VO2: a fast process and a slow process. The fast process is a nonthermal process, which is ascribed to the nucleation of the metal phase, while the slow process is strongly affected by temperature and is ascribed to the thermally driven growth and coalescence of metal domains in VO2. The transient complex conductivity spectra at different delay times are also investigated. PMID:23014464

Liu, H W; Wong, L M; Wang, S J; Tang, S H; Zhang, X H

2012-10-17

221

Technical Report: Final project report for Terahertz Spectroscopy of Complex Matter  

SciTech Connect

This project designed characterization techniques for thin films of complex matter and other materials in the terahertz spectral region extending from approximately 100 GHz to 4000 GHz (4 THz) midway between radio waves and light. THz has traditionally been a difficult region of the spectrum in which to conduct spectroscopic measurements. The “THz gap” arises from the nature of the sources and detectors used in spectroscopy both at the optical (high frequency) side and electronic (low frequency) side of the gap. To deal with the extremely rapid oscillations of the electric field in this frequency region this research project adapted techniques from both the electronics and optics technologies by fabricating microscopic antennas and driving them with short optical pulses. This research technique creates nearly single cycle pulses with extremely broad spectral bandwidth that are able to cover the THz spectral range with a single measurement. The technique of THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has seen increasing use and acceptance in laboratories over the past fifteen years. However significant technical challenges remain in order to allow THz-TDS to be applied to measurement of solid materials, particularly thin films and complex matter. This project focused on the development and adaptation of time domain THz measurement techniques to investigate the electronic properties of complex matter in the terahertz frequency region from 25 GHz to beyond 5 THz (<1 inv. cm to >165 inv. cm). This project pursued multiple tracks in adapting THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measurement of complex matter. The first, and most important, is development of a reliable methods to characterize the complex dielectric constant of thin films with high accuracy when the wavelength of the THz radiation is much longer than the thickness of the film. We have pursued several techniques for measurement of thin films. The most promising of these are waveguide spectroscopy and THz interferometry. Since THz spectroscopy measures the changes of the transmitted spectra, any noise on the THz signal contributes to measurement errors. The dynamic range—defined as the RMS noise of the THz detector compared to the peak THz signal—of THz spectroscopy using photoconductive antennas is extremely high, typically over 10,000. However the precision with which spectroscopic data can be measured is limited by the noise on the laser source which is typically 0.1% to 1%. For low values of the sample absorbance and for values of optical thickness less than approximately 0.01, the change in transmission approaches the measurement accuracy. The sample refractive index can be measured with better accuracy since the index causes a temporal shift of the THz pulse by an amount time shift of nd/c where n is the refractive index, d the sample thickness, and c the speed of light. Time shifts of tens of femtoseconds can generally be resolved so that index-thickness values of nd > ten microns can be accurately measured. Waveguide spectroscopy is a way to increase the path length in thin film by several orders of magnitude, and thus have a large interaction length even when the film is much less than a wavelength in thickness. Film thicknesses of 10’s of nm have been measured. THz interferometry cancels out many of the noise sources of THz spectroscopy and can thus result in measurements of films of several hundred nm in thickness and is additionally suitable for optical pump, THz probe spectroscopic techniques. A large amount of additional work was performed in support of the main project direction or to explore promising alternative avenues for research. This report discussed work on the the confinement of low density species for measurement of nanogram or picogram quantities of material. Whispering gallery mode resonators to achieve long path lengths were also investigated as were imaging techniques for sub-wavelength imaging of thin films. The report concludes with a report on investigations of fundamental issues in THz beam propagation and coupli

R. A. Cheville; D. R. Grischkowsky

2007-02-08

222

Terahertz Imaging and Spectroscopy of Carbon-Based and Semiconductor Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis will cover work that I have completed relating to the field of terahertz (THz) science. My work has consisted of generating tunable, narrowband THz pulses in a table-top optical setup and using both narrow- and broadband THz pulses to study various material systems. Broadband THz pulses were used to study the transmission properties of a large-area graphene monolayer and vertically grown carbon nanotube forests. We performed raster scans to image our optically invisible graphene sample, which was clearly distinguished from its silicon substrate. From these studies, we were able to calculate the sheet conductivity/resistivity of the graphene using a contactless, non-damaging method that is immune to difficulties arising from local defects within the sample. It also opens up the possibility of studying the material properties of a sample enclosed within certain structures without having to remove the sample and/or damage the encasement. Further, we have discovered that vertically grown carbon nanotubes respond strongly to THz radiation. Preliminary simulations suggest that they respond in a very counterintuitive way and while much remains to be done before we can state with certainty exactly what is physically occurring, the prospect of uncovering such an unanticipated result is tantalizing on its own. I used difference frequency generation of orthogonal, temporally offset, chirped optical pulses to create our narrowband THz pulses. The variable time delay between these pulses was used to adjust the pulse's central frequency. THz time domain spectroscopy and calorimeter-based measurements were used to study the temporal and spectral composition and field strength of the THz pulses. These pulses, along with their broadband counterparts, were used to study electron dynamics within semiconductor nanostructures, both bare quantum wells and quantum wells grown inside of a microcavity. The dynamics of exciton and exciton-polariton polarizations were studied while intense THz pulses were used to modulate their resonances and coherently control their transitions.

Tomaino, Joseph L.

223

Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. I - Theory. [of planetary surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate analytic solution is derived for the radiative transfer equation describing particulate surface light scattering, taking into account multiple scattering and mutual shadowing. Analytical expressions for the following quantities are found: bidirectional reflectance, radiance coefficient and factor, the normal, Bond, hemispherical, and physical albedos, integral phase function and phase integral, and limb-darkening profile. Scattering functions for mixtures can be calculated, as well as corrections for comparisons of experimental transmission or reflection spectra with observational planetary spectra. The theory should be useful for the interpretation of reflectance spectroscopy of laboratory surfaces and the photometry of solar system objects.

Hapke, B.

1981-01-01

224

Experimental demonstration of reflectarray antennas at terahertz frequencies.  

PubMed

Reflectarrays composed of resonant microstrip gold patches on a dielectric substrate are demonstrated for operation at terahertz frequencies. Based on the relation between the patch size and the reflection phase, a progressive phase distribution is implemented on the patch array to create a reflector able to deflect an incident beam towards a predefined angle off the specular direction. In order to confirm the validity of the design, a set of reflectarrays each with periodically distributed 360 × 360 patch elements are fabricated and measured. The experimental results obtained through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) show that up to nearly 80% of the incident amplitude is deflected into the desired direction at an operation frequency close to 1 THz. The radiation patterns of the reflectarray in TM and TE polarizations are also obtained at different frequencies. This work presents an attractive concept for developing components able to efficiently manipulate terahertz radiation for emerging terahertz communications. PMID:23481746

Niu, Tiaoming; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Ung, Benjamin S-Y; Menekse, Hakan; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Fumeaux, Christophe

2013-02-11

225

EXTENSION FORAGE TESTING USING NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated for its accuracy in analyzing the nutritive value of tropical grass hays made by Florida livestock producers. From 1982 to 1987, a unique set of producer hays was obtained representing four tropical grass species, and an unknown range of maturities, fertilization schemes, weather conditions, and hay making and storage procedures. General NIRS

W. F. Brown; J. E. Moore; W. E. Kunkle; C. G. Chambliss; K. M. Portier

226

Estimating a soil quality index with VNIR reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sensor-based approaches to assessment and quantification of soil quality are important to facilitate cost-effective, site-specific soil management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of visible, near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate multiple soil q...

227

Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

2009-05-15

228

Ultrawideband MgB2 Mixer for High-Resolution Terahertz Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz high-resolution spectroscopy of interstellar molecular clouds greatly relies on the hot-electron superconducting bolometric (HEB) mixers. A frequency independent mechanism of absorption of radiation inherent in such mixers makes them the detector of choice for heterodyne receivers from 1.5 THz to 4.7 THz. The current state-of-the-art receivers use mixer devices made from an ultrathin (~ 5 nm) film of NbN with a critical temperature ~ 9-11 K. Such mixers have been deployed on a number of ground based, suborbital, and orbital platform including the HIFI instrument on the Hershel Space Observatory. Despite its popularity, good sensitivity, and well established fabrication process, the NbN HEB mixer suffers from a relatively narrow intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth ~ 2-4 GHz which is insufficient for the spectroscopy of the Galactic center and for extragalactic line observations. As the THz heterodyne receivers are now trending upwards the “high THz” frequencies, the need in a larger IF bandwidth becomes more pressing since the same velocity resolution for a Doppler shifted line at 5 THz requires a 5-tmes greater IF bandwidth than at 1 THz. We propose to develop an HEB mixer with the IF bandwidth ~ 20 GHz or even greater using an ultrathin superconducting film of MgB2. This high critical temperature (40 K) material was discovered 11 year ago and thin films suitable for HEB device fabrication are becoming available now. Compared to NbN, the intrinsic electron-phonon relaxation time in this material is much shorter (estimated to 2-3 ps). Also, MgB2 can be fabricated on MgO buffers, which provide a perfect acoustic match between the film and the substrate that is critical for realization of the fast thermal relaxation in a mixer device. The outcome of this works will be a state-of-the-art heterodyne sensor applicable throughout the 1.5-4.7 THz frequency range with the noise temperature < 1000 K and the IF bandwidth > 10 GHz and operating at ~ 20 K. Beside the bulk substrate (c-sapphire, MgO) we will build mixer devices on MgO buffered silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers which are instrumental for integration of HEB mixers into micromachined waveguide array receivers. The near term application of this mixer would be on SOFIA and suborbital balloons. The higher operating temperature will be a very important factor for the future space applications as the required cryocooling can be be provided at much lower cost.

Karasik, Boris

229

Research on heavy metal ions detection in soil with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, heavy metals pollution is becoming a serious problem in agriculture. This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for heavy metal ions detection in soil. This study was first conducted at Oklahoma State University, and then carried out at China Agricultural University and Capital Normal University. Pure soil was collected in an experimental field, which contains nearly no heavy metal ions from standard detection; in the experiment, heavy metal ions were mainly Pb2+, Cr3+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ from chemical compounds. Based on the National Standard for Heavy Metals Pollution, a set of soil samples with different polluted levels were prepared in the lab. The metal ions concentration levels were selected as 50ppm, 300ppm and 700ppm. Each soil sample was pre-processed by collecting, weighing, mixing, drying, grinding and labeling before measurements. The thickness of soil samples was selected as 1.5mm and 3mm. The absorption spectra for the soil samples with different heavy metal ions were collected using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) equipments separately at Oklahoma State University and Capital Normal University. The test results showed that soil samples with Pb2+, Cr3+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.1-1.1THz. A narrow bandwidth only up to 1.1THz was got because the soil particles showed much absorption and scattering properties to the THz spectroscopy. Different soil samples with different concentration of heavy metal ions also showed much difference and it could be used to predict the heavy metal concentration in the future. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for heavy metal ions detection in agricultural fields environment. However, since the high scattering features of samples and high cost of equipments, the measurement methods and practical issues needs to be further investigated and improved to make the THz technology a feasible tool for soil heavy metal ions detection.

Li, Bin; Wang, Mao-hua; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Zhen-wei

2011-08-01

230

Gas-Phase Terahertz Spectroscopy and the Study of Complex Interstellar Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectroscopy holds great promise in the advancement of the field of astrochemistry. The sensitive observation of interstellar THz radiation is expected to lower detection limits and allow the study of larger and more complex species than is currently possible at millimeter wavelengths, which will place further constraints on chemical models and permit a direct comparison to the organic compounds seen in carbonaceous chondrites. With the successful recent launch of the Herschel Space Telescope, which will give high-fidelity access to interstellar THz radiation for the first time, and the completion of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) by 2013, the THz astronomy era is upon us. Unfortunately, laboratory THz spectroscopy presents significant challenges and will be soon be lagging behind the newly available observational platforms. Technologies to extend the capabilities of high-resolution spectroscopic systems into the THz domain are actively being pursued on many fronts, but affordable systems that are broadly tunable, sensitive and achieve the necessary resolution are not yet available. The work in this thesis should therefore be seen as part of the effort in the transition from centimeter-/millimeter-wave to THz spectroscopy that is currently taking place in the astrochemistry community. As part of this thesis, observational searches for the complex organics hydroxyacetone (CH3COCH2OH), 2-cyanoethanol (OHCH 2CH2CN) and methoxyacetonitrile (CH3OCH2 CN) were attempted at millimeter wavelengths. The unsuccessful nature of these searches highlight the current limits of studying interstellar chemistry using pure rotational spectroscopy. The characterization of the laboratory spectra of these molecules is nonetheless important as it will aid in the assignment and description of the rotational substructure and band shapes of their THz torsional spectra, features that may allow their interstellar detection; and this thesis presents methods by which such complex spectra may be rapidly and efficiently collected and fit using automated spectrometers and modern software tools. The description of the spectrum of hydroxyacetone is furthermore of interest due to the presence of the very low barrier to internal rotation in this molecule. Many interstellar compounds, both known and potential future targets, have functional groups capable of internal rotation in their structure; and so the effort in understanding the complex effects of the low barrier rotor in this case will benefit the general effort to further understand internal rotation. In searching for new interstellar molecules, both at millimeter wavelengths and at higher THz frequencies, characterization of the complete spectra of known interstellar molecules is of great importance to allow substraction of their contribution to observational spectra. In this thesis, the ground-state rotational spectrum of methanol, the most important "interstellar weed", is catalogued and described in detail through most of the THz region that will be accessible with Herschel and ALMA. Lastly, as part of the effort to increase the sensitivity of THz spectrometers, the use of Fabry-Perot cavities at these frequencies is explored. Such resonant cavities hold the potential to significantly increase the possible path lengths in spectroscopic system and to allow novel and sensitive detection techniques. Optimal configurations and the limits on achievable path lengths and Q-factors of such cavities are discussed, as are the possible extensions of Fourier Transform MicroWave (FT-MW) techniques to THz frequencies.

Braakman, Rogier

2010-11-01

231

Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe.  

PubMed

The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 ?m, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale in CVD graphene grown on single crystalline copper. The presented results demonstrate that the graphene grown on single crystal copper is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic, microscopic, as well as intermediate length scales. PMID:25317778

Buron, Jonas D; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke S; Booth, Timothy J; Nielsen, Peter F; Hansen, Ole; Hilke, Michael; Whiteway, Eric; Jepsen, Peter U; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H

2014-11-12

232

Characteristics of chiral and racemic ketoprofen drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption spectra of chiral S-(+)- and racemic RS-ketoprofen pharmaceutical molecules in crystalline form were recorded in the terahertz region between 6 and 66 cm-1 (0.2 ~ 2.0 THz) by using time-domain terahertz spectroscopic (THz-TDS) measurement. Different distinctive absorption features were observed which are strikingly sensitive to the change of subtle conformational structures within such isostructural crystal molecules. The results suggest that the THz-TDS technique can be definitely used for distinguishing between chiral and racemic compounds in pharmaceutical and biological fields.

Du, Yong; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

2013-08-01

233

Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to detect signals from pancreatic tissue was demonstrated by studying human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice and freshly excised human pancreatic tumor tissue. Measured optical spectra and fluorescence decays were correlated with tissue morphological and biochemical properties. The measured spectral features and decay times correlated well with expected pathological differences in normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue states. The observed differences between the fluorescence and reflectance properties of normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue indicate a possible application of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to differentiating between the three tissue classifications.

Chandra, Malavika; Heidt, David; Simeone, Diane; McKenna, Barbara; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

2007-07-01

234

Polarization orientation dependence of the far infrared spectra of oriented single crystals of 1,3,5,-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) using terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The far infrared spectra of (100), (010), and (001)-oriented RDX single crystals were measured as the crystal was rotated about the axis perpendicular to the polarization plane of the incident radiation. Absorption measurements were taken at temperatures of both 20 K and 295 K for all rotations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A number of discrete absorptions were found ranging from 10-100 cm(-1) (0.3-3 THz). The absorptions are highly dependent on the orientation of the terahertz polarization with respect to crystallographic axes.

Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, Dan E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, Kyle J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, A K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barber, J [NON LANL; Averitt, R D [BOSTON UNIV

2008-01-01

235

Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy with chirped-pulse upconversion.  

PubMed

Chirped-pulse upconversion technique has been applied to attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. An extremely broadband infrared pulse was sent to an ATR diamond prism and the reflected pulse was converted to the visible by using four-wave mixing in krypton gas. Absorption spectra of liquids in the range from 200 to 5500 cm(-1) were measured with a visible spectrometer on a single-shot basis. The system was applied to observe the dynamics of exchanging process of two solvents, water and acetone, which give clear vibrational spectral contrast. We observed that the exchange was finished within ? 10 ms. PMID:25606893

Shirai, Hideto; Duchesne, Constance; Furutani, Yuji; Fuji, Takao

2014-12-01

236

Terahertz spectroscopy with a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer plus array detector using coherent synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

By use of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation, we experimentally tested a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to an array detector to determine its viability as a spectral device. Somewhat surprisingly, the overall performance strongly depends on the absorptivity of the birefringent lithium tantalate pixels in the array detector.

Nikolay I. Agladz, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Albert J. Sievers

2010-06-01

237

Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage.  

PubMed

Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration. PMID:25428579

Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

2015-05-01

238

Screening mail for powders using terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2001 Anthrax letter attacks in the USA, there has been a continuing interest in techniques that can detect or identify so-called 'white powder' concealed in envelopes. Electromagnetic waves (wavelengths 100-500 ?m) in the terahertz frequency range penetrate paper and have short enough wavelengths to provide good resolution images; some materials also have spectroscopic signatures in the terahertz region. We report on an experimental study into the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for mail screening. Spectroscopic signatures of target powders were measured and, using a specially designed test rig, a number of imaging methods based on reflection, transmission and scattering were investigated. It was found that, contrary to some previous reports, bacterial spores do not appear to have any strong spectroscopic signatures which would enable them to be identified. Imaging techniques based on reflection imaging and scattering are ineffective in this application, due to the similarities in optical properties between powders of interest and paper. However, transmission imaging using time-of-flight of terahertz pulses was found to be a very simple and sensitive method of detecting small quantities (25 mg) of powder, even in quite thick envelopes. An initial feasibility study indicates that this method could be used as the basis of a practical mail screening system.

Kemp, Mike

2011-11-01

239

New insights into the diverse electronic phases of a novel vanadium dioxide polymorph: a terahertz spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

A remarkable feature of vanadium dioxide is that it can be synthesized in a number of polymorphs. The conductivity mechanism in the metastable layered polymorph VO2(B) thin films has been investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In VO2(B), a critical temperature of 240?K marks the appearance of a non-zero Drude term in the observed complex conductivity, indicating the evolution from a pure insulating state towards a metallic state. In contrast, the THz conductivity of the well-known VO2(M1) is well fitted only by a modification of the Drude model to include backscattering. We also identified two different THz conductivity regimes separated by temperature in these two polymorphs. The electronic phase diagram is constructed, revealing that the width and onset of the metal-insulator transition in the B phase develop differently from the M1 phase. PMID:25777320

Lourembam, James; Srivastava, Amar; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Rotella, H; Venkatesan, T; Chia, Elbert E M

2015-01-01

240

New Insights into the Diverse Electronic Phases of a Novel Vanadium Dioxide Polymorph: A Terahertz Spectroscopy Study  

PubMed Central

A remarkable feature of vanadium dioxide is that it can be synthesized in a number of polymorphs. The conductivity mechanism in the metastable layered polymorph VO2(B) thin films has been investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In VO2(B), a critical temperature of 240?K marks the appearance of a non-zero Drude term in the observed complex conductivity, indicating the evolution from a pure insulating state towards a metallic state. In contrast, the THz conductivity of the well-known VO2(M1) is well fitted only by a modification of the Drude model to include backscattering. We also identified two different THz conductivity regimes separated by temperature in these two polymorphs. The electronic phase diagram is constructed, revealing that the width and onset of the metal-insulator transition in the B phase develop differently from the M1 phase. PMID:25777320

Lourembam, James; Srivastava, Amar; La-o-vorakiat, Chan; Rotella, H.; Venkatesan, T.; Chia, Elbert E. M.

