The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization. Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and collagen contents in the granulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, also increased upto day 8 post-wounding. Reduced lipid peroxide levels in treated wounds, as well as ESR measurement of antioxidant activity by DPPH radical quenching, suggested that T. chebula possessed antioxidant activities. The tensile strength of tissues from extract-treated incision wounds increased by about 40%. In addition, T. chebula possessed antimicrobial activity and was active largely against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of T. chebula in the acceleration of the healing process. PMID:12164266
Suguna, Lonchin; Singh, Surjeet; Sivakumar, Pitchumani; Sampath, Padmavathi; Chandrakasan, Gowri
Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated.
Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin
Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.
Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan
To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598
Waheed, S; Fatima, I
BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied
Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal
A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P?>?0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123617
Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, D J; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Vipul; Punia, Himanshu; Batra, Manu; Jain, Ankita; Agarwal, Amit; Singh, Pradeep
Water extract of dry fruits ofTerminalia chebula (Hindi-Harda, Telugu-Karakkaya) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight improved the glucose tolerance as indicated by 44% of reduction in the peak blood glucose at 2(nd) hour in glucose tolerance test in diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with an initial fasting blood glucose of 253±9.4 mg/dl daily once with the water extract (200 mg/kg) for two weeks brought down the fasting blood glucose to 123±8.4 mg/dl which is only slightly above the normal value. These results indicate that water extract of Terminalia chebula improves glucose tolerance and brings down fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:23105484
Murali, Y K; Chandra, Ramesh; Murthy, P S
The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic
Aranya Manosroi; Pensak Jantrawut; Hiroyuki Akazawa; Toshihiro Akihisa; Jiradej Manosroi
Petroleum ether, chloroform, dimethylformamide, ethanol and water extracts from fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. The microbial strains investigated include nine Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus ATCC1 1778, Bacillus megaterium ATCC9885, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Corynebacterium rubrum ATCC14898, Micrococcus flavus ATCC10240, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29737, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Staphylococcus subfava NCIM2178; fourteen Gram-negative bacteria: Alcaligenes
Jigna Parekh; Sumitra Chanda
Terminalia chebula is a native plant from southern Asia to southwestern China that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study assessed T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) were performed to assess protein expression and networks, respectively. A comparative proteomic profile was determined in T. chebula extract (50 ?g/mL)-treated and control cells; the expressions of ?-tubulin, ring finger and CHY zinc finger domain containing 1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase were significantly down-regulated in T. chebula extract-treated Jurkat cells. Moreover, the molecular basis for the T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells was determined by IPA. Treatment with the T. chebula extract significantly inhibited nuclear factor-?B activity and affected the proteomic profile of Jurkat cells. The molecular network signatures and functional proteomics obtained in this study may facilitate the evaluation of potential antitumor therapeutic targets and elucidate the molecular mechanism of T. chebula extract-dependent effects in Jurkat cells. PMID:22471968
Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Mi Ran; Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin; Chai, Young Gyu
Abstract Terminalia chebula is a native plant from southern Asia to southwestern China that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study assessed T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) were performed to assess protein expression and networks, respectively. A comparative proteomic profile was determined in T. chebula extract (50??g/mL)-treated and control cells; the expressions of ?-tubulin, ring finger and CHY zinc finger domain containing 1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase were significantly down-regulated in T. chebula extract-treated Jurkat cells. Moreover, the molecular basis for the T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells was determined by IPA. Treatment with the T. chebula extract significantly inhibited nuclear factor-?B activity and affected the proteomic profile of Jurkat cells. The molecular network signatures and functional proteomics obtained in this study may facilitate the evaluation of potential antitumor therapeutic targets and elucidate the molecular mechanism of T. chebula extract-dependent effects in Jurkat cells.
Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Mi Ran; Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin
Experimental study was conducted to evaluate the hepato- and renoprotective effect of silymarin and Terminalia chebula against experimentally-induced acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in rats. Oral administration of APAP @ 500 mg/kg for 1 to 3 days to all the four groups (six rats in each) resulted in significant elevation of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and aspartate transaminase activity. Post-treatment with silymarin @ 25 mg/kg and T. chebula 125 mg/kg in groups 2 and 3 and their combination to group 4 from day 4 to 14 has significantly reversed the alterations of above said markers and offered better protection. The results of the study enunciated that silymarin and T. chebula exhibit good hepato- and nephro-protection against APAP toxicity.
Gopi, K. S.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Jyothi, K.; Kumar, B. Anil
Terminalia chebula Gertn. (Combetraceae) is an important herbal drug in Ayurvedic pharmacopea. In the present study, a 95% ethanolic extract of T. chebula (fruit) (TC extract), which was chemically characterized on the basis of chebuloside II as a marker, was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced toxicity. TC extract was found to prevent the hepatotoxicity caused by the
S A Tasduq; K Singh; N K Satti; D K Gupta; K A Suri; R K Johri
A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 452 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by T. chebula extract was completed within 20 min which was evidenced potentiometrically. Synthesised nanoparticles were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolysable tannins such as di/tri-galloyl-glucose present in the extract were hydrolyzed to gallic acid and glucose that served as reductant while oxidised polyphenols acted as stabilizers. In addition, it showed good antimicrobial activity towards both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922). Industrially it may be a smart option for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.
Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Sinha, Madhulika; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji
Background: Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046) even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml). Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study.
Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma
Sol/gel-derived silica gel was prepared at room temperature from tetraethyl orthosilicate precursor. The extracts of Terminalia chebula (Haritoki) were entrapped into the porous silica gel. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed the proper adsorption of herbal values in the nanopores of the silica gel. Porosity was estimated by transmission electron microscope studies. The release kinetics of the extract in both 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and Phosphate-buffer saline (PBS), pH 7.2, were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Different dissolution models were applied to release data in order to evaluate the release mechanisms and kinetics. Biphasic release patterns were found in every formulation for both the buffer systems. The kinetics followed a zero-order equation for first 4 h and a Higuchi expression in a subsequent timeline in the case of 0.1 N HCl. In the case of PBS, the formulations showed best linearity with a first-order equation followed by Higuchi's model. The sustained release of the extract predominantly followed diffusion and super case II transport mechanism. The release value was always above the minimum inhibitory concentration. PMID:23076567
Chakraborty, Suparna; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Sa, Biswanath; Das, Satadal; Dey, Rajib
The report is devoted to Terminalia ivorensis the well known West African timber tree which is now being extensively planted in the high forest type of the lowland tropics. There are several other members of this genus of the family Combretaceae which are...
A. F. A. Lamb O. O. Ntima
Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present work, different concentrations of various organic and aqueous extracts (solvent-free) of T. chebula were tested on fibroblast (L929) and keratinocytes cells to evaluate its biocompatible concentration by using MTT and live-dead viability/cytotoxic assay. These extracts were found to be effective in decreasing the ammonia accumulation in the media, thereby reducing its toxic effect on cells. DPPH assay further confirmed the free-radical scavenging ability of the extracts which increased with the increase in concentration of each extract. Cell proliferation/apoptosis, cytoskeletal structure, and ECM production were further evaluated by live-dead assay and phalloidin/cytokeratin staining, respectively. The cytoskeletal structure and ECM secretion of the cells treated with extracts showed higher cellular activity in comparison to control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the effect of these extracts of T. chebula on both types of skin cells and optimized concentration in which it could be used as a bioactive component for wound healing applications by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing free-radical production without affecting the normal cellular matrix. It can also find applications in other therapeutics applications where ammonia toxicity is a limiting factor. PMID:24719644
Singh, Dolly; Singh, Deepti; Choi, Soon Mo; Zo, Sun Mi; Painuli, Rakesh Mohan; Kwon, Sung Won; Han, Sung Soo
Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present work, different concentrations of various organic and aqueous extracts (solvent-free) of T. chebula were tested on fibroblast (L929) and keratinocytes cells to evaluate its biocompatible concentration by using MTT and live-dead viability/cytotoxic assay. These extracts were found to be effective in decreasing the ammonia accumulation in the media, thereby reducing its toxic effect on cells. DPPH assay further confirmed the free-radical scavenging ability of the extracts which increased with the increase in concentration of each extract. Cell proliferation/apoptosis, cytoskeletal structure, and ECM production were further evaluated by live-dead assay and phalloidin/cytokeratin staining, respectively. The cytoskeletal structure and ECM secretion of the cells treated with extracts showed higher cellular activity in comparison to control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the effect of these extracts of T. chebula on both types of skin cells and optimized concentration in which it could be used as a bioactive component for wound healing applications by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing free-radical production without affecting the normal cellular matrix. It can also find applications in other therapeutics applications where ammonia toxicity is a limiting factor.
Choi, Soon Mo; Zo, Sun Mi; Painuli, Rakesh Mohan; Kwon, Sung Won; Han, Sung Soo
Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a (1 ? 3)-, (1 ? 6)- and (1 ? 3, 6)-linked ?-D-Galp together with (1 ? 5)- and (1 ? 3)-linked ?-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of ?-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50?mg?kg?1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements.
Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Bimalendu
Background Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) has been widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of renal functions in diabetic rats. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the chloroform extract was determined in streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg, i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer; pH 4.5) diabetic rats, after oral administration at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in short term study. Blood samples were collected from the eye retro-orbital plexus of rats before and also at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration and the samples were analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a visible spectrophotometer. In long term study, the extract (300 mg/kg) was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose was measured at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Urine samples were collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of treatments and analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnet's t-test. Results The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats and comparable with that of standard drug, glibenclamide in short term study. It also produced significant reduction in blood glucose in long term study. Significant renoprotective activity is observed in T. chebula treated rats. The results indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by T. chebula and is probably mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the ?-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. The probable mechanism of potent renoprotective actions of T. chebula has to be evaluated. Conclusion The present studies clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic and renoprotective effects with the chloroform extract of T. chebula and lend support for its traditional usage. Further investigations on identification of the active principles and their mode of action are needed to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the observed effects.
Rao, Nalamolu Koteswara; Nammi, Srinivas
Terminalia superba is a fast growing tropical species occurring naturally in fairly dense stands. It is a tree of beautiful form and straightforward silviculture which can be used for a wide variety of purposes. The durability of the wood is ensured by th...
J. Groulez P. J. Wood
In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212
Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula
Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using carbonized Terminalia chebula-activated carbon: process parametric optimization using conventional method and Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study
In the present paper, the phenol removal from wastewater was investigated using agri-based adsorbent: Terminalia chebula-activated carbon (TCAC) produced by carbonization of Terminalia chebula (TC) in air-controlled atmosphere at 600 °C for 4 h. The surface area of TCAC was measured as 364 m2/g using BET method. The surface characteristic of TCAC was analyzed based on the value of point of zero charge. The effect of parameters such as TCAC dosage, pH, initial concentration of phenol, time of contact and temperature on the sorption of phenol by TCAC was investigated using conventional method and Taguchi experimental design. The total adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained as 36.77 mg/g using Langmuir model at the temperature of 30 °C at pH = 5.5. The maximum removal of phenol (294.86 mg/g) was obtained using Taguchi's method. The equilibrium study of phenol on TCAC showed that experimental data fitted well to R-P model. The results also showed that kinetic data were followed more closely the pseudo-first-order model. The results of thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of phenol on TCAC was spontaneous and an exothermic in nature.
Khare, Prateek; Kumar, Arvind
Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Terminalia australis were evaluated for their antifungal activity. The methanol and aqueous extracts were found to be effective against the tested Aspergillus and Candida strains. PMID:12727498
Carpano, Stella M; Spegazzini, Etile D; Rossi, Javier S; Castro, Maria T; Debenedetti, Silvia L
Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.
Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena
The genus Terminalia as found in Papuasia is reviewed and new information is given for many of the species. Five new species are described: T. avicapitis, T. calogemma, T. eddowesii, T. katikii, T. morobensis; and one new subspecies, T. microcarpa subsp. ...
M. J. E. Coode
Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. We report here the inhibitory effects of GA, with an IC(50) value of 74 nM against COX-2 and 1500 nM for COX-1, showing ?20 fold preference towards COX-2. Further docking studies revealed that GA binds in the active site of COX-2 at the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) binding site. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg120 and Glu524. Based on substrate dependent kinetics, GA was found to be a competitive inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2, with more affinity towards COX-2. Taken together, our studies indicate that GA is a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX-2, GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates. PMID:20441561
Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Babu, Neela Kishore; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Kalangi, Suresh Kumar; Reddanna, Pallu
Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250?gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2?cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703
Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R
Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223
Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. South African plants namely Terminalia sericea, Euclea natalensis, Warbugia salutaris, Aloe ferox, Artemisia afra, Sclerocarya birrea, Spirostachys africana and Psidium guajava were investigated for their in vitro alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase properties, and antioxidant activities. Terminalia sericea stem bark extract showed the best results against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an acetone extract of T. sericea stem bark led to the isolation of four known compounds namely beta-sitosterol (1), beta-sitosterol-3-acetate (2), lupeol (3), and stigma-4-ene-3-one (4), in addition to two inseparable sets of mixtures of isomers [epicatechin-catechin (M1), and gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (M2). 1 and 3 showed the best inhibitory activity on alpha-glucosidase (IC50:54.5 and 66.5 microM). Bio-evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the purified compounds on alpha-amylase showed that 3 and 1 exhibited IC50 values of 140.7 and 216.02 microM, respectively against alpha-amylase. Compounds 2, M1, 3 and M2 were found to be non-toxic to Vero cells. This study is the first to report alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity of M1, M2, 2 and 4 isolated from T. sericea, which validated the traditional use of the bark of T. sericea for diabetes in South Africa. PMID:22224265
Nkobole, Nolitha; Houghton, Peter James; Hussein, Ahmed; Lall, Namrita
Terminalia belerica (behada) fruit has been evaluated as a promising agent against E. histolytica and a variety of bacteria associated with dysentery and diarrhoea. These in vitro studies were extended further for evaluating clinical efficacy among patients of acute and chronic cases of diarrhoea and dysentery. The Studies were carried out on 25 patients by five medical practitioners practicing at different clinics in the urban areas of Pune. The data was collected as per the protocol given to the concerned clinicians. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically followed. Record of patients’ history, clinical evaluations and investigations like stool, urine examination were carried out where necessary. The maximum treatment period was 14 days and the dose was 150 mg. tablets of bioactive fraction three times a day. 11 out of 12 patients responded to therapy and required around twelve tablets for recovery. Seven patients having the presence of cyst of amoeba, E. coli etc. became negative at the end of treatment. Improvement started on second day. No side effects of any nature were observed.
Patwardhan, Bhushan; Bhutani, K.K.; Patki, P.S.; Dange, S.V.; Gore, D.V.; Borole, D.I.; Shirolkar, R.B.; Paranjpe, P.V.