2015-01-01

241

Non-Destructive Evaluation Method of Pharmaceutical Tablet by Terahertz-Time-Domain Spectroscopy: Application to Sound-Alike Medicines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a promising tool for discriminating pharmaceutical tablets, THz-TDS has been applied for discrimination between pharmaceutical tablets with sound-alike names. Two sets of medicine tablets with sound-alike names, that is, Amaryl and Almarl, Zyloric and Zantac, are examined in this study. Based on the difference in THz absorption spectra, we have succeeded in distinguishing between sound-alike medicine tablets clearly for each set. The results in this study suggest that THz-TDS is a useful tool that is indispensable for medical security maintenance, such as a non-destructive way to prevent mix-up of medicine.

Kawase, Masaya; Yamamoto, Kohji; Takagi, Keita; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ogawa, Masafumi; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Kawanishi, Sonoyo; Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Myotoku, Michiaki; Urashima, Yoko; Nagai, Katsuhito; Ikeda, Kenji; Konishi, Hiroki; Yamakawa, Junji; Tani, Masahiko

2013-09-01

242

Glass transition dynamics of anti-inflammatory ketoprofen studied by Raman scattering and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid-glass transition and a crystalline state of pharmaceutical racemic ketoprofen were studied by Raman scattering and the broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 9 to 260 cm-1. The low-frequency Raman scattering spectra clearly shows the remarkable change related to a liquid-glass transition at about Tg = 267 K. After melt-quenching at liquid nitrogen temperature, a boson peak appears at about 16.5 cm-1 near and below Tg and the intensity of quasi-elastic scattering related to structural relaxation increases markedly on heating. The crystalline racemic ketoprofen of "conformer A" shows the noncoincidence effect of mode frequencies below 200 cm-1 between Raman scattering spectra and dielectric spectra observed by THz-TDS.

Shibata, Tomohiko; Igawa, Hikaru; Kim, Tae Hyun; Mori, Tatsuya; Kojima, Seiji

2014-03-01

243

New Insights into the Diverse Electronic Phases of a Novel Vanadium Dioxide Polymorph: A Terahertz Spectroscopy Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable feature of vanadium dioxide is that it can be synthesized in a number of polymorphs. The conductivity mechanism in the metastable layered polymorph VO2(B) thin films has been investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In VO2(B), a critical temperature of 240 K marks the appearance of a non-zero Drude term in the observed complex conductivity, indicating the evolution from a pure insulating state towards a metallic state. In contrast, the THz conductivity of the well-known VO2(M1) is well fitted only by a modification of the Drude model to include backscattering. We also identified two different THz conductivity regimes separated by temperature in these two polymorphs. The electronic phase diagram is constructed, revealing that the width and onset of the metal-insulator transition in the B phase develop differently from the M1 phase.

Lourembam, James; Srivastava, Amar; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Rotella, H.; Venkatesan, T.; Chia, Elbert E. M.

2015-03-01

244

Conformational characteristics of chiral and racemic naproxen molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption spectra in the terahertz region between 6 and 66 cm-1 (0.2 ~ 2.0 THz) were measured for S-(+)-, R-(-) and RS-naproxen pharmaceutical molecules in crystalline form using time-domain terahertz spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique at room temperature. Different absorption features were observed for the racemic RS-naproxen and its corresponding enantiomers (S-(+)- and R-(-)-naproxen). The observed THz absorption bands are strikingly sensitive to the change of subtle conformational structures despite that the isostructurality exists within such crystal molecules. The results show that the THz-TDS technique can be definitely used for distinguishing between chiral and racemic compounds in pharmaceutical and biological fields.

Du, Yong; Zhao, Rongjiao; Hao, Guohui; Guo, Changsheng; Hong, Zhi

2012-03-01

245

Conformational characteristics of chiral and racemic naproxen molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption spectra in the terahertz region between 6 and 66 cm-1 (0.2 ~ 2.0 THz) were measured for S-(+)-, R-(-) and RS-naproxen pharmaceutical molecules in crystalline form using time-domain terahertz spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique at room temperature. Different absorption features were observed for the racemic RS-naproxen and its corresponding enantiomers (S-(+)- and R-(-)-naproxen). The observed THz absorption bands are strikingly sensitive to the change of subtle conformational structures despite that the isostructurality exists within such crystal molecules. The results show that the THz-TDS technique can be definitely used for distinguishing between chiral and racemic compounds in pharmaceutical and biological fields.

Du, Yong; Zhao, Rongjiao; Hao, Guohui; Guo, Changsheng; Hong, Zhi

2011-11-01

246

Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources.

Monnai, Yasuaki; Jahn, David; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Koch, Martin; Shinoda, Hiroyuki

2015-01-01

247

Propagation through terahertz waveguides with photonic crystal boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The research presented in this dissertation investigates the integration of photonic crystal lattices into parallel plate waveguides at terahertz frequencies. The experimental data was obtained by measuring the terahertz pulses through the photonic crystal waveguides in a standard terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The terahertz pulses were generated and detected via optoelectronic means utilizing lithographically fabricated

Adam L. Bingham

2007-01-01

248

A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and quantum-cascade lasers have been two of the most important developments in terahertz science and technology. These technologies may contribute to a multitude of terahertz applications that are currently under investigation globally. However, the devices and components necessary to effectively manipulate terahertz radiation require substantial development beyond what has been accomplished to

Hou-Tong Chen; Willie J. Padilla; Michael J. Cich; Abul K. Azad; Richard D. Averitt; Antoinette J. Taylor

2009-01-01

249

Ultrafast optical modulation of terahertz metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the ultrafast dynamical properties of split ring resonators by utilizing optical pump–terahertz probe spectroscopy on a subpicosecond timescale. The experimental results show that the pump-induced relative changes in terahertz peak transmission, as well as the dynamical transmission spectra, are different when the terahertz electric vector is perpendicular and parallel to the gap of the split ring resonator.

Qingli Zhou; Yulei Shi; Aihua Wang; Lei Li; Dongmei Zhao; Jianfeng Liu; Huijuan Sun; Cunlin Zhang

2011-01-01

250

Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

The far-infrared properties of all five known polymorphic forms of the drug sulfathiazole have been studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. The observed spectra of the different polymorphs are distinctly different. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy proves to be a rapid and complementary alternative to other physical characterization techniques reported in the literature for distinguishing between the five forms. Variable-temperature measurements (293-473 K) of all polymorphic forms have been performed. The phase transitions observed have been related to thermal analysis data. Form I is the form stable at high temperature of sulfathiazole with a melting point of about 475 K. Form II melts at around 470 K and recrystallizes at higher temperatures to form I. Forms III, IV, and V all convert to form I via a solid-solid phase transition at temperatures below 450 K. The phase transitions can be monitored by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. Polymorphic impurities of the samples can be detected in the room temperature spectra and their effect on the phase transition behavior can be studied. PMID:16892211

Zeitler, J Axel; Newnham, David A; Taday, Philip F; Threlfall, Terry L; Lancaster, Robert W; Berg, Rolf W; Strachan, Clare J; Pepper, Michael; Gordon, Keith C; Rades, Thomas

2006-11-01

251

Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.

Jimenez, Maria K.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

2014-05-01

252

Pancreatic tumor margin detection by oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In surgical treatment of pancreatic cancers, the effectiveness of the procedures largely depends on the ability to completely and precisely remove the malignant tumors. We present the ex-vivo use of oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (OIRDS) to detect and differentiate normal from neoplastic tissue. An OIRDS probe has been constructed to provide scattering and absorption information of the pancreatic tissue. To reveal the physiological origin of the difference in these optical signatures, the optical scattering coefficients were extracted along the pancreatic duct with 1-cm spacing. Experimental results show that OIDRS was able to successfully determinate the tumor margins based on the higher optical scattering on malignant tissue.

Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Zou, Jun; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Kuczynski, John; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-03-01

253

An automatic detection software for differential reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent terrorist attacks have sprung a need for a large scale explosive detector. Our group has developed differential reflection spectroscopy which can detect explosive residue on surfaces such as parcel, cargo and luggage. In short, broad band ultra-violet and visible light is shone onto a material (such as a parcel) moving on a conveyor belt. Upon reflection off the surface, the light intensity is recorded with a spectrograph (spectrometer in combination with a CCD camera). This reflected light intensity is then subtracted and normalized with the next data point collected, resulting in differential reflection spectra in the 200-500 nm range. Explosives show spectral finger-prints at specific wavelengths, for example, the spectrum of 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) shows an absorption edge at 420 nm. Additionally, we have developed an automated software which detects the characteristic features of explosives. One of the biggest challenges for the algorithm is to reach a practical limit of detection. In this study, we introduce our automatic detection software which is a combination of principal component analysis and support vector machines. Finally we present the sensitivity and selectivity response of our algorithm as a function of the amount of explosive detected on a given surface.

Yuksel, Seniha Esen; Dubroca, Thierry; Hummel, Rolf E.; Gader, Paul D.

2012-06-01

254

Determination of carrier concentration dependent electron effective mass and scattering time of n-ZnO thin film by terahertz time domain spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated a novel and widely accessible method for determining the electron effective mass and scattering time of ZnO films with different carrier concentrations by combining terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with Hall measurement. The terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) transmission spectra (0.1–2THz) were well described by Drude model. It is found that electron effective mass varied from 0.23m{sub 0} to 0.26m{sub 0} as the electron concentration changes from 5.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to 4.0?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}. The carrier concentration dependent characteristic is ascribed to the non-parabolicity of conduction band. Free carrier localization mechanism explained the discrepancy in mobilities obtained from THz-TDS and Hall measurements.

Tang, J.; Tay, C. B. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Deng, L. Y. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, X. H.; Chai, J. W. [Institute of Materials and Research Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Qin, H. [Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Liu, H. W. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chua, S. J., E-mail: elecsj@nus.edu.sg [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Materials and Research Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

2014-01-21

255

Double-modulation reflection-type terahertz ellipsometer for measuring the thickness of a thin paint coating.  

PubMed

We constructed a double-modulation, reflection-type terahertz (THz) ellipsometer for precise measurement of the thickness of a paint film which is coated on a metal surface and which is not transparent to visible or mid-infrared light. The double-modulation technique enabled us to directly obtain two ellipsometric parameters, ?(?) and ?(?), as a function of angular frequency, ?, with a single measurement while reducing flicker noise due to a pump laser. The bias voltage of a photoconductive antenna (PCA) used as a THz pulse emitter was modulated at 100 kHz, and a first lock-in amplifier (LA1) was connected to the output of an electro-optic (EO) signal-sampling unit. In addition, a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) was rotated at 100 Hz to conduct polarization modulation with a frequency of 200 Hz. The output signal from LA1 was fed into a second lock-in amplifier (LA2) that worked in synchronization with the rotating WGP (RWGP). By operating LA2 in a quadrature phase-detection mode, we were able to obtain in-phase and out-of-phase signals simultaneously, from which the two ellipsometric parameters for an isotropic sample could be derived at the same time while cancelling common-mode noise. The lower detection limit of the thickness measurement and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of a black paint film coated on an aluminum substrate were 4.3 µm and 1.4%, respectively. The possibility of determining all elements of the Jones matrix for an anisotropic material is also discussed. PMID:25321264

Iwata, Tetsuo; Uemura, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-08-25

256

Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2012-02-01

257

Terahertz transmission of a Ba{sub 1-{ital x}}K{sub {ital x}}BiOâ film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex transmission coefficient for millimeter and submillimeter waves incident on a Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}BiOâ thin film (82 nm) has been measured over a frequency range of 200--1200 GHz at temperatures above and below {ital T}{sub {ital c}} using coherent time-domain spectroscopy. We observe a dramatic change in both the magnitude and phase of the terahertz transmission in the superconducting

F. Gao; J. F. Whitaker; Y. Liu; C. Uher; C. E. Platt; M. V. Klein

1995-01-01

258

Terahertz gas-phase spectroscopy: chemometrics for security and medical applications.  

PubMed

We describe a spectrometer consisting of a vector network analyzer, a gas absorption cell, and a quasi-optical bench that acquires terahertz spectra of gaseous substances and mixtures. We tested volatile organic compounds that are medical biomarkers or chemicals which can be found on the US Environment Protection Agency list of harmful substances. Absorption spectra at gas pressures between 10 Pa and 5000 Pa were recorded. A subsequent multivariate data analysis demonstrated excellent qualitative and quantitative identification of pure substances and complex mixtures. The applied multivariate algorithms are principal components analysis, partial least square regression and soft independent modelling of class analogy. PMID:25406969

Neumaier, P F-X; Schmalz, K; Borngräber, J; Wylde, R; Hübers, H-W

2015-01-01

259

Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are two new optical technologies, which have shown promise to aid in the real time, non-invasive identification of cancers and precancers. Spectral patterns carry a fingerprint of scattering, absorption and fluorescence properties in tissue. Scattering, absorption and fluorescence in tissue are directly affected by biological features that are diagnostically significant, such as nuclear size, micro-vessel density, volume fraction of collagen fibers, tissue oxygenation and cell metabolism. Thus, analysis of spectral patterns can unlock a wealth of information directly related with the onset and progression of disease. Data from a Phase II clinical trial to assess the technical efficacy of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy acquired from 850 women at three clinical locations with two research grade optical devices is calibrated and analyzed. Tools to process and standardize spectra so that data from multiple spectrometers can be combined and analyzed are presented. Methodologies for calibration and quality assurance of optical systems are established to simplify design issues and ensure validity of data for future clinical trials. Empirically based algorithms, using multivariate statistical approaches are applied to spectra and evaluated as a clinical diagnostic tool. Physically based algorithms, using mathematical models of light propagation in tissue are presented. The presented mathematical model combines a diffusion theory in P3 approximation reflectance model and a 2-layer fluorescence model using exponential attenuation and diffusion theory. The resulting adjoint fluorescence and reflectance model extracts twelve optical properties characterizing fluorescence efficiency of cervical epithelium and stroma fluorophores, stromal hemoglobin and collagen absorption, oxygen saturation, and stromal scattering strength and shape. Validations with Monte Carlo simulations show that adjoint model extracted optical properties of the epithelium and the stroma can be estimated accurately. Adjoint model is applied to 926 clinical measurements from 503 patients. Mean values of extracted optical properties have demonstrated to characterize the biological changes associated with dysplastic progression. Finally, penalized logistic regression algorithms are applied to discriminate dysplastic stages in tissue based on extracted optical features. This work provides understandable and interpretable information regarding predictive and generalization ability of optical spectroscopy in neoplastic changes using a minimum subset of optical measurements. Ultimately these methodologies would facilitate the transfer of these optical technologies into clinical practice.

Marin, Nena Maribel

260

Terahertz spectroscopy and laser induced infrared emission spectroscopy of nitromethane and optical properties of laser-induced carriers on semiconductor surfaces probed by a 10.6 micron wavelength carbon dioxide laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work consists of two parts, (1) Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and laser-induced infrared emission spectroscopy of nitromethane and (2) optical properties of laser-induced carriers on semiconductor surfaces probed by a 10.6 mum wavelength CO2 laser. In the spectroscopic study of nitromethane, previously unreported low resolution rotational-torsional spectra in the THz frequency were obtained by a Bruker IFS 66 v/S Fourier transform spectrometer. The acquired spectra were then compared with a calculation based on a rotational-torsional Hamiltonian which includes centrifugal distortions and rotational-torsional coupling terms. Even though the constants used in the calculation were a result of fitting the microwave spectrum, a discrepancy was observed between the calculated and the experimentally obtained spectrum. In addition, gaseous nitromethane was irradiated with a c.w. CO 2 laser (˜20 W cm-2 intensity, 10.6 mum wavelength) and the laser-induced steady state emission spectrum was analyzed with the IFS 66 v/S spectrometer. The laser-induced emission spectrum showed the characteristics consistent with the laser-heated thermal emission. The decay constant of the emission followed by a 100 ms CO2 laser pulse was measured with a pyroelectric detector and determined to be 0.3 s. In part II, several polycrystalline semiconductors [silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and cadmium telluride (CdTe)] were irradiated with a 150 Ps Nd:YAG laser (532/1064 nm wavelength) and induced changes in the optical properties were monitored by measuring the time-resolved reflectance and transmittance of a low power CO2 laser incident on the samples at the Brewster angle. The experimental results showed a sub-nanosecond increase in the reflectance and a longer increase in the absorption as a result of electron-hole pairs (i.e. carriers) generated by absorption of the incident Nd:YAG laser pulses.

Toyoda, Yoshimasa

261

Synthesis, structure, terahertz spectroscopy and luminescent properties of copper(I) complexes with mercaptan ligands and triphenylphosphine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactions of copper(I) halides with triphenylphosphine (PPh3) and mercaptan ligand [2-mercapto-6-nitrobenzothiazole (HMNBT), 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (HAMTD) and 2-mercapto-5-methyl-benzimidazole (MMBD)] yielded seven complexes, [CuCl(HMNBT)(PPh3)2] (1), [CuX(HMNBT)(PPh3)]2 (X = Cl, Br) (2-3), [Cu(MNBT)(HMNBT)(PPh3)2] (4), [CuBr(HAMTD)(PPh3)2]·CH3OH (5) and [CuX(MMBD)(PPh3)2]·2CH3OH (X = Br, I) (6-7). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, 1H NMR and 31P NMR spectroscopy. In these complexes the mercaptan ligands act as monodentate or bridged ligand with S as the coordination atom. In complexes 1 and 4, hydrogen bonds CH⋯X and weak interactions CH⋯? lead to the formation of chains and 2D network respectively, while complexes 2 and 3 are dinuclear. In 5-7, intramolecular hydrogen bonds link the [CuX(thione)(PPh3)2] molecules and the solvated methanol molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. Complexes 1-5 represent first copper(I) halide complexes of HMNBT and HAMTD. The complexes 1, 5, 6 and 7 exhibit interesting fluorescence in the solid state at room temperature and their terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy was also studied.

Qiu, Qi-Ming; Liu, Min; Li, Zhong-Feng; Jin, Qiong-Hua; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Meng, Qing-Xuan

2014-03-01

262

406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 4, JULY 2012 Understanding THz Pulse Propagation in the  

E-print Network

. Index Terms--Absorption, atmospheric transmission, spectroscopy, terahertz (THz), THz communication. I406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 4, JULY 2012 Understanding

Oklahoma State University

263

Laboratory Studies of Organic Compounds With Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to properly interpret reflectance spectra of any solar system surface from the earth to the Oort cloud, laboratory spectra of candidate materials for comparative analysis are needed. Although the common cosmochemical species (H2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4) are well represented in the spectroscopic literature, comparatively little reflectance work has been done on organics from room to cryogenic temperatures at visible to near infrared wavelengths. Reflectance spectra not only enhance weak or unseen transmission features, they are also more analogous to spectra obtained by spacecraft that are imaging such bodies as giant planet moons, kuiper belt objects, centaurs, comets and asteroids, as well as remote sensing of the earth. The USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory is measuring reflectance spectra of organic compounds from room to cryogenic temperatures over the spectral range of 0.35 to 15.5 microns. This region encompasses the fundamental absorptions and many overtones and combinations of C, H, O, and N molecular bonds. Because most organic compounds belong to families whose members have similar structure and composition, individual species identification within a narrow wavelength range may be ambiguous. By measuring spectral reflectance of the pure laboratory samples from the visible through the near and mid-infrared, absorption bands unique to each can be observed, cataloged, and compared to planetary reflectance data. We present here spectra of organic compounds belonging to five families: the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and cyanides. Common to all of these are the deep C-H stretch fundamental absorptions, which shift shortward from 3.35+ microns in alkanes to 3.25+ microns in aromatics, to 3.2+ microns in alkenes, and down to 3.0+ microns in alkynes. Mid-IR absorptions due to C-H bending deformations at 6.8+ and 7.2+ microns are also identified. In the near infrared these stretching and bending fundamentals yield a diagnostic set of combination absorptions at approximately 2.3 microns, as well as the first C-H stretching overtones at 1.6 to 1.7 microns, and even the second stretching overtones at 1.2+ microns. Additionally, the spectral properties of these organic materials have applications to remote sensing of terrestrial environments, including hazardous waste and disaster site characterization.

Curchin, J. M.; Clark, R. N.; Hoefen, T. M.

2007-12-01

264

Multiple internal reflection spectroscopy of bonded silicon wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfaces of bonded hydrophilic and hydrophobic wafer pairs are studied by multiple internal reflection spectroscopy after annealing at 1100 °C. Si H x and SiO H stretching modes are still present in bonded hydrophilic wafers. Interfaces of bonded hydrophobic wafers, prepared by joining HF-etched surfaces without de-ionized water rinsing, are characterized by the dominance of hydrides (SiH, SiH2, SiH3). Their concentration is about 100 times higher than for bonded hydrophilic wafers. Comparison with the ATR-spectra of HF-treated surfaces showed appreciable shifts in the peak positions indicating that Si H bonds might be involved in the bonding process.

Reiche, M.; Hopfe, S.; Gösele, U.; Tong, Q. Y.

1995-07-01

265

Quantification of tissue oxygenation levels using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor growth is characterized by increased metabolic activity. The light absorption profile of hemoglobin in dysplastic tissue is different from a normal tissue. Neovascularization is a hallmark of many diseases and can serve as a predictive biomarker for the detection of cancers. Spectroscopic techniques can provide information about the metabolic and morphological changes related to the progression of neoplasia. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measures the absorption and scattering properties of a biological tissue and this method can provide clinically useful information for the early diagnosis of epithelial precancers. We used tissue simulating phantoms with absorbing and scattering molecules for the determination of total hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and intensity difference between the deoxy and oxy hemoglobin bands. The results show promising approach for the differentiating normal and malignant states of a tissue.

B. S., Suresh Anand; N., Sujatha

2011-08-01

266

Resonant reflection spectroscopy of biomolecular arrays in muscle.  

PubMed

Sarcomeres, the functional units of contraction in striated muscle, are composed of an array of interdigitating protein filaments. Direct interaction between overlapping filaments generates muscular force, which produces animal movement. When filament length is known, sarcomere length successfully predicts potential force, even in whole muscles that contain billions of sarcomere units. Inability to perform in vivo sarcomere measurements with submicrometer resolution is a long-standing challenge in the muscle physiology field and has hampered studies of normal muscle function, adaptation, injury, aging, and disease, particularly in humans. Here, we develop theory and demonstrate the feasibility of to our knowledge a new technique that measures sarcomere length with submicrometer resolution. In this believed novel approach, we examine sarcomere structure by measuring the multiple resonant reflections that are uniquely defined by Fourier decomposition of the sarcomere protein spatial framework. Using a new supercontinuum spectroscopic system, we show close agreement between sarcomere lengths measured by resonant reflection spectroscopy and laser diffraction in an ensemble of 10 distinct muscles. PMID:25418304

Young, Kevin W; Radic, Stojan; Myslivets, Evgeny; O'Connor, Shawn M; Lieber, Richard L

2014-11-18

267

Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

McGee, Sasha

268

Evaluation of Penicillium digitatum sterilization using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the plasma sterilization has attracted much attention as a new sterilization technique that takes the place of spraying agricultural chemicals. The conventional methods for sterilization evaluation, was demanded to culture the samples for several days after plasma treatment. Then, we focused on Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). At the THz region, vibrational modes of biological molecules and fingerprint spectra of biologically-relevant molecules were also observed. In this study, our purpose was measurement of the fingerprint spectrum of the Penicillium digitatum (PD) spore and establishment of sterilization method by THz-TDS. The sample was 40mg/ml PD spore suspensions which dropped on cover glass. The atmospheric pressure plasma generated under the conditions which Ar gas flow was 3slm, and alternating voltage of 6kV was applied. The samples were exposed the plasma from 10mm distance for 10 minutes. We could obtain the fingerprint spectrum of the PD spore from 0.5 to 0.9THz. This result indicated the possibility of in-situ evaluation for PD sterilization using THz-TDS.

Hiraoka, Takehiro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kawase, Kodo; Ito, Masafumi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2011-11-01

269

Transient terahertz spectroscopy of excitons and unbound carriers in quasi two-dimensional electron-hole gases  

SciTech Connect

We report a comprehensive experimental study and detailed model analysis of the terahertz (THz) dielectric response and density kinetics of excitons and unbound electron-hole pairs in GaAs quantum wells. A compact expression is given, in absolute units, for the complex-valued THz dielectric function of intra-excitonic transitions between the 1s and higher-energy exciton and continuum levels. It closely describes the THz spectra of resonantly generated excitons. Exciton ionization and formation are further explored, where the THz response exhibits both intra-excitonic and Drude features. Utilizing a two-component dielectric function, we derive the underlying exciton and unbound pair densities. In the ionized state, excellent agreement is found with the Saha thermodynamic equilibrium, which provides experimental verification of the two-component analysis and density scaling. During exciton formation, in turn, the pair kinetics is quantitatively described by a Saha equilibrium that follows the carrier cooling dynamics. The THz-derived kinetics is, moreover, consistent with time-resolved luminescence measured for comparison. Our study establishes a basis for tracking pair densities via transient THz spectroscopy of photoexcited quasi-2D electron-hole gases.

Kaindl, Robert A.; Hagele, D.; Carnahan, M.A.; Chemla, D.S.

2008-09-11

270

Low-frequency vibration study of amino acids using terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the low-frequency normal modes of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, is crucial to reveal the vibration-function relationship in the macromolecular system. Recent advances in terahertz spectroscopy (THz) and solid-state density functional theory (DFT) have ensured an accurate description of low-frequency modes of amino acids. New knowledge people have learnt so far is that the inter- and intra-molecular vibrations are strongly mixed with each other in the THz region through the vibrational coordinate mixing. Rich information is believed embedded in this phenomenon. We introduce a generalized mode-analysis method that allows for the accurate decomposition of a normal mode of interest into the three intermolecular translations, three principal librations and various intrinsic intramolecular vibrations. This mode-analysis method will be demonstrated in the crystalline C60 systems and then applied to shed light on the nature of low-frequency phonons of glycine, diglycine and triglycine. This method helps reveal new intramolecular vibrational modes on the first hand, and more importantly, illuminate a new phenomenon of the frequency distribution of intramolecular vibrations (FDIV). FDIV describes the possible broad distributions of important intramolecular vibrations in the low-frequency normal modes. The FDIV concept may indicate an additional mechanism for the intramolecular vibrations to become thermally active and participate in various biological functions.

Zhang, Feng; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Wang, Houng-Wei

2014-11-01

271

Determination of the optical properties of melanin-pigmented human skin equivalents using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) methods have been utilized in previous studies in order to characterize the optical properties of skin and its primary constituents (i.e., water, collagen, and keratin). However, similar experiments have not yet been performed to investigate whether melanocytes and the melanin pigment that they synthesize contribute to skin's optical properties. In this study, we used THz-TDS methods operating in transmission geometry to measure the optical properties of in vitro human skin equivalents with or without normal human melanocytes. Skin equivalents were cultured for three weeks to promote gradual melanogenesis, and THz time domain data were collected at various time intervals. Frequency-domain analysis techniques were performed to determine the index of refraction (n) and absorption coefficient (?a) for each skin sample over the frequency range of 0.1-2.0 THz. We found that for all samples as frequency increased, n decreased exponentially and the ?a increased linearly. Additionally, we observed that skin samples with higher levels of melanin exhibited greater n and ?a values than the non-pigmented samples. Our results indicate that melanocytes and the degree of melanin pigmentation contribute in an appreciable manner to the skin's optical properties. Future studies will be performed to examine whether these contributions are observed in human skin in vivo.

Lipscomb, Dawn; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

2013-02-01

272

Terahertz sources and detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

2005-05-01

273

Wiener bounds for complex permittivity in terahertz spectroscopy: case study of two-phase pharmaceutical tablets.  

PubMed

The terahertz measurement technique has become popular in the field of pharmaceutical technology for tablet quality inspection. Spectral data obtained from the tablets is based on the utilization of Fresnel's formulas for an ideal slab. However, a tablet is a porous medium. Hence, in the THz gap one has to assume that a tablet constitutes at least an effective medium if the Fresnel theory is applied in quantitative permittivity spectra analysis. Hence, it is suggested that one should consider instead of the permittivity of homogeneous media the concept of effective permittivity in the THz terminology of porous tablets. Usually the fill factor of a component of a tablet is known but not the detailed bulk structure. Nevertheless, it is possible to estimate the complex effective permittivity of a tablet with the aid of so-called Wiener bounds. The idea of this article is to present a modification of Wiener bounds applied to the estimation of the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of the pure component of a tablet. As an example, the effective complex permittivity of a starch acetate tablet is considered. PMID:20132608

Tuononen, Heikki; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

2010-01-01

274

Terahertz-infrared spectroscopy of overdoped manganites La1-xCaxMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz and infrared spectra of dielectric permittivity and optical conductivity of overdoped manganites La1-xCaxMnO3 (0.5?x?1) have been measured at frequencies ? from 4 cm-1 to 700 cm-1 and at temperatures T from 5 K to 300 K. The samples were prepared in the form of bulk polycrystals (ceramics) and epitaxial films (free-standing and on MgO substrates). Strongly asymmetric absorption bands have been found in the compounds which are in charge-ordered state (0.5

Kadyrov, Lenar S.; Zhukova, Elena S.; Torgashev, Victor I.; Gorshunov, Boris P.; Prokhorov, Anatoly S.; Motovilova, Elizaveta A.; Fischgrabe, Florian; Moshnyaga, Vasily; Zhang, Tao; Kremer, Reinhard; Pracht, Uwe; Zapf, Sina; Pokorný, Jan; Untereiner, Gabriele; Kamba, Stanislav; Dressel, Martin

2015-03-01

275

Near- and Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Agricultural Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For several decades near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to determine the composition of a variety of agricultural products. More recently, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) has similarly been shown to be able to determine the co...

276

Mid- Versus Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for On-Site Determination of Soil Carbon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has demonstrated that the determination of soil C diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is often more accurate and produces more robust calibrations than near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) when analyzing ground, dry soils. DRIFTS is also not ...

277

Identifying water on our Moon and organics in the outer Solar System with active reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared reflectance spectroscopy has successfully characterized H2O and identified organic molecules on many Solar System objects. However, passive reflectance spectroscopy cannot detect water in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon. Similarly, the mid-IR fingerprints of organics on the surfaces of outer solar system objects cannot be detected passively because the sunlight is too dim and the surfaces are too

C. A. Hibbitts; G. D. Spiers; G. B. Hansen

2005-01-01

278

Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (p<0.001, ANOVA repeated measures design) and mean tissue fractions of 1.6% (cytochrome aa3) and 1.1% (hemo- and myoglobin). Cardiac arrest in two calves gave an oxygen saturation lower than 5%. In two calves (group B), a left ventricular assistive device (LVAD pump) was implanted. Oxygen saturation in group B animals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

2010-03-01

279

Aerosol collection and analysis using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy is routinely employed for the identification of organic molecules and, more recently, for the classification of biological materials. We have developed a sample collection method that facilitates infrared analysis of airborne particulates using a diffuse reflectance (DR) technique. Efforts are underway to extend the method to include simultaneous analysis of vapor phase organics by using adsorbent substrates compatible with the DR technique. This series of laboratory results provides proof-of-principle for both the sample collection and data collection processes. Signal processing of the DR spectra is shown to provide rapid qualitative identification of representative aerosol materials, including particulate matter commonly found in the environment. We compare the results for such materials as bacterial spores, pollens and molds, clays and dusts, smoke and soot. Background correction analysis is shown to be useful for differentiation and identification of these constituents. Issues relating to complex mixtures of environmental samples under highly variable conditions are considered. Instrumentation development and materials research are now underway with the aim of constructing a compact sampling system for near real-time monitoring of aerosol and organic pollutants. A miniature, tilt-compensated Fourier transform spectrometer will provide spectroscopic interrogation. A series of advanced digital signal processing methods are also under development to enhance the sensor package. The approach will be useful for industrial applications, chemical and biological agent detection, and environmental monitoring for chemical vapors, hazardous air pollutants, and allergens.

Samuels, Alan C.; Wong, Diane M.; Meyer, Gerald J.; Roelant, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Barry R.; Miles, Ronald W., Jr.; Manning, Christopher J.

2004-08-01

280

Terahertz quantum cascade laser based optical coherence tomography  

E-print Network

The interfaces of a dielectric sample are resolved in reflection geometry using light from a frequency agile array of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers. The terahertz source is a 10-element linear array of third-order ...

Lee, Alan W. M.

281

Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that polarization sensitive optical and terahertz imaging may be combined for accurate nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) delineation. Nine NMSC specimens were imaged. 513 ?m and 440 nm wavelengths were used for terahertz and optical imaging, respectively. Histopathology was processed for evaluation. Terahertz reflectance of NMSC was quantified. Our results demonstrate that cross-polarized terahertz images correctly identified location of the tumours, whereas cross-polarized and polarization difference optical images accurately presented morphological features. Cross-polarized terahertz images exhibited lower reflectivity values in cancer as compared to normal tissue. Combination of optical and terahertz imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of NMSC. PMID:22987857

Joseph, Cecil S; Patel, Rakesh; Neel, Victor A; Giles, Robert H; Yaroslavsky, Anna N

2014-05-01

282

Observation of terahertz vibrations in Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy  

E-print Network

OF Inorganic Biochemistry #12;transfer proteins [1]. They are key electron donors in alkane oxidation pathways have used impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy (ICVS) to study the Fe(S-Cys)4 site in oxidized

Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

283

Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental observation of three distinct resonances in split ring resonators (SRRs) for both vertical and horizontal electric field polarizations at normal incidence by use of terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Breaking the symmetry in SRRs by gradually displacing the capacitive gap from the center towards the corner of the ring allows for an 85% modulation of the fundamental

Ranjan Singh; Ibraheem A. I. Al-Naib; Martin Koch; Weili Zhang

2010-01-01

284

Terahertz and far-infrared synchrotron spectroscopy and global modeling of methyl mercaptan, CH332SH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, terahertz and Fourier transform far-infrared (FTFIR) synchrotron spectra of methyl mercaptan, CH3SH, have been investigated in order to provide new laboratory information for enhanced observations of this species in interstellar molecular clouds and star-forming regions. Like its methanol cousin, methyl mercaptan has particularly rich spectra associated with its large-amplitude internal rotation that extend throughout the THz and FIR regions. We have recorded new spectra for CH3SH from 1.1-1.5 and 1.790-1.808 THz at the University of Cologne as well as high-resolution FTFIR synchrotron spectra from 50-550 cm-1 at 0.001 cm-1 resolution on the far-IR beam-line at the Canadian Light Source. Assignments are reported for rotational quantum numbers up to J ? 40 and K ? 15, and torsional states up to vt = 2 for the THz measurements and vt = 3 for the FTFIR observations. The THz and FTFIR measurements together with literature results have been combined in a global analysis of a dataset comprising a total of 1725 microwave and THz frequencies together with ˜18000 FTFIR transitions, ranging up to vt = 2 and Jmax = 30 for MW/THz and 40 for FTFIR. The global fit employs 78 torsion-rotation parameters and has achieved a weighted standard deviation of ˜1.1. A prediction list (vt ? 2, J ? 45 and K ? 20) has been generated from the model giving essentially complete coverage of observable CH332SH transitions within the bandwidths of major new astronomical facilities such as HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared) on the Herschel Space Observatory, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) and APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) to close to spectroscopic accuracy.

Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.; Crabbe, G. T.; Myshrall, J. A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Endres, C. P.; Baum, O.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.; Menten, K. M.; Billinghurst, B. E.

2012-09-01

285

Hydration and hydrogen bond network of water around hydrophobic surface investigated by terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water conformation around hydrophobic side chains of four amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-aminobutyric acid, and L-norvaline) was investigated via changes in complex dielectric constant in the terahertz (THz) region. Each of these amino acids has the same hydrophilic backbone, with successive additions of hydrophobic straight methylene groups (-CH2-) to the side chain. Changes in the degree of hydration (number of dynamically retarded water molecules relative to bulk water) and the structural conformation of the water hydrogen bond (HB) network related to the number of methylene groups were quantitatively measured. Since dielectric responses in the THz region represent water relaxations and water HB vibrations at a sub-picosecond and picosecond timescale, these measurements characterized the water relaxations and HB vibrations perturbed by the methylene apolar groups. We found each successive straight -CH2- group on the side chain restrained approximately two hydrophobic hydration water molecules. Additionally, the number of non-hydrogen-bonded (NHB) water molecules increased slightly around these hydrophobic side chains. The latter result seems to contradict the iceberg model proposed by Frank and Evans, where water molecules are said to be more ordered around apolar surfaces. Furthermore, we compared the water-hydrophilic interactions of the hydrophilic amino acid backbone with those with the water-hydrophobic interactions around the side chains. As the hydrophobicity of the side chain increased, the ordering of the surrounding water HB network was altered from that surrounding the hydrophilic amino acid backbone, thereby diminishing the fraction of NHB water and ordering the surrounding tetrahedral water HB network.

Shiraga, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, N.; Ogawa, Y.

2014-12-01

286

Terahertz metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the split-ring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

Chen, Hou-Tong; O'Hara, John F.; Azad, Abul K.; Padilla, Willie J.; Averitt, Richard D.; Taylor, Antoinette J.

2009-02-01

287

Terahertz metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoineete J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

288

Sub-terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy reveals single-grain mobility and scatter influence of large-area graphene.  

PubMed

The response of individual domains in wafer-sized chemical vapor deposition graphene is measured by contactless sub-terahertz interferometry, observing the intrinsic optical conductance and reaching very high mobility values. It is shown that charged scatterers limit the mobility, validating previous theoretical predictions, and sub-terahertz quality assessment is demonstrated, as necessary for large-scale applications in touchscreens, as well as wearable and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25787669

Cervetti, Christian; Heintze, Eric; Gorshunov, Boris; Zhukova, Elena; Lobanov, Svyatoslav; Hoyer, Alexander; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo

2015-04-01

289

Diagnostics of pigmented skin tumors based on laser-induced autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of investigation of cutaneous benign and malignant pigmented lesions by laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are presented. The autofluorescence of human skin was excited by a 337-nm nitrogen laser. A broadband halogen lamp (400-900 nm) was used for diffuse reflectance measurements. A microspectrometer detected in vivo the fluorescence and reflectance signals from human skin. The

E Borisova; L Avramov; P Troyanova; P Pavlova

2008-01-01

290

Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials  

E-print Network

We report an experimental observation of three distinct resonances in split ring resonators (SRRs) for both vertical and horizontal electric field polarizations at normal incidence by use of terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Breaking the symmetry in SRRs by gradually displacing the capacitive gap from the center towards the corner of the ring allows for an 85% modulation of the fundamental inductive-capacitive resonance. Increasing asymmetry leads to the evolution of an otherwise inaccessible high quality factor electric quadrupole resonance that can be exploited for bio-sensing applications in the terahertz region.