Terminalia belerica (behada) fruit has been evaluated as a promising agent against E. histolytica and a variety of bacteria associated with dysentery and diarrhoea. These in vitro studies were extended further for evaluating clinical efficacy among patients of acute and chronic cases of diarrhoea and dysentery. The Studies were carried out on 25 patients by five medical practitioners practicing at different clinics in the urban areas of Pune. The data was collected as per the protocol given to the concerned clinicians. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically followed. Record of patients' history, clinical evaluations and investigations like stool, urine examination were carried out where necessary.The maximum treatment period was 14 days and the dose was 150 mg. tablets of bioactive fraction three times a day. 11 out of 12 patients responded to therapy and required around twelve tablets for recovery. Seven patients having the presence of cyst of amoeba, E. coli etc. became negative at the end of treatment. Improvement started on second day. No side effects of any nature were observed. PMID:22556516
Patwardhan, B; Bhutani, K K; Patki, P S; Dange, S V; Gore, D V; Borole, D I; Shirolkar, R B; Paranjpe, P V
Standardization of induction of oxidative stress with Fenton mixture (FM) in isolated perfused rat kidney and the antioxidant effect of Terminalia arjuna bark in the isolated oxidatively stressed rat kidney has been evaluated. Six groups each containing eight isolated perfused rat kidneys were used for the present study and the oxidative stress was induced by perfusing the isolated kidneys with FM. The antioxidant effect of Terminalia arjuna at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated in oxidative stress induced isolated kidneys. A significant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation, gluatamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase were observed in oxidative stress induced isolated kidney. On perfusion with extract, the oxidative stress was decreased with increasing in antioxidants while the marker enzymes were found to maintain the normal level. It was concluded from the present study that hydroalcholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant antioxidant potential in isolated perfused rat kidneys. PMID:23181096
Raj, C David; Shabi, M Mohamed; Jipnomon, J; Dhevi, R; Gayathri, K; Subashini, U; Rajamanickam, G Victor
Background. Terminalia arjuna is a popular Indian medicinal plant with its bark been used for over centuries as cardiotonic. The bark has been found to contain several bioactive compounds including saponins and flavonoids. A number of experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to explore therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna in cardiovascular ailments specially in patients of coronary heart disease. A number of narrative reviews have been done but no systematic review has been conducted to date. Objective. To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the available literature evaluating the efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Study selection. We included randomised, pseudo-randomized and before-after comparative studies which compared Terminalia arjuna/commercial preparation of Terminalia arjuna with current standard/ conventional treatment regimens in patients with chronic stable angina. Findings. Studies were found to be of poor methodological design. We found no significant difference in the Terminalia arjuna group as compared to control arm in the outcomes for which we were able to pool data and undertake meta-analysis. Conclusions. Currently, the evidence is insufficient to draw any definite conclusions in favour of or against Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Further, well-controlled multicentric clinical trials need to be conducted in large number of patients to explore the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna if any. PMID:24600529
Kaur, Navjot; Shafiq, Nusrat; Negi, Harish; Pandey, Avaneesh; Reddy, Srinivas; Kaur, Harpreet; Chadha, Neelima; Malhotra, Samir
Background. Terminalia arjuna is a popular Indian medicinal plant with its bark been used for over centuries as cardiotonic. The bark has been found to contain several bioactive compounds including saponins and flavonoids. A number of experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to explore therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna in cardiovascular ailments specially in patients of coronary heart disease. A number of narrative reviews have been done but no systematic review has been conducted to date. Objective. To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the available literature evaluating the efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Study selection. We included randomised, pseudo-randomized and before-after comparative studies which compared Terminalia arjuna/commercial preparation of Terminalia arjuna with current standard/ conventional treatment regimens in patients with chronic stable angina. Findings. Studies were found to be of poor methodological design. We found no significant difference in the Terminalia arjuna group as compared to control arm in the outcomes for which we were able to pool data and undertake meta-analysis. Conclusions. Currently, the evidence is insufficient to draw any definite conclusions in favour of or against Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Further, well-controlled multicentric clinical trials need to be conducted in large number of patients to explore the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna if any.
Reddy, Srinivas; Kaur, Harpreet; Chadha, Neelima; Malhotra, Samir
Ancient Indian physicians used the powdered tree bark of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn. for alleviating “hritshool” (angina) and other cardiovascular conditions. Its stem bark possesses glycosides, large quantities of flavonoids, tannins and minerals. Flavonoids have been detected to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making Terminalia arjuna unique amongst currently used medicinal plants.
A new ursane triterpene, torment (2 alpha,3 beta,19 alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en) (1), was isolated from the fruits of Terminalia arjuna along with four known ursane and oleane triterpenes. The structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (1D & 2D) and MS (EI & ESI) studies. Tormentic acid (2), 19 alpha-hydroxy asiatic acid (3) and olean-12-en-2 alpha,3 beta-diol (4) were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 1 and 2 lacked significant enzyme inhibition, cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antiglycation activities. PMID:24689219
Hossain, Rashadul; Sultana, Rajia; Adhikari, Aychout; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ali, Yusuff; Zaman, Shahed
Plants contain a myriad of natural compounds which exhibit important bioactive properties. These compounds may provide alternatives to current medications and afford a significant avenue for new drug discovery. Despite this, little information is available in the literature regarding native Australian plants and their potential for medicinal and industrial uses. Recent studies have reported Terminalia ferdinandiana to be an extremely good source of antioxidants. Indeed, T. ferdinandiana has been reported to have ascorbic acid levels per gram of fruit more than 900 times higher than blueberries. T. ferdinandiana also has high levels of a variety of other antioxidants, including phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Antioxidants have been associated with the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological degenerative disorders. They are also linked with antidiabetic bioactivities and have been associated with the reduction of obesity. Antioxidants can directly scavenge free radicals, protecting cells against oxidative stress-related damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Therefore, T. ferdinandiana has potential in the treatment of a variety of diseases and disorders and its potential bioactivities warrant further investigation.
Mohanty, S.; Cock, Ian E.
Purpose: There is genetic variability in Terminalia species which is a very tall tree ranging from 5 to 30 meters. Government of India has established a tissue culture laboratory and the callus formation and differentiation tests were conducted at Ranchi, and it was found that this plant can be used for pharmacognosy and fibre. Method: In pharmacognosy, through tissue culture, anti-oxidative properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia bark was tested against sodium flouride induced oxidative stress in heart. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes, levels of cellular metabolites reduced carbonyl contents were already determined in the cardiac tissue. Tissue culture is a specialised area of production which should be exploited by Ayurvedic researches. Terminalia Arjuna was cultured on nutrient media supplemented with different concentration of phyto-hormones along with auxins and cytokinins implemented with coconut water. Result: Adenine Sulphate at the rate 25 mg/lt were added for nodal and auxiliary explants, and these nodal explants and shoot tips of T. arjuna were cultured again to have shoot proliferation. This can be used for other herbal plants for exploitation in medicinal and other useful purposes. In Ayurveda it can help in cost reduction and efficacy enhancement. Conclusion: Culture the new variety of Terminalia species can be developed with the help of tissue culture from Ayurvedic point of view, which can reduce the level of lipid profile, and angiotensin activity should be compared with others.
Srivastava, D P; Asthana, Aditi; Singh, Vandana; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Sharma, Vinamra
A nursery experiment was conducted to study the effects of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on the germination of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae). T. sericea is a multipurpose tree species occurring in the miombo woodlands whose seedling production is hampered by very low seed germination rate. Seeds were subjected to four treatment methods each at four different
Michael G. Likoswe; Joyce P. Njoloma; Weston F. Mwase; Clement Z. Chilima
Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studied for in vitro microbial activities by agar dilution method. The phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of the medicinal plants revealed the presence of saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum). The methanolic extracts of the two plants inhibited the growth of
H. Babayi; I. Kolo; J. I. Okogun; U. J. J. Ijah
Twelve patients with refractory chronic congestive heart failure (Class IV NYHA), related to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (10 patients); previous myocardial infarction (one patient) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (one patient), received Terminalia Arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant, as bark extract (500 mg 8-hourly) or matching placebo for 2 weeks each, separated by 2 weeks washout period, in a double blind cross over
A. Bharani; A. Ganguly; K. D. Bhargava
Twenty-eight commercial samples of Fructus Chebulae were collected from local herbal markets in Taiwan and were determined to have been derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia chebula Retz. var. parviflora Thwaites, which differ markedly in external appearance. Ten tannin-related constituents [gallic acid (1), chebulic acid (2), punicalagin (4), chebulanin (7), corilagin (8), neochebulinic acid (9), ellagic acid (11), chebulagic acid (12), chebulinic acid (13) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14)] were identified and quantified by HPLC. Samples derived from T. chebula. var. parviflora, which are typically round-shaped, generally contained higher concentrations of 13 and 14 but lower levels of 12 compared with those from T. chebula, which are largely oval-shaped. The ratio of the concentration of 14 to that of 4 may serve as a potential parameter for differentiating samples from the two origins (T. chebula, ratio 0.6 +/- 0.3; T. chebula. var. parviflora, ratio 3.4 +/- 2.2). Levels of the three major bioactive constituents 12-14 were found to provide good references for the quality assessment of Fructus Chebulae. The ratio of the concentration of 12 to that of 14 may offer a guideline for determining quality as well as origin of the drug (lower-grade T. chebula, ratio 12.4 +/- 6.0; medium-grade T. chebula, ratio 8.8 +/- 7.9; higher-grade T. chebula, ratio 3.2 +/- 0.8; T. chebula var. parviflora, ratio 1.6 +/- 0.7). PMID:16042149
Juang, Lih-Jeng; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi
Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.
Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756
Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A
Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) stem bark was successively extracted with petroleum ether (A), solvent ether (B), ethanol (C) and water (D). The lipid lowering\\u000a activity of these four fractions A, B, C, and D was evaluatedin vivo in two models viz., triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipemia in rats as well as fructose rich high fat diet (HFD) fed diabetic-\\u000a dyslipidemic hamsters.
Ramesh Chander; Kavita Singh; A K Khanna; S M Kaul; Anju Puri; Rashmi Saxena; Gitika Bhatia; Farhan Rizvi; A K. Rastogi
Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn. (Combretaceae) is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of T. arjuna, arjunic acid and arjungenin were examined for their potential to inhibit CYP1A enzyme in rat and human liver microsomes. IC50 values of aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of T. arjuna was found to be 11.4, 28.9 and 44.6 ?g/ml in rat liver microsomes while 30.0, 29.7 and 39.0 ?g/ml in human liver microsomes, respectively for CYP1A. However IC50 values of arjunic acid and arjungenin for both rat liver microsomes and human liver microsomes were found to be >50 ?M. Arjunic acid and arjungenin did not show inhibition of CYP1A enzyme up to concentrations of 50 ?M. These in vitro data indicate that Terminalia arjuna extracts contain constituents that can potently inhibit the activity of CYP1A, which could in turn lead to undesirable pharmacokinetic drug–herb interactions in vivo. Based on the in vitro data, interaction potential of the aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna orally in rats was investigated. A probe substrate, phenacetin, was used to index the activity of CYP1A. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of coadministration of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna and phenacetin, revealed that the aqueous extract did not lead to any significant change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenacetin as compared with control group. Though there was no in vivo–in vitro correlation, drug interactions could arise with drugs having a narrow therapeutic range and extensively cleared by CYP1A enzyme, which could lead to undesirable side effects.
Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Gaud, R. S.
Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn. (Combretaceae) is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of T. arjuna, arjunic acid and arjungenin were examined for their potential to inhibit CYP1A enzyme in rat and human liver microsomes. IC50 values of aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of T. arjuna was found to be 11.4, 28.9 and 44.6 ?g/ml in rat liver microsomes while 30.0, 29.7 and 39.0 ?g/ml in human liver microsomes, respectively for CYP1A. However IC50 values of arjunic acid and arjungenin for both rat liver microsomes and human liver microsomes were found to be >50 ?M. Arjunic acid and arjungenin did not show inhibition of CYP1A enzyme up to concentrations of 50 ?M. These in vitro data indicate that Terminalia arjuna extracts contain constituents that can potently inhibit the activity of CYP1A, which could in turn lead to undesirable pharmacokinetic drug-herb interactions in vivo. Based on the in vitro data, interaction potential of the aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna orally in rats was investigated. A probe substrate, phenacetin, was used to index the activity of CYP1A. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of coadministration of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna and phenacetin, revealed that the aqueous extract did not lead to any significant change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenacetin as compared with control group. Though there was no in vivo-in vitro correlation, drug interactions could arise with drugs having a narrow therapeutic range and extensively cleared by CYP1A enzyme, which could lead to undesirable side effects. PMID:24843187
Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Gaud, R S
Ancient Indian physicians used the powdered tree bark of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn. for alleviating "hritshool" (angina) and other cardiovascular conditions. Its stem bark possesses glycosides, large quantities of flavonoids, tannins and minerals. Flavonoids have been detected to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making Terminalia arjuna unique amongst currently used medicinal plants. In this review an attempt has been made to discuss various aspects of its ethnomedical, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Experimental studies have revealed its bark exerting significant inotropic and hypotensive effect, increasing coronary artery flow and protecting myocardium against ischemic damage. It has also been detected to have mild diuretic, antithrombotic, prostaglandin E(2) enhancing and hypolipidaemic activity. There is ample clinical evidence of its beneficial effect in coronary artery disease alone and along with statin. However, toxicological studies in experimental animals are lacking. Considering its anti-ischemic activity and its potential to correct dyslipidemia, reduce left ventricular mass and increase left ventricular ejection fraction, it is essential to examine the molecular mechanism of its action and its core constituents. Proposition to administer Terminalia arjuna along with statins deserves to be explored in depth for defining its place in the over all management and prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:17875376
An activity-guided isolation and purification process was used to identify the l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging components of the food plant (Terminalia arjuna) of Antheraea mylitta. Dry leaves of T. arjuna were extracted with different solvents and tested for their antioxidant activity against DPPH(•). The acetone-water (8:2) extract expressed strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and was subjected to column chromatography over silica gel. Gallic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and 1-O-?-galloyl glucose were isolated as active components and characterised by using different spectroscopic techniques. PMID:24484080
Singh, Pradeep Pratap; Chauhan, S M S
A study of an EtOH extract obtained from the roots of the Madagascan plant Terminalia tropophylla H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of the new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin 1, the new lignan derivative 2, and the two known saponins arjunglucoside I (3) and sericoside (4). The structures of the new compounds 1 (terminaliaside A) and 2 (4?-O-cinnamoyl cleomiscosin A) were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compound 1 showed antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 1.2 ?M.
Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.
Arjunolic acid (AA), a triterpenoid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Terminalia arjuna core wood. The purity of AA was analysed by its melting point, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy analyses. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma (DAL) cell lines by incubating with different concentrations of AA. The cancer cell death percentage at 100?µg concentrations of AA ranged between 66% and 70% on the DAL and EAC cell lines, respectively. This infers that AA causes considerable membrane damage to cancer cells. PMID:21732908
Ramesh, A Sai; Christopher, J Godwin; Radhika, R; Setty, C R; Thankamani, V
Resource availability, degree of herbivore damage, genetic variability, and their interactions influence the allocation of investment by plants to resistance and tolerance traits. We evaluated the independent and interactive effects of soil nutrients and moisture, and simulated the effects of herbivore damage on condensed tannins (resistance) and growth\\/regrowth (tolerance) traits of Terminalia sericea, a deciduous tree in the Kalahari desert
Mutjinde L. J. Katjiua; David Ward
Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried
Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as a cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad, has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat
Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal
Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat joint
Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal
The antitrypanosomal activity of methanolic extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides were evaluated in vitro against four strains of Trypanosoma species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value range of 12.5-50 mg/ml. Successive fractionations of the two plant extracts in water, butanol and ethyl acetate gave a range of activity (MIC, 20 to > or =50 microg/ml). Activity-guided and chromatographic analysis of butanolic fractions on Sephadex LH-20 column followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and both ultraviolet and thin layer chromatography revealed hydrolysable tannins with a range of activity (MIC, 7.5-27.5 microg/ml or 14-91 microM). Effect of the compounds on fibroblasts did not reveal serious toxicity at moderate concentration but is concentration dependent. PMID:18066599
Shuaibu, Mohammed N; Wuyep, Ponchang T A; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Hirayama, Kenji; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao
The Terminalia genus includes plants that are used in a variety of food, nutritional products, and traditional medicines. Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia paniculata (TPW) was screened for its antioxidant and analgesic potential. The major polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant potential of TPW was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(2-)) radical assay, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, superoxide scavenging (O(2-)), Fe(2+) chelating (O-phenanthroline), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. We evaluated the effects of TPW on cell viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrite, and cytokines (interleukin [IL] 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?]) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Evaluation of analgesic activity of TPW was performed using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate test in mice. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of four polyphenols, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, and quercetin. TPW showed maximum superoxide, ABTS(2-), NO, DPPH inhibition, and Fe(2+-)chelating property at 400 ?g/mL, respectively. FRAP value was 4.5±0.25 ?g Fe(II)/g. TPW, per se, did not affect RAW 264.7 cell viability. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, TPW attenuated the elevation in ROS, nitrite, IL-6, and TNF-? levels. TPW (100-400 mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced the number of writhes in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control. Similarly, TPW (400 mg/kg, orally) evoked a significant increase in the maximum percentage effect in the hot plate test. The study suggests the efficacy of aqueous bark extract of T. paniculata as a potential antioxidant and analgesic agent. PMID:24195750
Talwar, Sahil; Nayak, Pawan G; Mudgal, Jayesh; Paul, Piya; Bansal, Punit; Nandakumar, Krishnadas
Purpose : Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods : Diabetes was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg kg -1 body weight i.p.) for 5 days. From
Guy BSN Njomen; René Kamgang; Petit RN Soua; Jean LE Oyono; Njifutie Njikam
The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (fam: Combretaceae), commonly known as Arjuna in Indian systems of medicine, is a reputed drug used for various cardiac\\u000a disorders. T. arjuna stem bark is reported to contain different groups of chemical constituents including phenolics, tannins, saponins and triterpenoid\\u000a acids. From our earlier experience with tannin containing herbal drugs, we are aware that
J. Kalola; M. Rajani
The present study has been designed to find out the protective effect of aqueus extract of Terminalia arjuna against dehydration induced oxidative stress and uremia, protection by plant extract in male Wister strain albino rats, and therefore to find out the scientific basis of local use of Terminalia arjuna bark extract by village ayurved doctors to protect the progressive kidney disorder (renal failure) relating to dehydration and other related problems. Water withdrawing for 15 days in male Wister strain albino rats resulted in a significant elevation in the level of blood nitrogenous products (i.e. urea and creatinine). On the other hand, it increased the levels of free radicals, melondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) along with a significant diminution in the activities of superoxide dismutse (SOD) and catalase in blood. All these water markers were significantly prevented after administration of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark. These results suggest that dehydration induced oxidative stress and uremia in male rats may be protected by using the above mentioned medicinal plants extract. This herbal extract showed no toxic effect on blood and kidney, based on the measurements of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities (data not shown).
Das, Koushik; Pratim Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Debidas; Kumar Nandi, Dilip
Haritaki is praised as the best salutary drug which can be used in almost all ages of human life and is reputed for its Anulomana property. In Ayurveda, it has been mentioned that fruits of Haritaki when used in different forms give different type of actions. As the prime therapeutic utility of Haritaki is Anulomana, in the present study, two dosage forms of Haritaki fruits namely Churna and Vati were evaluated for intestinal transit time to evaluate its effect in two different dosage forms. Mature fruits were collected, authenticated, and processed as per classics to get Churna and Vati. Test drugs were administered in the dose of 550 mg/kg and evaluation on intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting kaolin expulsion test in mice. The results show that both the dosage forms of Haritaki significantly shortened intestinal transit time and between them Churna form is found to be better. PMID:23723658
Jirankalgikar, Yogesh M; Ashok, B K; Dwivedi, Rambabu R
The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. PMID:24914893
Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Barsett, Hilde; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad
The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960
Nunes, Paulo Humberto M; Martins, Maria do Carmo C; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M; Chaves, Mariana H; Sousa, Elcilene A; Leite, José Roberto S A; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C
The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.
Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, Jose Roberto S. A.; Veras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.
Background The survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. In our previous studies, we have reported that Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) exerts antimetastasis effects on HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HCC metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood. Methods The activities and protein levels of u-PA were determined by casein zymography and western blotting. Transcriptional levels of u-PA were detected by real-time PCR and promoter assays. Results We found that treatment of Huh7 cells with TCE significantly reduced the activities, protein levels and mRNA levels of u-PA. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that TCE inhibited the transcription protein of nuclear factors SP-1 and NF-?B. TCE also did inhibit the effects of u-PA by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway. Conclusions These results show that u-PA expression may be a potent therapeutic target in the TCE-mediated suppression of HCC metastasis.
The main objective of the present study is the physicochemical characterization of naturally available Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum [BG]) as a novel pharmaceutical excipient and its suitability in the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) to retard the drug for 12 h when the dosage form is exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in the gastric environment. As BG was being explored for the first time for its pharmaceutical application, physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, and stability studies were carried out on this gum. In the present investigation, the physicochemical properties, such as micromeritic, rheological, melting point, moisture content, pH, swelling index, water absorption, and volatile acidity, were evaluated. The gum was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gastroretentive floating tablets of BG were prepared with the model drug propranolol HCl by direct compression methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, in vitro drug release, and rate order kinetics. PBG 04 was selected as an optimized formulation based on its 12-h drug release and good buoyancy characteristics. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and PXRD studies, and no interaction between the drug and BG was found. Thus, the study confirmed that BG might be used in the gastroretentive drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer. PMID:23090110
Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Nali, Sreenivasa Rao; Songa, Ambedkar Sunil; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy
The present study demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna bark extract in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF). Fifteen days after injection of ISO (85 mg\\/kg twice\\u000a at an interval of 24 h, s.c), rats showed decline in maximal rate of rise and fall of left ventricular pressure (LV (dP\\/dt)max and LV (dP\\/dt)min), cardiac contractility index (LV (dP\\/dt)max\\/LVP), cardiac output
Adila Parveen; Rashmi Babbar; Sarita Agarwal; Anita Kotwani; Mohammad Fahim
Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD). Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat) group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10?mg?kg?1 body weight), T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200?mg?kg?1 body weight), respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05). Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Subramaniam, Saravanan; Subramaniam, Ramachandran; Rajapandian, Suja; Uthrapathi, Subasini; Gnanamanickam, Victor Rajamanickam; Dubey, Govinda Prasad
Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) stem bark was successively extracted with petroleum ether (A), solvent ether (B), ethanol (C) and water (D). The lipid lowering activity of these four fractions A, B, C, and D was evaluatedin vivo in two models viz., triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipemia in rats as well as fructose rich high fat diet (HFD) fed diabetic- dyslipidemic hamsters. Hyperlipidemia induced by triton caused marked increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (Tc), triglyceride (Tg) and phospholipids (PL) in rats. After treament withT. arjuna fractions A, B, C, and D at the doses of 250 mg/kg per oral (p.o.),only the ethanolic fraction (C) exerted significant lipid lowering effect as assessed by reversal of plasma levels of Tc, Tg and PL in hyperlipidemic rats. In another experiment, feeding with HFD produced marked dyslipidemia as observed by increased levels of plasma Tc, Tg, glucose (Glu), glycerol (Gly) and free fatty acids (FFA) in hamsters. After treatment withT. arjuna fractions at the doses of 250 mg/kg p.o. only two fraction (B and C) could exert significant lowering in the plasma levels of lipids and Glu. in dyslipidemic hamsters.In vitro experimentT. arjuna fractions at tested concentrations (50-500 ?g/ml) inhibited the oxidative degradation of lipids in human low density lipoprotein and rat liver microsomes induced by metal ions. These fractions when tested against generation of oxygen free radicals at the concentrations (50-500 ?g/ml), counteracted the formation of superoxide anions (O(-2)) and hydrodyl radicals (OH) in non enzymic test systems. The efficacy ofT. arjuna fractions as antidyslipidemic and antioxidant agents was found, fraction C> fraction B> fraction A. PMID:23105473
Chander, Ramesh; Singh, Kavita; Khanna, A K; Kaul, S M; Puri, Anju; Saxena, Rashmi; Bhatia, Gitika; Rizvi, Farhan; Rastogi, A K
Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity.
Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao
The prevalence of multidrug-resistant shigellae is an important concern in the treatment of shigellosis in many developing countries, and other therapies, including herbal agents, may provide an important alternative to antimicrobial agents. In this study, three Nigerian medicinal plants: Ocimum gratissimum, Terminalia avicennoides, and Momordica balsamina were investigated for their activities against multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from patients with bacilliary dysentery in Lagos. Decoctions of O. gratissimum and concoctions of O. gratissimum and T. avicennoides at crude concentration of 3,000 micrograms/mL markedly inhibited the growth of all isolates tested. Zones of inhibition indicating susceptibilities of the organisms varied from 18.3 to 21.5 mm for Shigella dysenteriae, 15.3 to 16.3 mm for S. flexneri, 18.8 to 19.3 mm for S. sonnei, and 16.5 mm for S. boydii. Except S. flexneri, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration revealed a higher shigellocidal property of O. gratissimum/T. avicennoides concoction than other extracts in S. dysenteriae (300-515.6 vs 337.5-1,312.5 micrograms/mL), S. sonnei (309.4-543.8 vs 403.1-1,312.5 micrograms/mL), and S. boydii (243.8-337.5 vs 253-1,312.5 micrograms/mL). O. gratissimum showed a greater shigellocidal effect against the S. flexneri isolates, while extracts of M. balsamina possessed low shigellocidal potential. The results suggest that aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum and T. avicennoides as decoctions and concoctions could be useful in the treatment of shigellosis and should be clinically evaluated specially in Nigerian region. PMID:11855356
Iwalokun, B A; Gbenle, G O; Adewole, T A; Akinsinde, K A
In this study, the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was purified and its in vitro nematicidal activity was investigated against Meloidogyne incognita. The purification of 3,4-DHBA used a silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the 3,4-DHBA was conducted using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 47.5, 72.5 and 94.2% J2 mortality at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively after 12 h incubation. J2 mortality was increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing incubation time in the range of 54.2-94.2% from 3 to 9 h after incubation with 3,4-DHBA (1.0 mg/ml), but with no significant difference observed where the incubation time was increased from 9 to 12 h. The 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 65.0, 76.7 and 85.0% hatch inhibition at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively, 3 days after incubation. Changes in the shape of the eggs were determined after incubation for 1 day with a 3,4-DHBA concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:23603737
Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Han, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Woo-Jin
Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined.
De Ridder, Maaike; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Vansteenkiste, Dries; Van Loo, Denis; Dierick, Manuel; Masschaele, Bert; De Witte, Yoni; Mannes, David; Lehmann, Eberhard; Beeckman, Hans; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Van Acker, Joris
The present study described an improved and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for Terminalia arjuna using nodal segment explants obtained from a mature plant. Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots were encapsulated in 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2[Symbol: see text]2H2O for the development of synthetic seeds which may be applicable in short-term storage and germplasm exchange of elite genotype. Shoot multiplication was significantly influenced by a number of factors, namely types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, medium composition, repeated transfer of mother explants, subculturing of in vitro regenerated shoot clumps, agar concentrations, and temperature. Maximum numbers of shoots (16.50?±?3.67) were observed on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). To shortening the regeneration pathway, rooting of micropropagated shoots under in vitro condition was excluded and an experiment on ex vitro rooting was conducted and it was observed that the highest percentage of shoots rooted ex vitro when treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 250 mg l(-1))?+?2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA, 250 mg l(-1)) for 5 min. The well-developed ex vitro rooted shoots were acclimatized successfully in soilrite under greenhouse conditions with 80 % survival of plants. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis confirmed that all the regenerated plants were genetically identical to the mother plant, suggesting the absence of detectable genetic variation in the regenerated plantlets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic seed production as well as ex vitro rooting and genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated shoots of T. arjuna. PMID:24817511
Gupta, Amit K; Harish; Rai, Manoj K; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Agarwal, Tanvi; Shekhawat, N S
The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI?=?87 and RI?=?90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered. PMID:24915442
Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian
BACKGROUND: Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. METHODS: Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. RESULTS: TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. CONCLUSION: The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress. PMID:23742226
Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas
Background Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Methods Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. Results TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. Conclusion The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress.
Objectives Oral cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide and India has recorded the highest incidence (40-50%) of oral malignancy. This study is designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark (TaBet) on circulatory lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods Male Syrian golden hamsters painted with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on the buccal pouches and developed oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Results The enhanced Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation of tumor-bearing animals was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of TaBet (500 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas, decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced the levels of antioxidants. Conclusion The chemopreventive potential of TaBet is probably due to its antilipidperoxidative effect or the presence of some potent bioactive chemopreventive principles in the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The results of the present study indicate that T. arjuna may emerge as a putative chemopreventive agent against oral carcinogenesis.
Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Selvam, Mathi; Salama, Suzan M. Abdel-Tawab; Shanmugam, Manoharan; Sethuraman, Prema
The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI?=?87 and RI?=?90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered.
Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian
Current novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) focus on increasing foetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels in SCA patients. Unfortunately, the only approved HbF-inducing agent, hydroxyurea, has long-term unpredictable side effects. Studies have shown the potential of plant compounds to modulate HbF synthesis in primary erythroid progenitor stem cells. We isolated a novel HbF-inducing Terminalia catappa distilled water active fraction (TCDWF) from Terminalia catappa leaves that induced the commitment of erythroid progenitor stem cells to the erythroid lineage and relatively higher HbF synthesis of 9.2- and 6.8-fold increases in both erythropoietin (EPO)-independent and EPO-dependent progenitor stem cells respectively. TCDWF was differentially cytotoxic to EPO-dependent and EPO-independent erythroid progenitor stem cell cultures as revealed by lactate dehydrogenase release from the cells. TCDWF demonstrated a protective effect on EPO-dependent and not EPO-independent progenitor cells. TCDWF induced a modest increase in caspase 3 activity in EPO-independent erythroid progenitor stem cell cultures compared with a significantly higher (P?0.05) caspase 3 activity in EPO-dependent ones. The results demonstrate that TCDWF may hold promising HbF-inducing compounds, which work synergistically, and suggest a dual modulatory effect on erythropoiesis inherent in this active fraction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470326
Aimola, I A; Inuwa, H M; Nok, A J; Mamman, A I
Oils from the seeds of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) and Tropical almond (Terminalia catappia L.) were extracted with petroleum ether. The ether extract was evaluated for Wijs iodine value, saponification value, acid value and specific gravity. The result of the evaluation was compared with that of palm oil (Eloesis guineensis). The acid value of fluted pumpkin and Tropical
Compounds extracted from the leaves of coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae) and the Indian almond, Terminalia catappa L. (Myrtales: Combretaceae) were assessed as potential grain protectants against four major pests of stored grains, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The crude leaf extracts
Pathipati Usha Rani; Thanniru Venkateshwaramma; Peta Devanand
Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1?000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.
Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji
The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro anticancer activity of 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia belerica (TBME) against human lung (A549) and human breast (MCF-7) carcinoma and its possible mechanism. TBME showed significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and MCF-7 cells, whereas, no cytotoxicity was found in non-malignant WI-38 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was then performed and 100 ?g/ml of TBME was selected as the effective concentration inducing apoptosis in A549 and MCF-7. At this concentration, TBME caused DNA fragmentation pattern of apoptosis. Furthermore, mechanism of apoptosis induction was demonstrated using western blotting and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in both types of the cells was found increased, which leads to the activation of caspase cascade along with the cleavage of PARP. These results suggested that TBME is able to induce anticancer effects on both lung and breast cancer cell lines through the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:24399255
Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath
Typhoid fever is a serious systemic infection caused by the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. WHO conservatively estimates the annual global incidence of typhoid fever at 21 million cases, of whom 1-4% end fatally. Keeping in consideration of increasing resistant of this disease to antibiotics and the limited available vaccine against salmonella infection, the need of the hour is
K. H. Khan
Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2?000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition.
Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Manisenthilkumar, KT
Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is used traditionally to treat malaria in Nigeria. To establish its efficacy, methanolic extract of T. avicennioides bark was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK-65) in mice. Twenty-five mice in five groups were used for this study. Group 1 was uninfected normal control. Twenty mice infected with P. berghei were grouped as untreated negative control (group 2), 5 mg/kg b.w. p.o. artesunate-treated positive control (group 3), and 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. p.o. T. avicennioides-treated infected mice (groups 4 and 5, respectively). Four-day suppressive effects on P. berghei and hematological and oxidative statuses of the mice were assessed. Suppression of parasitemia by artesunate and methanolic extract of T. avicennioides (at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) after 1 day of treatment was 10, 18, and 11% respectively; at day 5, the level of suppression was 77, 82, and 84% respectively. P. berghei infection decreased hemoglobin, red blood cell, and lymphocyte counts and increased neutrophil count; artesunate and medicinal plant treatment restored these parameters to normal control levels. Also, artesunate and medicinal plant treatment of infected mice significantly (p < 0.05) increased serum and liver superoxide dismutase activities and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum malondialdehyde concentration compared to untreated infected mice. The antimalarial effect of T. avicennioides is comparable to that of artesunate. The restoration of oxidative and hematological statuses, to normal values by T. avicennioides, may provide better protection against the malaria severity and complications. PMID:23873616
Omonkhua, Akhere A; Cyril-Olutayo, Mojisola C; Akanbi, Olusegun M; Adebayo, Olayinka A
We determined the antimutagenic potential of chloroform, acetone, methanol, methanol+HCl, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate extracts of Terminalia arjuna bark against the model mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) using the Salmonella/microsome, comet, and micronucleus (MN) tests. Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain and human peripheral white blood cells were coincubated with various concentrations (from 5 to 500 microg) of the six extracts and 4-NQO (from 0.05 to 2 microg). We found that the 4-NQO mutagenicity was inhibited by more than 70% in the Salmonella/microsome test at the highest nontoxic extract dose of ethyl acetate (50 microg/plate), chloroform (100 microg/plate), acetone, (100 microg/plate), and methanol (500 microg/plate). A less marked antimutagenicity activity (inhibition of about 40-45%) was observed for the acidic methanol and diethyl ether extracts. The comet assay showed that acetone extract (100 microg/mL) was more effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4-NQO (ca. 90%), whereas the chloroform, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether extracts were cytotoxic. In the MN test, the decrease in 4-NQO clastogenicity was observed by testing the mutagen especially with chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (inhibition about 40-45%). The acetone and methanol extracts showed a less marked activity (33% and 37%, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that T. arjuna bark contains some nonpolar as well as polar compounds with antimutagenic activity against 4-NQO. Several explanations can be suggested, but further investigations are necessary to definitely identify the active compounds. PMID:11934011
Pasquini, Rossana; Scassellati-Sforzolini, Giuseppina; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Marcarelli, Massimiliano; Fatigoni, Cristina; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Kumar, Subodh; Grover, Iqbal Sing
Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p < 0.05), with the goats fed lucerne drinking significantly more water (1270 +/- 31.62 ml) than the goats on T. serecia (1150 +/- 103.2 ml) but not significantly more than those on C. apiculatum (1166 +/- 52.25 ml) or E. schimperi (1184 +/- 100.15 ml). The average daily body weight gain was higher for the goats on lucerne at 78 g, compared to 77 g, 67 g and 64 g, for the C. apiculatum, E. schimperi and T. serecia supplements, respectively, but these were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet. PMID:10509422
Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B
Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412
High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE) exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1.
Yeh, Chao-Bin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Pen-Yuan; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa
Background This study was performed to understand the possible therapeutic activity of Terminalia paniculata ethanolic extract (TPEE) on non alcoholic fatty liver in rats fed with high fat diet. Methods Thirty six SD rats were divided into 6 groups (n?=?6): Normal control (NC), high fat diet (HFD), remaining four groups were fed on HFD along with different doses of TPEE (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b.wt) or orlistat, for ten weeks. Liver tissue was homogenized and analyzed for lipid profiles, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, the expression levels of FAS and AMPK-1? were also studied in addition to histopathology examination of liver tissue in all the groups. Results HFD significantly increased hepatic liver total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and MDA but decreased the activities of SOD and CAT which were subsequently reversed by supplementation with TPEE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TPEE administration significantly down regulated hepatic mRNA expression of FAS but up regulated AMPK-1? compared to HFD alone fed group. Furthermore, western blot analysis of FAS has clearly demonstrated decreased expression of FAS in HFD?+?TPEE (200 mg/kg b.wt) treated group when compared to HFD group at protein level. Conclusions Our biochemical studies on hepatic lipid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities supported by histological and expression studies suggest a potential therapeutic role for TPEE in regulating obesity through FAS.
The use of natural reagents from plant extracts for chemical analysis is one of the approaches in the development of low cost and environmentally friendly green analytical chemistry methodology. Here, crude extract from Indian Almond (Terminalia Catappa L.) leaves was used for colorimetric determination of aluminum by monitoring the absorbance of the Al(3+)-extract complex at 435 nm. Dry leaves and freeze-dried fresh leaf extract can be kept for extended use. A simple flow injection analysis (FIA) system was also employed for rapid analysis (approximately 180 injections/h). The linear working range up to 100 mg L(-1) was established with a detection limit (blank + 3SD) of 0.8 mg L(-1), a limit of quantitation (blank + 10SD) of 2.4 mg L(-1), and a relative standard deviation of 3-5%. This simple green analytical chemistry methodology was applied for the determination of Al(3+) in waste water samples from ceramic factories. The results agreed well with the results obtained from the ICP-OES technique. PMID:23749133
Insain, Pimporn; Khonyoung, Supada; Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Zajicek, Katja; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn
The present study was aimed to investigate in vivo, in vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) and characterize its possible phytoconstituents responsible for the actions. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin-nicotinamide (65?mg/kg–110?mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Oral treatment of AETPB using rat oral needle at 100 and 200?mg/kg doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in diabetic rats than diabetic control rats. AETPB-treated diabetic rats body weight, total protein, insulin, and haemoglobin levels were increased significantly (P < 0.001) than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001) reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein levels were observed in type 2 diabetic rats after AETPB administration. Presence of biomarkers gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in AETPB was confirmed in HPLC analysis. AETPB and gallic acid showed significant (P < 0.001) enhancement of glucose uptake action in presence of insulin in muscle cells than vehicle control. Also AETPB inhibited pancreatic ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. In conclusion, the above actions might be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of AETPB due to presence of gallic acid and other biomarkers.
Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Adhirajan, Natarajan
The reorganization of major river drainages in the Sino-Himalayan region of Southwest China was caused primarily by river separation and capture events following the most recent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (? 3.4 Ma). Terminalia franchetii is a shrub or small tree species endemic to the river valleys of this region. Based on a range-wide sampling comprising 28 populations and 258 individuals, we investigated the relationship between the modern phylogeographic structure of T. franchetii and geological changes in drainage patterns, using chloroplast DNA sequences (trnL-F, petL-psbE). T. franchetii was found to harbor high haplotype diversity (h(T)=0.784) but low average within-population diversity (h(S)=0.124). Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests provided no evidence of recent demographic population growth. Two (out of five) population groups identified exhibited a disjunctive distribution of dominant haplotypes between northern and southern valleys, corresponding to the geography of past drainage systems. We conclude that the modern disjunctive distribution of T. franchetii, and associated patterns of cpDNA haplotype variation, result from vicariance caused by several historical river separation and capture events. Overall, our inferred timings of these events (mostly mid-to-late Pleistocene) agree with previous time estimates of drainage re-arrangements in the Sino-Himalayan region. PMID:21545839
Zhang, Ti-Cao; Comes, Hans Peter; Sun, Hang
Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.
Mininel, Francisco Jose; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sergio; Espanha, Livia Greghi; Resende, Flavia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner
Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males. PMID:17082987
Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B
Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110
Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner
The present study was aimed to investigate in vivo, in vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) and characterize its possible phytoconstituents responsible for the actions. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin-nicotinamide (65?mg/kg-110?mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Oral treatment of AETPB using rat oral needle at 100 and 200?mg/kg doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in diabetic rats than diabetic control rats. AETPB-treated diabetic rats body weight, total protein, insulin, and haemoglobin levels were increased significantly (P < 0.001) than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001) reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein levels were observed in type 2 diabetic rats after AETPB administration. Presence of biomarkers gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in AETPB was confirmed in HPLC analysis. AETPB and gallic acid showed significant (P < 0.001) enhancement of glucose uptake action in presence of insulin in muscle cells than vehicle control. Also AETPB inhibited pancreatic ? -amylase and ? -glucosidase enzymes. In conclusion, the above actions might be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of AETPB due to presence of gallic acid and other biomarkers. PMID:23936668
Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Adhirajan, Natarajan
Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts.
Chikezie, Paul Chidoka
Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA\\/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of
Madhu Suman Rana; A. Tyagi; Sk Asraf Hossain
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced
M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan
Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and is widely distributed in India, up to an altitude of 1500 m. Though Terminalia chebula Retz is the only botanical source of Haritaki, the uses of its varieties along with their sources, identifying features and therapeutic uses are described in Ayurvedic classics and other medical literature. In the present study, a detailed review has been carried out on different varieties of Haritaki. PMID:24501534
Ratha, Kshirod Kumar; Joshi, Girish Chandra
To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves, bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents (72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). Leaves of Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol, aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T. chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T. bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid. PMID:16096138
Bajpai, Monika; Pande, Anurag; Tewari, S K; Prakash, Dhan
The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In
Youvraj R. Sohni; Padmaja Kaimal; Ranjan M. Bhatt
The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants — Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg\\/kg\\/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the
Youvraj R. Sohni; Ranjan M. Bhatt
The flavor extract components contributing to the characteristic aroma notes of roasted and steamed tropical almond nuts were investigated by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry of solvent extracts. Roasting and steaming data revealed all the main classes of compounds commonly listed as thermally generated flavors in oily seeds. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the
Ola Lasekan; Khatib Alfi; Kassim A. Abbas
The flavor extract components contributing to the characteristic aroma notes of roasted and steamed tropical almond nuts were investigated by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry of solvent extracts. Roasting and steaming data revealed all of the main classes of compounds commonly listed as thermally generated flavors in oily seeds. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in
Ola Lasekan; Khatib Alfi; Kassim A. Abbas
Isolation of intact and pure genomic DNA (gDNA) is essential for many molecular biology applications. It is difficult to isolate pure DNA from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. We hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gDNA from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of Combretaceae viz. Anogeissus (Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia, Anogeissus pendula, and Anogeissus latifolia) and Terminalia (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia catappa and Terminalia chebula). This method involves (i) washing the sample twice with Triton buffer (2%) then (ii) isolation of gDNA by modified-CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method employing a high concentration (4%) of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and 50mM ascorbic acid, and (iii) purification of this CTAB-isolated gDNA by spin-column. gDNA isolated by modified CTAB or spin-column alone were not found suitable for PCR amplification. The Triton washing step is also critical. The quality of DNA was determined by the A(260)/A(280) absorbance ratio. gDNA was also observed for its intactness by running on 0.8% agarose gel. The suitability of extracted DNA for PCR was tested by amplification with RAPD primers, which was successful. Further, rbcLa (barcoding gene) was amplified and sequenced to check the quality of extracted gDNA for its downstream applications. PMID:21827837
Gupta, Amit Kumar; Harish; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh
Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production
Rintu Banerjee; Gargi Mukherjee; Krushna Chandra Patra
Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653
Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E
Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.
Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.
In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health. PMID:17460898
Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine,
Ola Lasekan; Kassim Abbas
Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P<0.05) increases occurred in concentration with increased roasting temperature and time. Carboxylic acids were the most abundant volatiles in the roasted almond nuts and less significant (P>0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period. PMID:20510332
Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim
The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. PMID:24199459
Gautam, Ajay K; Avasthi, Shubhi; Sharma, Anu; Bhadauria, Rekha
Ayurveda is considered as the “science of life,” because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ‘Triphala’ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM). It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry.
Prakash, Shobha; Shelke, Anup U.
With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470
Shetty, Pooja J; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie
Ayurveda is considered as the "science of life," because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. 'Triphala' is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM). It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry. PMID:24872616
Prakash, Shobha; Shelke, Anup U
"Triphala", the Ayurvedic wonder is used traditionally for the treatment of different types of diseases since antiquity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the three components of Triphala powder demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was active against all the test isolates followed by Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. There was a close association between antibacterial activity and total phenolic content of Triphala components.The test plant extracts were also found to be non-toxic on human erythrocyte membrane at recommended and even higher doses. The preliminary results of the present study may help in developing effective and safe antimicrobial agents from Triphala components for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24377130
Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar
Fifteen fruits commonly used by the ethnic population in Nepal were studied for the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content (TPC). Among them, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Spondias pinnata were the most potent antioxidants as compared with vitamin C based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical assay. These fruits also contained high TPCs. Spondias pinnata, Pyrularia edulis, Melastoma malabathricum, Cipadema bacifera and Choerospondias axillaries fruits were evaluated for the first time. Moreover, Spondias pinnata was found to be more potent (16% radical scavenging activity at 5 microg/ml) than vitamin C (5% radical scavenging activity at 5 microg/ml). Antioxidant activity showed correlation to TPC with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) as 0.7189 and 0.7246 for the methanol and water extracts, respectively. This study suggests that a number of these fruits may have the potential to confer beneficial health effects due to their antioxidant activity and TPC. PMID:20187713
Chalise, Jaya Prakash; Acharya, Kalpana; Gurung, Nirmala; Bhusal, Ram Prasad; Gurung, Reenu; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa; Basnet, Purusotam
With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.
Shetty, Pooja J.; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie
The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183
Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath
Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484
Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y
Medicinal plants are a rich source of ligands for nuclear receptors. The present study was aimed to screen a collection of plant extracts for PPAR?/?-activating properties and identify the active extract that can stimulate cellular glucose uptake without enhancing the adipogenesis. A reporter gene assay was performed to screen ethanolic extracts of 263 plant species, belonging to 94 families, for activation of PPAR? and PPAR?. Eight extracts showed activation of PPAR?, while 22 extracts showed activation of PPAR?. The extracts of five plants (Daphne gnidium, Illicium anisatum, Juniperus virginiana, Terminalia chebula, and Thymelaea hirsuta) showed activation of both PPAR? and PPAR? and out of them, D. gnidium and T. hirsuta markedly increased PPAR?/? protein expression. All five extracts showed an increase in cellular glucose uptake. Of the five dual agonists, T. chebula and T. hirsuta did not show any increase in differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but I. anisatum caused an increase in adipogenesis, while D. gnidium and J. virginiana were toxic to adipocytes. The adipogenic effect of rosiglitazone was antagonized by T. chebula and T. hirsuta. It was concluded that T. hirsuta and T. chebula retain the property of elevating glucose uptake as PPAR?/? dual agonists without the undesired side effect of adipogenesis. This is the first report to reveal the PPAR?/? dual agonistic action and glucose uptake enhancing property of T. hirsuta and T. chebula. PMID:23877921
Yang, Min Hye; Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Khan, Shabana I
Abstracts Background Acinetobacter baumannii is well-recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen, however, due to their intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics, treatment options are limited. Synergistic effects between antibiotics and medicinal plants, particularly their active components, have intensively been studied as alternative approaches. Methods Fifty-one ethanol extracts obtained from 44 different selected medicinal plant species were tested for resistance modifying agents (RMAs) of novobiocin against A. baumannii using growth inhibition assay. Results At 250??g/ml, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Punica granatum, Quisqualis indica, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia sp. that possessed low intrinsic antibacterial activity significantly enhanced the activity of novobiocin at 1??g/ml (1/8xminimum inhibitory concentration) against this pathogen. Holarrhena antidysenterica at 7.8??g/ml demonstrated remarkable resistant modifying ability against A. baumannii in combination with novobiocin. The phytochemical study revealed that constituents of this medicinal plant contain alkaloids, condensed tannins, and triterpenoids. Conclusion The use of Holarrhena antidysenterica in combination with novobiocin provides an effective alternative treatment for multidrug resistant A. baumannii infections.