Singh, Ranjan; Koch, Martin; Zhang, Weili

2010-01-01

291

Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we report an experimental observation of three distinct resonances in split ring resonators (SRRs) for both vertical and horizontal electric field polarizations at normal incidence. Breaking the symmetry in SRRs by gradually displacing the capacitive gap from the centre towards the comer of the ring allows for an 85% modulation of the fundamental inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance. Increasing asymmetry leads to the evolution of an otherwise inaccessible high quality factor electric quadrupole resonance that can be exploited for bio-sensing applications in the terahertz region.

Singh, Ramjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Al - Naib, Ibraheem A. I. [PHILIPPS UNIV; Koch, Martin [PHILIPPS UNIV; Zhang, Weili [OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV

2010-01-01

292

Inter/intra molecular dynamics in gases and liquids studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a description of the low-frequency terahertz (THz) absorption spectrum of a variety of materials that are of interest to many biological and chemical processes. The work described here encompasses the development of time-domain THz spectrometers, based on amplified Ti: Sapphire lasers systems as well as mode-locked Erbium doped fiber lasers as the driving source. These systems were applied to characterize the absorption spectrum of liquid water and water vapor, heavy water vapor, methanol vapor and tryptophan in the 0.2-2.2THz frequency range. The absorption profiles observed are closely related to the intermolecular or intramolecular motions in the materials of interest. In liquid water, the absorption profile shows evidence for modes due to large-scale structure amongst individual water molecules. The effects on the overall absorption profile are further deduced by the addition of various solutes which can enhance or break the formation of molecule networks. Various solutions are examined such as KCl in liquid water. Ions can change the strength of hydrogen bond in liquid water in the similar way as temperature does. Both K+ and Cl- are considered to be strong "structure breakers" in terms of their functions as softening the strength of hydrogen bond in liquid water. Theoretically, this will cause a red shift of some mode frequencies, reducing the absorption intensity at those frequencies and, at the same time, increasing the absorption at non-mode frequencies toward the vicinity of the low frequencies. For liquid water, the vapor phase was also examined, where for varying concentrations (humidity) Beer's Law does not hold to explain the observed absorption profiles. Again the reduced absorption of certain modes is explained by interactions between water monomers and their nature due to hydrogen spins. There are two species of water molecules in terms of the nuclear spin effect of hydrogen atoms in water molecule, ortho-water and para-water. The two types of water molecules present significantly different properties, e.g. different surface adsorption on metals. The effects of para-water and ortho-water on the THz absorption profile are discussed. Finally, I discuss the absorption profile of methanol vapor and tryptophan. In methanol vapor we observe coherent echoes after absorption by a THz transient and attribute it to the relaxation of the molecule due to the regularly spaced rotational manifold. In tryptophan two distinct absorption modes are observed due to torsional modes. These "soft-modes" are calculated and attributed to intramolecular motions between various atoms. The results of this body of work are discussed in the context of applications ranging from medicine, pharmaceuticals and the cosmetics industries.

Xin, Xuying

293

Measurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented  

E-print Network

of the nanowires. The differential terahertz transmission is found to be large when the field is polarized parallelMeasurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented Germanium Nanowires using Optical-Pump Terahertz-Probe Spectroscopy Jared H. Strait,*, Paul A. George, Mark Levendorf, Martin Blood

Afshari, Ehsan

294

Three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography of human bones  

E-print Network

as shown by additional terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy. © 2012 Optical Society of AmericaThree-dimensional terahertz computed tomography of human bones Maryelle Bessou,1 Bruno Chassagne,2 (Doc. ID 173175); published 25 September 2012 Three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Reflectance spectroscopy in planetary science: Review and strategy for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance spectroscopy is a remote sensing technique used to study the surfaces and atmospheres of solar system bodies. It provides first-order information on the presence and amounts of certain ions, molecules, and minerals on a surface or in an atmosphere. Reflectance spectroscopy has become one of the most important investigations conducted on most current and planned NASA Solar System Exploration Program space missions. This book reviews the field of reflectance spectroscopy, including information on the scientific technique, contributions, present conditions, and future directions and needs.

Mccord, Thomas B. (editor)

1987-01-01

296

Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species. We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi) to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n = 141, R (2) = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.24), but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n = 66, R (2) = 0.95, RMSEP = 0.10). A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n = 16, R (2) = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.015). We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si research domains. PMID:25309567

Smis, Adriaan; Ancin Murguzur, Francisco Javier; Struyf, Eric; Soininen, Eeva M; Herranz Jusdado, Juan G; Meire, Patrick; Bråthen, Kari Anne

2014-01-01

297

Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Silicon (Si) is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species. We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi) to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n = 141, R2 = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.24), but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n = 66, R2 = 0.95, RMSEP = 0.10). A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n = 16, R2 = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.015). We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si research domains. PMID:25309567

Smis, Adriaan; Ancin Murguzur, Francisco Javier; Struyf, Eric; Soininen, Eeva M.; Herranz Jusdado, Juan G.; Meire, Patrick; Bråthen, Kari Anne

2014-01-01

298

Properties of planar electric metamaterials for novel terahertz applications John F. O'Hara,1,  

E-print Network

metamaterials are experimentally studied in transmission and reflection utilizing terahertz timeProperties of planar electric metamaterials for novel terahertz applications John F. O'Hara,1-dependent transmissivity, reflectivity, and absorptivity of metamaterial composites. Numerical simulations are in good

299

Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of transmission properties of two-dimensional plasmonic structures in the terahertz regime is presented. Resonant terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes patterned on both metals and semiconductors. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, array film thickness, and a dielectric overlayer were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz spectroscopy modalities. Extraordinary terahertz transmission

W. Zhang

2008-01-01

300

Infrared/Terahertz double resonance spectroscopy of CH3F and CH3Cl at atmospheric pressure  

E-print Network

A new method for highly selective remote sensing of atmospheric trace polar molecular gases is described. Based on infrared/terahertz double resonance spectroscopic techniques, the molecule- specific coincidence between the lines of a CO2 laser and rotational-vibrational molecular absorption transitions provide two dimensions of recognition specificity: infrared coincidence frequency and the corresponding terahertz frequency whose absorption strength is modulated by the laser. Atmospheric pressure broadening expands the molecular recognition "specificity matrix" by simultaneously relaxing the infrared coincidence requirement and strengthening the corresponding terahertz signature. Representative double resonance spectra are calculated for prototypical molecules CH3F and CH3Cl and their principal isotopomers, from which a heuristic model is developed to estimate the specificity matrix and double resonance signature strength for any polar molecule.

Dane J. Phillips; Elizabeth A. Tanner; Frank C. De Lucia; Henry O. Everitt

2012-05-12

301

Terahertz Spectroscopy as a non contact estimation technique of defect states in high dielectric constant materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of gate dielectric materials have been examined during the past few years to replace Silicon dioxide in the MOSFET industry to reduce gate leakage currents for microfabrication of devices. Among them, Hafnium based materials have become a very promising candidate. In the reported work, the effect of Hafnium dioxide films on p-type silicon substrates has been investigated and compared with conventional dielectric material, Silicon dioxide, using CW visible pump/THz probe spectroscopy. Drude analysis of the experimentally obtained differential transmission spectra evaluates the electric permittivity of the interfacial layer and the calculated defect density is found to be higher for HfO2 than for SiO2 which agrees with Hall measurements. Additional measurements on Silicon Nitride deposition and photoresist coated p+ Silicon on p-type silicon wafers without any oxide gave an interfacial defect density 50 times higher than that of SiO2/p+ interface. Results indicate that the mobility of the layer underneath Hafnium is less than that of Silicon. Hence the present study emphasizes the advantage of THz spectroscopy as a non-contact tool for semiconductor metrological applications.

Sengupta, Amartya; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Altan, Hakan; Federici, John; Grebel, Haim

2006-03-01

302

Observation of Terahertz Vibrations in the Nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor via Femtosecond Pump Probe Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We have used Impulsive Coherent Vibrational Spectroscopy (ICVS) to study the FeMo-cofactor of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii as the extracted small molecule ‘FeMoco’. In the ICVS experiment, a 15 fs visible laser pulse pumps the sample to an excited electronic state, and a second <10 fs pulse probes the change in transmission as a function of the time delay. FeMoco was observed to relax to the ground state by a single exponential decay with a time constant of ~200 fs. Superimposed on this relaxation are oscillations caused by the coherent excitation of vibrational modes in both excited and ground electronic states. Fourier transformation reveals the FeMoco vibrational frequencies that are coherently excited by the short laser pulse. The frequencies obtained by the ICVS technique were compared with values from normal mode calculations. The strongest ICVS bands are at 215 and 420 cm?1. The 420 cm?1 band is attributed to Fe-S stretching motion, whereas the 215 cm?1 band, which is the strongest feature in the spectrum, is attributed to a breathing mode of FeMoco. Over the years, nitrogenase and FeMoco have resisted characterization by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The current results demonstrate the promise of ICVS as an alternative probe of FeMoco dynamics. PMID:20411554

Delfino, Ines; Cerullo, Giulio; Cannistraro, Salvatore; Manzoni, Cristian; Polli, Dario; Dapper, Christie; Newton, William E.; Guo, Yisong; Cramer, Stephen P.

2011-01-01

303

The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict protein fractions in free-ranging cattle  

E-print Network

Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to predict fractional protein utilization in cattle on forage based diets. Forage samples were obtained from esophageal and ruminal...

Whitley, Evan Micah

1996-01-01

304

Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

1984-01-01

305

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Molecules in the Interstellar Medium and around Stars - Sure Bets and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the very near future, powerful new observatories willrevolutionize broad band astronomical spectroscopy at THz frequencies. These include the Herschel Space Observatory, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and, at somewhat lower, GHz, frequencies the Expanded Very Large Array. The latter two, ``radio''-style interferometers will allow sub-arcsecond, high spectral resolution imaging with total instantaneous observing bandwidths up to 100 times larger than present day facilities. This will allow comprehensive multi-transition/multi species studies that offer new approaches to a variety of astrophysical/chemical areas all of which are dependent on the availability of extensive laboratory data. To give a few examples: For many interesting sources it will be possible to get a complete astrochemical ``fingerprint'' in a single observing session with high-quality images of the distributions of the individual species! Targets include the extremely molecule-rich hot molecular cores around protostellar objects and emission from vibrationally excited lines from the innermost circumstellar envelopes of nearby asymptotic branch branch stars which will be imaged with a resolution better than the stellar diameter. Complete, high spectral resolution scans of various keystone objects over the whole 480-1250 and 1410-1920 GHz ranges will be conducted by the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) aboard Herschel. These include lines from various important hydride species and, importantly, water vapor that are not observable from the ground. Organic molecules have hundreds of GHz/THz lines. However, due to the generally low abundances and large partition functions of ``new'' (yet to identified) very complex species, all of these are weak and have to be picked out of a thicket of also weak rotational lines from within relatively low energy vibrationally excited levels from various isotopologues of known species. Here, comprehensive model spectra of all the species known to exist in a source have to be constructed to ``weed out'' the contaminants. This requires comprehensive laboratory data, which as of now is far from existing. Moreover, Herschel will allow access to types of transitions, e.g., vibrational ones from carbon chain species, for which spectroscopic data has yet to be obtained. I shall give an overview of the challenges and great opportunities of astronomical molecular spectroscopy in the coming years and the crucial role of laboratory spectroscopy.

Menten, Karl M.

2009-06-01

306

Detection of soil surface contaminants by infrared reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A benchtop Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and specular reflection accessory have been used to record reflection spectra of several chemical compounds coating a loamy, psamment soil. Unpolarized reflection spectra were recorded between 4600 and 500 cm-1 with a resolution of 4 cm-1 for the compounds dimethyl methylphosphonate, trimethyl phosphate, methylphosphonic acid, 2,2'-thiodiethanol, diazinon, diesel fuel, and ammonium nitrate mixed separately into soil samples with concentrations of 10, 5, and 1 mg of analyte per gram of soil. The soil reflection spectra are compared to liquid or solid transmission spectra of the pure compound and frequency shifts and relative intensity changes for the absorption features are noted. As an example of detection sensitivity, we have estimated that we can detect 300 nanograms of dimethyl methylphosphonate on the surface layer of soil in the focal spot (15 mm2) of the reflection accessory using one of DMMP's C - H stretch modes. The signal-to-noise (peak-to-peak) of this spectral feature under these circumstances would be 3/1. We also estimate that the flux of infrared photons reaching the soil is 1014 photons/sec/cm-1. We have recorded polarization-resolved reflection spectra of the uncoated soil and coarse and fine grained quartz sands as a function of angle of incidence and reflection and have determined the degree of polarization for light reflected off of these materials at frequencies associated with volume scattering and surface scattering features. As might be expected, the volume scattering features show a significant depolarization of the light - degree of polarization after reflection is < 20% - and the surface scattering features retain a much higher degree of polarization upon reflection, > 75%. We have also recorded polarization resolved spectra of tributyl phosphate on the soil and found significant differences between the s- and p-polarized spectra. This fact could be used to employ polarization modulation detection to improve detection sensitivity.

Blake, Thomas A.; Gassman, Paul L.

2002-02-01

307

Terahertz spectroscopy of 2,4-dinitrotoluene over a wide temperature range (7-245 K).  

PubMed

Previous THz spectroscopy of the TNT explosive precursor, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), has been restricted to room temperature (apart from one set of data at 11 K). Here, for the first time, we investigate the spectrum as the temperature is systematically varied, from 7 to 245 K. Many new features appear in the spectrum on cooling below room temperature. As well as the five absorption lines observed previously, we observe five additional lines. In addition, a new room-temperature line at 8.52 THz (281 cm(-1)) is observed. Six of the lines red-shift with temperature and four of them blue-shift. The blue shift is explained by interplay between intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The variation in line width and line intensity with temperature is not systematic, although a conspicuous decrease in line intensity with temperature is observed in all cases. Modeling with hybrid PBE0 and TPSSh functionals helps identify absorption modes. PMID:25565292

Lepodise, Lucia M; Horvat, Joseph; Lewis, R A

2015-01-15

308

Study of paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue using terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, samples of non-neoplastic and adenocarcinoma-affected human colon tissue samples were analyzed using multipoint transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to sort out the contrast-contributing factors other than water, the main contrast mechanism factor in in-vivo or in freshly excised bio-tissue. Solving the electromagnetic inverse problem through THz-TDS and, analyzing the transmittance spectra that yielded the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient ? and refractive index n of non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues, we show that it is possible to distinguish between non-neoplastic and neoplastic regions in paraffin-embedded dehydrated. Results and discussion are presented.

Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

2015-01-01

309

Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy requires optical sources emitting very short pulses and a fast detection mechanism capable of measuring the evolution of the output spectrum as a function of time. We use table-top Ti:sapphire lasers and a free-electron laser (FEL) emitting ps pulses as excitation sources and a streak camera coupled to a spectrometer for detection. One of the major aspects of this setup is the synchronization of pulses from the two lasers which we describe in detail. Optical properties of the FEL pulses are studied by autocorrelation and electro-optic sampling measurements. We discuss the advantages of using this setup to perform photoluminescence quenching in semiconductor quantum wells and quantum dots. Carrier redistribution due to pulsed excitation in these heterostructures can be investigated directly. Sideband generation in quantum wells is also studied where the intense FEL pulses facilitate the detection of the otherwise weak nonlinear effect.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Wagner, M.; Zybell, S.; Winnerl, S.; Stehr, D.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.

2011-10-01

310

Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation.  

PubMed

Time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy requires optical sources emitting very short pulses and a fast detection mechanism capable of measuring the evolution of the output spectrum as a function of time. We use table-top Ti:sapphire lasers and a free-electron laser (FEL) emitting ps pulses as excitation sources and a streak camera coupled to a spectrometer for detection. One of the major aspects of this setup is the synchronization of pulses from the two lasers which we describe in detail. Optical properties of the FEL pulses are studied by autocorrelation and electro-optic sampling measurements. We discuss the advantages of using this setup to perform photoluminescence quenching in semiconductor quantum wells and quantum dots. Carrier redistribution due to pulsed excitation in these heterostructures can be investigated directly. Sideband generation in quantum wells is also studied where the intense FEL pulses facilitate the detection of the otherwise weak nonlinear effect. PMID:22047280

Bhattacharyya, J; Wagner, M; Zybell, S; Winnerl, S; Stehr, D; Helm, M; Schneider, H

2011-10-01

311

Attenuated total reflection Infrared spectroscopy applied to the study of mineral  

E-print Network

Attenuated total reflection ­ Infrared spectroscopy applied to the study of mineral ­ aqueous spectroscopy (ATR-IR) to the environmentally important mineral ­ aqueous electrolyte interface them on the aquifer material, which is usually a natural mineral. Selected solutes may also via

Boyer, Edmond

312

RAPID PREDICTION OF ENERGY, DERIVED FROM FAT, IN CEREAL FOODS BY NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous work established NIR reflectance spectroscopy as an accurate method for the determination of gross energy and available energy in diverse cereal food products.* The current study investigates the potential of NIR spectroscopy for the evaluation of energy derived from fat*. Using NIR refle...

313

Use of Finite Difference Time Domain Simulations and Debye Theory for Modelling the Terahertz Reflection Response of Normal and Tumour Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to evaluate the capabilities of Debye theory combined with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods to simulate the terahertz (THz) response of breast tissues. Being able to accurately model breast tissues in the THz regime would facilitate the understanding of image contrast parameters used in THz imaging of breast cancer. As a test case, the model was first validated using liquid water and simulated reflection pulses were compared to experimental measured pulses with very good agreement (p?=?1.00). The responses of normal and cancerous breast tissues were simulated with Debye properties and the correlation with measured data was still high for tumour (p?=?0.98) and less so for normal breast (p?=?0.82). Sections of the time domain pulses showed clear differences that were also evident in the comparison of pulse parameter values. These deviations may arise from the presence of adipose and other inhomogeneities in the breast tissue that are not accounted for when using the Debye model. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the power of the model for simulating THz reflection imaging; however, for biological tissues extra Debye terms or a more detailed theory may be required to link THz image contrast to physiological composition and structural changes of breast tissue associated with differences between normal and tumour tissues. PMID:25010734

Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Wallace, Vincent P.

2014-01-01

314

New experimental methods in Terahertz spectroscopy E. J. Slingerlanda, T. M. Goyettea, R. H. Gilesa and W. E. Nixonb  

E-print Network

-resolution measurements, made possible by far-infrared lasers coupled with Schottky diodes, were supplemented with data methanol, nitromethane, water and its isotopes. Keywords: Terahertz, FIR, side-band generation to clearly separate and identify molecular transitions, they can still help quickly identify the best range

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

315

Reflectance spectroscopy of pigmented cutaneous benign and malignant lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the DRS measurements of skin benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions in vivo we applied halogen lamp (LS-1, OceanOptics Inc, Dunedin, Fl, USA) as a continuous light source in the region of 400-900 nm, optical probe (6+1 fibers) for the delivery of illumination and diffuse reflected light from the skin investigated and microspectrometer USB4000 (OceanOptics Inc., Dunedin, Fl, USA) for a storage and display of the spectra detected. As a diffuse reflectance standard Spectralon® plate was used to calibrate the spectrometer. The reflectance spectra obtained from normal skin in identical anatomic sites of different patients have similar spectral shape features, slightly differ by the reflectance intensity at different wavelengths, depending on the particular patient' skin phototype. One could find diagnostically important spectral features, related to specific intensity changes for a given wavelength due to specific pigments appearance, slope changes by value and sign for the reflectance spectra curves in a specific spectral range, disappearance or manifestation of minima, related to hemoglobin absorption at 410-420 nm, 543, 575 nm. Based on the observed peculiarities multispectral analysis of the reflectance spectra of the different lesions was used and diagnostically specific features are found. Discrimination using the DRS data obtained between benign compound and dermal nevi (45 cases), dysplastic nevi (17 cases) and pigmented malignant melanoma (41 cases) lesions is achieved with a diagnostic accuracy of 96 % for the benign nevi vs. MM, and 90 % for the dysplastic nevi vs. MM.

Borisova, E.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Kundurdjiev, T.; Pavlova, P.; Avramov, L.

2014-10-01

316

Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy of Simple Astrophysically Relevant Ices: the Structure of the Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International astronomical facilities, in particular the Herschel Space Telescope, SOFIA and ALMA, are currently characterizing the interstellar medium (ISM) by collecting a huge amount of new THz spectral data that must be compared to THz laboratory spectra to be interpreted. The latter, however, are largely lacking, and this severely restricts the scientific impact of the astronomical observations. We have recently constructed a new THz time-domain spectroscopy system to investigate the spectra of interstellar relevant ice analogs in the range between 0.3 - 7 THz. The system is coupled to a FT-IR spectrometer to monitor the ices in the mid-IR (4000 - 500 cm^{-1}). The THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum is dominated by large amplitude motions, such as phonon modes and intermolecular vibrations, along with high-frequency torsional motions of individual species. This talk will focus on the laboratory investigation of the composition and structure of the bulk phases of interstellar ice analogs (i.e., H_{2}O, CO_{2}, CO, CH_{3}OH, NH_{3}, CH_{4}). Different temperatures, mixing ratios, and matrix isolation experiments will be shown. The ultimate goal of this research project is to provide the scientific community with an extensive THz ice-database, which will allow quantitative studies of the ISM, and guide future astronomical observations of species in the solid phase.

Ioppolo, Sergio; Allodi, Marco A.; McGuire, Brett A.; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

2013-06-01

317

Infrared Internal Reflection Spectroscopy of Silicon Dioxide on Silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of silicon forms the basis of a multibillion dollar electronics industry. With increasing miniaturization required for the next generation of integrated circuits, understanding the structure of thin oxides and the oxide-silicon interface has become increasingly important. In contrast to analytical tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that use high energy radiation capable of altering the structure under study,

John Edward Olsen

1990-01-01

318

Reflections on the history of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is briefly reviewed, starting with the foundations laid by Heaviside in the late 19th century in the form of Linear Systems Theory (LST). Warburg apparently was the first to extend the concept of impedance to electrochemical systems at the turn of the 19th century, when he derived the impedance function for a diffusional

Digby D. Macdonald

2006-01-01

319

Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation and modulation of circularly polarized terahertz electromagnetic radiation have been demonstrated by using a four-contact photoconductive antenna and a total-reflection Si prism. The quality of the circularly polarized terahertz pulsed radiation has been evaluated by using a polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The characteristic of the dynamic modulation between the left and right circularly polarized states of the THz radiation is also evaluated. The ellipticity of the modulated circularly polarized THz radiation without a polarizer is not as good as that of the non-modulated because of the non-uniform bias field distribution and the asymmetric pump laser intensity profile on the photoconductive gap.

Hirota, Yuichi; Hattori, Ryo; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori

2006-05-01

320

Doppler-shifted reflections of X rays in beamfoil spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon foils were positioned at roughly 10 deg to the conventional perpendicular position so that the spectrometer would view the beam on emergence from the foil, with no radiation shielded by a bowed or wrinkled foil or by the foil holder. Extraneous peaks due to reflected radiation were detected in the spectrum obtained with the tilted foil. A large satellite appears longward of the spectral line and is attributed to Doppler-shifted radiation reflected from the foil surface. Special tests arranged to validate the origin of the satellites are described. The relative intensity of the reflected radiation compared with the direct radiation observed is at variance with the relative intensities reported for longer wavelengths. The reasons for this, possible effects of spectrometer geometry, and applications in the investigation or generation of polarization remain to be investigated

Bernstein, E. M.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.

1976-01-01

321

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening, fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm. Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.

Sivabalan, S.; Ponranjini Vedeswari, C.; Jayachandran, S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Pravda, C.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

2010-02-01

322

Monitoring bruise age using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to determine the age of a bruise of unknown age mechanism is important in matters of domestic and child abuse and forensics. While physicians are asked to make clinical judgment on the age of a bruise using color and tenderness, studies have shown that a physicians estimate is highly inaccurate and in cases no better than chance alone. We present here the temporal progression of reflection spectrum collected from accidentally inflicted contusions in adult and child study participants with a synopsis of the observed phenomena. Reflection spectra collected using a portable fiber optic reflection spectrometer can track the increase in extravasated hemoglobin from trauma caused blood vessel rupture and subsequent removal of this hemoglobin occurring concurrent with an increase in the absorption attributed to the breakdown product bilirubin. We hypothesize that this time dependent pattern can be used to determine the age of an unknown bruise in an individual provided rate constant information for the patient can be determined in a controlled calibration bruise. Using reflection spectra to estimate bruise age can provide a rapid and noninvasive method to improve the ability of physicians in dating the age of a contusion.

McMurdy, John W.; Duffy, Susan; Crawford, Gregory P.

2007-02-01

323

Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (1012 Hz) pulsed imaging is a totally non-destructive and non-ionising imaging modality and thus potential applications in medicine are being investigated. In this paper we present results using our hand-held terahertz probe that has been designed for in vivo use. In particular, we use the terahertz probe to perform reflection geometry in vivo measurements of human skin. The hand-held terahertz probe gives more flexibility than a typical flat-bed imaging system, but it also results in noisier data and requires existing processing methods to be improved. We describe the requirements and limitations of system geometry, data acquisition rate, image resolution and penetration depth and explain how various factors are dependent on each other. We show how some of the physical limitations can be overcome using novel data processing methods.

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

2011-03-01

324

Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N

2013-10-29

325

A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and quantum-cascade lasers have been two of the most important developments in terahertz science and technology. These technologies may contribute to a multitude of terahertz applications that are currently under investigation globally. However, the devices and components necessary to effectively manipulate terahertz radiation require substantial development beyond what has been accomplished to date. Here we demonstrate an electrically controlled planar hybrid metamaterial device that linearly controls the phase of terahertz radiation with constant insertion loss over a narrow frequency band. Alternatively, our device may operate as a broadband terahertz modulator because of the causal relation between the amplitude modulation and phase shifting. We perform terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in which our hybrid metamaterial modulator replaces a commercial mechanical optical chopper, demonstrating comparable broadband performance and superior high-speed operation.

Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J.; Cich, Michael J.; Azad, Abul K.; Averitt, Richard D.; Taylor, Antoinette J.

2009-03-01

326

Terahertz metamaterials  

DOEpatents

Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

2014-08-12

327

Employing time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to analyze carrier dynamics in thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layers  

SciTech Connect

We report the application of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) to measure photoexcited carrier lifetimes and mobility, and to determine recombination mechanisms in Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) thin films fabricated from nanocrystal inks. Ultrafast time resolution permits tracking the evolution of carrier density to determine recombination rates and mechanisms. The carrier generation profile was manipulated by varying the photoexcitation wavelength and fluence to distinguish between surface, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), radiative, and Auger recombination mechanisms and determine rate constants. Surface and SRH recombination are the dominant mechanisms for the air/CZTSSe/SiO{sub 2}/Si film stack. Diffusion to, and then recombination at, the air-CZTSSe interface occurred on the order of 100 picoseconds, while SRH recombination lifetimes were 1–2 nanoseconds. TRTS measurements can provide information that is complementary to conventional time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and can direct the design of efficient thin film photovoltaics.

Guglietta, Glenn W.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Caspar, Jonathan V. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (United States)

2014-06-23

328

Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model  

PubMed Central

We present sub-millimeter wave reflectometry of an experimental rat skin burn model obtained by the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Full thickness burns, as confirmed by histology, were created on rats (n = 4) euthanized immediately prior to the experiments. Statistical analysis shows that the burned tissue exhibits higher reflectivity compared to normal skin over a frequency range between 0.5 and 0.7 THz (p < 0.05), likely due to post-burn formation of interstitial edema. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a double Debye dielectric relaxation model can be used to explain the terahertz response of both normal and less severely burned rat skin. Finally, our data suggest that the degree of conformation between the experimental burn measurements and the model for normal skin can potentially be used to infer the extent of burn severity. PMID:21833370

Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Klein, Mathew B.; Mourad, Pierre D.

2011-01-01

329

Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model.  

PubMed

We present sub-millimeter wave reflectometry of an experimental rat skin burn model obtained by the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Full thickness burns, as confirmed by histology, were created on rats (n = 4) euthanized immediately prior to the experiments. Statistical analysis shows that the burned tissue exhibits higher reflectivity compared to normal skin over a frequency range between 0.5 and 0.7 THz (p < 0.05), likely due to post-burn formation of interstitial edema. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a double Debye dielectric relaxation model can be used to explain the terahertz response of both normal and less severely burned rat skin. Finally, our data suggest that the degree of conformation between the experimental burn measurements and the model for normal skin can potentially be used to infer the extent of burn severity. PMID:21833370

Arbab, M Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C; Winebrenner, Dale P; Chen, Antao; Klein, Mathew B; Mourad, Pierre D

2011-08-01

330

Highly tunable SrTiO3/DyScO3 heterostructures for applications in the terahertz range  

E-print Network

of the power transmission of terahertz waves at 500 GHz and 100 V 67 kV/cm bias. © 2007 American InstituteHighly tunable SrTiO3/DyScO3 heterostructures for applications in the terahertz range P. Kuzel,a F at room temperature were determined in the terahertz spectral range by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy

Ku?el, Petr

331

Optical characteristics of biological molecules in the Terahertz gap Tatiana Globus  

E-print Network

Optical characteristics of biological molecules in the Terahertz gap Tatiana Globus *a University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Foundation, Lowell, MA 01854. ABSTRACT Terahertz Spectroscopy has been recently introduced as a promising technique for the collection of signature data in transmission

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

332

Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

Born, N., E-mail: norman.born@physik.uni-marburg.de [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, M. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

2014-03-10

333

Detection of propranolol in pharmaceutical formulations by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an analytical reflectometric method that has an objective not only the industrial quality control but also to detect possible falsifications and/or adulterations of propranolol in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the diffuse reflectance measurements of the colored product (III) of the spot test reaction between propranolol hydrochloride (I) and 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide (II) using filter paper as solid support. Spot test conditions have been investigated using experimental design in order to identify and optimize the critical factors. The factors evaluated were DCQ concentration, propranolol solvent and DCQ solvent. The best reaction conditions were achieved with the addition of 30 ?L of propranolol solution in ethanol 35% (v/v) and 30 ?L of DCQ solution at 70 mg mL -1 in acetone, in this order. All reflectance measurements were carried out at 500 nm and the linear range was from 8.45 × 10 -4 to 8.45 × 10 -2 mol L -1 ( r = 0.998). The limit of detection was 1.01 × 10 -4 mol L -1. No interference was observed from the assessed excipients and drugs. The method was applied to determine propranolol in commercial brands of pharmaceuticals. The results obtained by the proposed method were favorably compared with those given by the British Pharmacopoeia procedure.

Gotardo, Mara Andréia; Tognolli, João Olímpio; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

2008-04-01

334

Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects  

E-print Network

Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects David M. Slocum a April 2013 Keywords: Water vapor Absorption Continuum Terahertz Spectroscopy a b s t r a c t The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Trans- form Spectroscopy

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

335

In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Bertram, F., E-mail: florian.bertram@sljus.lu.se; Evertsson, J.; Messing, M. E.; Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F.; Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas väg 51, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlà, F. [ESRF, B. P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden)

2014-07-21

336

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a clinical study of tuberculin skin tests reading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a technique widely used to determine optical properties of tissues: scattering and absorption coefficients. In this study, we present the development of a low-cost optical instrument usable in a clinical environment based upon the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy approach. This instrument has been used in a clinical study to support the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The idea is to establish a new scanning method for an early detection of inflammation due to a reagent injection, before the onset of visual signs. Results comparing the instrumental and classical clinical readings are presented.

Koenig, Anne; Grande, Sophie; Dahel, Karima; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Poher, Vincent; Goujon, Catherine; Dinten, Jean-Marc

2013-02-01

337

Effect of data pretreatment on the noninvasive blood glucose measurement by diffuse reflectance NIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in spectroscopy and chemometrics have brought in-vitro blood glucose analysis into clinical reach. Parallel to these efforts noninvasive experiments by NIR- spectroscopy have also been proposed and carried out. A specially designed and optimized accessory for diffuse reflectance measurements in the spectral range of 9000 - 5000 cm-1 was used. The spectral data and reference concentration values were obtained using oral glucose tolerance tests. Calibration results are provided for log(1/R) and single beam spectra. In addition, the effects of smoothing and the use of derivative filtering were evaluated. The best results were achieved by multivariate PLS-modeling with raw data from single beam reflectance spectra.

Heise, Herbert M.; Marbach, Ralf

1994-01-01

338

Terahertz radiation study on FRP composite solid laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) was made and reflection and transmission configurations were studied as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Here carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) derived their excellent mechanical strength, stiffness and electrical conductivity from carbon fibers. Especially, the electrical conductivity of CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. The THz TDS can be considered as a useful tool using general non-conducting materials; however it is quite limited to conducting materials. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n) is derived by using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Also, for a 48-ply thermoplastic PPS(poly-phenylene sulfide)-based CFRP solid laminate, the terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field) direction in the CFRP solid laminates.

Im, Kwang-Hee; Hsu, David K.; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Barnard, Daniel J.; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong

2012-05-01

339

Standoff detection of explosive materials by differential reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct structures in differential reflectograms, near 420 nm and 250 nm. These characteristic peaks are not observed from approximately two dozen organic and inorganic substances which we tested and which may be in or on a suitcase. This exclusivity infers an ideal technique for explosives detection in mass transit and similar locations. The described technique for detection of explosives is fast, inexpensive, reliable, portable, and is applicable from some distance, that is, it does not require contact with the surveyed substance. Moreover, we have developed a curve discrimination program for field applications of the technique. Other explosives such as 1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5 triazacyclohexane (RDX), 1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7- tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), 2, 4, 6, N-Tetranitro-N-methylaniline (Tetryl), Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitroglycerin have also been investigated and demonstrate similar, but unique, characteristic spectra. The technique utilizes near-ultraviolet to visible light reflected from two spots on the same sample surface yielding a differential reflectogram corresponding to the absorption of the sample. The origin of the spectra is attributed to the highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) transitions of the respective explosive molecule. Experiments using transmission spectrophotometry have also been performed to compliment and confirm the specific transitions. The results are supported by computer modeling of the molecular orbitals that yield UV and visible transitions.

Fuller, Anna M.; Hummel, Rolf E.; Schöllhorn, Claus; Holloway, Paul H.

2006-10-01

340

Characterization of estuarine sediments by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

It has been developed a partial least squares near infrared (PLS-NIR) method for the determination of estuarine sediment physicochemical parameters. The method was based on the chemometric treatment of first order derivative reflectance spectra obtained from samples previously lyophilized and sieved through a lower than 63 microm grid. Spectra were scanned from 833 to 2976 nm, averaging 36 scans per spectrum at a resolution of 8 cm(-1), using chromatographic glass vials of 9.5 mm internal diameter as measurement cells. Models were built using reference data of 31 samples selected through the use of a hierarchical cluster analysis of NIR spectra of sediments obtained from the Ria de Arousa estuary and prediction parameters were established from a validation set of 50 samples of the same area. pH, redox potential (Eh), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H) content together with Sn, Pb, Cd, As, Sb and total Cr and also acid soluble, reducible and oxidable Cr fractions were employed as characteristic parameters of the studied sediments. Standard error of prediction values for C and N content were of the order of 4 and 1.3 mg g(-1) for H. Prediction errors for pH and Eh were 0.15 units and 37 mV, respectively, thus indicating the good prediction capabilities of the method. Regarding trace metal concentrations PLS-NIR provided prediction error levels for unknown samples around 20% for Sn, Pb, As and Sb and root mean square errors of prediction around 40% for concentration levels of 400 ng g(-1) Cd and 100 microg g(-1) Cr. For the different extractable fractions of Cr the residual prediction deviation varied from 1.3 to 1.7 but relative errors found for samples of the validation set were only useful for screening purposes. PMID:18706316

Moros, Javier; Barciela-Alonso, María C; Pazos-Capeáns, Paula; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

2008-08-22

341

Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations are due to surface properties. With this new understanding of reflectance and emission spectroscopy, mineralogic interpretations were derived and applied to the science objectives of the three regions.

Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

2004-01-01

342

Rapid gangue mineral concentration measurement over conveyors by NIR reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is being used increasingly as a laboratory technique to supplement XRD analysis and other measurements of blast-hole cuttings for metallurgical processing decision making. The advantage of the technique is the speed of measurement and the lack of need for sample preparation. NIR is a surface measurement that responds to transition element, electronic transitions and molecular, vibrational

Alexander F. H. Goetz; Brian Curtiss; Daniel A. Shiley

2009-01-01

343

Near-infrared transmission and reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of dietary fiber in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and an NIR Systems 6500 spectrometer were used to obtain transmission and ref...

344

Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

2007-01-01

345

Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

346

Measurement of Trans-Fatty Acids in Cereal Products Without Oil Extraction Using NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid technique, to determine the trans-fatty acid content of ground cereal products. NIR spectra were obtained with a dispersive spectrometer and trans-fatty acids determined by modified AOAC Method 996.01. First derivative PLS1 mode...

347

Factors Associated with Dough Stickiness as Sensed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(4):378-382 Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been applied in the characterization of sticky dough surfaces. The characterization provides insight in the chemical distribution of gluten protein, starch, water, and fat during dough kneading. ATR is especially useful for selective sampling of dough surfaces because the depth of penetration of radiation is quite

Ewoud J. J. van Velzen; John P. M. van Duynhoven; Paul Pudney; Peter L. Weegels; John H. van der Maas

2003-01-01

348

Prediction of sensory characteristics of lamb meat samples by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was implemented to evaluate the potential of visible and near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to predict sensory characteristics related to the eating quality of lamb meat samples. A total of 232 muscle samples from Texel and Scottish Blackface lambs was analyzed by chemical procedures and scored by assessors in a taste panel (TP). Then, these parameters were predicted

S. Andrés; I. Murray; E. A. Navajas; A. V. Fisher; N. R. Lambe; L. Bünger

2007-01-01

349

Sample Preparation and Prediction of Soil Organic Matter Properties by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the potential for rapid and cost-effective soil analysis. Unfortunately, soil NIRS calibrations have not performed well across soil types, and this is believed to be due to the differences in soil particle size and, or, soil mineralogy. In this study we evaluated the influence of grinding, removal of organic matter, removal of mineral component,

C. A. Russell

2003-01-01

350

NEW APPLICATIONS OF NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR FORAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has now been used in agriculture, specifically for forage quality analysis, for about 30 years. Due to its speed, many new applications have been developed, including medicine and pharmaceuticals. It is a secondary technique that requires proper calibrat...

351

INVESTIGATING ULTRASONIC DIFFRACTION GRATING SPECTROSCOPY AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING SLURRY PROPERTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) for measuring the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry. For the first topic, the basic principle...

352

Introducing dipole-like resonance into magnetic resonance to realize simultaneous drop in transmission and reflection at terahertz frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metamaterial (MM) consisting of double layer closed rings (DCRs) and a split-wire shows the different manipulations of the transmission T(omega) and reflection R(omega) to obtain simultaneous minimums. Parametric studies on the MM and a further LC circuit model are proposed, showing that the phenomenon is dominated by the interaction of the additional dipole-like resonance supported by the split-wire and

Chenggang Hu; Xiong Li; Qin Feng; Xu'nan Chen; Xiangang Luo

2010-01-01

353

In vivo detection of epileptic brain tissue using static fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to detect histopathological abnormalities of an epileptic brain in a human subject study. Static diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra are acquired from normal and epileptic brain areas, defined by electrocorticography (ECoG), from pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Biopsy specimens are taken from the investigated sites within an abnormal brain. Spectral analysis reveals significant differences in diffuse reflectance spectra and the ratio of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra from normal and epileptic brain areas defined by ECoG and histology. Using these spectral differences, tissue classification models with accuracy above 80% are developed based on linear discriminant analysis. The differences between the diffuse reflectance spectra from the normal and epileptic brain areas observed in this study are attributed to alterations in the static hemodynamic characteristics of an epileptic brain, suggesting a unique association between the histopathological and the hemodynamic abnormalities in an epileptic brain.

Yadav, Nitin; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Ragheb, John; Mehta, Rupal; Jayakar, Prasanna; Yong, William; Lin, Wei-Chiang

2013-02-01

354

Characterization of Si3N4/Si(111) thin films by reflectance difference spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si3N4 has become an important material with great technological and scientific interests. The lattice symmetry and the crystallinity quality of Si3N4 thin films are fundamental parameters that must be determined for different applications. In order to evaluate the properties of Si3N4 films, we used reflectance difference spectroscopy/reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RDS/RAS) to measure the optical anisotropy of Si3N4 thin films (1–2 nm) grown by nitridation of two different Si(111) substrates, one with a 4.2° miscut off towards the [11\\bar{2}] direction and another one with a nonintentional miscut. We demonstrate that, by modifying the measurement optical setup, we could increase the RD sensitivity and clearly display the optical response corresponding to the hexagonal symmetry of the Si3N4 thin layer. Our results are in good agreement with reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) measurements for both misoriented and oriented substrates.

Lastras-Martínez, Luis Felipe; Ulloa-Castillo, Nicolás Antonio; Herrera-Jasso, Rafael; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl Eduardo; Lastras-Martínez, Alfonso; Pandikunta, Mahesh; Ledyaev, Oleg; Kuryatkov, Vladimir; Nikishin, Sergey

2015-02-01

355

High-peak-power terahertz sources pumped by high power laser and single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical rectification of laser pulses in LiNbO3 crystal pumped by high power laser is one of the most powerful way to generate this high-peak-power terahertz pulses. It enhances the laser-terahertz transform efficiency by tilted-pulse-front pumping(TPFP) to fulfill phase match in the LiNbO3 crystal. However, comprehensive theoretical analysis is still lack. In this work, a detailed theoretical model to investigate the THz generation efficiency by using nonlinear susceptibility tensor of LiNbO3 crystal was presented. Based on femtosecond laser system, a setup to generate high-peak-power terahertz pulses and a time domain spectroscopy system are established. The property of generated terahertz pulses was analyzed by using terahertz camera and THz time domain system. We also realized the single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform by using this terahertz source.

Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren

2015-02-01

356

Introducing dipole-like resonance into magnetic resonance to realize simultaneous drop in transmission and reflection at terahertz frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metamaterial (MM) consisting of double layer closed rings (DCRs) and a split-wire shows the different manipulations of the transmission T(? ) and reflection R(? ) to obtain simultaneous minimums. Parametric studies on the MM and a further LC circuit model are proposed, showing that the phenomenon is dominated by the interaction of the additional dipole-like resonance supported by the split-wire and the primary magnetic resonance supported by DCRs. Simultaneous sharp drops in T(? ) and R(? ) are observed in our MM at about 2.45 THz. The potential applications for near-perfect absorption and dual-directional absorption are discussed.

Hu, ChengGang; Li, Xiong; Feng, Qin; Chen, Xu'Nan; Luo, XianGang

2010-09-01

357

Terahertz antireflection coatings using metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate terahertz metamaterial antireflection coatings (ARCs) that significantly reduce the reflection and enhance the transmission at an interface of dielectric media. They are able to operate over a wide range of incidence angles for both TM and TE polarizations. Experiments and finite-element simulations will be presented and discussed.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

358

Discrimination between immature and mature green coffees by attenuated total reflectance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the characterization and discrimination between immature and mature or ripe coffee beans. Arabica coffee beans were submitted to FTIR analysis by reflectance readings employing attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance (DR) accessories. The obtained spectra were similar, but in general higher absorbance values were observed for nondefective beans in comparison to immature ones. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, AHC) was performed in order to verify the possibility of discrimination between immature and mature coffee samples. A clear separation between immature and mature coffees was observed based on AHC and PCA analyses of the normalized spectra obtained by employing both ATR and DR accessories. Linear discriminant analysis was employed for developing classification models, with recognition and prediction abilities of 100%. Such results showed that FTIR analysis presents potential for the development of a simple routine methodology for separation of immature and mature coffee beans. Practical Application: The ultimate goal of this research is to be able to propose improvements in the way immature coffee beans are separated from graded mature beans in coffee facilities (cooperatives and other coffee producer's associations). The results obtained herein point toward FTIR as a potential tool for the aimed improvements. PMID:22417580

Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

2011-10-01

359

Terahertz technology: a boon to tablet analysis.  

PubMed

The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from approximately 0.3 THz to approximately 10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

Wagh, M P; Sonawane, Y H; Joshi, O U

2009-05-01

360

Influence of terahertz waves on the fiber direction of CFRP composite laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of Carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are widely utilized due to more high performance in engineering structures. It was well known that a nondestructive technique would be very beneficial. A new terahertz radiation has been recognized for their importance in technological applications. Recently, T-ray (terahertz ray) advances of technology and instrumentation has provided a probing field on the electromagnetic spectrum. The THz-TDS can be considered as a useful tool using general non-conducting materials; however it is quite limited to conducting materials. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n) and the absorption coefficient (?) are derived in reflective and transmission configuration using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. However, the T-ray is limited in order to penetrate a conducting material to some degree. Here, the T-ray would not go through easily the CFRP composite laminates since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. So, investigation of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) was made and reflection and transmission configurations were studied for a 48-ply thermoplastic PPS (poly-phenylene sulfide)-based CFRP solid laminate. It is found that the electrical conductivity of CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers. Also, the T-ray could penetrate a CFRP composite laminate a few ply based on the E-filed (Electrical field) of carbon fibers. The terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field) direction in the CFRP solid laminates. Also, using two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform, interface C-scan images were transformed into quantitatively angular distribution plots to show the fiber orientation information therein and to predict the orientation of the ply.

Im, Kwang-Hee; Hsu, David K.; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Barnard, Daniel J.; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong

2013-01-01

361

Applications of Ultrafast Terahertz Pulses for Intra-ExcitonicSpectroscopy of Quasi-2D Electron-Hole Gases  

SciTech Connect

Excitons are of fundamental interest and of importance foropto-electronic applications of bulk and nano-structured semiconductors.This paper discusses the utilization of ultrafast terahertz (THz) pulsesfor the study of characteristic low-energy excitations of photoexcitedquasi 2D electron-hole (e-h) gases. Optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopyat 250-kHz repetition rate is employed to detect characteristic THzsignatures of excitons and unbound e-h pairs in GaAs quantum wells.Exciton and free-carrier densities are extracted from the data using atwo-component model. We report the detailed THz response and pairdensities for different photoexcitation energies resonant to heavy-holeexcitons, light-hole excitons, or the continuum of unbound pairs. Suchexperiments can provide quantitative insights into wavelength, time, andtemperature dependence of the low-energy response and composition ofoptically excited e-h gases in low-dimensionalsemiconductors.

Kaindl, Robert A.; Carnahan, Marc A.; Hagele, Daniel; Chemla, D.S.

2006-09-02

362

Greatly enhanced continuous-wave terahertz emission by nano-electrodes in a photoconductive photomixer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient, room-temperature-operation continuous-wave terahertz source will greatly benefit compact terahertz system development for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy and imaging applications. Here, we report highly efficient continuous-wave terahertz emission using nanogap electrodes in a photoconductive antenna-based photomixer. The tip-to-tip nanogap electrode structure provides strong terahertz field enhancement and acts as a nano-antenna to radiate the terahertz wave generated in the active region of the photomixer. In addition, it provides good impedance-matching to the terahertz planar antenna and exhibits a lower RC time constant, allowing more efficient radiation, especially at the higher part of the terahertz spectrum. As a result, the output power of the photomixer with the new nanogap electrode structure in the active region is two orders of magnitude higher than for a photomixer with typical interdigitated electrodes. The terahertz emission bandwidth also increases by a factor of more than two.

Tanoto, H.; Teng, J. H.; Wu, Q. Y.; Sun, M.; Chen, Z. N.; Maier, S. A.; Wang, B.; Chum, C. C.; Si, G. Y.; Danner, A. J.; Chua, S. J.

2012-02-01

363

Polymer stabilized liquid crystal phase shifter for terahertz waves.  

PubMed

We propose an electrically tunable phase shifter for terahertz frequencies. The device is based on a polymer stabilized liquid crystal which allows for a simple device geometry. The polymer stabilized liquid crystal enables continuous tuning of the introduced phase shift with only one pair of electrodes. By characterizing the device with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy we demonstrate a phase shift up to 2.5 terahertz, only slightly changed properties of the neat liquid crystal and significantly reduced response times. PMID:23736457

Altmann, Kristian; Reuter, Marco; Garbat, Katarzyna; Koch, Martin; Dabrowski, Roman; Dierking, Ingo

2013-05-20

364

Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators  

E-print Network

Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators Abul 1, 2005 We present a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy study of the transmission properties of the SRRs on the transmission properties of terahertz pulses in normal-incidence geometry. In one of the SRR

365

Transient optical modulation properties in the terahertz metamaterial of split ring resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrafast optical modulation properties of split ring resonators are characterized by utilizing optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. The experimental results show that when the terahertz electric vector is perpendicular to the gap of the split ring resonator, resonant absorption can be quenched significantly under high pump excitation. However, when the terahertz electric vector is parallel to the gap, the resonant

Zhou Qing-Li; Shi Yu-Lei; Wang Ai-Hua; Li Lei; Zhang Cun-Lin

2012-01-01

366

[In vivo reflectance spectroscopy study of different clearing agents on human skin optical clearing].  

PubMed

The changes of skin tissue reflectance spectroscopy before and after being treated with the optical clearing agents of three different types of optical clearing within the wavelength rang of 400-1 000 nm, and the degree of changes in reflectance spectroscopy of each group skin during 0-60 min at 580 nm in vivo were real-time dynamically researched. The reflectance spectroscopy of skin tissue before and after being dealt by the optical clearing agents of glycerol, glucose and propylene glycol was measured using a USB-4000 fiber spectrophotometer at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min. The results showed that the reflectance spectral intensity was distinctly decreased, but the reflectance was significantly increased gradually with the time prolonged. However, different optical clearing agents have different clearing progress. The relative decrease of reflectance of palm skin tissue before and after being dealt by the optical agents of 40% glycerol, 40% glucose and 40% propylene glycol during 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min at the wavelength 580 nm is 5%, 7%, 9%, 10%, 11% and 12%, 9%, 13%, 16%, 19%, 21% and 22%, and 14%, 22%, 29%, 32%, 34% and 35%, respectively. The significant improvement in light transmittance and enhancement of light penetration through tissue was demonstrated for all solutions. The effect and processes of optical clearing of skin tissue is not only closely related to the choosing of the clearing agent type, but also related to the treatment time with the skin tissue. The clearing progress of different type optical clearing agent showed the order of 40% propylene glycol, 40% glucose and 40% glycerol. PMID:21510369

Zhao, Qing-Liang; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Wei, Hua-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Qin; Si, Jun-Li; Xie, Shu-Sen; Wu, Guo-Yong; Zhong, Hui-Qing; Li, Lan-Quan; Guo, Xiao

2011-02-01

367

Active terahertz metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

368

Minimal model of point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy of multiband superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a minimal model of point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy of a normal-metal/multiband superconductor interface. The theory generalizes the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formulation to a multiband superconductor and it is based on the quantum waveguide theory. The proposed approach allows an analytic evaluation of the Andreev and normal reflection coefficients and thus is suitable for a data fitting of point contact experiments. The obtained differential conductance curves present distinctive features similar to those measured in the experiments on multiband superconductors, such as iron-based pnictides and MgB2.

Romeo, F.; Citro, R.

2015-01-01

369

Development of techniques for advanced optical contamination measurement with internal reflection spectroscopy, phase 1, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of monitoring volatile contaminants in a large space simulation chamber using techniques of internal reflection spectroscopy was demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The infrared spectral region was selected as the operational spectral range in order to provide unique identification of the contaminants along with sufficient sensitivity to detect trace contaminant concentrations. It was determined theoretically that a monolayer of the contaminants could be detected and identified using optimized experimental procedures. This ability was verified experimentally. Procedures were developed to correct the attenuated total reflectance spectra for thick sample distortion. However, by using two different element designs the need for such correction can be avoided.

Hayes, J. D.

1972-01-01

370

Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

2007-01-01

371

Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.  

PubMed

The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites. PMID:14524467

Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

2003-09-15

372

Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed, and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/l, respectively.

Chen, Wenliang; Liu, Rong; Cui, Houxin; Xu, Kexin; Lv, Lina

2004-07-01

373

Non-invasive fibre optic Fourier transform-infrared reflectance spectroscopy on painted layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre optic Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) reflectance spectroscopy has recently made it possible to perform completely non-invasive investigations on works of art and, in particular, on painted layers. The use of chalcogenide fibre optics can overcome most of the limitations due to the size of the objects under investigation, and permits the acquisition of spectra in a wide mid-IR range that

M Bacci; M Fabbri; M Picollo; S Porcinai

2001-01-01

374

Fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibrations for predicting diet quality and intake of donkeys  

E-print Network

.), Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia; M.Sc., University of Aberdeen, Scotland Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jerry W. Stuth The objective of these studies was to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibration equations from...-Jones 1994) of which more than 10% are donkeys. Over 95% of the donkeys are found in developing countries (Pritchard et al. 2005) and East Africa region (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) alone accounts for more than 5.6 million donkeys...

Kidane, Negusse Fessehaye

2006-08-16

375

Using Visible and Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Classify Soil Profiles  

E-print Network

USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Cristine L. S. Morgan Committee...

Wilke, Katrina Margarette

2011-10-21

376

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION WITH FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY: APPLICATIONS TO SUBSTRATE-SUPPORTED PLANAR MEMBRANES  

PubMed Central

In this review paper, the conceptual basis and experimental design of total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) is described. The few applications to date of TIR-FCS to supported membranes are discussed, in addition to a variety of applications not directly involving supported membranes. Methods related, but not technically equivalent, to TIR-FCS are also summarized. Future directions for TIR-FCS are outlined. PMID:19269331

Thompson, Nancy L.; Wang, Xiang; Navaratnarajah, Punya

2009-01-01

377

Application of Diffuse Reflectance FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Surface Study of Kevlar Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surfaces of Kevlar-49 aramid fibers, being used in high-performance composite materials, have been characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Enhancement of the surface selectivity of the technique has been achieved using KBr overlayers. The water absorbed by both the skin and the core of the fibers has been characterized by using this technique and the accessibility of the fiber functional groups has been evaluated.

Chatzi, E. G.; Ishida, H.; Koenig, J. L.

1985-12-01

378

Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

2014-03-01

379

Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

2010-01-01

380

Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

Dunlop, Iain E; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P; Schreiber, Frank

2009-01-30

381

Spiral-type terahertz antennas and the manifestation of the Mushiake principle  

E-print Network

Spiral-type terahertz antennas and the manifestation of the Mushiake principle Ranjan Singh1 on the experimental and theoretical study of the resonant eigenmodes of spiral-type terahertz antennas. The analysis reflection and transmission coefficient. This property makes the spiral-type terahertz antenna not only

Oklahoma State University

382

Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques J. P. Guillet & B. Recur & L. Frederique & B. Bousquet & L. Canioni &  

E-print Network

terahertz transmission and reflection images to be considered as a new imaging tool complementary to XReview of Terahertz Tomography Techniques J. P. Guillet & B. Recur & L. Frederique & B. Bousquet & L. Canioni & I Manek-Hönninger & P. Desbarats & P. Mounaix Abstract Terahertz and millimeter waves

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

896 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 8 / April 15, 2004 Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength  

E-print Network

896 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 8 / April 15, 2004 Terahertz transmission properties of thin present experimental results of the transmission magnitude and phase change of terahertz pulses through-selective components in the development of terahertz optoelectronics. High transmission or reflection at selective

384

Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reflection-type ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry system covering the frequency range of 0.5-30 THz. GaP (110) and z-cut GaSe crystals are used as emitters to generate the THz and mid-infrared pulses, respectively, and a photoconductive antenna switch using a low-temperature grown GaAs epitaxial layer transferred on Si substrate was used as a detector. By changing the emitter between the GaP and GaSe crystals, the measurable frequency range can be easily switched from the 0.5-7.8 THz range to the 7.8-30 THz range without additional optical alignment. We demonstrated the measurement of the dielectric function in a p-type InAs wafer and the optical conductivity of an indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film. The obtained carrier density and the mobility of the ITO thin film show good agreement with that obtained by the Hall measurement.

Yamashita, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Hideki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Otani, Chiko

2014-02-01

385

Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector  

SciTech Connect

We present a reflection-type ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry system covering the frequency range of 0.5–30 THz. GaP (110) and z-cut GaSe crystals are used as emitters to generate the THz and mid-infrared pulses, respectively, and a photoconductive antenna switch using a low-temperature grown GaAs epitaxial layer transferred on Si substrate was used as a detector. By changing the emitter between the GaP and GaSe crystals, the measurable frequency range can be easily switched from the 0.5–7.8 THz range to the 7.8–30 THz range without additional optical alignment. We demonstrated the measurement of the dielectric function in a p-type InAs wafer and the optical conductivity of an indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film. The obtained carrier density and the mobility of the ITO thin film show good agreement with that obtained by the Hall measurement.

Yamashita, Masatsugu, E-mail: m-yama@riken.jp; Takahashi, Hideki; Otani, Chiko [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 519-1399 Aobaaramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Ouchi, Toshihiko [Corporate R and D Headquarters, Canon Inc., 30-2 Shimomaruko 3-Chome, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 145-8501 (Japan)

2014-02-03

386

Characterization of Material Degradation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y.; Scott, Benjamin J.