The paradigm shift in park management from a fortress mentality to the participatory concept is represented as a major transformation in the conservation discourse in Nepal. The involvement of local people in the management of resources in national parks has been significantly effective in attaining the conservation goals of conserving wildlife without compromising the basic forest resource needs of the
G. R. Acharya; B Bhatta; A. R. Gyawali
Aedes (Stegomyia) hoogstraali Knight and Rozeboom and Ae. (Stg.) impatibilis (Walker) are 2 distinct species. Characters for separating impatibilis from hoogstraali are given. Male terminalia, female, female terminalia and pupa of impatibilis and female t...
Aedes (Stegomyia) laffooni Knight and Rozeboom and Aedes Stegomyia pseudalbolineatus Brug are 2 distinct species. Characters for separating laffooni from pseudalbolineatus are given. Male terminalia, female terminalia, pupa and larva of laffooni and femal...
The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.
Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.
Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey's HSD and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.
Vinothkumar, Thilla S; Rubin, Mohamed I; Balaji, Lakshmi; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam
This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions. PMID:19467035
Khazaeli, P; Goldoozian, R; Sharififar, F
HP-1 a herbal formulation comprising of Phyllanthus niruri and extracts of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Tinospora cordifolia has been evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Results show that HP-1 reversed the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels in a primary monolayer culture of rat hepatocytes (in vitro). HP-1 attenuated the serum toxicity as manifested in elevated levels of transaminases (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and GPT) The antioxidative enzymes in liver (catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were restored to normal values after the oral administration of HP-1. HP-1 suppressed the formation of the superoxide anion radical and reduced CCl4 mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Silymarin and antioxidants (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol) were used for comparison. The present study showed that HP-1 is a potential hepatoprotective formulation with an additional attribute of being anti-peroxidative. PMID:14992325
Tasaduq, S A; Singh, K; Sethi, S; Sharma, S C; Bedi, K L; Singh, J; Jaggi, B S; Johri, R K
Methanolic extracts of different parts of five medicinal plants, Ferula assafoetidaL. resin, Grewia asiaticaL. leaves, Ipomoea hederaceaJacq. seeds, Lepidium sativumL. seeds and Terminalia chebulaRetz. fruits were tested in vitrofor their cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal and anthelmintic activities. Ipomoea hederaceashowed very significant phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition of Lemna minorgrowth and 100% death of Artemia salinaat concentrations of 1000 and 100 µg mL-1. Grewia asiaticaexhibited very weak activities while Lepidium sativumand Ferula assafoetidashowed moderate to good potential in all three bioassays. The results suggest screening of Ipomoea hederaceaseeds further for isolation of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its toxic potential. PMID:23558994
Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Raza Shah, M; Qayum, Mughal; Ercisli, Sezai
Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-) bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62 mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus. PMID:15030933
Bonjar, G H Shahidi
The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) tests. PMID:8953425
Sohni, Y R; Bhatt, R M
Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) occurrs in high concentrations in medicinal herbs such as Rhus chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Acer truncatum and Terminalia chebula, which demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effect of PGG on stimulated and non-stimulated neutrophils in processes which included reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-8 secretion (IL-8), ?? integrin (CD11b) and L-selectin (CD62L) expression and apoptosis. In concentrations of 5??M-20??M, PGG demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of ROS generation, IL-8 secretion and ?? integrin expression in stimulated neutrophils. The inhibition of L-selectin expression by PGG resulted in prevention in neutrophils' endothelial attachment. The result obtained may explain the anti-inflammatory activity of this compound and underline the contribution of PGG in the activity of PGG rich plant extracts. PMID:22899541
Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Zy?y?ska-Granica, Barbara; Naruszewicz, Marek
Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.
Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho
Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785
Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R
Three new species of Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel, 1934 and one of Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch, 1914 from the Indo-Pacific area are described and the male terminalia illustrated. Among these new species, Dasyrhicnoessa paradoxa sp. nov. and Pseudorhicnoessa longicerca sp. nov. are especially noteworthy for the morphological peculiarities of the male terminalia. PMID:24872057
A new subgenus, Exallomyia, of the genus Wyeomyia is established for three species previously included in the subgenera Davismyia and Dendromyia, and in the genus and nominate subgenus Sabethes. The terminalia of the holotype males of the three species, t...
E. L. Peyton R. E. Harbach
This paper presents techniques that allow careful study of terminalia, indicates the range of development of the proctiger lobes in Uranotaeniu, and considers their possible phylogenetic significance. It is hoped others will be stimulated to investigate t...
E. L. Peyton R. H. Hochman
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620
Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot
Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes.
Dermatophytes are the most common causative agents of cutaneous mycosis and remain a major public health problem in spite of the availability of an increasing number of antifungal drugs. It was, therefore considered necessary to pursue the screening of different extracts (compounds) of selected traditional medicinal plants reportedly having antidermatophyte potential. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify specific compound from the most active extract (free flavonoid) of stem of Terminalia chebula of the selected plants to treat dermatophytosis induced on experimental mice. Mice which were experimentally induced with Trichophyton mentagrophytes were grouped in six of five animals each. To treat the lesions on infected mice, two concentrations of isolated apigenin ointment, i.e. 2.5 mg g(-1) (Api I) and 5 mg g(-1) (Api II), and terbinafine (standard) of concentration 5 mg g(-1) were used. Complete recovery from the infection was recorded on 12th day of treatment for reference drug Terbinafine and Api II (5 mg g(-1) ) concentration of ointment, whereas Api I (2.5 mg g(-1) ) ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scraping from infected mice's of different groups. Apigenin has shown potency as the infected animals recover completely by Api II comparable to the standard drug in 12th day. So Apigenin can be explored as an antifungal agent in the clinical treatment of dermatophytosis in future. PMID:24708558
Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra
The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of 89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham-treated control group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae: DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase and protease. PMID:7739226
Sohni, Y R; Kaimal, P; Bhatt, R M
The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials. PMID:18322727
Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K
Forested wetlands dominated by Terminalia carolinensis are endemic to Micronesia but common only on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. On Kosrae, these forests occur on Nansepsep, Inkosr, and Sonahnpil soil types, which differ in degree of flooding and soil saturation. We compared forest structure, growth, nutrition, and regeneration on two sites each on Nansepsep and Inkosr soils and one site on the much less common Sonahnpil soil type. Terminalia tree sizes were similar on all three soil types, but forests differed in total basal area, species of smaller trees, and total plant species diversity. Terminalia regeneration was found only on the Inkosr soil type, which had the highest water table levels. Other Terminalia species are relatively light demanding, and T. carolinensis exhibited similar characteristics. It is therefore likely that Terminalia requires periodic, but perhaps naturally rare, stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., typhoons) in order to maintain its dominanace, except on the wettest sites, where competition from other species is reduced. Terminalia swamps in the Nansepsep soil type appeared to be at the greatest risk of conversion to other uses, but swamps on all three types may face reater pressure as Kosrae's population increases and the island's infrastrucure becomes more developed.
Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Waguk, E.E.
A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152
Miah, Md Abdul Quddus
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells. Experiments revealed that both tannins targeted and inactivated HSV-1 viral particles and could prevent binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as secondary infection. The antiviral effect from either of the tannins was not associated with induction of type I interferon-mediated responses, nor was pretreatment of the host cell protective against HSV-1. Their inhibitory activities targeted HSV-1 glycoproteins since both natural compounds were able to block polykaryocyte formation mediated by expression of recombinant viral glycoproteins involved in attachment and membrane fusion. Our results indicated that CHLA and PUG blocked interactions between cell surface glycosaminoglycans and HSV-1 glycoproteins. Furthermore, the antiviral activities from the two tannins were significantly diminished in mutant cell lines unable to produce heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and could be rescued upon reconstitution of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. We suggest that the hydrolyzable tannins CHLA and PUG may be useful as competitors for glycosaminoglycans in the management of HSV-1 infections and that they may help reduce the risk for development of viral drug resistance during therapy with nucleoside analogues.
Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. We report the antiglycating activity of chebulic acid (CA), isolated from Terminalia chebula on breaking the cross-links of proteins induced by AGEs and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Aminoguanidine (AG) reduced 50% of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glycolaldehyde (glycol-BSA)-induced cross-links of collagen at a concentration of 67.8±2.5?mM, the level of CA required for exerting a similar antiglycating activity was 38.8±0.5?µM. Also, the breaking activity on collagen cross-links induced by glycol-BSA was potent with CA (IC50=1.46±0.05?mM), exhibiting 50-fold stronger breaking activity than with ALT-711, a well-known cross-link breaker (IC50=72.2±2.4?mM). IC50 values of DPPH· scavenging activity for CA and ascorbic acid (AA) were 39.2±4.9 and 19.0±1.2?µg dry matter (DM) mL(-1), respectively, and ferric reducing and antioxidant power (FRAP) activities for CA and AA were 4.70±0.06 and 11.4±0.1?mmol/FeSO4·7H2O/g DM, respectively. The chelating activities of CA, AG and ALT711 on copper-catalyzed oxidation of AA were compared, and in increasing order, ALT-711 (IC50 of 1.92±0.20?mM) Lee, Ji-Young; Oh, Jun-Gu; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Kwang-Won 2014-07-01
Lee, Ji-Young; Oh, Jun-Gu; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Kwang-Won
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of new and efficacious antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23983370
Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah
BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). METHODS: In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. RESULTS: Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 mug/ml and 68 mug/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 mug/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 mug/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 mug/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 mug/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 mug/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 mug/ml). CONCLUSION: Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591
Ali, Shereen K; Hamed, Ahmed R; Soltan, Maha M; Hegazy, Usama M; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; El-Garf, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Ahmed A
The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477
Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T
Field measurements of the cover and biomass of live and dead herbaceous vegetation, the cover of trees and shrubs and the area of bare ground were made for rangelands in three study sites in eastern Botswana between September 1983 and April 1984. The sites were selected to be representative of Terminalia sericea, Cotophospermum mopane and Combretum apiculatum-Acacia nigrescens woodland savannas,
S. D. PRINCE; W. L. ASTLE
A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided. PMID:24872294
Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian
A second record of Hesperinusninae Papp & Krivosheina, 2010 is given on the basis of material collected by sweep net from the northern slope of the Saguramo range north of Tbilisi, Georgia. The habitus and male terminalia are illustrated and the systematics briefly discussed. PMID:24723756
Terminalia belerica Roxb (Combretaceae) known as bahera, found abundant in tropical Asia, is a source of new edible oil (37% by dry weight of kernel), biofertilizer, tannin and antioxidant. The oilcake contains high amount of nitrogen (8.34%). On biochemical evaluation form the oil cake it is evident that about 60% NaCl extractable protein is digestible which can be converted into
D. Bera; D. Lahiri; Antonella De Leonardis; K. B. De; A. Nag
Two step ultrasonic dyeing of cotton and silk fabrics with natural dyes, Terminalia arjuna, Punica granatum, and Rheum emodi have been developed in which an enzyme is complexed with tannic acid first as a pretreatment. This was found to be comparable with one step simultaneous dyeing. The effectiveness of three enzymes—protease-amylase, diasterase and lipase was determined. The enzymatic treatment gave
Padma S. Vankar; Rakhi Shanker; Avani Verma
A new genus and species of Papaverellus aureocingulatus from Brazil, belonging to the asilid subfamily, is described and illustrated. Photographs of the habitus of the male and female in lateral view, and male terminalia in ventral view are provided. The systematic position of Papaverellus gen. nov. is suggested and will be addressed in a future paper. PMID:24871421
Artigas, Jorge N; Vieira, Rodrigo
We here reconsider the status of subgenus Hemichaeta Steyskal, concluding that there is no justification to keep it in the genus Poecilotylus Hennig. Hemichaeta is thus removed from Poecilotylus and elevated to generic status with Hemichaeta scutellata (Cresson) as the type and only included species. Hemichaeta scutellata is fully redescribed, including the previously undescribed male and female terminalia. PMID:24943615
Marshall, Stephen A; Jackson, Morgan D
In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached
Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg
Abstract Two new species of the genus Cyamops (Diptera: Periscelididae), the first from New Zealand, are described. The two newly described species are: Cyamops alessandrae and Cyamops crosbyi. A key to the genera of the subfamily Stenomicrinae and to the species of Cyamops from the Australasian/Oceanian Region and detailed illustrations of structures of the male terminalia are provided.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Sueyoshi, Masahiro
Poor establishment, due to loss of soil fertility, weeds and lack of appropriate shade, is a major constraint to replanting\\u000a cacao on previously used land. Spathodea campanulata, Newbouldia laevis and Ricinodendron heudelotii planted as monospecific improved fallow and Terminalia ivorensis, T. superba and Antiaris toxicaria planted as a multispecies improved fallow and a natural tree fallow were assessed for their
Gilbert John Anim-Kwapong; Kwabena Osei-Bonsu
Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.
Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml). PMID:15894143
Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L
In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617
Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda
Studies were carried out on the cultivability of Lentinus subnudus on woodlogs of various hardwood trees and the effect of chemical treatments of these woodlogs with citric, tartaric, indole-3-acetic (IAA) and gibberellic (GA3) acids on fruitbody production and yield. Of the four hardwood species of Chlorophora excelsa, Terminalia ivorensis, Terminalia superba and Spondias mombin tried, woodlogs of C. excelsa were the best in supporting L. subnudus fructification, followed by those of S. mombin. On the effect of chemical treatments of C. excelsa and S. mombin woodlogs on L. subnudus' fruitbody production and yield, bed logs treated with 50 ppm indole-3-acetic and gibberellic acids were the best in enhancing fructification and yield with C. excelsa GA3 and IAA treated bed logs consistently producing more fruitbodies and greater yields than S. mombin bed logs given the same treatments. The implication of these findings in relation to results obtained in previous studies are discussed. PMID:15081489
Kadiri, Mukaila; Arzai, Auwalu Halliru
The Costa Rican government has provided incentives for reforestation programs since 1986 and initiated a Payment for Environmental\\u000a Services program in 1996. These incentives yielded native species reforestation programs throughout the country. This research\\u000a aims to provide information about growth, carbon sequestration, and management of seven native tree species (Vochysia guatemalensis, Vochysia ferruginea, Hyeronima alchorneoides, Calophyllum brasiliense, Terminalia amazonia, Virola
A revision of the genus Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912, based on a study of external morphology and terminalia, is presented. The genus and its species are redescribed. Five species are recognized, two of which are described as new: T. bella sp. nov. from Bolivia and T. opaca sp. nov. from Argentina. A new host plant for T. maculicollis Audinet-Serville, 1834 is recorded. A key to all species, and their photographs and distribution maps are provided. PMID:24870189
Quintino, Hingrid Yara S; Monné, Marcela L
Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid (CA) and liver (all the extracts). The alterations promoted by TC extract could be related to cardiotonic, antidiabetes and renal toxicity. The alteration in liver in EA and CA extracts could be related to its hepatoprotective activities. The extracts (EA, MI, BG) were not capable to interfere in the survival of E. coli. Moreover, these extracts have protected the E. coli against the SnCl 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some pitfalls in the nuclear medicine.
Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario
Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed. PMID:19070189
Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M
Behavioural novelties observed in adult leaf beetles of two new Orthaltica Crotch species include: 1) the use of low cost leaf-hole shelters, either in pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or artificially created holes as part of an experiment; and 2) the use of faeces to partition the hole. Two new southern Indian species of the genus Orthaltica are described and illustrated: Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia. Host plants are identified for both species. A key to the Indian species of Orthaltica is provided. PMID:24146572
Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Konstantinov, Alexander S; Shameem, K M; Balan, A P
A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs. PMID:9741889
Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Sen, A
Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system\\u000a (CL, Erythrina\\u000a poeppigiana, Gliricidia\\u000a sepium or Inga\\u000a edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia\\u000a rosea or Terminalia\\u000a ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major goals: (1) to evaluate the use of mono-specific timber shade canopies\\u000a as an
Eduardo Somarriba; John Beer
Abstract Both males and females of Baeopterogyna mihalyiiMatile, 1975 are recorded from northern Greece. Females are described for the first time providing photographs of the general facies and terminalia. In contrast to the single congener with stenopterous females – Baeopterogyna nudipes Vockeroth, 1972 – Baeopterogyna mihalyii is shown to have normally developed wings in both sexes. Association of sexes is based on both morphological characters and sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI). DNA sequences are used for the first time for the association of sexes in Mycetophilidae.