2011-06-01

387

Characterization of material degradation in ceramic matrix composites using infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Scott, Benjamin J. [Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

2011-06-23

388

Optical Nerve Detection by Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Feedback Controlled Oral and Maxillofacial Laser Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Laser surgery lacks haptic feedback, which is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. It was the aim of this study to investigate diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for tissue differentiation as the base of a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Methods Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, salivary gland and bone (8640 spectra) of the mid-facial region of ex vivo domestic pigs were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed using principal component (PC) analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results Five PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. Nerve tissue could be differed from bone as well as from salivary gland with AUC results of greater than 88%, sensitivity of greater than 83% and specificity in excess of 78%. Conclusions Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is an adequate technique for nerve identification in the vicinity of bone and salivary gland. The results set the basis for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage when performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. PMID:21310023

2011-01-01

389

Combined reflectance spectroscopy and stochastic modeling approach for noninvasive hemoglobin determination via palpebral conjunctiva  

PubMed Central

Abstract A combination of stochastic photon propagation model in a multilayered human eyelid tissue and reflectance spectroscopy was used to study palpebral conjunctiva spectral reflectance for hemoglobin (Hgb) determination. The developed model is the first biologically relevant model of eyelid tissue, which was shown to provide very good approximation to the measured spectra. Tissue optical parameters were defined using previous histological and microscopy studies of a human eyelid. After calibration of the model parameters the responses of reflectance spectra to Hgb level and blood oxygenation variations were calculated. The stimulated reflectance spectra in adults with normal and low Hgb levels agreed well with experimental data for Hgb concentrations from 8.1 to 16.7 g/dL. The extracted Hgb levels were compared with in vitro Hgb measurements. The root mean square error of cross?validation was 1.64 g/dL. The method was shown to provide 86% sensitivity estimates for clinically diagnosed anemia cases. A combination of the model with spectroscopy measurements provides a new tool for noninvasive study of human conjunctiva to aid in diagnosing blood disorders such as anemia. PMID:24744871

Kim, Oleg; McMurdy, John; Jay, Gregory; Lines, Collin; Crawford, Gregory; Alber, Mark

2014-01-01

390

Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects  

E-print Network

Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects David M. Slocum a vapor Absorption Continuum Terahertz Spectroscopy a b s t r a c t The water vapor continuum absorption. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

391

Terahertz magnetospectroscopy of transient plasmas in semiconductors M. A. Zudova)  

E-print Network

Terahertz magnetospectroscopy of transient plasmas in semiconductors M. A. Zudova) Department-infrared NIR and terahertz THz lasers, we have performed picosecond time-resolved THz spectroscopy of transient carriers in semiconductors. Specifically, we measured the temporal evolution of THz transmission

Kono, Junichiro

392

Highly Selective Terahertz Bandpass Filters Based on Trapped Mode  

E-print Network

Highly Selective Terahertz Bandpass Filters Based on Trapped Mode Excitation Oliver Paul1, Ren@physik.uni-kl.de Abstract: We present two types of metamaterial-based spectral band- pass filters for the terahertz (THz. The proposed filters are investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy and show a pronounced transmission peak

393

Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental results of the transmission magnitude and phase change of terahertz pulses through thin metallic films patterned with subwavelength hole arrays on silicon wafers. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements reveal a sharp phase peak centered on the surface plasmon resonance. Corre- spondingly, and consistent with the Kramers -Kronig relations, the measured transmission magnitude has the shape of the derivative

Dongxia Qu; D. Grischkowsky; Weili Zhang

394

Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental results of the transmission magnitude and phase change of terahertz pulses through thin metallic films patterned with subwavelength hole arrays on silicon wafers. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements reveal a sharp phase peak centered on the surface plasmon resonance. Correspondingly, and consistent with the Kramers-Kronig relations, the measured transmission magnitude has the shape of the derivative of this

Dongxia Qu; D. Grischkowsky; Weili Zhang

2004-01-01

395

Terahertz metamaterials for active, tunable, and dynamic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tunable electromagnetic metamaterials can be designed through the incorporation of semiconducting materials. We present theory, simulation, and experimental results of metamaterials operating at terahertz frequencies. Specific emphasis is placed on the demonstration of external control of planar arrays of metamaterials patterned on semiconducting substrates with terahertz time domain spectroscopy used to characterize device performance. Dynamical control is achieved via photoexcitation

Nathan I. Landy; Hou-Tong Chen; John F. O'Hara; Joshua M. O. Zide; Arthur C. Gossard; Clark Highstrete; Mark Lee; Antoinette J. Taylor; Richard D. Averitt; Willie J. Padilla

2007-01-01

396

Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz and Millimeter Wave Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental results of metamaterials operating at terahertz and mm-wave frequencies. Metamaterials consist of a single layer of 200 nm thick gold on a doped or undoped semiconducting substrate. By optical and electronic doping of supporting semiconducting substrates we show external control of planar arrays of metamaterials, characterized with terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Both methods yield meta-material \\/ semiconductor

N. I. Landy; Hou-Tong Chen; J. F. OHara; J. M. O. Zide; A. C. Gossard; C. Highstrete; M. Lee; A. J. Taylor; R. D. Averitt; W. J. Padilla

2007-01-01

397

Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes.  

PubMed

The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D(*) have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D(*) simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D(*) data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D(*) produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D(*). PMID:24811648

Zhang, Feng; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Kambara, Ohki; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Sasaki, Tetsuo

2014-05-01

398

Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: Effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D* have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D* simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D* data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D* produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D*.

Zhang, Feng; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Kambara, Ohki; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Sasaki, Tetsuo

2014-05-01

399

Determination of Cellulose Fiber Structure Using IR Reflectance Spectroscopy of Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid and non-destructive method for analyzing the structure of cellulose fibers using IR reflectance spectroscopy from a paper surface was developed and verified for correctness. IR absorption and reflectance spectra of standard paper samples of known composition (sheets made of four fibers of different origin without additives and with additives of kaolin and chalk) were analyzed. Good correlations between these two spectral methods were found for the studied samples. Calibration curves were useful for assessing the structure of cellulose samples from XVIth century historical paper. Data on the degree of cellulose ordering that were obtained from the paper reflectance spectra indicated that the studied sheets consisted mainly of flax fibers with added cotton. This agreed fully with the historical fact that the studied samples were rag papers.

Derkacheva, O. Yu.

2015-01-01

400

Particular features of the application of IR reflection spectroscopy methods in studies in archeology and paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have considered an optical model of a porous rough surface with optical properties of objects (bone, flint) that are typical of archeology and paleontology. We have formulated an approach that makes it possible to perform mathematical processing of the IR reflection spectra of objects of this kind using standard algorithms and determine criteria that ensure obtaining reliable information on objects with a rough surface in the course of interpretation of frequencies in their IR reflection spectra. The potential of the approach has been demonstrated using as an example an investigation by the IR Fourier-transform reflection spectroscopy of mineralization processes of mammoth tusks from two paleolithic sites (14000 and 16000 BCE) located by the town of Yudinovo, Bryansk oblast, Russia.

Zolotarev, V. M.; Khlopachev, G. A.

2013-06-01

401

Investigation of the electrical and optical properties of iridium oxide by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable angle reflectance FTIR spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of iridium oxide thin films deposited on glass substrates in the near-IR spectral region. The reflectance was studied as a function of incident angle and wavenumber for p-polarized radiation. The Drude free-electron model along with the Fresnel equations of reflection were utilized to fit the experimental reflectance FTIR

Scott H. Brewer; Dwi Wicaksana; Jon-Paul Maria; Angus I. Kingon; Stefan Franzen

2005-01-01

402

Quantitative Analysis of Naturally Colored Cotton and White Cotton Blends by UV-VIS Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method was discussed to quantitatively analyze the blend ratio of naturally colored cotton (NCC) and white cotton (WC) by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Three kinds of spectroscopy parameters, diffuse reflectance, reflection absorbance, and the K-M function, were used to correlate them with the blend ratio of NCC/ WC fibers. The results showed that diffuse reflectance and blending ratio had the highest correlation coefficients. Therefore this method can be widely used to quantify the blending ratio of NCC/WC fibers as a result of its greater accuracy and simplicity compared to traditional detection methods.

Hu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Zhao, D.; Dong, S.; Zhou, W.; Tang, Z.

2015-01-01

403

Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220-0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity.

Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S.

2015-02-01

404

Terahertz and far-infrared synchrotron spectroscopy and global modeling of methyl mercaptan, CH3(32)SH.  

PubMed

In this work, terahertz and Fourier transform far-infrared (FTFIR) synchrotron spectra of methyl mercaptan, CH(3)SH, have been investigated in order to provide new laboratory information for enhanced observations of this species in interstellar molecular clouds and star-forming regions. Like its methanol cousin, methyl mercaptan has particularly rich spectra associated with its large-amplitude internal rotation that extend throughout the THz and FIR regions. We have recorded new spectra for CH(3)SH from 1.1-1.5 and 1.790-1.808 THz at the University of Cologne as well as high-resolution FTFIR synchrotron spectra from 50-550 cm(-1) at 0.001 cm(-1) resolution on the far-IR beam-line at the Canadian Light Source. Assignments are reported for rotational quantum numbers up to J ? 40 and K ? 15, and torsional states up to v(t) = 2 for the THz measurements and v(t) = 3 for the FTFIR observations. The THz and FTFIR measurements together with literature results have been combined in a global analysis of a dataset comprising a total of 1725 microwave and THz frequencies together with ~18000 FTFIR transitions, ranging up to v(t) = 2 and J(max) = 30 for MW?THz and 40 for FTFIR. The global fit employs 78 torsion-rotation parameters and has achieved a weighted standard deviation of ~1.1. A prediction list (v(t) ? 2, J ? 45 and K ? 20) has been generated from the model giving essentially complete coverage of observable CH(3)(32)SH transitions within the bandwidths of major new astronomical facilities such as HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared) on the Herschel Space Observatory, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) and APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) to close to spectroscopic accuracy. PMID:22979865

Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R M; Crabbe, G T; Myshrall, J A; Müller, H S P; Endres, C P; Baum, O; Lewen, F; Schlemmer, S; Menten, K M; Billinghurst, B E

2012-09-14

405

Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected.  

PubMed

The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220-0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity. PMID:25662667

Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S

2015-02-01

406

Broadband reflectance spectroscopy for establishing a quantitative metric of vascular leak using the Miles assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the physiological effects of biological mediators on vascular permeability is important for identifying potential targets for antivascular leak therapy. This therapy is relevant to treatments for pulmonary edema and other disorders. Current methods of quantifying vascular leak are in vitro and do not allow repeated measurement of the same animal. Using an in vivo diffuse reflectance optical method allows pharmacokinetic analysis of candidate antileak molecules. Here, vascular leak is assessed in mice and rats by using the Miles assay and introducing irritation both topically using mustard oil and intradermally using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The severity of the leak is assessed using broadband diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber reflectance probe. Postprocessing techniques are applied to extract an artificial quantitative metric of leak from reflectance spectra at vascular leak sites on the skin of the animal. This leak metric is calculated with respect to elapsed time from irritation in both mustard oil and VEGF treatments on mice and VEGF treatments on rats, showing a repeatable increase in leak metric with leak severity. Furthermore, effects of pressure on the leak metric are observed to have minimal effect on the reflectance spectra, while spatial positioning showed spatially nonuniform leak sites.

McMurdy, John; Reichner, Jonathan; Mathews, Zara; Markey, Mary; Intwala, Sunny; Crawford, Gregory

2009-09-01

407

Remote identification of the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum using reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Benthic coverage of the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank is largely unknown. Monitoring of D. vexillum coverage is vital to understanding the impact this invasive species will have on the productive fishing grounds of Georges Bank. Here we investigate using reflectance spectroscopy as a method for remote identification of D. vexillum. Using two different systems, a NightSea Dive-Spec and a combination of LED light sources with a hyperspectral radiometer, we collected in-situ measurements of reflectance from D. vexillum colonies. In comparison to reflectance spectra of other common benthic substrates, D. vexillum appears to have a unique spectral signature between 500 and 600 nm. Measuring the slope of the spectrum between these wavelengths appears to be the most robust method for spectral identification. Using derivative analysis or principal component analysis, the reflectance spectra of D. vexillum can be identified among numerous other spectra of common benthic substrates. An optical system consisting of a radiometer, light source, and camera was deployed on a remotely operated vehicle to test the feasibility of using reflectance to assess D. vexillum coverage. Preliminary results, analyzed here, prove the method to be successful for the areas we surveyed and open the way for its use on large-scale surveys. PMID:23478782

Leeuw, Thomas; Newburg, Seth O; Boss, Emmanuel S; Slade, Wayne H; Soroka, Michael G; Pederson, Judith; Chryssostomidis, Chryssostomos; Hover, Franz S

2013-03-10

408

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer - A pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foot ulceration due to diabetes mellitus is a major problem affecting 12-25% of diabetic subjects in their lifetime. An untreated ulcer further gets infected which causes necrosis leading to amputation of lower extremities. Early identification of risk factors and treatment for these chronic wounds would reduce health care costs and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. Recent clinical investigations have shown that a series of factors including reduced oxygen delivery and disturbed metabolism have been observed on patients with foot ulceration due to diabetes. Also, these factors can impair the wound healing process. Optical techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provide characteristic spectral finger prints shed light on tissue oxygenation levels and morphological composition of a tissue. This study deals with the application of diffuse reflectance intensity ratios based on oxyhemoglobin bands (R542/R580), ratios of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin bands (R580/R555), total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation between normal and diabetic foot ulcer sites. Preliminary results obtained are found to be promising indicating the application of reflectance spectroscopy in the assessment of foot ulcer healing.

Anand, Suresh; Sujatha, N.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, Richa

2014-02-01

409

In vivo characterization of myocardial infarction using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the feasibility of using combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to characterize a myocardial infarct at different developing stages. An animal study is conducted using rats with surgically induced myocaridal infarction (MI). In vivo fluorescence spectra at 337-nm excitation and diffuse reflectance between 400 and 900 nm are measured from the heart. Spectral acquisition is performed: 1. for normal heart tissue; 2. for the area immediately surrounding the infarct; and 3. for the infarcted tissue itself, one, two, three, and four weeks into MI development. Histological and statistical analyses are used to identify unique pathohistological features and spectral alterations associated with the investigated regions. The main alterations (p<0.05) in diffuse reflectance spectra are identified primarily between 450 and 600 nm. The dominant fluorescence alterations are increases in peak fluorescence intensity at 400 and 460 nm. The extent of these spectral alterations is related to the duration of the infarction. The findings of this study support the concept that optical spectroscopy could be useful as a tool to noninvasively determine the in vivo pathophysiological features of a myocardial infarct and its surrounding tissue, thereby providing real-time feedback to surgeons during various surgical interventions for MI.

Ti, Yalin; Chen, Poching; Lin, Wei-Chiang

2010-05-01

410

Single nanowire photoconductive terahertz detectors.  

PubMed

Spectroscopy and imaging in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum has proven to provide important insights in fields as diverse as chemical analysis, materials characterization, security screening, and nondestructive testing. However, compact optoelectronics suited to the most powerful terahertz technique, time-domain spectroscopy, are lacking. Here, we implement single GaAs nanowires as microscopic coherent THz sensors and for the first time incorporated them into the pulsed time-domain technique. We also demonstrate the functionality of the single nanowire THz detector as a spectrometer by using it to measure the transmission spectrum of a 290 GHz low pass filter. Thus, nanowires are shown to be well suited for THz device applications and hold particular promise as near-field THz sensors. PMID:25490548

Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Fu, Lan; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Nian; Guo, Ya-Nan; Wang, Fan; Joyce, Hannah J; Boland, Jessica L; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B

2015-01-14

411

Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation,  

E-print Network

spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects S.-H. Yang, A. X. Gray, A. M spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects S.-H. Yang,1 A. X. Gray,2,3,4 A, including total reflection at grazing incidence, excitation with standing-waves produced by reflection from

Fadley, Charles

412

Hygrothermal degradation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane films studied by neutron and X-ray reflectivity and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of organosilanes have great technological importance in the areas of adhesion promotion, durability, and corrosion resistance. However, it is well-known that water can degrade organosilane films, particularly at elevated temperatures. In this work, X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR and NR) were combined with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to study the chemical and structural changes within thin films of (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPS) after exposure for various periods of time to air saturated with either D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O at 80 C. For NR and XR, ultrathin ({approx}100 {angstrom}) films were prepared by spin-coating. Both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O provide neutron scattering contrast with GPS. Variations in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) profiles (a function of mass density and atomic composition) with conditioning time were measured after drying the samples out and also swelled with H{sub 2}O or D{sub 2}O vapor at room temperature. For samples that were dried out prior to measurement, little or no change was observed for H{sub 2}O conditioning up to 3.5 days, but large changes were observed after 30 days of conditioning. The range of conditioning time for this structural change was narrowed to between 4 and 10 days with XR. The SLD profiles indicated that the top portion of the GPS film was transformed into a thick low-density layer after conditioning, but the bottom portion showed little structural change. A previous NR study of as-prepared GPS films involving swelling with deuterated nitrobenzene showed that the central portion of the film has much lower cross-link density than the region nearest the substrate. The present data show that the central portion also swells to a much greater extent with water and hydrolyzes more rapidly. The chemical degradation mechanism was identified by IR as hydrolysis of siloxane bonds. For ATR-IR, GPS films were prepared by dip-coating, which resulted in a greater and more variable thickness than for the spin-coated samples. The IR spectra revealed an increase in vicinal silanol generation over the first 3 days of conditioning followed by geminal silanol generation. Thus, the structural change detected by NR and XR roughly coincided with the onset of geminal silanol generation. Finally, little change in the reflectivity data was observed for films conditioned with D{sub 2}O at 80 C for 1 month. This indicates that hydrolysis of Si-O-Si is much slower with D{sub 2}O than with H{sub 2}O.

Tallant, David Robert; Garcia, Manuel Joseph; Majewski, Jaroslaw (Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM); Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun

2005-05-01

413

Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Innovative Strategy for Analyzing Mineral Components in Energy Relevant Systems  

PubMed Central

The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMID:25358261

Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Piane, Claudio Delle; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

2014-01-01

414

Interaction of mineral surfaces with simple organci molecules by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFT)  

SciTech Connect

Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to characterize multi-layers of lysine, glutamic acid and salicylic acid on ?-alumina and kaolinite surfaces. The results agreed well with those previously obtained by ATR-IR in aqueous media where available, indicating that DRIFT may be regarded as effectively an in-situ spectroscopy for these materials. In the case of salicylic acid adsorption onto ?-alumina, DRIFTS was used to identify monolayer coverage and to detect molecules down to coverage of 3% of a monolayer. The spectroscopic results as to coverage were confirmed by analysis of the solutions used for treatment. The spectra obtained allowed identification of changes in the bonding environment with increasing surface coverage. DRIFTS, offers several advantages in terms of materials, experimental technique and data treatment, motivating further investigations.

Joan Thomas; Michael Kelley

2007-06-18

415

X-ray reflectivity and photoelectron spectroscopy study of interdiffusion at the Si /Fe interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the nature of silicon on iron interface in electron beam deposited Fe /Si bilayers, with various iron and silicon thicknesses. The Fe and Si layer thicknesses are varied from 30to330Å and 20to86Å, respectively. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were carried out on these samples to determine interface characteristics. Si on Fe (Si&barbelow;Fe) interlayer thickness, roughness, and composition do not depend on the thickness of Fe and Si. The thickness of the interlayer is around 13Å. A systematic variation in silicide concentration across this interface is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. Change in the density of states in valence band across this interface is also observed by ultraviolet photoelectron measurement.

Naik, S. R.; Rai, S.; Lodha, G. S.; Brajpuriya, R.

2006-07-01

416

Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity, Dracula has a hole in his house and learners help solve the problem by using a mirror and protractor to reflect incoming light out of his house. This activity introduces learners to vocabulary associated with light and optics including reflected ray, angle of incident, and angle of reflection. This Dracula-themed activity also works well during Halloween.

Carlyn Little

1997-01-01

417

Measurement of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase using reflectance spectroscopy and reagent strips.  

PubMed Central

Two new methods for the assay of total activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase are described, in which the enzyme activities are measured from a solid-state reagent strip during a kinetic reaction, the reaction being monitored in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum by reflectance spectroscopy. The performances of these methods are evaluated, and compared to conventional "wet" chemistry methods. The solid-phase reagent methods demonstrated precision and accuracy acceptable for diagnostic purposes, and were easy to use by trained operators. PMID:6655069

Stevens, J F; Tsang, W; Newall, R G

1983-01-01

418

Prediction of leaf chemistry by the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical content of dry, ground leaf material sampled from deciduous and conifer tree species from sites in Alaska, Wisconsin, and California was estimated using visible and shortwave IR spectroscopy. Seven chemical components - sugar, starch, protein, cellulose, total chlorophyll, lignin, and total nitrogen - were analyzed by wet chemical methods and their concentrations regressed against log 1/rho and first and second differences of log 1/rho (where rho is measured reflectance) at wavelengths selected by stepwise regression. Predictions of chemical concentrations based on cross validation suggest that this technique may be useful for extracting vegetation canopy biochemical information by remote sensing.

Card, Don H.; Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Aber, John D.

1988-01-01

419

Remote diffuse reflectance spectroscopy sensor for tissue engineering monitoring based on blind signal separation  

PubMed Central

In this study the first results on evaluation and assessment of grafted bioengineered skin substitutes using an optical Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) system with a remote optical probe are shown. The proposed system is able to detect early vascularization of skin substitutes expressing the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) protein compared to normal grafts, even though devitalized skin is used to protect the grafts. Given the particularities of the biological problem, data analysis is performed using two Blind Signal Separation (BSS) methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). These preliminary results are the first step towards point-of-care diagnostics for skin implants early assessment. PMID:25401034

Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Ruiz-Llata, Marta; Lopez-Fernandez, José Ramón; Jorcano, José Luis; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; Acedo, Pablo

2014-01-01

420

Sorting of polypropylene resins by color in MSW using visible reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In this paper, an automated sorter is proposed for distinguishing polypropylene (PP) plastics based on their color. This sorting system uses visible (VIS) reflectance spectroscopy to separate PP resins according to their colors. A "Three-Filter" identification algorithm was developed to recognize the PP color (blue, red, green, white or yellow), and accordingly, give the command for throwing or not throwing PP to a series of electro pneumatic valves. The proposed sorting system was demonstrated to be fast and accurate, despite the presence of different labels and surface contamination on the PP resins. PMID:20674323

Safavi, S M; Masoumi, H; Mirian, S S; Tabrizchi, M

2010-11-01

421

In situ characterization of soil properties using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

E-print Network

.5 0.6 0.7 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Wavelength (nm) Refl ec tan c e (% ) sand loam clay Visible Absorbance peaks related to water. NIR Fig.1.1. Soil reflectance of three soils from Erath County, Texas. 4 Visible to mid-infrared (MIR...) spectroscopy has been used to quantify soil properties with varying accuracies and results. The visible, near-infrared (NIR), and MIR spectral ranges are 350 to 700 nm, 700 to 2500 nm, and 2500 to 25000 nm, respectively. McCarty et al. (2002) have shown...

Waiser, Travis Heath

2007-09-17

422

Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy of cellulose-based materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse Reflectance mid-Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of cellulose-based materials including wood, paper, and paper products. High-quality DRIFT spectra representing 1 mm spatial resolution on the substrate were obtained from different locations on the sample using a mechanical positioning technique. The analysis of the spectra results in spectral images showing the spatial variation in the chemistry of the sample. Chemical variations in cellulose-based samples have been observed due to variations in ink content, coating thickness, and concentration of phenyl and carbonyl groups associated with lignin.

Parks, J. E.; Blair, D. S.; Powell, G. L.

1998-06-01

423

Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy of simultaneous processes: Corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide by benzotriazole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was used to perform in situ studies of the corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) by benzotriazole (BTA) in aqueous solution at concentrations from 1 to 20 ?M. Because two separate processes occur simultaneously, that of Cu 2O corrosion and corrosion inhibition by BTA adsorption, the spectral information was subjected to deconvolution by a conjugate gradient minimization algorithm. Under these conditions, a solution phase concentration of 7-10 ?M BTA nearly completely inhibited the corrosion of Cu 2O in deionized water. Using a Langmuir adsorption model, this represented only 25% of the maximally covered surface area.

Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Allred, Daniel B.; Saito, Nagahiro; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Takai, Osamu

2008-03-01

424

The comparison for leaf nitrogen estimating in rice by chlorophyll meters and reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Handheld chlorophyll sensors is a very important technique to determine the timing and number of N applications, which can improve the fertilizer-N use efficiency and monitor leaf N status of irrigated rice. One solution-culture and two field experiments with four rice genotypes were conducted to obtain variables reflecting nitrogen (N) status at different developmental stages. The paper systemically compared SPAD indices calculated from the SPAD readings of various leaf positions and hyperspectral vegetation indices. The results showed that the indices RSI and RDSI were more reliable SPAD indices for estimating foliar N status in rice plant; In addition, from view of quickness and cheapness, chlorophyll meters are more suitable for estimating foliar N status in rice than reflectance spectroscopy on the basis of meeting accuracy requirements.

Lin, Fenfang; Wang, Ke

425

Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic characteristics, and reflection loss analysis of nickel-strontium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

In current research work, Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x/2}Sr{sub x/2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x?=?0–1 in a step of 0.2) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method. According to the evolution in the subspectral areas obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy, it was found that the relaxing iron belongs mostly to the site B, since the Mössbauer fraction of site A does not vary appreciably. With an increase in Ni-Sr substitution contents in cobalt ferrite, the coercivity and saturation of magnetization decrease. Variation of reflection loss versus frequency in microwave X-band demonstrates that the reflection peak shifts to lower frequency by adding substituted cations and the synthesized nanoparticles can be considered for application in electromagnetic wave absorber technology.

Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com [Materials Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Paesano, Andrea; Cerqueira Machado, Carla Fabiana [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá (Brazil); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (India); Spin Device Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu [Spin Device Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

2014-05-07

426

Infrared reflectance and photoemission spectroscopy studies across the phase transition boundary in thin film vanadium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Optical properties and valence band density of states near the Fermi level of high-quality VO2 thin films have been investigated by mid-infrared reflectometry and hard-UV (h = 150 eV) photoemission spectroscopy. An exceptionally large change in reflectance from 2 to 94% is found upon the thermally driven metal insulator transition (MIT). The infrared dispersion spectra of the reflectance across the MIT are presented and evidence for the percolative nature of the MIT is pointed out. The discrepancy between the MIT temperatures defined from the electrical and optical properties is found and its origin is discussed. The manifestation of the MIT is observed in the photoemission spectra of the V 3d levels. The analysis of the changes of the V 3d density of states is done and the top valence band shift upon the MIT is measured to be 0.6 eV.

Ruzmetov, Dmitry [Harvard University; Zawilski, Kevin [BAE Systems; Senanayake, Sanjaya D [ORNL; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh [Harvard University; Ramanathan, Shriram [Harvard University

2008-01-01

427

Sediment mineralogy based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIS) can be used to measure reflectance spectra (wavelength 350-2500 nm) for sediment cores and samples. A local ground-truth calibration of spectral features to mineral percentages is calculated by measuring reflectance spectra for a suite of samples of known mineralogy. This approach has been tested on powders, core plugs and split cores, and we conclude that it works well on all three, unless pore water is present. Initial VNIS studies have concentrated on determination of relative proportions of carbonate, opal, smectite and illite in equatorial Pacific sediments. Shipboard VNIS-based determination of these four components was demonstrated on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

Jarrard, R.D.; Vanden Berg, M.D.

2006-01-01

428

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 053102 (2011) Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm  

E-print Network

technology. In order to have flexible THz emitters and detectors near infrared fs light pulses have-domain spectroscopy system of high stability, flexibility, and portability is presented here. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3587070] I. INTRODUCTION In the electro-magnetic spectrum, THz-radiation

429

Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator.  

PubMed

An optical broadband terahertz (THz) wave modulator, based on a polymer-inorganic interface, is investigated. The THz pulse transmission was efficiently modulated by an external continuous wave (CW) laser. The effects on the poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV)/silicon interface were measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy. The modulation factor reached 99.6%, at an external laser beam intensity of 6.3??W/cm2. In the proposed THz-CW system, a significant fall (in both THz transmission and reflection) was also observed at the MEH-PPV/Si interface. This reduction in THz transmission and reflection has been induced by absorption at the MEH-PPV/Si interface. The results show that an optically controlled polymer/inorganic broadband THz modulator can be realized. PMID:25361291

Zhang, Bo; He, Ting; Shen, Jingling; Hou, Yanbing; Hu, Yufeng; Zang, Mengdi; Chen, Tianji; Feng, Shengfei; Teng, Feng; Qin, Liang

2014-11-01

430

A simple and green analytical method for determination of glyphosate in commercial formulations and water by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method for the monitoring of glyphosate using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed method is based on reflectance measurements of the colored compound produced from the spot test reaction between glyphosate and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, using a filter paper as solid support. Experimental designs were used to optimize the analytical

Aline Santana da Silva; Flávio Cesar Bedatty Fernandes; João Olímpio Tognolli; Leonardo Pezza; Helena Redigolo Pezza

2011-01-01

431

Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (? 32 cm(-1)) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm(-1). Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T

2011-11-21

432

Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (? 32 cm?1) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm?1. Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T.

2011-01-01

433

Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of leather in terahertz wave range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed THz time-domain spectroscopy is a coherent technique, in which both the amplitude and the phase of a THz pulse are measured. Recently, material characterization using THz spectroscopy has been applied to biochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers and semiconductors and has given us important information. Moreover, THz imaging has progressed and is expected to be applicable for the identification of narcotics and explosives. The most important and characteristic point of THz spectroscopy is said to be its ability to observe intermolecular vibrations in contrast to infrared spectroscopy (IR), which observes intramolecular vibrations. Coherent detection enables direct calculations of both the imaginary and the real parts of the refractive index without using the Kramers-Kronig relations. Terahertz wave spectroscopy has been used to study the properties and absorption spectra characteristic of materials. In this paper, the spectral characteristics of cow skin, pig skin sheep skin, horse skin and deer skin have been measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.1~2.0THz. The results show that THz-TDS technology provides an important tool for quality analysis and detection of leathers.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2011-11-01

434

Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of leather in terahertz wave range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed THz time-domain spectroscopy is a coherent technique, in which both the amplitude and the phase of a THz pulse are measured. Recently, material characterization using THz spectroscopy has been applied to biochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers and semiconductors and has given us important information. Moreover, THz imaging has progressed and is expected to be applicable for the identification of narcotics and explosives. The most important and characteristic point of THz spectroscopy is said to be its ability to observe intermolecular vibrations in contrast to infrared spectroscopy (IR), which observes intramolecular vibrations. Coherent detection enables direct calculations of both the imaginary and the real parts of the refractive index without using the Kramers-Kronig relations. Terahertz wave spectroscopy has been used to study the properties and absorption spectra characteristic of materials. In this paper, the spectral characteristics of cow skin, pig skin sheep skin, horse skin and deer skin have been measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.1~2.0THz. The results show that THz-TDS technology provides an important tool for quality analysis and detection of leathers.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2012-03-01

435

A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use  

SciTech Connect

A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80–400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm{sup ?1}, thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100–400 K and the 0.1–1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Créteil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples.

Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie [LISA, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC) et Université Paris-Diderot (UPD), 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France)] [LISA, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC) et Université Paris-Diderot (UPD), 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent [High Vacuum Group and Beamline AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [High Vacuum Group and Beamline AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2013-09-15

436

A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80-400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm-1, thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100-400 K and the 0.1-1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Créteil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples.

Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

2013-09-01

437

A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use.  

PubMed

A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80-400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm(-1), thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100-400 K and the 0.1-1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Cre?teil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples. PMID:24089810

Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

2013-09-01

438

Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy and Observational Probes of Prebiotic Interstellar Gas and Ice Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of life on Earth has long fascinated the minds of the global community, and has been a driving factor in interdisciplinary research for centuries. Beyond the pioneering work of Darwin, perhaps the most widely known study in the last century is that of Miller & Urey, who examined the possibility of the formation of prebiotic chemical precursors on the primordial Earth. More recent studies have shown that amino acids, the chemical building blocks of the biopolymers that comprise life as we know it on Earth, are present in meteoritic samples, and that the molecules extracted from the meteorites display isotopic signatures indicative of an extraterrestrial origin. The most recent major discovery in this area has been the detection of glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, in pristine cometary samples returned by the NASA STARDUST mission. Indeed, the open questions left by these discoveries, both in the public and scientific communities, hold such fascination that NASA has designated the understanding of our "Cosmic Origins" as a key mission priority. Despite these exciting discoveries, our understanding of the chemical and physical pathways to the formation of prebiotic molecules is woefully incomplete. This is largely because we do not yet fully understand how the interplay between grain-surface and sub-surface ice reactions and the gasphase affects astrophysical chemical evolution, and our knowledge of chemical inventories in these regions is incomplete. The research presented here aims to directly address both these issues, so that future work to understand the formation of prebiotic molecules has a solid foundation from which to work. From an observational standpoint, a dedicated campaign to identify hydroxylamine (NH2OH), potentially a direct precursor to glycine, in the gas-phase was undertaken. No trace of NH2OH was found. These observations motivated a refinement of the chemical models of glycine formation, and have largely ruled out a gas-phase route to the synthesis of the simplest amino acid in the ISM. A molecular mystery in the case of the carrier of a series of transitions was resolved using observational data toward a large number of sources, confirming the identity of this important carbon-chemistry intermediate B11244 as l-C3H+ and identifying it in at least two new environments. Finally, the doubly-nitrogenated molecule carbodiimide HNCNH was identified in the ISM for the first time through maser emission features in the centimeter-wavelength regime. In the laboratory, a TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectrometer was constructed to obtain the experimental spectra necessary to search for solid-phase species in the ISM in the THz region of the spectrum. These investigations have shown a striking dependence on large-scale, long-range (i.e. lattice) structure of the ices on the spectra they present in the THz. A database of molecular spectra has been started, and both the simplest and most abundant ice species, which have already been identified, as well as a number of more complex species, have been studied. The exquisite sensitivity of the THz spectra to both the structure and thermal history of these ices may lead to better probes of complex chemical and dynamical evolution in interstellar environments.

McGuire, Brett Andrew

439

Mineral - fluid interactions: organic ligand complexation at mineral surfaces studied via multiple internal reflection spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon exposure to an aqueous phase mineral surfaces undergo a series of chemical and structural changes. The under coordinated surface attracts polar water molecules and protons may then redistribute themselves to form a surface layer of hydroxyl groups. Functionalisation reactions, such as complexation, can also occur and these will depend on the solutes present and pH. Surface complexation of organic acids may affect mineral dissolution, transport of metals, and microbial colonisation. In order to understand these reactions, knowledge of the mechanisms of sorption are key. However, direct measurements of organic sorption at surfaces is difficult due to low sorption density, domination by light elements, and interference due to the presence of the liquid phase. Infrared spectroscopy has been widely used to study the interaction of species with mineral surfaces; conventionally the ligand is adsorbed on to the mineral phase in a slurry, which is applied to an internal reflection prism as a wet paste for analysis. By subtracting spectra of substrate and ligand in solution from the spectrum of the paste, the spectrum of the adsorbate can be resolved. In this study of organic surface complexation however, the conventional geometry has been changed to include a novel multiple internal reflection spectroscopy (MIRS) attachment. In this case, by directly adsorbing the ligand onto the internal reflection element, the liquid phase can be eliminated. Multiple reflection geometry ensures maximum interaction between the beam and the organic ligand and thus allows complexation to be studied on an oriented single crystal even when sorption density is low- as is the case for many organic species. Spectra have been produced of 10-undecenoic acid adsorbed onto fluorite (CaF_2) at 25^oC and pH 9.5 after a 2 hour equilibration time. Results indicate that the organic acid is present at the surface of the fluorite at sub-monolayer coverage. This agrees with previously published work (Drelich, D., Atia. A., Yalamanchili, M., and Miller, J., 1995, J. Coll. Int. Sci., v. 178, 720-732). In combination with the direct measurements, potentiometric titrations have been used to measure the zero point of charge for fluorite. This will be used in future work to determine adsorption isotherms for a range of organic acids and for modeling surface complexation reactions, while the infrared spectroscopy will be used to assess surface coverage and to give insights into mode of attachment.

Morris, P. M.; Wogelius, R. A.; Cooke, D. A.; Speak, R.; Vaughan, D. J.

2003-04-01

440

Oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy for depth sensitive measurements in the epithelial tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy has shown potential as a tool for precancer detection by discriminating alterations in the optical properties within epithelial tissues. Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with the progression of epithelial cancerous lesions can be especially challenging in the oral cavity due to the variable thickness of the epithelium and the presence of keratinization. Optical spectroscopy of epithelial tissue with improved depth resolution would greatly assist in the isolation of optical properties associated with cancer progression. Here, we report a fiber optic probe for oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) that is capable of depth sensitive detection by combining the following three approaches: multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating. We analyze how probe design parameters are related to improvements in collection efficiency of scattered photons from superficial tissue layers and to increased depth discrimination within epithelium. We have demonstrated that obliquely-oriented collection fibers increase both depth selectivity and collection efficiency of scattering signal. Currently, we evaluate this technology in a clinical trial of patients presenting lesions suspicious for dysplasia or carcinoma in the oral cavity. We use depth sensitive spectroscopic data to develop automated algorithms for analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of the multilayer oral epithelial tissue. Our initial results show that OPRS has the potential to improve the detection and monitoring of epithelial precancers in the oral cavity.

Jimenez, Maria K.; Fradkin, Leonid; Nieman, Linda T.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

2013-02-01

441

The Use of UV-Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy as an Objective Tool to Evaluate Pearl Quality  

PubMed Central

Assessing the quality of pearls involves the use of various tools and methods, which are mainly visual and often quite subjective. Pearls are normally classified by origin and are then graded by luster, nacre thickness, surface quality, size, color and shape. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, spectroscopy measurements were performed using the Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy technique. The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral data (inputs) were smoothed to reduce the noise, fed into ANNs and correlated to the pearl’s quality/grading criteria (outputs). The developed ANNs were successful in predicting pearl type, mollusk growing species, possible luster and color enhancing, donor condition/type, recipient/host color, donor color, pearl luster, pearl color, origin. The results of this study shows that the developed UV-Vis spectroscopy-ANN method could be used as a more objective method of assessing pearl quality (grading) and may become a valuable tool for the pearl grading industry. PMID:22851919

Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W.

2012-01-01

442

External reflection FTIR spectroscopy of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on an overflowing cylinder.  

PubMed

External reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ER-FTIRS) has been used to study the adsorption of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at the air-water interface under nonequilibrium conditions. An overflowing cylinder (OFC) was used to generate a continually expanding liquid surface with a surface age of 0.1-1 s. ER-FTIR spectra were acquired by a single bounce of p- or s-polarized radiation from the flowing surface of the OFC. The C-H stretching region of CTAB spectra was analyzed both by subtraction of a reference spectrum of pure water and by a chemometric technique known as target factor analysis (TFA). The TFA method is shown to give lower scatter in the weight of the component assignable to the adsorbed CTAB monolayer and to permit analysis of spectra at lower bulk surfactant concentrations. The surface sensitivity of ER-FTIRS is demonstrated both experimentally and by theoretical modeling. Modeling shows that surfactant adsorbed at the surface and dissolved in the bulk solution can be distinguished by reflection spectroscopy but also highlights potential errors that can arise from the neglect of the bulk surfactant contribution to the ER-FTIR spectra. Polarized spectra are consistent with an isotropic distribution of transition dipole moments of the hydrocarbon chains in CTAB. Component weights of the CTAB monolayer determined by TFA are compared with an independent determination of values of the dynamic surface excess, Gammadyn, by neutron reflection and ellipsometry. The relationship between the component weights and Gammadyn shows a small but significant deviation from linearity. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed. The feasibility of using TFA to deconvolute ER-FTIR spectra of mixtures of hydrocarbon surfactants is demonstrated. PMID:15379501

Campbell, Richard A; Parker, Stephen R W; Day, James P R; Bain, Colin D

2004-09-28

443

Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the photo-induced and intrinsic conductivity in SnO2 nanowires using the Drude-Smith model. The refractive index of the nanowires was found to decrease from 2.4 to 2.1 with increasing THz frequency and the dc mobility of the non-excited nanowires was determined to be 72 ± 10 cm2/Vs. Measurements reveal that scattering times are carrier density dependent, while a strong suppression of long transport is evident. Intensity-dependent measurements provided an estimate of the Auger coefficient found to be ? = (7.2 ± 2.0) × 10-31 cm6/s.

Tsokkou, Demetra; Othonos, Andreas; Zervos, Matthew

2012-03-01

444

Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

2003-09-02

445