Kurina, Olavi; Ounap, Erki; Ramel, Gordon
A new species of the eucerine bee genus Tetraloniella Ashmead (Apinae: Eucerini) is described and figured from central Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Tetraloniella (Tetraloniella) persiciformissp. n. is distinguished on the basis of coloration, integumental sculpturing, male metafemoral structure, and male terminalia. A floral record of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey. (Compositae) is noted for some of the material. Females superficially resemble those of Tarsalia persica (Warncke) (Ancylaini) in overall coloration but can be distinguished by the typical generic and tribal characters. PMID:22448116
Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Engel, Michael S
Abstract A new species of the eucerine bee genus Tetraloniella Ashmead (Apinae: Eucerini) is described and figured from central Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Tetraloniella (Tetraloniella) persiciformis sp. n. is distinguished on the basis of coloration, integumental sculpturing, male metafemoral structure, and male terminalia. A floral record of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey. (Compositae) is noted for some of the material. Females superficially resemble those of Tarsalia persica (Warncke) (Ancylaini) in overall coloration but can be distinguished by the typical generic and tribal characters.
Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Engel, Michael S.
From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695
Iwu, M M; Anyanwu, B N
A third species of the rare augochlorine bee genus Chlerogelloides Engel et al. (Halictinae, Augochlorini) is described and figured. Chlerogelloides nexosasp. n. is most similar to the type species, Chlerogelloides femoralis Engel et al., in that both have modified midlegs in the males. The former, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its terminalia, which in some respects more closely resembles those of Chlerogelloides simplex Engel and Brooks. Brief comments on the secondary features of males and relationships of the genus are provided. A key to the species of the genus is provided and floral records of Cordia nodosa Lam. (Boraginaceae) and Gonzalagunia dicocca Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae) are noted. PMID:22577312
de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Engel, Michael S; Mahlmann, Thiago
Abstract A third species of the rare augochlorine bee genus Chlerogelloides Engel et al. (Halictinae, Augochlorini) is described and figured. Chlerogelloides nexosa sp. n. is most similar to the type species, Chlerogelloides femoralis Engel et al., in that both have modified midlegs in the males. The former, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its terminalia, which in some respects more closely resembles those of Chlerogelloides simplex Engel and Brooks. Brief comments on the secondary features of males and relationships of the genus are provided. A key to the species of the genus is provided and floral records of Cordia nodosa Lam. (Boraginaceae) and Gonzalagunia dicocca Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae) are noted.
de Oliveira, Favizia Freitas; Engel, Michael S.; Mahlmann, Thiago
The finding of new melanogaster sister species may help us in understanding more about how the emergence of genetic novelties, particularly in insular habitats, can result in speciation. Here we report on the discovery of Drosophila santomea, which is the first melanogaster sibling found off West-equatorial Africa, on São Tomé, one of the Gulf of Guinea islands. Although the eight other melanogaster sister species are remarkably conservative in their morphology except for their terminalia, the new find has a morphological trait distinguishing it from all of these: a pure yellow body coloration of both sexes without the normal black abdominal banding. Evidence from the terminalia, polytene and mitotic chromosomes, period gene and allozymes are provided indicating that it is nonetheless the nearest relative of Drosophila yakuba with which it coexists on the island. The new find is a clear-cut taxon as shown by the production of sterile male hybrids, eventually with developmental defects, in both directions of cross with yakuba and by the existence of an altitudinal divide accompanied by a hybrid zone at mid-elevation on the island. Molecular and karyotypic data further support this conclusion. In contrast to the significant divergence of their nuclear DNAs, an intriguing similarity in their cytochrome b sequences was observed indicating a recent coalescence common to santomea, yakuba and also teissieri cytoplasms. These were shown to harbour the same Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria which could possibly be responsible for mitochondrial DNA hitchhiking across the species barrier.
Lachaise, D; Harry, M; Solignac, M; Lemeunier, F; Benassi, V; Cariou, M L
Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries and known to possess antioxidant properties that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We screen aqueous extracts from 20 medicinal plants in Thailand that were believed to possess anti-tumor activity, help immune-stimulating property and maintain blood stasis. The antioxidant activities were investigated in two bioassays. Firstly, we demonstrated inhibition of Heinz bodies induction caused by oxidants under in vitro condition. The percentages of Heinz body inhibition activity in plant extracts from Terminalia citrina, Cassia timoriensis, and Derris elliptica were the highest followed by Anamirta cocculus, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. In addition, we investigated total antioxidant activity in plant extracts by improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The total antioxidant activity of the extract from Terminalia citrina was also the highest activity followed by Ficus pubigera, Derris elliptica, Anamirta cocculus, Caesalpinia sappan, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. Our results suggest medicinal Thai plants as valuable sources of antioxidants, which may have a potential anti-carcinogenic activity. PMID:16435991
Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Tamaporn; Pradniwat, Paweena; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in Bunda district, Tanzania, were screened for activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1, IIIB strain) and Type 2 (HIV-2, ROD strain). Antiplasmodial activity was observed for the 80 % MeOH extract of Ormocarpum kirkii (root; MIC = 31.25 microg/mL), Combretum adenogonium (leaves), Euphorbia tirucalli (root), Harrisonia abyssinica (root), Rhynchosia sublobata (root), Sesbania sesban (root), Tithonia diversifolia (leaves), and Vernonia cinerascens (leaves; MIC value of 62.5 microg/mL). With regard to HIV, 80 % MeOH extracts of Barleria eranthemoides (root), Combretum adenogonium (leaves and stem bark), Elaeodedron schlechteranum (stem bark and root bark), Lannea schweinfurthii (stem bark), Terminalia mollis (stem bark and root bark), Acacia tortilis (stem bark), Ficus cycamorus (stem bark) and Indigofera colutea (shoot), as well as H2O extracts from Barleria eranthemoides (root), Combretum adenogonium (leaves and stem bark), and Terminalia mollis (stem bark and root bark) exhibited IC50 values below 10 microg/mL against HIV-1 (IIIB strain). The highest anti-HIV-1 activity value was obtained for the B. eranthemoides 80 % MeOH root extract (IC50 value 2.1 microg/mL). Only a few extracts were active against HIV-2, such as the 80 % MeOH extract from Lannea schweinfurthii (stem bark) and Elaeodedron schlechteranum (root bark), showing IC50 values < 10 microg/mL. PMID:19653145
Maregesi, Sheila; Van Miert, Sabine; Pannecouque, Christophe; Feiz Haddad, Mohammed H; Hermans, Nina; Wright, Colin W; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043
Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z
Stem barks of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides widely used in Africa for treatment of some parasitic diseases were collected and made into methanolic extracts. The extracts were tested on four strains of promastigote forms of Leishmania in vitro. Solvent fractionation in aqueous, butanolic, and ethyl acetate layer indicated butanol and aqueous fractions to have a superior leishmanicidal activity. Chromatographic separation of the butanolic fraction on Sephadex LH-20 followed by nuclear magnetic resonance and correlation high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of known hydrolyzable tannins and some related compounds-with castalagin as the major compound. The observed activity ranged from 62.5 to > or =150, 112.5 to > or =500, and 55 to >150 microg/ml for the crude methanolic extract, different solvent fractions, and the isolated compounds, respectively, on the four different Leishmania strains. PMID:18690475
Shuaibu, M N; Pandey, K; Wuyep, P A; Yanagi, T; Hirayama, K; Ichinose, A; Tanaka, T; Kouno, I
Background The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance. Results The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940). Conclusions The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae.
Fifty local medicinal, agricultural and wild growing deciduous plants, representing 49 species, 46 genera and 22 families, were screened as water extracts at 1:1000 concentration for molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria pfeifferi in Machakos District, Kenya. Forty-seven of the 50 (94%) plants and 106 of the 134 (79%) plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds) were molluscicidal. The leaves of Pappea capensis (Sapindaceae), Steganotaenia araliacea (Umbelliferae), Zornia setosa subsp. obvata (Papilionaceae) and Terminalia kilimandscharica (Combretaceae), the flower pods of Hyptis pectinata (Labiatae), the seeds of Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) and the fruits and roots of Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae) gave 100% kill. Another 15 species produced mortality rates between 53% and 87%. Plants were evaluated for possible use in local snail control programmes by considering their growing characteristics, habitat requirements, toxicity in non-target organisms, abundance in the study area and competing uses. PMID:3656497
Kloos, H; Thiongo, F W; Ouma, J H; Butterworth, A E
One hundred and seventy-eight ethanolic plant extracts from the pharmacopoeia of the Tacana, an ethnic group from Bolivia, were screened for immunomodulatory activity using complement cascade inhibition and ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition assays. Six impaired both complement pathways (classical and alternative): stem bark from Astronium urundeuvea (Anacardiaceae), Cochlospermum vitifolium (Cochlospermaceae), Terminalia amazonica (Combretaceae), Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae), Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae) and Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) roots. Inhibition of complement cascade was independent of essential ion complexation, and was not due to direct hemolytic activity on target red blood cells. For A. urundeuvea, C. vitifolium, and T. amazonica, anti-inflammatory activity relied on cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. Four of these species (A. urundeuva, T. americana, U. tomentosa and E. precatoria) are used traditionally to treat inflammatory processes. PMID:15500263
Deharo, E; Baelmans, R; Gimenez, A; Quenevo, C; Bourdy, G
Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 ?g/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC50 of 0.031 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.
Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K.; Asare, C.; Dickson, R.; Amponsah, KI.; Gyan, B.; Ofori, M.; Gbedema, SY.
Abstract Two new species of the genus Tillicera Spinola, 1841 from China are described and illustrated: Tillicera sensibilis sp. n. from Yunnan (also from Myanmar, Thailand and Laos) and Tillicera wenii sp. n. from Taiwan. Tillicera bibalteata Gorham, 1892, Tillicera hirsuta (Pic, 1926) and Tillicera michaeli Gerstmeier & Bernhard, 2010 are newly recorded from China. Tillicera auratofasciata (Pic, 1927) is newly recorded in some provinces of China. A key to species of the genus from China is provided. Relationships between species are discussed with emphasis on characters of male phallus, female internal reproductive organs and pit-like sensilla in male terminal antennomere, which is discovered in Tillicera for the first time. The present generic definition of Tillicera is discussed as well. Photos of terminalia of the previously known species are also provided for comparison.
Yang, Ganyan; Montreuil, Olivier; Yang, Xingke
A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393
Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B
Abstract The latifrons species-group (=Brachycallimerus sensu Chapin 1924, Corporaal 1950; = flavofasciatus-group sensu Kolibá? 1998) of Callimerus Gorham is redefined and revised. Five species are recognized including one new species Callimerus cacuminis Yang & Yang sp. n. (type locality: Yunnan, China). Callimerus flavofasciatus Schenkling, 1902 is newly synonymized with Callimerus latifrons Gorham, 1876. Callimerus trifasciatus Schenkling, 1899a is transferred to the genus Corynommadius Schenkling, 1899a. Callimerus gorhami Corporaal, 1949 and Callimerus pallidus Gorham, 1892 are excluded from the latifrons species-group (their assignment to a species-group will be dealt with in a subsequent paper). A key to species of the latifrons species-group is given and habitus of each type specimen, male terminalia, and other diagnostic characters are illustrated.
Yang, Gan-Yan; Montreuil, Olivier; Yang, Xing-Ke
In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567
Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto
The latifrons species-group (=Brachycallimerus sensu Chapin 1924, Corporaal 1950; = flavofasciatus-group sensu Kolibá? 1998) of Callimerus Gorham is redefined and revised. Five species are recognized including one new species Callimerus cacuminis Yang & Yang sp. n. (type locality: Yunnan, China). Callimerus flavofasciatus Schenkling, 1902 is newly synonymized with Callimerus latifrons Gorham, 1876. Callimerus trifasciatus Schenkling, 1899a is transferred to the genus Corynommadius Schenkling, 1899a. Callimerus gorhami Corporaal, 1949 and Callimerus pallidus Gorham, 1892 are excluded from the latifrons species-group (their assignment to a species-group will be dealt with in a subsequent paper). A key to species of the latifrons species-group is given and habitus of each type specimen, male terminalia, and other diagnostic characters are illustrated. PMID:23794870
Yang, Gan-Yan; Montreuil, Olivier; Yang, Xing-Ke
More than 2000 plants have been listed in the Traditional (Herbal/Alternative) systems of medicine and some of these are providing comprehensive relief to the people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, specially "hyperlipidemia" and "ischemic heart disease". WHO reports indicate that around eighty percent of the global population still relies on botanical drugs and several herbal medicines have advanced to clinical use in modern times. Based on these findings, present review is written to identify the "Pharmacology and Cardio-vascular Application" of four commonly used plants in Pakistan. These include, Crataegus oxycantha, Inula racemosa, Terminalia arjuna and Commiphora mukul. The selection of the plants in the present study is primarily based on their chemistry and pharmacological properties including toxicology reported in various research articles and reviews. Some very interesting findings have been observed and thus recorded and reported in this review. PMID:20067878
Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Sualeh, Mohammad; Mahmood, Saad Bin Zafar; Karim, Mahwish Ahmed
Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.
Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin
Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer.
Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.
Hexane extract of male terminalia (along with scent brushes) of castor semi-looper moth, Achaea janata L, elicited significant olfactory responses in both male and female insects by electroantennogram recording technique. However, male extract in the wind tunnel evoked noticeable behaviour responses in the female insects only. Orientation response of the males to the male extract was not evident in wind tunnel experiments. Two electrophysiologically-active compounds were identified from the male extract. Based on GC retention times and mass spectrometry the two compounds were confirmed as (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienal and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heneicosatriene. These two compounds are also constituents of female produced four-component blend of A. janata. PMID:15875717
Jyothi, K N; Prasuna, A L; Prasad, A R
In vitro antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extracts of 16 medicinal plants was evaluated by fluorometric assay using PicoGreen. The IC50s, as determined by parasite DNA concentration, ranged from <11 to >200 and <13 to >200 microg/ml for Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and K1, respectively; and the most active extracts were those from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides (<11-> or =14 microg/ml). Aqueous, butanolic, ethyl acetate, and methanolic fractions of these two extracts revealed butanolic fraction to have a relatively better activity (IC50, 10-12 microg/ml). Activity-guided chromatographic separation of the butanolic fraction on Sephadex LH-20 followed by nuclear magnetic resonance and correlation high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of known hydrolysable tannins and some related compounds-castalagin, ellagic acid, flavogallonic acid, punicalagin, terchebulin, and two other fractions. The IC50s of all these compounds ranged between 8-21 microg/ml (8-40 microM) against both the strains. Toxicity assay with mouse fibroblasts showed all the extracts and isolated compounds to have IC50 > or = 1500 microg/ml, except for Momordica balsamina with <1500 microg/l. All the extracts and isolated compounds did not affect the integrity of human erythrocyte membrane at the observed IC50s. However, adverse effects manifest in a concentration-dependent fashion (from IC50 > or = 500 microg/ml). PMID:18214539
Shuaibu, M N; Wuyep, P A; Yanagi, T; Hirayama, K; Tanaka, T; Kouno, I
External morphological features of adult males are described in the stick insect Hermarchus leytensis from the Philippines, a species belonging to the little-known euphasmatodean lineage Stephanacridini. Mouthparts are characterized by some likely specialized features: (1) a dentate dorsal cutting edge on the mandibles; (2) distinct differences in size and shape between the galeae; (3) absence of an apical field of trichomes on the galeae; and (4) lacinial setae not protruding from the mesal margin, which features three bearing-like protuberances. The latter character state represents a very unusual condition, not known in other phasmatodeans or even in polyneopteran insects. A distinctive characteristic of attachment devices is that each euplantula is divided into two separated pads with a smooth microstructure, as it also occurs in some members of the clade Schizodecema. Male terminalia exhibit character states previously unknown in Stephanacridini, including (1) a symmetrical type of vomer and (2) claspers equipped with ? 70 very minute ventral teeth on each thorn pad. Potential implications for the systematic placement of H. leytensis are discussed. The results also underline the importance of microanatomical investigations as source of substantial characters for future analyses on phasmatodean systematics. PMID:24702895
Gottardo, Marco; Vallotto, Davide
Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca
O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.
The Shannoni complex, comprising sand flies belonging to the subgenus Psathyromyia (Psathyromyia) Barretto, consists of several species, of which the females have banana-shaped spermathecae and the males have digitiform parameres on the terminalia. Among these species, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar) and two taxa considered as its junior synonyms (Phlebotomus limai Fonseca and Phlebotomus bigeniculatus Floch & Abonnenc), Psathyromyia pestanai (Barretto & Coutinho), and a new species are the focus of this study. On the basis of morphological and morphometric characters, Psathyromyia bigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc) stat. rev.; comb. n. and Psathyromyia limai (Fonseca) stat. rev.; comb. n. are resurrected from the synonymy of Pa. shannoni. Pa. pestanai is proposed as a new junior synonym of Pa. limai. Psathyromyia ribeirensis sp. n., occurring in the middle and upper Ribeira Valley in the state of São Paulo, Brazil is described. Pa. limai, described from the Serra da Cantareira (São Paulo municipality) and also found in the lower Ribeira Valley and on the adjacent coastal plain, is morphologically very close to the new species. PMID:24724281
Sábio, P B; Andrade, A J; Galatit, E A B
In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ?5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops. PMID:22251685
Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice
Extracts from 50 plant parts obtained from 39 different plants belonging to 22 families used to treat infectious diseases in Bunda district, Tanzania, were screened against twelve microorganisms, including the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium, the fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and the viruses Herpes Simplex Virus type 1, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus T2, Coxsackie B2 and Semliki Forest A7. The highest activity was obtained for the n-hexane extract of Elaeodendron schlechteranum root bark against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus (MIC 0.97 microg/ml and MBC 1.95 microg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 3.90 microg/ml and MBC 31.25 microg/ml). Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive. Only Balanites aegyptiaca stem bark exhibited a high antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC 125 microg/ml and MFC 250 microg/ml). Extracts from four plants; Lannea schweinfurthii, Combretum adenogonium, Ficus sycomorus and Terminalia mollis showed strong antiviral activity with RF values of 10(3) and 10(4) against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 at various concentrations. Our results support, at least in part, the use of most plants as claimed by traditional healers/informants especially against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:18582554
Maregesi, Sheila Mgole; Pieters, Luc; Ngassapa, Olipa David; Apers, Sandra; Vingerhoets, Rita; Cos, Paul; Berghe, Dirk A Vanden; Vlietinck, Arnold J
Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520
Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.
Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar
Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani.
Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.
An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(lll). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. PMID:21166349
Mathur, Nishi; Singh, Joginder; Bohra, Sachendra; Bohra, Avinash; Vyas, Anil
Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890
Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad
Respiratory ailments are major human killers, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease causing a threat to human healthcare. Many South African plants are used in the traditional treatment of TB and related symptoms, but there has not been a sufficient focus on evaluating their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of plants used traditionally to treat TB and related symptoms against microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium aurum A+) associated with respiratory infections using the microdilution assay. Ten plants were selected based on a survey of available literature of medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of TB and related symptoms. The petroleum ether, dichloromethane, 80% ethanol, and water extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for antibacterial activity. Out of 68 extracts tested from different parts of the 10 plant species, 17 showed good antimicrobial activities against at least one or more of the microbial strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.195 to 12.5?mg/mL. The good antimicrobial properties of Abrus precatorius, Terminalia phanerophlebia, Indigofera arrecta, and Pentanisia prunelloides authenticate their traditional use in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thus, further pharmacological and phytochemical analysis is required.
Madikizela, Balungile; Ndhlala, Ashwell Rungano; Finnie, Jeffrey Franklin; Staden, Johannes Van
Abstract The genus Reichardtiolus Kryzhanovskij, 1959 is revised herein. It now contains five species: R. duriculus (Reitter, 1904) from middle Asia (with a doubtful female specimen from western China that is here tentatively assigned to this species), R. pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1959 from Turkmenistan, R. sphingis (Peyerimhoff, 1936), comb. n. (transferred from Saprinus Erichson, 1834) from Egypt and Jordan, R. perses sp. n. from Iran and R. aldhaferi sp. n. from Saudi Arabia. Except for R. pavlovskii, which is a rather distinct species known only from two females, the remaining species are allopatric, very similar externally and are best separated from each other by their male terminalia. R. pavlovskii is kept in Reichardtiolus only tentatively, pending the examination of more specimens, and especially its male genitalia. R. duriculus and R. pavlovskii are re-described, while R. perses sp. n., R. aldhaferi sp. n. and R. sphingis comb. n. are provided with diagnostic descriptions because of their overall similarity with R. duriculus. Morphological differences of all species are illustrated using SEM micrographs. Male genitalia of R. duriculus, R. sphingis comb. n., R. perses sp. n. and R. aldhaferi sp. n. are illustrated and a key to the species is given. R. duriculus is newly recorded from Tajikistan.
Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.
Fall, Patricia L.
Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) bark extract is used to reduce Cu(2+)?Cu(0) under microwave irradiation. The formation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) is monitored by recording the UV-Vis absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak, ~535 nm. The intensity of SPR increased linearly with increasing temperature of the reaction mixture. The formation mechanism of CuNPs is supported by the observed marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential (E) of the reaction mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the CuNPs agrees with the reported data for Cu metal and the crystallite size is ~23 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state (13)C NMR shows the presence of plant residues on the CuNPs, i.e., in situ bio-capping is possible by this method. Thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis shows the thermal degradation of plant residue and the conversion of Cu to CuO. Field emission electron microscopic (FESEM) image shows uniform spherical particles obtained here. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirms the presence of Cu alone, as expected. The in vitro antimicrobial activity is found to be effective for CuNPs dried at RT when compared to CuNPs dried at 70 °C. In addition, CuNPs shows very good antioxidant property. PMID:23562740
Yallappa, S; Manjanna, J; Sindhe, M A; Satyanarayan, N D; Pramod, S N; Nagaraja, K
Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) bark extract is used to reduce Cu2+ ? Cu0 under microwave irradiation. The formation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) is monitored by recording the UV-Vis absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak, ˜535 nm. The intensity of SPR increased linearly with increasing temperature of the reaction mixture. The formation mechanism of CuNPs is supported by the observed marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential (E) of the reaction mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the CuNPs agrees with the reported data for Cu metal and the crystallite size is ˜23 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state 13C NMR shows the presence of plant residues on the CuNPs, i.e., in situ bio-capping is possible by this method. Thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis shows the thermal degradation of plant residue and the conversion of Cu to CuO. Field emission electron microscopic (FESEM) image shows uniform spherical particles obtained here. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirms the presence of Cu alone, as expected. The in vitro antimicrobial activity is found to be effective for CuNPs dried at RT when compared to CuNPs dried at 70 °C. In addition, CuNPs shows very good antioxidant property.
Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Sindhe, M. A.; Satyanarayan, N. D.; Pramod, S. N.; Nagaraja, K.
A facile rapid green eco-friendly method to synthesize gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of tunable size using aqueous Terminalia arjuna fruit extracts has been demonstrated herein. Formation of Au NPs was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) study at 528 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The time of reduction, size and morphological variations of Au NPs were studied with varying quantities of T. arjuna fruit aqueous extracts. Synthesized Au NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Polyphenols responsible for reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) were identified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and pyrogallol. The oxidized forms of polyphenols formed coordination with surface of Au NPs which protected their further growth and aggregation. We also propose a plausible mechanism how to tune size and shape of Au NPs by varying the quantity of extracts. Thus obtained Au NPs were stable for more than four months. PMID:23973603
Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Kiran Kumar, Hoskote A; Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu
Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047
Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K
Abstract Species of the shore-fly genus Gymnoclasiopa Hendel from the New World are revised, including Gymnoclasiopa grecorum sp. n. (Alaska. Juneau: Gastineau Channel, Thane Road (S Juneau; 58°16.9'N, 134°22.4'W)) and Gymnoclasiopa matanuska sp. n. (Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Palmer (Matanuska River; 61°36.5'N, 149°04.1'W)). We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those now discovered to have Holarctic distributions and/or for which sexual dimorphism was not appreciated and the species was described twice, including Gymnoclasiopa montana (Cresson) as a syn. n. of Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni (Becker). Two species, Gymnoclasiopa bella (Mathis), comb. n., and Gymnoclasiopa chiapas (Mathis), comb. n., are transferred from Ditrichophora to Gymnoclasiopa, and Gymnoclasiopa cana Cresson stat. rev. and Ditrichophora canifrons Cresson, stat. rev. are returned to Ditrichophora, the genus in which Cresson originally described them. A neotype is designated for Gymnoclasiopa tacoma to stabilize the nomenclature of this species. The two excluded species, Ditrichophora cana and Ditrichophora canifrons, are diagnosed and distributional data are also provided. For all known New World species of Gymnoclasiopa, structures of the male terminalia are described for the first time and are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps are also included. To provide context and also to facilitate identification, diagnoses are included for the tribe Discocerinini and genus in addition to a key to the genera and species occurring in the New World.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) contains a conserved RNA binding domain (RBD) that inhibits antiviral functions of host-innate immune response. Dimerization of NS1 forms a central groove and binds to double stranded (ds) RNA. This region might serve as a potential drug target. In this study, three dimensional structure model of NS1 RBD protein was constructed and virtual screening was performed to identify lead compounds that bound within and around the central groove. The virtual screening showed that 5 compounds bound within the central groove with binding energy ranging between -16.05 and -17.36 Kcal/mol. Two commercially available compounds, estradiol and veratridine, were selected for using in an in vitro screening assay. The results showed that neither of the compounds could inhibit the association between dsRNA and NS1 RBD protein. In addition, 34 herbal extracts were examined for their inhibitory effects. Five of them were able to inhibit association between NS1 RBD and dsRNA in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Four herbs, Terminalia belirica, Salacia chinensis, Zingiber montanum and Peltophorum pterocarpum, could reduce > 50% of infectivity of H5N1 in a cell-based assay, and it is worth further studying their potential use as source of antiviral drugs. PMID:24964655
Klaywong, Konrapob; Khutrakul, Gachagorn; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Petcharat, Nantawan; Leckcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ramasoota, Pongrama
Four medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Bombax buonopozense, Terminalia avicennioides and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides traditionally used for treatment of sleeping sickness in Nupeland were investigated for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity. Methanol extracts of different parts of each plant (stem barks and fruits) were obtained and evaluated for their in vivo antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of each plant were performed by standard procedures. Methanol extracts of A. nilotica (stem bark), B. buonopozense (stem bark), T. avicennioides (round fruit) and Z. zanthoxyloides (stem bark) were effective on trypanosomes. The extracts of A. nilotica and B. buonopozense exhibited antitrypanosomal effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively. Doses were able to clear the parasites from circulation within 6 and 7 days of treatment respectively with prolonging survival period of up to 30 days. While the extracts of T. avicennioides and Z. zanthoxyloides showed trypanostatic effects and could not clear the parasites completely. The methanol extracts of these plants contain metabolites that are associated with antitrypanosomal effects; therefore, these medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that may be active against T. b. brucei. This study has also justified the claim that some medicinal plants of Nupeland possess antitrypanosomal activity and could be useful in the management of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22238478
Mann, Abdullahi; Ifarajimi, Oluwaseyi R; Adewoye, Abdulfatai T; Ukam, Chidiebere; Udeme, Ekpenyong E; Okorie, Isaac I; Sakpe, Mohammed S; Ibrahim, Dauda R; Yahaya, Yusuf A; Kabir, Adamu Y; Ogbadoyi, Emmanuel O
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made with pruning wastes from Ipê (Tabebuia serratifolia) and Chapéu-de-Sol (Terminalia catappa) trees. Particleboards were prepared with both wood species, using all the material produced by grinding the pruning wastes. The particleboards had dimensions of 45 × 45 cm, a thickness of approximately 11.5 mm and an average density of 664 kg/m3. A urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used in the proportion of 12% of the dry particle mass. The particleboards were pressed at a temperature of 130°C for 10 mins. The physical and mechanical properties analyzed were density, moisture content, thickness swelling, percentage of lignin and cellulose, modulus of resilience, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength parallel to the grain, accordingly to the standards NBR 14810 and CS 236-66 (1968). The particleboards were considered to be of medium density. The particle size significantly affected the static bending strength and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Ipê presented better results, demonstrating a potential for the production and use of particleboard made from this species. PMID:23836102
Duarte da Silva, Manuel Joaquim; Bezerra, Barbara Stolte; Gomes Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida; Valarelli, Ivaldo De Domenico
Ethnobotanical information and traditional medicines were investigated and documented in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya. Oral interviews were obtained from over 100 herbalists, both men and women aged between 40 and 80 years. All the herbalists interviewed were Christians and had little formal education. Non-Christian herbalists were purported to combine herbal medicines with witchcraft and were not interviewed. Of the 40 commonly used herbal plants 25 were used as multi-purpose medicinal plants (mpmp), while 15 were used to treat one disease type. There was a correlation between the outpatient morbidity data at the local District hospital, and the common incident diseases treated by the herbalists. Generally a decoction or infusion of the herb was recommended for the treatment of internal or external condition of the patients. Malaria and typhoid were treatable with a total of 15 and 12 plants respectively and were among the first two commonest diseases found in the study area. Terminalia brownii was found to be the most used medicinal plant either alone or in combination with other herbs. The second and third most utilized medicinal plants were Ovariodendron anisatum and Wurbugia ugadensis respectively. PMID:20162075
Kareru, P G; Kenji, G M; Gachanja, A N; Keriko, J M; Mungai, G
A facile rapid green eco-friendly method to synthesize gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of tunable size using aqueous Terminalia arjuna fruit extracts has been demonstrated herein. Formation of Au NPs was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) study at 528 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The time of reduction, size and morphological variations of Au NPs were studied with varying quantities of T. arjuna fruit aqueous extracts. Synthesized Au NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Polyphenols responsible for reduction of Au3+ to Au0 were identified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and pyrogallol. The oxidized forms of polyphenols formed coordination with surface of Au NPs which protected their further growth and aggregation. We also propose a plausible mechanism how to tune size and shape of Au NPs by varying the quantity of extracts. Thus obtained Au NPs were stable for more than four months.
Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Kiran Kumar, Hoskote A.; Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu
A bioreductive capacity of a plant, Terminalia arjuna leaf extract, was utilized for preparation of selenium nanoparticles. The leaf extract worked as good capping as well as stabilizing agent and facilitated the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The colloidal solution showed the absorption maximum at 390 nm while TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated the formation of polydispersed, crystalline selenium nanoparticles of size raging from 10 to 80 nm. FT-IR analysis suggested the involvement of O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O functional group of the leaf extract in particle formation while EDAX analysis indicated the presence of selenium in synthesized nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles on human lymphocytes treated with arsenite, As(III), has been studied. Studies on cell viability using MTT assay and DNA damage using comet assay revealed that synthesized selenium nanoparticles showed protective effect against As(III)-induced cell death and DNA damage. Chronic ingestion of arsenic infested groundwater, and prevalence of arsenicosis is a serious public health issue. The synthesized benign nanoselenium can be a promising agent to check the chronic toxicity caused due to arsenic exposure. PMID:24469678
Prasad, Kumar Suranjit; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal
A systematic review of Amydetes Illiger, 1807, based on examination of the type-material. We fix A. fastigiata Illiger, 1807 as the type-species of the genus; redescribe the genus and six out of eight species; describe 13 new species; and provide illustrations and a key to species. We place A. vigorsi Westwood, 1830 syn. n. and A. gorhami Kuntzen, 1912 syn. n. in synonymy with A. fastigiata; A. suturalis Pic, 1925 syn. n. and A. brasiliensis Pic, 1925 in synonymy with A. apicalis; and A. flavicollis Olivier, 1888 syn. n. in synonymy with A. lucioloides Olivier, 1888. We report the first record of Amydetes from Venezuela and Argentina, and establish more precise distributions of the studied species. We describe the circadian period of A. apicalis (diurnal), A. fastigiata and Amydetes bellorum sp. nov. (nocturnal) and discuss the circadian diversity of the genus. Fronto-clypeus, antenna, labrum, maxillary palpomere, prothorax, mesosternum, lanterns, abdominal segment VIII and terminalia were structures that provided important characters for delimitation and diagnosis of the species. PMID:24870897
Da Silveira, Luiz Felipe Lima; Mermudes, José Ricardo M
A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144
Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. PMID:21760692
Ali, Mir Mahdi; Arumugam, Sarasa Bharati A
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii were repeatedly isolated from decaying wood of trunk hollows in living trees growing in Jabalpur City in Central India. The isolation of C. gattii has been reported from decayed wood inside trunk hollow of Tamarindus indica (15.6%), Mangifera indica (2.2%), Pithecolobium dulce (12.5%), Syzygium cumini (14%), and one from bark of S. cumini. C. n. var. grubii was isolated from decaying wood debris of T. indica (4.4%), M. indica (13.3%), Terminalia arjuna (25%), S. cumini (2%), Cassia fistula (4.5%), and two from bark of S. cumini. The two species [corrected] never co-occurred in the same hollow. C. gattii [corrected] isolates belonged to serotype B. [corrected] The data strongly supported the colonization of the pathogen in decaying wood hollow of all six-tree species. Evidence of this was found by repeated isolation up to 820 days. P. dulce is being reported for the first time as natural habitat of C. gattii and T. arjuna and C. fistula as natural habitat for C. n. var. grubii. M. indica is being reported for the second time as the natural habitat of both species [corrected] (C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii). The population density of these pathogens from decaying wood debris of various tree species ranged between 0.5 x 10(3) cells/g and 6 x 10(5) cells/g. The seasonal variation has been seen in isolation of these pathogens. [corrected] Our result further reinforce the recently emerging evidence that the natural habitat of C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii is more generalized. PMID:17661160
Grover, N; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Naidu, J; Singh, S M; Sharma, Archana
The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia pia (Fairchild & Hertig 1961) and Lutzomyia tihuiliensis Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin 1997 (Diptera: Psychodidae) belong to the pia series of the Lu. verrucarum species group, which includes several species that bite humans in Andean foci of leishmaniasis. The females of these two species exhibit isometry and isomorphism in anatomical structures of the head and terminalia commonly used in taxonomic identification of sand flies. They can only be differentiated based on subtle differences in the pigmentation of the pleura. In Lu. tihuiliensis, this is restricted to the basal portions of the katepimeron and katepisternum, whereas in Lu. pia both structures are totally pigmented. Taking into account the subtle morphological differences between these species, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the specific taxonomic status of Lu. tihuiliensis with respect to Lu. pia. A 475-bp portion of the mitochondrial genome was sequenced, composed of the 3' end of the cytochrome b gene, intergenic spacer 1, the transfer RNA gene for serine, intergenic spacer 2, and the 3' end of the gene NAD dehydrogenase 1. Genetic analysis confirms that Lu. tihuiliensis and Lu. pia constitute two distinct species and this is supported by four strong lines of evidence, i.e., the paired genetic distances, size differences and amino acid composition of the cytochrome b protein, presence and absence of intergenic spacer one and divergence observed in the sequence of the transfer RNA gene for serine. It also confirms the validity of the pleural pigmentation pattern as a species diagnostic character and the importance of performing a detailed examination of this character during morphological determination of phlebotomine sand flies in the series pia. PMID:18714864
Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío
Recently, the importance of seed predation by crabs on mangrove species distributions and densities has been established by several studies. In a tropical coastal terrestrial forest in Costa Rica, we investigated the relative importance of predation by land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus, and hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus, on measured forest composition through a series of seed removal and seedling establishment experiments. We also used natural light-gaps and adjacent non-gap sites to test how canopy cover affects crab predation (seed removal) and seedling establishment. We found fewer tree species (S=18) and lower densities (seedlings, saplings, and adults) in the coastal zone within 100 m of coastline, than in the inland zone (S=59). Land crab densities were higher in the coastal zone (3.03+/-1.44 crabs m(-2)) than in the inland zone (0.76+/-0.78 crabs m(-2)), and hermit crabs were not present in the inland zone. Seed removal and seedling mortality also were higher in the coastal zone than in the inland zone, and in the open controls than in the crab exclosures. Mortality of seeds and seedlings was two to six times higher in the controls than exclosures for four of the five experiments. Crabs preferred seeds and younger seedlings over older seedlings but showed no species preferences in the seed (Anacardium excelsum, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, and Terminalia oblonga) and seedling (Pachira quinata and E. cyclocarpum) stages. We conclude that the observed differences in tree densities were caused by differential crab predation pressure along the coastal gradient, while the differences in species composition were due to predator escape (satiation) by seed quantity. Canopy cover did not affect seed removal rates, but did affect seedling survival with higher mortality in the non-gap versus gap environments. In summary, crab predation of seeds and seedlings, and secondarily canopy cover, are important factors affecting tree establishment in terrestrial coastal forests. PMID:15349766
Lindquist, Erin Stewart; Carroll, C Ronald
Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796
Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar
Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.
Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha
Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress.
Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan
In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084
Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter
Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants. It also sheds light on the dependence of rural communities in Colombia on medicinal plants.
The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:22303122
Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition. PMID:24506032
Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil
In our previous study, we reported the interesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some Rwandan plant extracts. This gave rise to the need for these extracts to also be evaluated in vivo and to identify the compounds responsible for their antiplasmodial activity. The aim of our study was, on the one hand, to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity in vivo and the safety of the selected Rwandan medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria, with the objective of promoting the development of improved traditional medicines and, on the other hand, to identify the active ingredients in the plants. Plant extracts were selected according to their selectivity index. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts was then evaluated using the classical 4-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The activity of the plant extracts was estimated by measuring the percentage of parasitemia reduction, and the survival of the experimental animals was recorded. A bioguided fractionation was performed for the most promising plants, in terms of antiplasmodial activity, in order to isolate active compounds identified by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The highest level of antiplasmodial activity was observed with the methanolic extract of Fuerstia africana (>?70?%) on days 4 and 7 post-treatment after intraperitoneal injection and on day 7 using oral administration. After oral administration, the level of parasitemia reduction observed on day 4 post-infection was 44?% and 37?% with the aqueous extract of Terminalia mollis and Zanthoxylum chalybeum, respectively. However, the Z. chalybeum extract presented a high level of toxicity after intraperitoneal injection, with no animals surviving on day 1 post-treatment. F. africana, on the other hand, was safer with 40?% mouse survival on day 20 post-treatment. Ferruginol is already known as the active ingredient in F. Africana, and ellagic acid (IC50?=?175?ng/mL) and nitidine (IC50?=?77.5?ng/mL) were identified as the main active constituents of T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. F. africana presented very promising antiplasmodial activity in vivo. Although most of the plants tested showed some level of antiplasmodial activity, some of these plants may be toxic. This study revealed for the first time the role of ellagic acid and nitidine as the main antimalarial compounds in T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. PMID:24710900
Muganga, Raymond; Angenot, Luc; Tits, Monique; Frédérich, Michel
Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a) in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3 microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7 microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage protection assay, T. arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125 microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. arjuna, cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/- 3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via antioxidant activity. PMID:11536382
J Munasinghe, T C; Seneviratne, C K; Thabrew, M I; Abeysekera, A M
Groundwater recharge estimations in semi-arid areas are challenging, especially in developing countries such as large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, where data is generally scarce. Due to high heterogeneity in soil characteristics, vegetation and land use as well as spatially and temporally highly variable rainfall, precise site studies are necessary in order to characterize processes and quantify groundwater recharge rates. The stable isotope deuterium, 2H has been shown to be particularly suitable for such investigations. In this study, a field experiment using deuterium as an artificial tracer (2H2O, 70% deuterated water) was conducted to characterize movement of water during and after a synthetic rain event. The study was carried out in the framework of the project SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) in the Niipele catchment of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia at two locations differing in both soil and vegetation type: A forest site dominated by terminalia sericea, baikiaea plurijuga, burkea africana and acacia erioloba with deep pure sand soil and a shrub-/woodland site characterized by smaller burkea africana, borchemia discolor and acacia erioloba on a dark loamy sand soil underlain by a thick layer of calcrete. At both locations, soils were first saturated to trigger typical rainy season conditions and avoid immediate evaporation of the deuterated water. Subsequently, 500 ml of 2H2O was applied homogenously over a 0.25 m2 test plot at 25 cm depth. Finally, a 10 mm artificial rain event was applied onto the plot. Soil samples were collected every 10 cm to a maximum depth of 2.5 m with an Eijkelkamp hand auger after 1, 2, and 5 (respective 10) days. From these, soil water is extracted in the laboratory and subsequently analyzed for deuterium concentrations using a Picarro L2120-i cavity-ringdown (CRD) water vapor analyzer after vaporization. Additionally, grain size distribution, water content and bulk density are determined in the lab. Results demonstrate how the artificially applied deuterium distributes after a rain event of 10 mm. Both up- and downward movement of the applied deuterium could be tracked analyzing the isotopic composition of the soil profiles. Whilst the deuterium front at the sand forest site travelled towards a depth of more than 1.5 m, the peak at the loamy sand/calcrete woodland site only reached the calcrete layer at 1.2 m. Deeper infiltration into the calcrete layer was not observed. Soil sampling will be repeated at the same plots to investigate the travel depth of the deuterium front after the rainy season to enable the quantification of groundwater recharge at a site level.
Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Koeniger, Paul; Hamutoko, Josefina; Uugulu, Shoopi; Wanke, Heike; Lohe, Christoph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Billib, Max
The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrellasp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorumsp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manzasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panamasp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarcasp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorumsp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barbasp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavellasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorumsp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostrasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbressp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salixsp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorumsp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolatasp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23204912
Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals
Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.
Background Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are the leading cause of disease burden worldwide. Apart from available synthetic drugs used in CVDs, there are many herbal formulations including POL-10 (containing 10 herbs), which have been shown to be effective in animal studies but POL-10 was found to cause tachycardia in rodents as its side effect. This study was designed to modify the composition of POL-10 for better efficacy and/or safety profile in CVDs. Methods To assess the antidyslipidemic, antihypertensive and endothelial modulatory properties of two herbal formulations, (ZPTO and ZTO) containing Z: Zingiber officinalis, P: Piper nigrum, T: Terminalia belerica and O: Orchis mascula, different animal models including, tyloxapol and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used. Effect on endothelial function was studied using isolated tissue bath set up coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system. The antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH radical-scavenging assay. Results Based on preliminary screening of the ingredients of POL-10 in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemic rats, ZPTO and ZTO containing four active ingredients namely; Z, P, T and O were identified for further studies and comparison. In tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemic rats, both ZPTO and ZTO caused significant reduction in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). In high fat diet-fed rats, ZPTO decreased TC, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index (AI). ZTO also showed similar effects to those of ZPTO with additional merits being more effective in reducing AI, body weight and more importantly raising high-density lipoproteins. In SHR, both formulations markedly reduced systolic blood pressure, AI and TG levels, ZTO being more potent in reversing endothelial dysfunction while was devoid of cardiac stimulatory effect. In addition, ZTO also reduced LDL-C and improved glucose levels in SHR. In DPPH radical-scavenging activity test, ZTO was also more potent than ZPTO. Conclusion The modified formulation, ZTO was not only found more effective in correcting cardiovascular abnormalities than ZPTO or POL-10 but also it was free from tachycardiac side-effect, which might be observed because of the presence of Piper nigrum in ZPTO.
Abstract A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W)), H. simplicum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°01.2'N, 83°26.2'W; 300 m)), H. sinuatum (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins Creek (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)), H. spinosum (Costa Rica. Limón: Westfalia (4 km S; 09°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach)), H. urnulum (Dominican Republic. Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W)), H. viridum (Guyana. Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W)), H. williamsae (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins River (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina incisum Coquillett and Hydrochasma zernyi Hendel. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera in the New World is provided.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Rangeland ecosystems cover more than fifty percent of earth's land surface, host considerable biodiversity and provide vital ecosystem services. However, rangelands around the world face degradation due to climate change, land use change and overgrazing. Human-driven changes to fire and grazing regimes enhance degradation processes. The purpose of this research is to develop a remote sensing methodology to characterize the structure and composition of savanna vegetation, in order to improve the ability of conservation managers to monitor and address such degradation processes. Our study site, Etosha National Park, is a 22,270 km^2 semi-arid savanna located in north-central Namibia. Fencing and provision of artificial water sources for wildlife have changed the natural grazing patterns, which has caused bush encroachment and vegetation degradation across the park. We used MODIS and Landsat ETM+ 7 satellite imagery to map the vegetation type, dominant species, density, cover and biomass of herbaceous and woody vegetation in Etosha. We used imagery for 2007-2012 together with extensive field sampling, both in the wet and the dry seasons. At each sampling point, we identified the dominant species and measured the density, canopy size, height and diameter of the trees and shrubs. At only 31% of the sampling points, the identified vegetation type matched the class assigned at the 1996 classification. This may indicate significant habitat modifications in Etosha. We used two parallel analytical approaches to correlate between radiometric and field data. First, we show that traditional supervised classification identifies well five classes: bare soil, grassland, steppe, shrub savanna and tree savanna. We then refined this classification to enable us to identify the species composition in an area utilizing the phenological differences in timing and duration of greenness of the dominant tree and shrub species in Etosha. Specifically, using multi-date images we were able to identify additional six sub-classes based on the dominant species in each class: Colophospermum mopane woodland, Colophospermum mopane shrubland, Cataphractes alexandri woodland, Acacia nebrownii shrubland, mixed Combretum species woodland and Terminalia prunioides woodland. Second, we used quantitative methods to relate satellite-based vegetation indices to the biometric properties measured on the ground. We found a correlation among measured height, diameter and canopy cover of woody vegetation and used this to improve the correlation between cover and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We showed that the Soil Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were related to both greenness and density at a site. In order to measure grass biomass in the field, we calibrated Disc Pasture Mater by clipping, weighing and drying grass in 1m^2 plots, in the dry and wet seasons, with resulting R^2 of 0.87 and 0.83, respectively. MODIS-derived leaf area index (LAI) data was best correlated with dry grass biomass. We used these correlations to produce detailed maps of each vegetation parameter for the whole park. These maps will provide a baseline to employ historical imagery to better understand the effects of the park's management and changing grazing pressure on vegetation structure.
Tsalyuk, M.; Kelly, M.; Getz, W.
A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W)), H. simplicum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°01.2'N, 83°26.2'W; 300 m)), H. sinuatum (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins Creek (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)), H. spinosum (Costa Rica. Limón: Westfalia (4 km S; 09°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach)), H. urnulum (Dominican Republic. Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W)), H. viridum (Guyana. Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W)), H. williamsae (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins River (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina incisum Coquillett and Hydrochasma zernyi Hendel. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera in the New World is provided. PMID:24363601
Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz