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1

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-03-16

2

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated.

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

3

Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

2012-02-01

4

Antinociceptive activity of chronic administration of different extracts of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. and Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of Terminalia bellerica and T. chebula fruits were evaluated for their analgesic activity using the tail immersion model in mice. The ethanolic extracts of both the plants exhibited analgesic response at 200,400 and 800mg/kg. The studies were further carried for 15 days to evaluate the effect of these extracts in chronic pain and maximum analgesic response was observed on 14th day in both the plants. Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of the fruits of Terminalia bellerica and T. chebula revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, tannins and proteins. The results indicate that fruits of T. bellerica and T. chebula could be considered as potential candidate for bioactivity-guided isolation of natural analgesic agents used in the management of chronic pain. PMID:21506501

Kaur, Sarabjit; Jaggi, R K

2010-09-01

5

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

6

Radioprotecting Ability and Phytochemical Analysis of an Indian Medicinal Plant : Terminalia chebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t Aqueous extract of a natural herb, Terminalia chebula was tested for potential antioxidant activity by examining its ability to inhibit ?-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and damage to superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of compounds such as ascorbate,

G. H. Naik; K. I. Priyadarsini; H. Mohan

7

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant.

2010-01-01

8

Somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures of Terminalia chebula Retz.: an important medicinal tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from cotyledon and mature zygotic embryo callus cultures of Terminalia chebula Retz. Callus cultures of cotyledon and mature zygotic embryo were initiated on induction medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrients with 1.0 mg\\/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) either 0.01 or 0.1 mg\\/l Kinetin and 30 g\\/l sucrose. Induction of somatic embryogenesis, proliferation and development was obtained through different culture

C. Anjaneyulu; B. Shyamkumar; C. C. Giri

2004-01-01

9

Studies on the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of a natural herb, Terminalia chebula was tested for potential antioxidant activity by examining its ability to inhibit ?-radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and damage to superoxide dismutase enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. The antimutagenic activity of the extract has been examined by following the inhibition of ?-radiation-induced strand breaks formation in plasmid pBR322 DNA. In

G. H. Naik; K. I. Priyadarsini; D. B. Naik; R. Gangabhagirathi; H. Mohan

2004-01-01

10

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruit in Different Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum ether, chloroform, dimethylformamide, ethanol and water extracts from fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. The microbial strains investigated include nine Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus ATCC1 1778, Bacillus megaterium ATCC9885, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Corynebacterium rubrum ATCC14898, Micrococcus flavus ATCC10240, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29737, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Staphylococcus subfava NCIM2178; fourteen Gram-negative bacteria: Alcaligenes

Jigna Parekh; Sumitra Chanda

2008-01-01

11

Proteomic analysis of Terminalia chebula extract-dependent changes in human lymphoblastic T cell protein expression.  

PubMed

Terminalia chebula is a native plant from southern Asia to southwestern China that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study assessed T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) were performed to assess protein expression and networks, respectively. A comparative proteomic profile was determined in T. chebula extract (50 ?g/mL)-treated and control cells; the expressions of ?-tubulin, ring finger and CHY zinc finger domain containing 1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase were significantly down-regulated in T. chebula extract-treated Jurkat cells. Moreover, the molecular basis for the T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells was determined by IPA. Treatment with the T. chebula extract significantly inhibited nuclear factor-?B activity and affected the proteomic profile of Jurkat cells. The molecular network signatures and functional proteomics obtained in this study may facilitate the evaluation of potential antitumor therapeutic targets and elucidate the molecular mechanism of T. chebula extract-dependent effects in Jurkat cells. PMID:22471968

Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Mi Ran; Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin; Chai, Young Gyu

2012-04-03

12

Mitigation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-related symptoms by Terminalia chebula Retzius.  

PubMed

To evaluate whether an aqueous seed extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius inhibited development of atopy in vivo, we used a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced animal model of atopic symptoms to investigate the effects of the extract. We measured CD4+ cell numbers by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and determined the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, interleukin (IL)-31, and T-bet genes, in this animal model. The data showed that a Terminalia chebula extract (100 µg/ml) exhibited strong anti-atopic activity, mediating a 52% reduction in the immune response, as measured by thickness of ear swelling, and resulting in decreased eosinophil levels in adjacent skin tissue. Collectively, the results indicate that a Terminalia chebula seed extract has potential for alleviation of atopy-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse. PMID:21901245

Nam, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Man; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han

2011-09-07

13

HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF HARITAKI (TERMINALIA CHEBULA) IN ATHEROGENIC DIET INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS  

PubMed Central

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called “Triphala”. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

2010-01-01

14

Biological activities of phenolic compounds isolated from galls of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds. Gallic acid (1) exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. However, all isolated compounds exhibited less activity than the reference compounds in mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and human tumour cytotoxicity assays. This study has demonstrated that the phenolic compounds isolated from galls of T. chebula might contribute significantly due to their antioxidant and whitening activities. PMID:21108118

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Jiradej

2010-12-01

15

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 452 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by T. chebula extract was completed within 20 min which was evidenced potentiometrically. Synthesised nanoparticles were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolysable tannins such as di/tri-galloyl-glucose present in the extract were hydrolyzed to gallic acid and glucose that served as reductant while oxidised polyphenols acted as stabilizers. In addition, it showed good antimicrobial activity towards both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922). Industrially it may be a smart option for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Sinha, Madhulika; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji

2012-06-01

16

Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63 V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

2013-02-01

17

Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract.  

PubMed

There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents. PMID:23220527

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

2012-10-23

18

Studies on the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of a natural herb, Terminalia chebula was tested for potential antioxidant activity by examining its ability to inhibit gamma-radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and damage to superoxide dismutase enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. The antimutagenic activity of the extract has been examined by following the inhibition of gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks formation in plasmid pBR322 DNA. In order to understand the phytochemicals responsible for this, HPLC analysis of the extract was carried out, which showed the presence of compounds such as ascorbate, gallic acid and ellagic acid. This was also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. The extract inhibits xanthine/xanthine oxidase activity and is also an excellent scavenger of DPPH radicals. The rate at which the extract and its constituents scavenge the DPPH radical was studied by using stopped-flow kinetic spectrometer. Based on all these results it is concluded that the aqueous extract of T. chebula acts as a potent antioxidant and since it is able to protect cellular organelles from the radiation-induced damage, it may be considered as a probable radioprotector. PMID:15500265

Naik, G H; Priyadarsini, K I; Naik, D B; Gangabhagirathi, R; Mohan, H

2004-09-01

19

Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Neuroprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius Extracts  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical compositions, chemiluminescence antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for water, methanol, and 95% ethanol extracts of the air-dried fruit of Terminalia chebula Retzius. The water extract afforded the greatest yield, and total phenolic and tannin content. The methanol extract yielded the greatest total triterpenoid content. Based on four chemiluminescence antioxidant assays, the three extracts showed various degrees of antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed good antioxidant activity based on the horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) assay. The water extract appeared to have good antioxidant activities in cupric sulfate-Phen-Vc-H2O2 and luminol-H2O2 assays. Pyrogallol-luminol assay showed the 95% ethanol extract to have good antioxidant activity. The methanol and water extracts presented neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0??g/mL. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo.

Chang, Chia Lin; Lin, Che San

2012-01-01

20

Anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid peroxidative, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) fruit is mentioned in Ayurveda as useful in treating arthritic disorders. Objective: This work was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidative and membrane-stabilizing effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits and also to establish a possible association between them. Materials and methods: In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of T. chebula fruit extract at different doses ranged from 50 to 500?mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated against carrageenin-induced inflammation in rats. Human erythrocyte hemolytic assay was used for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity testing with 50 to 500?µg/ml fruit extract. Antioxidant potential of test fruit extract (10 to 100?µg/ml) was evaluated using TBARS and DPPH methods. The fruit extract was standardized for total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The standardized extract at 250?mg/kg, p.o. dose caused 69.96% reduction in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema and demonstrated 96.72% protective effect on human RBC membrane stability. Besides, T. chebula fruit extract significantly reduced the in vivo formation of TBARS in carrageenin-induced rat liver with IC50 94.96?mg/kg, p.o. and also in vitro radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay method with IC50 42.14?µg/ml. The standardized extract contains phenolics 118.5?mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract. Discussion and conclusion: These promising findings support the traditional use of T. chebula fruits in the treatment of arthritic disorders and suggest that radical quenching may be one of the mechanisms for its anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24004166

Bag, Anwesa; Kumar Bhattacharyya, Subir; Kumar Pal, Nishith; Ranjan Chattopadhyay, Rabi

2013-09-05

21

Terminalia chebula extract protects OGD-R induced PC12 cell death and inhibits lps induced microglia activation.  

PubMed

Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1) increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2) scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3) reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes. PMID:23519197

Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Jamarkattel-Pandit, Nirmala; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Juyeon; Jung, Soyoung; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

2013-03-19

22

Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough.  

PubMed

Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a (1 ? 3)-, (1 ? 6)- and (1 ? 3, 6)-linked ? -D-Galp together with (1 ? 5)- and (1 ? 3)-linked ? -L-Araf and nonreducing end units of ? -L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50?mg?kg(-1) body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements. PMID:23878602

Nosalova, Gabriela; Jurecek, Ludovit; Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Nosal, Slavomir; Ray, Bimalendu

2013-06-25

23

Extraction of phenolics from Terminalia chebula Retz with water–ethanol and water–propylene glycol and sugaring-out concentration of extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the spherical central composite design (Spherical CCD) was employed to determine the effect of conditions (temperature, solvent composition and extraction time) for extraction of total phenolics from Terminalia chebula fruits with water–EtOH and water–propylene glycol (PG) mixtures. Then the feasibility of sugaring-out concentration to concentrate the extracts was examined. Second order polynomial models on extraction yields of

Chantaporn Tubtimdee; Artiwan Shotipruk

2011-01-01

24

Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ?(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and ?9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. ?9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. PMID:22019314

Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

2011-09-25

25

Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models. The reference drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 77.73% protection against CRU, 58.30% against AS and 70.80% against PL model. Sucralfate, another reference drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 65.67% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Chebulinic acid significantly reduced free acidity (48.82%), total acidity (38.29%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 59.75% respectively. Further, chebulinic acid significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC50 of 65.01 ?g/ml as compared to the IC50 value of omeprazole (30.24 ?g/ml) confirming its anti-secretory activity. PMID:23462212

Mishra, Vaibhav; Agrawal, Manali; Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Madhur, Gaurav; Rastogi, Preeti; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Palit, Gautam; Narender, Tadigoppula

2013-02-23

26

Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using carbonized Terminalia chebula-activated carbon: process parametric optimization using conventional method and Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, the phenol removal from wastewater was investigated using agri-based adsorbent: Terminalia chebula-activated carbon (TCAC) produced by carbonization of Terminalia chebula (TC) in air-controlled atmosphere at 600 °C for 4 h. The surface area of TCAC was measured as 364 m2/g using BET method. The surface characteristic of TCAC was analyzed based on the value of point of zero charge. The effect of parameters such as TCAC dosage, pH, initial concentration of phenol, time of contact and temperature on the sorption of phenol by TCAC was investigated using conventional method and Taguchi experimental design. The total adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained as 36.77 mg/g using Langmuir model at the temperature of 30 °C at pH = 5.5. The maximum removal of phenol (294.86 mg/g) was obtained using Taguchi's method. The equilibrium study of phenol on TCAC showed that experimental data fitted well to R-P model. The results also showed that kinetic data were followed more closely the pseudo-first-order model. The results of thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of phenol on TCAC was spontaneous and an exothermic in nature.

Khare, Prateek; Kumar, Arvind

2012-12-01

27

Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.

Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

2013-01-01

28

Kinetics and docking studies of a COX-2 inhibitor isolated from Terminalia bellerica fruits.  

PubMed

Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. We report here the inhibitory effects of GA, with an IC(50) value of 74 nM against COX-2 and 1500 nM for COX-1, showing ?20 fold preference towards COX-2. Further docking studies revealed that GA binds in the active site of COX-2 at the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) binding site. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg120 and Glu524. Based on substrate dependent kinetics, GA was found to be a competitive inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2, with more affinity towards COX-2. Taken together, our studies indicate that GA is a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX-2, GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates. PMID:20441561

Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Babu, Neela Kishore; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Kalangi, Suresh Kumar; Reddanna, Pallu

2010-10-01

29

Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract  

PubMed Central

The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (?)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-?-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea.

Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V. M.; Jayaraman, Sujatha

2012-01-01

30

Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract.  

PubMed

The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-?-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V M; Jayaraman, Sujatha

2012-07-01

31

Fruit flies reared from Terminalia catappa in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests of cultivated plants worldwide. Many Bactrocera flies are specific to commercial vegetable and fruit crops but some may develop in alternate hosts. One such alternate host is malabar or Indian almond, Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) in Thailand. We studied a wild mature tree that was at least 20 years old and growing in

C. Somta; A. Winotai; P. A. C. Ooi

2010-01-01

32

Interplanting Inga edulis yields nitrogen benefits to Terminalia amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established an experiment in 1993 to test the effect of various treatments on growth of a native timber tree, Terminalia amazonia, on eroded pasture in southern Costa Rica. The 1993 treatments included a control in which T. amazonia was planted alone, and an interplanted treatment with the legume tree Inga edulis. Measurements at 4, 8, and 11 years showed

J. Doland Nichols; F. Lynn Carpenter

2006-01-01

33

Some pharmacological properties of extracts of Terminalia sericea roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex. DC (Combretaceae) extracts are used to treat bacterial infections, diarrhea, and diabetes. Intermediate and polar extracts of the roots exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the petroleum ether extract was inactive. The extracts were mildly active against Bacillus anthracis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but exhibited the highest activity against

M. J. Moshi; Z. H. Mbwambo

2005-01-01

34

Antiproliferative Xanthones of Terminalia calcicola from the Madagascar Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

A bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the Madagascan plant Terminalia calcicola H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of two new cytotoxic xanthones, termicalcicolanone A (1) and termicalcicolanone B (2). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Both compounds showed modest antiproliferative activity toward the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Miller, James S.; Randrianaivo, Richard; Ratovoson, Fidy; Birkinshaw, Chris; Andriantsiferana, Rabodo; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

2008-01-01

35

AntiDiabetic Activity of Terminalia Catappa Linn. Leaf Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of suggested anti diabetic potential, effect of aqueous and cold extracts of Terminalia Catappa Linn (Combretaceae) leaves, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan- induced diabetic rats was investigated. All the extracts of Terminalia Catappa produced a significant anti diabetic activity at dose levels of 1\\/5 th of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies

SYED MANSOOR AHMED; VRUSHABENDRA SWAMY BM; P GOPKUMAR; R DHANAPAL

36

WHAT IS CAPNIA UMPQUA FRISON? (PLECOPTERA: CAPNIIDAE), DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION OF TERMINALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capnia umpqua Frison is redescribed from specimens from Oregon and California. Images of the male and female terminalia are provided by scanning electron micrographs of specimens from throughout its range. Color photographs taken using a light microscope are also given illustrating the male terminalia. Complete distribution data are listed for material identified in this study. The misidentification of the concept

Richard W. Baumann; Kenneth W. Stewart

37

Some pharmacological properties of extracts of Terminalia sericea roots.  

PubMed

Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex. DC (Combretaceae) extracts are used to treat bacterial infections, diarrhea, and diabetes. Intermediate and polar extracts of the roots exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the petroleum ether extract was inactive. The extracts were mildly active against Bacillus anthracis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but exhibited the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. They also exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. An 80% aqueous ethanol extract of the roots did not have any effect on blood glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in mice (P>0.05). With the exception of the dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, all the intermediate and polar extracts were toxic to brine shrimps giving LC(50) (95% confidence intervals) values ranging from 5.4 (3.5-8.4) to 17.4 (11.4-26.5) microg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.3 (10.6-25.2) microg/ml. Further work is in progress to isolate and identify active compounds in the extracts. PMID:15652273

Moshi, M J; Mbwambo, Z H

2004-12-15

38

Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene–induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30th day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21st day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa.

Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

2012-01-01

39

Effect of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on germination of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nursery experiment was conducted to study the effects of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on the germination of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae). T. sericea is a multipurpose tree species occurring in the miombo woodlands whose seedling production is hampered by very low seed germination rate. Seeds were subjected to four treatment methods each at four different

Michael G. Likoswe; Joyce P. Njoloma; Weston F. Mwase; Clement Z. Chilima

40

The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studied for in vitro microbial activities by agar dilution method. The phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of the medicinal plants revealed the presence of saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum). The methanolic extracts of the two plants inhibited the growth of

H. Babayi; I. Kolo; J. I. Okogun; U. J. J. Ijah

2004-01-01

41

Chemical and nutritional studies on Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Kernel and its oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia bellirica Roxb. is a valuable tree of Indian forests. The seeds are valued medicinally and also industrially, for tanning purposes.\\u000a The kernels, which are not currently used for edible purposes, have 40% oil and 35% protein. The oil extracted from the kernels\\u000a is sweet-smelling and has palmitic (35%), oleic (24%) and linoleic (31%) acids as major fatty acids. The

C. Rukmini; P. Udayasekhara Rao

1986-01-01

42

Physicochemical studies and optimization of gallic acid production from the seed coat of Terminalia belerica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methanol extract from the seed coat of the Bahera fruit (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) was evaluated as an antioxidant, and was studied on different lipid samples using a Rancimat apparatus. Moreover,\\u000a spectrophotometric, chromatographic and thermogravimetric analysis of an aqueous extract revealed it to contain 24% tannin;\\u000a this extract was used successfully for microbial production of gallic acid by Aspergillus niger

Dipak B. Patil; Subrata K. Das; Pradeep K. Das Mohapatra; Ahindra Nag

43

Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities of different fractions of Terminalia arjuna stem bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) stem bark was successively extracted with petroleum ether (A), solvent ether (B), ethanol (C) and water (D). The lipid lowering\\u000a activity of these four fractions A, B, C, and D was evaluatedin vivo in two models viz., triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipemia in rats as well as fructose rich high fat diet (HFD) fed diabetic-\\u000a dyslipidemic hamsters.

Ramesh Chander; Kavita Singh; A K Khanna; S M Kaul; Anju Puri; Rashmi Saxena; Gitika Bhatia; Farhan Rizvi; A K. Rastogi

2004-01-01

44

Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 ?g\\/ml) on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 ?g\\/ml) on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a

Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya; Pattana Sripalakit; Kornkanok Ingkaninan

45

Antibacterial activity of terpenoidal fractions from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides against community acquired infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terpenoidal fractions were isolated from both Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr (Stem) and Terminalia avicennioides Guill and Perr (Root) and assayed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The terpenoidal fractions exhibited antimicrobial activities against all the test microorganisms. All test organisms were susceptible to the terpenoidal fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 0.213 and 5.0 µg\\/ml.

A. Mann; J. O. Amupitan; A. O. Oyewale; J. I. Okogun; K. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

46

On the ethnomedical significance of the Arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot.  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna is an important cardiotonic plant described in the Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical science. It is also believed to have the ability to cure hepatic, urogenital, venereal and viral diseases. An attempt is made here to analyse the available drug recipes using this plant from Sanskrit literature in the light of modern scientific knowledge. The chemistry and pharmacology of T. arjuna are also discussed, and areas of future investigations are identified. PMID:3657247

Kumar, D S; Prabhakar, Y S

1987-07-01

47

Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly

Xinhui Tang; Jing Gao; Yanping Wang; Yi-Mei Fan; Li-Zhi Xu; Xiao-ning Zhao; Qiang Xu; Zhong Ming Qian

2006-01-01

48

Pharmacological evaluation of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. for antiulcer activity.  

PubMed

The antiulcer activity of 70% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) was evaluated using ethanol induced, aspirin induced, cold stress restraint and pylorus ligated ulcer in rats. The methanolic extract (100, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the peptic ulcer induced by ethanol. Methanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed, promising antiulcer activity hence, this dose was selected for further evaluation of antiulcer studies. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index, protein and pepsin content and increase in mucus content in pylorus ligated rats as compared to control. Treatment with Terminalia belerica methanolic extract further provided significant antiulcer protection against aspirin induced ulcers but not in cold stress restraint model. These results suggested that the 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia belerica increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct protective effect on the gastric mucosa and exhibited antiulcer effect. PMID:22713279

Jawanjal, Hitesh; Rajput, Mithun S; Agrawal, Purti; Dange, Vikramsingh

2012-06-18

49

Induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of Terminalia arjuna due to feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed. PMID:15523561

Abraham, G; Thomas, G; Babu, C R

2004-10-22

50

Micropropagation of Terminalia bellirica Roxb.—A sericulture and medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A protocol for micropropagation of plants via axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. seedlings has been established. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations\\u000a of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 4.4, 8.9, 13.3, 17.8, or 22.2 ?M) or kinetin (Kn; 4.6, 9.3. 14.0, 18.6, or 23.2 ?M). Within the range evaluated, the medium containing 13.3

M. Ramesh; Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; A. Sadanandam

2005-01-01

51

Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barks extracts of four different trees (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam.) in three different solvents 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, and 80% acetone (solvent:water, 80:20v\\/v) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolic (TP), and total flavonoids (TF) contents. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and

Bushra Sultana; Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski

2007-01-01

52

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

53

Terminalia arjuna improves cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna bark extract in improving cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). T. arjuna bark extract, Rosuvastatin and Insulin were tested/administered therapeutically in rat model of uncontrolled diabetes. After 8 weeks of STZ administration, the reflex bradycardia and tachycardia response to hypertension and hypotension, respectively, were impaired in the diabetic group. The reflex bradycardia improved significantly after 1 month treatment of T. arjuna while the reflex tachycardia could not improve. The decreased body weight, heart rate, blood pressure and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats were not improved by T. arjuna therapy. Rosuvastatin treatment exerted similar effects while Insulin improved all the parameters. Further T. arjuna, Rosuvastatin and Insulin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic rats. Results suggest that T. arjuna bark extract improves the altered baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cytokine levels. PMID:23001577

Khaliq, Farah; Parveen, Adila; Singh, Savita; Hussain, M Eijaz; Fahim, M

2013-03-01

54

Terminalia arjuna enhances baroreflex sensitivity and myocardial function in isoproterenol-induced chronic heart failure rats.  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction along with impaired autonomic control functions. Herbal drugs are increasingly being used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of Terminalia arjuna (T arjuna) bark extract on LV and baroreflex function in CHF and to elucidate the possible mechanistic clues in its cardioprotective action. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). T arjuna bark extract and fluvastatin were tested/administered therapeutically and prophylactically in isoproterenol-induced rat model of CHF. Fifteen days after isoproterenol administration, rats exhibited cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and LV remodeling along with reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with T arjuna improved cardiac functions and baroreflex sensitivity. It also attenuated hypertrophy and fibrosis of the LV. Fluvastatin treatment exerted a similar protective effect against myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Further, T arjuna and fluvastatin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine level in CHF rats. In conclusion, T arjuna exerts beneficial effect on LV functions, myocardial remodeling, and autonomic control in CHF possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and cytokine levels. PMID:21828283

Parveen, Adila; Babbar, Rashmi; Agarwal, Sarita; Kotwani, Anita; Fahim, Mohammad

2011-08-09

55

Antifungal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Fusarium solani.  

PubMed

The antifungal activities of methanolic extracts from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was investigated for effects on the initial growth of mycelia against Fusarium solani. The ethyl acetate fraction separated from TNB demonstrated the highest antifungal activity against F. solani. The antifungal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the antifungal compound was conducted using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antifungal compound was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Purified-GA possesses the high antifungal activity against F. solani, and that antifungal activity was dosage-dependent. The hyphae became collapsed and shrunken after 24 h incubation with GA (500 ppm). In pot experiments, the application of TNB crude extract was found to be effective in controlling the cucumber Fusarium root rot disease by enhancing activities of chitinase, peroxidase thereby promoting the growth of plants. The applied TNB extract significantly suppressed root rot disease compared to control. It resulted in 33, 75 and 81% disease suppression with 100, 500 and 1000 ppm of TNB crude extract, respectively. The study effectively demonstrated biological activities of the TNB extract, therefore suggesting the application of TNB for the control of soil-borne diseases of cucumber plants. PMID:23333407

Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

2013-01-17

56

The ken and barbie gene encoding a putative transcription factor with a BTB domain and three zinc finger motifs functions in terminalia development of Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in the ken and barbie locus are accompanied by the malformation of terminalia in adult Drosophila. Male and female genitalia often remain inside the body, and the same portions of genitalia and analia are missing in a fraction of homozygous flies. Rotated and/or duplicated terminalia are also observed. Terminalia phenotypes are enhanced by mutations in the gap gene tailless, the homeobox gene caudal, and the decapentaplegic gene that encodes a TGFbeta-like morphogen. The ken and barbie gene encodes a protein with three CCHH-type zinc finger motifs that are conserved in several transcription factors such as Krüppel and BCL-6. All defects in ken and barbie mutants are fully rescued by the expression of a wild-type genomic construct, which establishes the causality between phenotypes and the gene. PMID:14518006

Lukacsovich, Tamas; Yuge, Kazuya; Awano, Wakae; Asztalos, Zoltan; Kondo, Shunzo; Juni, Naoto; Yamamoto, Daisuke

2003-10-01

57

Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem  

PubMed Central

Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 ?g/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 ?g/ml), while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15) ?g/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Moshi, Mainen J; Masimba, Pax J; Kapingu, Modest C; Nondo, Ramadhani SO

2007-01-01

58

High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined.

De Ridder, Maaike; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Vansteenkiste, Dries; Van Loo, Denis; Dierick, Manuel; Masschaele, Bert; De Witte, Yoni; Mannes, David; Lehmann, Eberhard; Beeckman, Hans; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Van Acker, Joris

2011-01-01

59

Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD). Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat) group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10?mg?kg(-1) body weight), T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200?mg?kg(-1) body weight), respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05). Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:21785628

Subramaniam, Saravanan; Subramaniam, Ramachandran; Rajapandian, Suja; Uthrapathi, Subasini; Gnanamanickam, Victor Rajamanickam; Dubey, Govinda Prasad

2011-03-20

60

Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity.

Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

2013-01-01

61

Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD). Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat) group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10?mg?kg?1 body weight), T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200?mg?kg?1 body weight), respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05). Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Subramaniam, Saravanan; Subramaniam, Ramachandran; Rajapandian, Suja; Uthrapathi, Subasini; Gnanamanickam, Victor Rajamanickam; Dubey, Govinda Prasad

2011-01-01

62

Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.  

PubMed

Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:17049775

Jadon, Anjana; Bhadauria, Monika; Shukla, Sangeeta

2006-08-12

63

Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. METHODS: Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. RESULTS: TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. CONCLUSION: The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress. PMID:23742226

Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

2013-06-01

64

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based

Suresh V. Nampoothiri; A. Prathapan; Ozhathil Lijo Cherian; K. G. Raghu; V. V. Venugopalan; A. Sundaresan

2011-01-01

65

Cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Folkloric claims on the use of a mixture of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks in tumor management exist without scientific evidence. This study aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antiproliferative activity of these plants and their mixture. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extracts after which various concentrations (0 to 1 000 ?g/ml) were incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines for 3 and 24 hours. Results: The extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, phlobatannins, and terpenes. The separate extracts and their 1:1 mixture significantly (P<0.05) decreased the computed percentage viability of the cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusions: The antiproliferative activity may be due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the extracts and has a potential in the management of tumor.

Salau, Amadu Kayode; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo

2013-01-01

66

3,4,5TRIHYDROXY BENZOIC ACID (GALLIC ACID), THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE PRINCIPLE IN THE FRUITS OF TERMINALIA BELERICA BIOASSAY GUIDED ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

CompoundIisolated from fraction TB5 ofTerminalia belericaand finally identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced physiological and biochemical alterations in the liver. The main parameters studied were hexobarbitone-induced sleep, zoxazolamine induced paralysis, serum levels of transaminases and bilirubin. The hepatic markers assessed were lipid peroxidation, drug metabolising enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and triglycerides.

K. K Anand; B Singh; A. K Saxena; B. K Chandan; V. N Gupta; V Bhardwaj

1997-01-01

67

Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa  

PubMed Central

Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05). However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05) distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

2011-01-01

68

The aqueous extract, not organic extracts, of Terminalia arjuna bark exerts cardiotonic effect on adult ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

The bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been used for centuries in ayurvedic medicine as cardiotonics for treatment of cardiac disorders. It became recently available as over-the-counter supplements marketed for maintaining a healthy heart. However, the cellular mechanism of its cardiotonic effect remains undefined. The present study was designed to investigate the physicochemical property and inotropic effect of the aqueous extract of TA bark (TA(AqE)) on adult rat ventricular myocytes in comparison with extracts prepared sequentially with organic solvents (organic extracts). The kinetics of myocyte contraction and caffeine-induced contraction were analyzed to assess the effect of TA(AqE) on sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) function. The inotropic effect of TA(AqE) was also compared with that of known cardiotonics, isoproterenol (ISO) and ouabain (Ouab). We found that TA(AqE) decoctions exerted positive inotropy, accelerated myocyte relaxation and increased caffeine-induced contraction concentration-dependently. In contrast, TA organic extracts caused interruption of excitability and arrhythmias without consistent inotropic action. In conclusion, TA(AqE)-induced cardiotonic action via enhancing SR function, a unique action minimizing the occurrence of arrhythmias, makes TA(AqE) a promising and relatively safe cardiotonic beneficial to the healthy heart and the treatment for chronic heart disease. The cardiotonic effect of TA(AqE) is consistent with the therapeutic property of TA bark used in ayurvedic medicine. The method of administration and/or selective omission of hydrophobic components from bark powder could be crucial to the efficacy and safety of TA bark in cardiac therapy and uses as over-the-counter supplements. PMID:21315570

Oberoi, Lalit; Akiyama, Toshiyuki; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Liu, Shi J

2011-02-15

69

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based antioxidant activity was assayed by flow cytometry using DCFH-DA as probe. Methanol extracts were also screened for their antidiabetic activity via inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and antiglycation assays. Results showed that ME of TB and EB can act as potent ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Significant antiglycation activity also confirms the therapeutic potential of these extracts against diabetes. Both the extracts significantly inhibited the oxidation of LDL under in vitro conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis revealed that methanol extract of TB and EB contains ellagic acid and ascorbic acid as the major compound respectively. PMID:20951180

Nampoothiri, Suresh V; Prathapan, A; Cherian, Ozhathil Lijo; Raghu, K G; Venugopalan, V V; Sundaresan, A

2010-10-14

70

Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties. PMID:16271836

Kamtchouing, P; Kahpui, S M; Dzeufiet, P-D Djomeni; Tédong, L; Asongalem, E A; Dimo, T

2005-11-04

71

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

72

In Vivo and In Vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Terminalia paniculata Bark: An Evaluation of Possible Phytoconstituents and Mechanisms for Blood Glucose Control in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate in vivo, in vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) and characterize its possible phytoconstituents responsible for the actions. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin-nicotinamide (65?mg/kg–110?mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Oral treatment of AETPB using rat oral needle at 100 and 200?mg/kg doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in diabetic rats than diabetic control rats. AETPB-treated diabetic rats body weight, total protein, insulin, and haemoglobin levels were increased significantly (P < 0.001) than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001) reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein levels were observed in type 2 diabetic rats after AETPB administration. Presence of biomarkers gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in AETPB was confirmed in HPLC analysis. AETPB and gallic acid showed significant (P < 0.001) enhancement of glucose uptake action in presence of insulin in muscle cells than vehicle control. Also AETPB inhibited pancreatic ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. In conclusion, the above actions might be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of AETPB due to presence of gallic acid and other biomarkers.

Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Adhirajan, Natarajan

2013-01-01

73

Green analytical methodology using Indian almond (Terminalia catappa L.) leaf extract for determination of aluminum ion in waste water from ceramic factories.  

PubMed

The use of natural reagents from plant extracts for chemical analysis is one of the approaches in the development of low cost and environmentally friendly green analytical chemistry methodology. Here, crude extract from Indian Almond (Terminalia Catappa L.) leaves was used for colorimetric determination of aluminum by monitoring the absorbance of the Al(3+)-extract complex at 435 nm. Dry leaves and freeze-dried fresh leaf extract can be kept for extended use. A simple flow injection analysis (FIA) system was also employed for rapid analysis (approximately 180 injections/h). The linear working range up to 100 mg L(-1) was established with a detection limit (blank + 3SD) of 0.8 mg L(-1), a limit of quantitation (blank + 10SD) of 2.4 mg L(-1), and a relative standard deviation of 3-5%. This simple green analytical chemistry methodology was applied for the determination of Al(3+) in waste water samples from ceramic factories. The results agreed well with the results obtained from the ICP-OES technique. PMID:23749133

Insain, Pimporn; Khonyoung, Supada; Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Zajicek, Katja; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

2013-01-01

74

Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.  

PubMed

Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males. PMID:17082987

Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

2006-11-01

75

Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna attenuates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cell model.  

PubMed

Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) is a medicinal plant used in many polyherbal hepatoprotective formulations. Although widely claimed to be antioxidant, data supporting such actions of Arjuna are limited. In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of the aqueous extract of T. arjuna (AETA) using a standard pro-oxidant [tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)] in HepG2 cells. Cells were incubated with AETA (5-100 µg/ml) for a range of time points (4-24 h) with or without TBHP (500 ?M), and biochemical markers of oxidative stress (OS) were determined. Cells incubated with TBHP showed the significant induction of OS response in cytosol manifested as lipid hydroperoxide (76%-198%) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (60%-127%). Diminished levels of reduced glutathione (35%-60%) and total antioxidant capacity (20%-61%) suggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (30%-56%), superoxide dismutase (25%-68%), glutathione S-transferase (29%-67%), glutathione peroxidase (24%-68%) and glutathione reductase (38%-49%) were discernible suggesting the ongoing OS in the cells. However, cells treated with AETA (100 µg/ml) along with TBHP offered significant protection by reducing levels of lipid hydroperoxide (33%-62%) and ROS (69%) and by increasing antioxidant capacity (54%-81%) and levels of reduced glutathione (49%-82%). Further, it also enhanced the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, 60%; catalase, 35%-82%; glutathione peroxidase, 42-65 %; glutathione reductase, 48%-62%; and glutathione S-transferase, 22%-100%). Taken together, these data suggest that Arjuna can protect against the oxidative damage induced by TBHP and may be effectively used as a hepatoprotective adjuvant to abrogate OS in vivo. PMID:22961563

Shivananjappa, Mahesh Mysore; Mhasavade, Deepak; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

2012-09-07

76

Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.  

PubMed

Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna. PMID:22761141

Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

2012-07-01

77

Antibiotic Resistance and Herbal Treatment of Bacterial Fish Pathogens Causing Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In in vitro screenings of antibiotics against the two most commonly found opportunistic bacteria related to epizootic ulcerative syndrome of fishes—Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MTCC 103)—gentamycin, ofloxacin, kanamycin, and tobramycin were effective. The antibacterial screening of plant extracts revealed that both aqueous and methanolic extract of Terminalia chebula, Polyalthia longifolia, Terminalia bellerica, and Phyllanthus emblica were sensitive

Anupam Ghosh; Bidus Kanti Das; Arup Roy; Goutam Chandra

2011-01-01

78

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

79

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae),

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan

2010-01-01

80

Evaluating the effects of cold water diffusates against Xanthomonas oryzae Pv. Oryzae causing bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude extracts of 63 plants were used for testing antibacterial activity against Xanthmonas oryazae Pv. oryzae that causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice plants. Only ten aqueous extracts of botanicals (Thuja orientalis, Prunus domestica, Citrus limon, Allium sativum, Vitis vinefera, Mangifera indica, Phyllanthus emblica, and Terminalia chebula) showed maximum activity against Xanthmonas oryazae in a plate agar diffusion

Rukhsana Jabeen; Muhammad Ashraf; Iftikhar Ahmad

2009-01-01

81

18, 19-Secooleanane Type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five novel 18,19-secooleanane type triterpene glycosides, 1-5, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the bark of Teminalia arjuna, along with nine known oleanane triterpenoids. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR, HRESIMS and CD spectra....

82

Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different doses of ethanolic fraction of fruits of Terminaliapallida were evaluated for hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract at a dosage of 0.5g\\/kg body weight exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats, whereas in normal rats no hypoglycemic activity was observed.

B. Kameswara Rao; P. Renuka Sudarshan; M. D. Rajasekhar; N. Nagaraju; Ch. Appa Rao

2003-01-01

83

Influence of sonication on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from T. catappa leaves obtained by different intervals of sonication. Methods: Three commonly used methods were followed to evaluate phenolic content and four in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potency (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity assays for measuring the antioxidant activities. Antioxidant values of these assays were expressed in terms of milligrams vitamin C equivalent (VCE) antioxidant activities. Results: This study showed that extract obtained with 40 minutes of sonication possessed significant (P < 0.05) polyphenolic contents compared to 20 and 60 minutes sonication and control (24 hour maceration). Moreover, sonication of T. catappa leaf above 40 minutes was found to be unsuitable for extracting out phenolic contents. Even the results of antioxidant assays showed that 40 minutes of the sonicated extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) VCE values compared to extracts obtained at different intervals of sonication and control. Conclusions: In sonication extraction method 40 minutes is an ideal time to obtain extract enriched with high polyphenolic content with good antioxidant activity from T. catappa leaves.

Annegowda, H. V.; Anwar, L. N.; Mordi, M. N.; Ramanathan, S.; Mansor, S. M.

2010-01-01

84

Isolation of genomic DNA suitable for community analysis from mature trees adapted to arid environment.  

PubMed

Isolation of intact and pure genomic DNA (gDNA) is essential for many molecular biology applications. It is difficult to isolate pure DNA from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. We hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gDNA from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of Combretaceae viz. Anogeissus (Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia, Anogeissus pendula, and Anogeissus latifolia) and Terminalia (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia catappa and Terminalia chebula). This method involves (i) washing the sample twice with Triton buffer (2%) then (ii) isolation of gDNA by modified-CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method employing a high concentration (4%) of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and 50mM ascorbic acid, and (iii) purification of this CTAB-isolated gDNA by spin-column. gDNA isolated by modified CTAB or spin-column alone were not found suitable for PCR amplification. The Triton washing step is also critical. The quality of DNA was determined by the A(260)/A(280) absorbance ratio. gDNA was also observed for its intactness by running on 0.8% agarose gel. The suitability of extracted DNA for PCR was tested by amplification with RAPD primers, which was successful. Further, rbcLa (barcoding gene) was amplified and sequenced to check the quality of extracted gDNA for its downstream applications. PMID:21827837

Gupta, Amit Kumar; Harish; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh

2011-07-05

85

Fungal Contamination of Raw Materials of Some Herbal Drugs and Recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora Oil as Herbal Fungitoxicant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected\\u000a from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus

Priyanka Singh; Bhawana Srivastava; Ashok Kumar; N. K. Dubey

2008-01-01

86

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

87

Antimicrobial Activity of Few Medicinal Plants against Clinically Isolated Human Cariogenic Pathogens-An In Vitro Study.  

PubMed

Hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Terminalia chebula, Mimusops elengi and Achyranthes aspera were tested against the dental caries causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans and fungus Candida albicans isolated from caries infected patients. All the four extracts of P. guajava showed activity against both S. mutans and C. albicans. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed in ethyl acetate of P. guajava. The four extracts of T. chebula and M. elengi showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. M. elengi extracts and ethanol extract of T. chebula did not show any antifungal activity against C. albicans. Except for the hexane extract of A. aspera, the other three extracts showed activity against the tested microbes. The ethyl acetate P. guajava leaf extract showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. mutans to be <0.076?mg/mL in both MHB and BHI. The P. guajava ethyl acetate extract was subjected to GC-MS. PMID:21991479

Jebashree, H Shyla; Kingsley, S Jayasurya; Sathish, Emmanuel S; Devapriya, D

2011-06-08

88

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-01-06

89

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

90

Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds. PMID:15812867

Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, M Sajjad A; Owais, Mohd; Ahmad, Iqbal

2005-01-01

91

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

92

Effect of ayurvedic medicines on beta-glucuronidase activity of Brunner's glands during recovery from cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers in rats.  

PubMed

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands. It can be concluded that Ayurvedic medicines used do not act as antacid but improve the secretory status of Brunner's glands involved in the protection against duodenal ulcer. PMID:2620935

Nadar, T S; Pillai, M M

1989-11-01

93

Aqueous extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna plays a protective role against sodium-fluoride-induced hepatic and renal oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant. It has already been reported that the accumulation of fluoride can\\u000a alter the activities of some enzymes involved in the free-radical metabolism and also decrease the activities of some enzymes\\u000a involved in the antioxidant defense system. In the present study, we have investigated the antioxidative properties of aqueous\\u000a extract of the bark of

Mahua Sinha; Prasenjit Manna; Parames C. Sil

2007-01-01

94

Taxonomic Status of Aedes (Stegomyia) laffooni Knight and Rozeboom with a Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) pseudalbolineatus Brug (Diptera: Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aedes (Stegomyia) laffooni Knight and Rozeboom and Aedes Stegomyia pseudalbolineatus Brug are 2 distinct species. Characters for separating laffooni from pseudalbolineatus are given. Male terminalia, female terminalia, pupa and larva of laffooni and femal...

Y. Huang

1978-01-01

95

Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase.  

PubMed

Extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. The extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Quercus pedunculata, Rumex cyprius, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 < or = 50 micrograms/ml. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 microM, together with 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5) and digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2 and 6 was non-competitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:7541317

el-Mekkawy, S; Meselhy, M R; Kusumoto, I T; Kadota, S; Hattori, M; Namba, T

1995-04-01

96

Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

2013-01-01

97

Effects of ionizing radiation on microbial decontamination, phenolic contents, and antioxidant properties of triphala.  

PubMed

Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala. PMID:19397725

Kumari, N; Kumar, P; Mitra, D; Prasad, B; Tiwary, B N; Varshney, L

2009-04-01

98

Comparison of enteroprotective efficacy of triphala formulations (Indian Herbal Drug) on methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in rats.  

PubMed

Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. PMID:19170156

Nariya, Mukeshkumar; Shukla, Vinay; Jain, Sunita; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

2009-08-01

99

Effect of a novel antiinflammatory polyherbal preparation (Sudarshanam oil) on hematological parameters in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of a polyherbal preparation (Sudarshanam Oil) on hematological parameters in Wistar rats. This polyherbal formula contains main ingredients of Tinaspora Cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis, Andrographis paniculata and Terminalia belerica. The active phytochemicals such as tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and triterpenoids are extracted from these herbal plants. And extract was prepared in corn oil. Young adult Wistar rats of either sex were divided into 4 groups and each group having 6 males and 6 females were dosed for 28 days. First group was the control group which was dosed with corn oil as vehicle (15 mL/kg body weight). Groups II, III and IV were treated with different doses of Sudarshanam oil, viz. as 5 mL/kg, 10 mL/kg and 15 mL/kg body weight respectively. On 29th day, after overnight fasting, the blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture under CO2 anaesthesia. The blood samples were collected and transferred into prelabelled vaccutainer coated with EDTA for hematological parameters investigation by using Advia-120 hematology analyser. The results revealed that no treatment related adverse effects in any of the hematological parameters. Thus, Sudarshanam oil proves to be highly potent, novel anti-inflammatory preparation which can be a challenge against allopathic anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:20524430

Patel, Chintan D; Modi, Vandana D; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S; Mathuria, Neeta; Dadhaniya, Paresh; Borade, Prasad A; Morankar, Pravin

100

Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. PMID:20980034

Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

2010-10-25

101

Effects of penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose on human neutrophil function: significant down-regulation of L-selectin expression.  

PubMed

Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) occurrs in high concentrations in medicinal herbs such as Rhus chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Acer truncatum and Terminalia chebula, which demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effect of PGG on stimulated and non-stimulated neutrophils in processes which included reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-8 secretion (IL-8), ?? integrin (CD11b) and L-selectin (CD62L) expression and apoptosis. In concentrations of 5??M-20??M, PGG demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of ROS generation, IL-8 secretion and ?? integrin expression in stimulated neutrophils. The inhibition of L-selectin expression by PGG resulted in prevention in neutrophils' endothelial attachment. The result obtained may explain the anti-inflammatory activity of this compound and underline the contribution of PGG in the activity of PGG rich plant extracts. PMID:22899541

Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Zy?y?ska-Granica, Barbara; Naruszewicz, Marek

2012-08-16

102

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599

Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Chung, Myung-Hee

2008-09-30

103

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.

Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho

2008-01-01

104

Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100?M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 ?mole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract. PMID:21731375

Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kalaiselvan, V; Srivastava, Sushma; Agrawal, Shyam S; Saxena, Rohit

2010-10-01

105

Preparation and physico-chemical evaluation of kshiramandura.  

PubMed

Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO(3) and 1.32% CaCO(3). PMID:22557361

Jadar, P G; Jagadeesh, M S

2010-04-01

106

Chemoprotective role of triphala against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride induced carcinogenic damage to mouse liver.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to investigate the protective role of Triphala (a combination in equal proportions by weight of fruit powder of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis) against 1,2-dimethylhydrazinedihydrochloride (DMH) induced Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in mouse liver. An oral dose of 3 mg/kg body wt in drinking water for 5 weeks significantly (P < 0.001) increased the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin thus suggesting damage to mouse liver and biliary dysfunction. The DMH administration invariably led to increase in the liver microsomal proteins of molecular weight of about 29 (ERp29) and 53 kDa (ERp53) and decrease in the protein of molecular weight of 36 kDa (ERp36) thereby suggesting the interference of DMH and its metabolites with normal protein biosynthesis and folding, in the reticular membranes of the liver cells thus developing ER stress. Histological studies show necrosis, large sized hepatocytes with increased N:C ratio, aberrant mitotic figures and prominent nucleoli in the liver of DMH treated mice. In animals fed 5% Triphala in diet (w/w) during DMH administration, there was significant decrease in the above changes in the liver suggesting the suppression of DMH induced ER stress in liver. Triphala significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation and also the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in mouse liver. It simultaneously increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) thereby suggesting that it prevents peroxidative damage and also diverts the active metabolites (electrophiles) of DMH from their interactions with critical cellular bio-molecules which could be responsible for its protective action against DMH. PMID:22754195

Sharma, Aditi; Sharma, Krishan Kumar

2011-05-15

107

Preparation and Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Kshiramandura  

PubMed Central

Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO3 and 1.32% CaCO3.

Jadar, P.G.; Jagadeesh, M.S.

2010-01-01

108

A tropical freshwater wetlands: I. Structure, growth, and regeneration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested wetlands dominated by Terminalia carolinensis are endemic to Micronesia but common only on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. On Kosrae, these forests occur on Nansepsep, Inkosr, and Sonahnpil soil types, which differ in degree of flooding and soil saturation. We compared forest structure, growth, nutrition, and regeneration on two sites each on Nansepsep and Inkosr soils and one site on the much less common Sonahnpil soil type. Terminalia tree sizes were similar on all three soil types, but forests differed in total basal area, species of smaller trees, and total plant species diversity. Terminalia regeneration was found only on the Inkosr soil type, which had the highest water table levels. Other Terminalia species are relatively light demanding, and T. carolinensis exhibited similar characteristics. It is therefore likely that Terminalia requires periodic, but perhaps naturally rare, stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., typhoons) in order to maintain its dominanace, except on the wettest sites, where competition from other species is reduced. Terminalia swamps in the Nansepsep soil type appeared to be at the greatest risk of conversion to other uses, but swamps on all three types may face reater pressure as Kosrae's population increases and the island's infrastrucure becomes more developed.

Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Waguk, E.E.

2005-01-01

109

Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7. PMID:14708456

Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

2003-01-01

110

Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.  

PubMed

The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials. PMID:18322727

Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

2008-03-06

111

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

112

Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no visceral or skeletal anomalies were observed in the fetuses. No maternal changes were observed when Aller-7 was administered during gestation and lactation. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed at doses up to 5000 mug per plate of Aller-7 in Salmonella typhimurium cells. The present study evaluated the safety of Aller-7 by conducting several in vitro and in vivo studies. Further studies of the 90-day chronic toxicity of Aller-7 are currently in progress. PMID:20021150

Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

2003-01-01

113

Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated IC50 concentrations at 1.5 and 9.0 microg/ml, respectively. These results demonstrate that this novel polyherbal formulation is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that can ameliorate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:15573692

Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

2004-01-01

114

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

2010-03-20

115

Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanol extracts of Urtica urens, Capparis tomentosa, Dicoma anomala, Leonotis leonorus, Xysmalobium undulatum, Helichrysum foetidum, Pterocarpus angolensis, Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa, plants documented as being used for topical wound healing in the literature, were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol and water extracts of two of these plants, Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa, were more active compared to the other extracts against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The effects of the latter plants on fibroblast growth as well as oxidant production by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine were also studied. The water and methanol extracts of Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa significantly decreased luciginin enhanced chemiluminescence at concentrations of 100 microg/ml and higher. However, the extracts had no effect on the growth of primary human fibroblasts. PMID:15507359

Steenkamp, V; Mathivha, E; Gouws, M C; van Rensburg, C E J

2004-12-01

116

In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). METHODS: In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. RESULTS: Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 mug/ml and 68 mug/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 mug/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 mug/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 mug/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 mug/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 mug/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 mug/ml). CONCLUSION: Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

Ali, Shereen K; Hamed, Ahmed R; Soltan, Maha M; Hegazy, Usama M; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; El-Garf, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Ahmed A

2013-05-30

117

Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread?  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells. Experiments revealed that both tannins targeted and inactivated HSV-1 viral particles and could prevent binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as secondary infection. The antiviral effect from either of the tannins was not associated with induction of type I interferon-mediated responses, nor was pretreatment of the host cell protective against HSV-1. Their inhibitory activities targeted HSV-1 glycoproteins since both natural compounds were able to block polykaryocyte formation mediated by expression of recombinant viral glycoproteins involved in attachment and membrane fusion. Our results indicated that CHLA and PUG blocked interactions between cell surface glycosaminoglycans and HSV-1 glycoproteins. Furthermore, the antiviral activities from the two tannins were significantly diminished in mutant cell lines unable to produce heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and could be rescued upon reconstitution of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. We suggest that the hydrolyzable tannins CHLA and PUG may be useful as competitors for glycosaminoglycans in the management of HSV-1 infections and that they may help reduce the risk for development of viral drug resistance during therapy with nucleoside analogues.

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

118

Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of new and efficacious antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23983370

Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

2012-04-02

119

Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477

Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T

2012-03-02

120

Identification of vibriocidal compounds from medicinal plants using chromatographic fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the vibriocidal activity of bark of Syzygium cumini, leaves of Lawsonia inermis, fruits of Terminalia bellerica and identify the bioactive compounds. The vibriocidal activity of plant extracts was determined in aqueous and organic solvents,\\u000a and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio spp. using the disk diffusion method was established. The

Anjana Sharma; Virendra Kumar Patel; Padmini Ramteke

2009-01-01

121

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

122

Biological potency of certain plant extracts in management of two lepidopteran pests of Ricinus communis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifeedant and toxic effects of leaf extracts of Syzygium cumini L., Ocimum basilicum L., Luffa aegyptica Mill., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Tamarindus indica L., Terminalia catappa L., Limonia acidissima L., Murraya koenigii L., Breynia retusa (Dennst.)., Jatropha curcas L., Tectona grandis L., Momordica charantia L., Mangifera indica L., Ricinus communis L., and the seed extract of Madhuca indica Gmelin., were evaluated

Peta Devanand; Pathipati Usha Rani

123

Satellite remote sensing of rangelands in Botswana I. Landsat MSS and herbaceous vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of the cover and biomass of live and dead herbaceous vegetation, the cover of trees and shrubs and the area of bare ground were made for rangelands in three study sites in eastern Botswana between September 1983 and April 1984. The sites were selected to be representative of Terminalia sericea, Cotophospermum mopane and Combretum apiculatum-Acacia nigrescens woodland savannas,

S. D. PRINCE; W. L. ASTLE

1986-01-01

124

Evaluation of common tree leaves or pods as supplements for goats on range area of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out at Kimose in Baringo district of Kenya, with the aim of determining the chemical composition and in vitro DM digestibility of pods of Acacia tortilis, A. nilotica, A. brevispica and leaves of Terminalia brownii and Berchemia discolor. In addition, the influence of supplementing Boer×Galla goats with these pods and leaves on weight gain and forage

J. J Sawe; J. K Tuitoek; J. M Ottaro

1998-01-01

125

Studies in the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz with a revision of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell and Omegeleodes, new subgenus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Eleodin)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomic history of the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz is reviewed and the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell redefined based on characters of the female terminalia with Blaps carbonaria Say herein designated as type-species. Eleodes debilis LeConte is removed from Melaneleodes to a new monotypic subg...

126

Potency of extract contents from selected tropical chewing sticks against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus auricularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of enteropathogenic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus auricularis, NIAH 11484 and Staphylococcus aureus, IFO 12732) were tested in vitro for their resistance to extracts from tropical chewing stick species, namely, Garcinia mannii Heck, Masularia accuminata (G. Don) Benth, Zanthoxylum gilletii (DeWild) Waterman, Terminalia glaucescens Plauch ex Benth, Azadiracta indica A. Juss, Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill & Perr and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.).

J. A. Akande; Y. Hayashi

1998-01-01

127

Two new species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Fanniidae).  

PubMed

Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy is known from 63 neotropical species, 24 of them with occurence in Rio de Janeiro State. Two new species from Rio de Janeiro State are added to the genus: F. tibialis, sp. n and F. unica, sp. n. Male specimens of both are described. Morphological characters and terminalia are illustrated. Each species is briefly discussed. PMID:15744416

Couri, M S

2005-03-02

128

New species of the genus Cyamops Melander from New Zealand (Diptera, Periscelididae, Stenomicrinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of the genus Cyamops (Diptera: Periscelididae), the first from New Zealand, are described. The two newly described species are: Cyamops alessandrae and Cyamops crosbyi. A key to the genera of the subfamily Stenomicrinae and to the species of Cyamops from the Australasian/Oceanian Region and detailed illustrations of structures of the male terminalia are provided.

Mathis, Wayne N.; Sueyoshi, Masahiro

2011-01-01

129

Environmental control of gas exchange in some savanna woody species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature, radiation, water stress and humidity on net photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf resistances of the two savanna woody species, Grewia flavescens and Terminalia sericea were studied under controlled environmental conditions. Both species have developed morphological and physiological features resulting in low rates of transpiration even under non-stress conditions and are able to tolerate quite severe water stress.

Pamela J. Ferrar

1980-01-01

130

Culex (Neoculex) nematoides (Dyar and Shannon 1925) an Erroneous Record from the Philippines (Diptera: Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Culex (Neoculex) nematoides Dyar and Shannon 1925 (Insecutor Inscitiae Mens. 13:84) was described from a male and six females. The abdomen and terminalia of the male are missing. All the specimens bear label No. 28108 USNM. According to the original descr...

S. Sirivanakarn

1971-01-01

131

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

1998-01-01

132

response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid P rotein Baits and S ynthetic lure F ormulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa; and it is a production pest of common guava, Psidium guajava. In areas of Florida with commercial

Nancy D. Epsky; Paul E. Kendra; Robert R. Heath

133

Allocapnia sano, a new species of snowfly (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Alabama, U.S.A., plus six new state records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new eastern Nearctic snowfly species of the genus Allocapnia Claassen (Plecoptera: Capniidae) is described from Alabama, U.S.A. The male of the new species, A. sano, is distinguished from closely-related A. loshada Ricker and A. sequatchie Kondratieff and Kirchner by terminalia characters. In addition, new Alabama state records are reported for Zealeuctra fraxina Ricker & Ross, Amphinemura appalachia Baumann, A.

SCOTT A. GRUBBS

134

Description of the male of Laneella perisi (Mariluis) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) n. comb.  

PubMed

The male Laneella perisi (Mariluis) n. comb. is described based on specimens collected in the Cordillera Oriental (1,370-1,450 m asl), Florencia-Suaza, Caquetá, Colombia. A key to separate the two species of the genus Laneella and illustrations of the male genitalia and female abdomen, terminalia, and spermatheca are also presented. PMID:23949713

Wolff, M; Ramos-Pastrana, Y; Pujol-Luz, J R

2012-11-01

135

Adsorptive Capacity of Charcoals Eaten by Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkeys: Implications for Reducing Dietary Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colobus monkeys on the African island of Zanzibar eat charcoal from burned trees and lying near kilns, where it is produced for cooking. This behavior may be a learned response for counteracting toxicity due to phenolic and similar compounds that occur in significant concentrations in the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) leaves and mango (Mangifera indica) leaves which constitute a major

David O. Cooney; Thomas T. Struhsaker

1997-01-01

136

RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA TO LIQUID PROTEIN BAITS AND SYNTHETIC LURE FORMULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa;...

137

Native Australian Fruit Polyphenols Inhibit Cell Viability and Induce Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is one of the most critical forms of defense against cancer, and the induction of apoptosis by dietary polyphenols represents significant potential for cancer preventive activity. The present study examined polyphenols extracted from selected native Australian fruits—Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus Endl., Podocarpaceae), Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell, Combretaceae), muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), and native currant (Acrotriche depressa

Aaron C. Tan; Izabela Konczak; Iqbal Ramzan; Daniel M.-Y. Sze

2011-01-01

138

Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. METHODS: Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the

Kabir O Akinyemi; Olukayode Oladapo; Chidi E Okwara; Christopher C Ibe; Kehinde A Fasure

2005-01-01

139

Biotechnological applications in agriculture: A new source of edible oil and production of biofertilizer and antioxidant from its by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia belerica Roxb (Combretaceae) known as bahera, found abundant in tropical Asia, is a source of new edible oil (37% by dry weight of kernel), biofertilizer, tannin and antioxidant. The oilcake contains high amount of nitrogen (8.34%). On biochemical evaluation form the oil cake it is evident that about 60% NaCl extractable protein is digestible which can be converted into

D. Bera; D. Lahiri; Antonella De Leonardis; K. B. De; A. Nag

2007-01-01

140

Inhibitory Effect of TCCE on CCl4-induced Overexpression of IL6 in Acute Liver Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia catappa L. leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury produced by some hepatotoxicants, but the active components and mechanisms are not clear. This study was designed to characterize the protective effects of the chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract of T. catappa leaves (TCCE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, and analyze the changes in

Jing GAO; Huan DOU; Xin-Hui TANG; Li-Zhi XU; Yi-Mei FAN; Xiao-Ning ZHAO

2004-01-01

141

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.  

PubMed

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose, following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested. All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked. Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation. PMID:10404532

Rege, N N; Thatte, U M; Dahanukar, S A

1999-06-01

142

High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

2011-12-27

143

The use of microfluorometric method for activity-guided isolation of antiplasmodial compound from plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extracts of 16 medicinal plants was evaluated by fluorometric assay using PicoGreen.\\u000a The IC50s, as determined by parasite DNA concentration, ranged from 200 and 200 ?g\\/ml for Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and K1, respectively; and the most active extracts were those from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides (<11–?14 ?g\\/ml). Aqueous, butanolic, ethyl acetate, and methanolic fractions of

M. N. Shuaibu; P. A. Wuyep; T. Yanagi; K. Hirayama; T. Tanaka; I. Kouno

2008-01-01

144

Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of native Australian fruit polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four native Australian fruits, Illawarra Plum (Podocarpus elatus Endl., Podocarpaceae), Kakadu Plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell, Combretaceae), Muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae) and Native Currant (Acrotriche depressa R.Br., Epacridaceae) were examined for antioxidant and cellular protective activities. Each fruit showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than a blueberry (Vaccinum sp., cv. Biloxi) reference with Kakadu Plum exhibiting 13.3-fold and 2.4-fold activity

Aaron C. Tan; Izabela Konczak; Iqbal Ramzan; Daniel M.-Y. Sze

2011-01-01

145

Early growth and photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of three tropical species differing in successional strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containerized seedlings of three commercially important tropical species were grown under four different light treatments\\u000a [i.e., 100 (open site), 45, 22 and 10% sunlight] for 130 days. Light-saturated photosynthesis (A\\u000a max) and light saturation estimates (LSE) reflected the species successional status with Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels, the pioneer species showing largest mean A\\u000a max and LSE at 100% sunlight, whereas

Richard Gyimah; Toshio Nakao

2007-01-01

146

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin.  

PubMed

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-06-01

147

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin  

PubMed Central

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes.

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-01-01

148

Anti-inflammatory properties of BHUx, a polyherbal formulation to prevent atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BHUx is a polyherbal formulation consisting of water-soluble fractions of five medicinal plants (Commiphora mukul, Terminalia arjuna, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica). The present study was undertaken to evaluate its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. BHUx, standardized by HPLC fingerprinting and filtered through 0.2 ?m filter paper, was employed for different studies under in vivo and in vitro

Yamini B. Tripathi; M. Mallikarjuna Reddy; R. S. Pandey; J. Subhashini; O. P. Tiwari; B. K. Singh; P. Reddanna

2004-01-01

149

Foliar herbivory and leaf traits of five native tree species in a young plantation of Central Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined foliar herbivory on 1 year-old tree saplings planted in previously abandoned fields in central Panama.\\u000a Plots (15 × 15 trees) of Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae), Dalbergia retusa (Fabaceae), Pachira quinata (Malvaceae), Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae), and Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) were tested for herbivory using leaf counts and digital image analysis. Values of foliar carbon, foliar nitrogen,\\u000a specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf

Gillian S. Paul; Florencia Montagnini; Graeme P. Berlyn; Dylan J. Craven; Michiel van Breugel; Jefferson S. Hall

150

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by Brazilian plants.  

PubMed

The potential antihypertensive activity of Brazilian plants was evaluated in vitro by its ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Forty-four plants belonging to 30 families were investigated. Plants were selected based on their popular use as antihypertensive and/or diuretics. The following plants presented significant ACE inhibition rates: Calophyllum brasiliense, Combretum fruticosum, Leea rubra, Phoenix roebelinii and Terminalia catappa. PMID:17513067

Braga, Fernão C; Serra, Carla P; Viana, Nilton S; Oliveira, Alaíde B; Côrtes, Steyner F; Lombardi, Júlio A

2007-04-11

151

Ameliorative Effect of Multipurpose Tree Species Grown on Sodic Soils of Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plains of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Long-term field study was carried out to compare the impact of ten-year old plantation of ten multipurpose tree species, viz., Terminalia arjuna, Azadirachta indica, Prosopis juliflora, Pongamia pinnata, Casuarina equisetifolia, Prosopis alba, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pithecellobium dulce, and Cassia siamea on tree growth, biomass yield, and physico-chemical properties of sodic soils representing major tract of salt-affected soils of

Y. P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D. K. Sharma

2011-01-01

152

Biomass and bio-energy production of ten multipurpose tree species planted in sodic soils of indo-gangetic plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten multipurpose tree species, Terminalia arjuna, Azadirechta indica, Prosopis juliflora, Pongamia pinnata, Casuarina equisetifolia, Prosopis alba, Acacia\\u000a nilotica, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pithecellobium dulce and Cassia siamea, were raised in a monoculture tree cropping system on the sodic soil of Gangetic alluvium in north India (26° 47? N: 80°46?\\u000a E) for 10 years to evaluate the biomass and bio-energy production. The soil

Y. P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D. K. Sharma

2010-01-01

153

An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed. PMID:19070189

Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

2007-07-01

154

Evaluation of the yield of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer on selected economic tree species.  

PubMed

Sawdust from seven economic trees (Mansonia altissima, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Nesogordonia papaverifera, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Terminalia sp., Khaya ivorensis and Brachystegia nigerica were used to cultivate Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer. The highest mycelial density was observed in the sawdust of Mansonia altissimia and lowest in Piptadeniastrum africanum. Time of premodial emergence, fresh weight of mushroom and number of flushes varied from one sawdust to the other. The best sawdust for the growth of this mushroom among the sawdust of the economic trees was that of Combretodendron macrocarpum. PMID:19086587

Ayodele, S M; Akpaja, E O; Anyiador, F

2007-12-01

155

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against Plasmodium falciparum. Lawsonia inermis, selectively prescribed against trypanosomiasis shows interesting trypanocidal activities as did other 15 plants. Anthelmintic activities were found for 10 active species and 2 species (Uvaria afzelli and Monodora myristica) were actives against mites. PMID:14698515

Okpekon, T; Yolou, S; Gleye, C; Roblot, F; Loiseau, P; Bories, C; Grellier, P; Frappier, F; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

2004-01-01

156

Arjunolic acid: A promising new building block for nanochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arjunolic acid, the major extractable constituent of the heavy wood of textit{Terminalia Arjuna}, has the potential to be used as a rigid and functional molecular framework for the construction of nanosized supramolecular architectures and nanomaterials. The nanosized triterpenoid, arjunolic acid, showed efficient gelation of various organic solvents at low concentrations. The low molecular mass gelator molecules self-assembled in the solvents to form fibers of nanometer diameters. The movement of the solvent molecules was hindered inside the fibrous network leading to the formation of a gel.

Bag, Braja G.; Maity, Gopal C.; Pramanik, Subhash R.

2005-11-01

157

Review of the European Greenomyia Brunetti (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) with new descriptions of females  

PubMed Central

Abstract The females of the four continental Greenomyia Brunetti species in Europe are associated with the males, diagnosed and keyed, providing the first association and description of the females of Greenomyia baikalica Zaitzev, 1994 and Greenomyia stackelbergi Zaitzev, 1982. Colour photographs of their habitus and line drawings of their female terminalia are provided. Greenomyia mongolica Laštovka & Matile, 1974 is found to be a senior synonym of Greenomyia theresae Matile, 2002. syn. n. The diagnostic characters used to distinguish between Greenomyia and Neoclastobasis Ostroverkhova in keys did not hold up to a closer scrutiny and leave the status of Neoclastobasis as separate genus questionable.

Kurina, Olavi; Hedmark, Kjell; Karstrom, Mats; Kjaerandsen, Jostein

2011-01-01

158

First record of leaf-hole shelters used and modified by leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Behavioural novelties observed in adult leaf beetles of two new Orthaltica Crotch species include: 1) the use of low cost leaf-hole shelters, either in pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or artificially created holes as part of an experiment; and 2) the use of faeces to partition the hole. Two new southern Indian species of the genus Orthaltica are described and illustrated: Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia. Host plants are identified for both species. A key to the Indian species of Orthaltica is provided.

Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Shameem, K. M.; Balan, A. P.

2013-01-01

159

Two new Neotropical species of Ceracis Melli? (Coleoptera, Ciidae) and redefinition of the cucullatus group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new Neotropical species of Ceracis Mellié are described: Ceracis cassumbensis Antunes-Carvalho & Lopes-Andrade, sp. n. from a single locality in northeastern Brazil and Ceracis navarretei Antunes-Carvalho & Lopes-Andrade, sp. n. from a single locality in southern Mexico. Scanning Electron Microscope images of adults and photographs of holotypes and male terminalia are provided for both species, their similarities and differences with other Ceracis are briefly discussed, and the cucullatus species-group is redefined for including the new species described herein.

Antunes-Carvalho, Caio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

2011-01-01

160

A new Chlerogelloides from northeastern Brazil and French Guiana, with a key to the species (Hymenoptera, Halictidae).  

PubMed

A third species of the rare augochlorine bee genus Chlerogelloides Engel et al. (Halictinae, Augochlorini) is described and figured. Chlerogelloides nexosasp. n. is most similar to the type species, Chlerogelloides femoralis Engel et al., in that both have modified midlegs in the males. The former, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its terminalia, which in some respects more closely resembles those of Chlerogelloides simplex Engel and Brooks. Brief comments on the secondary features of males and relationships of the genus are provided. A key to the species of the genus is provided and floral records of Cordia nodosa Lam. (Boraginaceae) and Gonzalagunia dicocca Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae) are noted. PMID:22577312

de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Engel, Michael S; Mahlmann, Thiago

2012-04-23

161

A new wild, pollinating bee species of the genus Tetraloniella from the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Apidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the eucerine bee genus Tetraloniella Ashmead (Apinae: Eucerini) is described and figured from central Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Tetraloniella (Tetraloniella) persiciformissp. n. is distinguished on the basis of coloration, integumental sculpturing, male metafemoral structure, and male terminalia. A floral record of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey. (Compositae) is noted for some of the material. Females superficially resemble those of Tarsalia persica (Warncke) (Ancylaini) in overall coloration but can be distinguished by the typical generic and tribal characters. PMID:22448116

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Engel, Michael S

2012-03-01

162

Baeopterogyna mihalyii Matile (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): association of sexes using morphological and molecular approaches with the first description of females  

PubMed Central

Abstract Both males and females of Baeopterogyna mihalyiiMatile, 1975 are recorded from northern Greece. Females are described for the first time providing photographs of the general facies and terminalia. In contrast to the single congener with stenopterous females – Baeopterogyna nudipes Vockeroth, 1972 – Baeopterogyna mihalyii is shown to have normally developed wings in both sexes. Association of sexes is based on both morphological characters and sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI). DNA sequences are used for the first time for the association of sexes in Mycetophilidae.

Kurina, Olavi; Ounap, Erki; Ramel, Gordon

2011-01-01

163

First record of leaf-hole shelters used and modified by leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India.  

PubMed

Behavioural novelties observed in adult leaf beetles of two new Orthaltica Crotch species include: 1) the use of low cost leaf-hole shelters, either in pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or artificially created holes as part of an experiment; and 2) the use of faeces to partition the hole. Two new southern Indian species of the genus Orthaltica are described and illustrated: Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia. Host plants are identified for both species. A key to the Indian species of Orthaltica is provided. PMID:24146572

Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Konstantinov, Alexander S; Shameem, K M; Balan, A P

2013-09-27

164

Revision of Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi Alexander (Diptera, Tipulidae), and a short discussion on subspecies among crane flies  

PubMed Central

Abstract All available type material of Tipula stackelbergi Alexander, Tipula usuriensis Alexander and Tipula subpruinosa Mannheims were examined. Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi stat. rev. is elevated from a subspecies of Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa Wiedemann to a valid species. Two new synonyms are proposed: Tipula usuriensis syn. n. proved to be a junior synonym of. Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa and Tipula subpruinosa syn. n. a junior synonym of Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana Lackschewitz. Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi is redescribed, male and female terminalia of Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa are illustrated and discussed. Female terminalia of Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana are described and illustrated for the first time. A key to both sexes of Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi and Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa, and a key to females of Tipula (Yamatotipula) chonsaniana, Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana and Tipula (Yamatotipula) moesta are provided. Subspecies are not uncommon among crane flies, but their ranges and traits are poorly known. An interdisciplinary approach (genetics, ecology, taxonomy) is suggested if subspecific ranks are to be used in tipuloid systematics.

Salmela, Jukka

2012-01-01

165

Evaluation of Senegalese plants used in malaria treatment: focus on Chrozophora senegalensis.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Dakar area of Senegal to investigate the species used in the treatment of malaria. Seven plants are principally used: Cissampelos mucronata, Maytenus senegalensis, Terminalia macroptera, Bidens engleri, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Chrozophora senegalensis and Mitracarpus scaber. From a bibliographic study, it had been shown that the Cissampelos mucronata, Maytenus senegalensis and Terminalia macroptera have already been studied by several authors, and so only Bidens engleri, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Chrozophora senegalensis and Mitracarpus scaber were evaluated in the present study. For each plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents and tested in vitro on two chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Crude extracts from the leaves and the stems of Chrozophora senegalensis showed the best in vitro results. The IC(50) value of an aqueous extract of Chrozophora senegalensis was 1.6 microg/ml without cytotoxicity. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Chrozophora extracts was determined by both the oral and the intraperitoneal ways. The stages of Plasmodium cycle targeted by Chrozophora were then studied in vitro. These results could justify the traditional use of this plant in malaria treatment. PMID:18063330

Benoit-Vical, F; Soh, P Njomnang; Saléry, M; Harguem, L; Poupat, C; Nongonierma, R

2007-12-11

166

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

2002-02-01

167

Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

2012-07-22

168

The problem of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific (including Australia)*  

PubMed Central

There are three representatives of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific. C. p. fatigans is the most common and most widely distributed subspecies; it is closely associated with man. The males can be readily distinguished by the structure of the phallosome of the terminalia. C. p. molestus is spread over the southern part of Australia and in Tasmania; it also is a domestic mosquito. Throughout its extensive range in Australia, it exhibits all the biological traits that distinguish it from C. p. pipiens. C. p. australicus is widely distributed over the mainland of Australia and in Tasmania. It is superficially similar to C. p. fatigans but can be distinguished from C. p. pallens by the structure of the phallosome. It is primarily a rural non-man-biting mosquito. C. p. australicus is probably a relatively ancient member of the Australian fauna that may have evolved in the southern temperate zone. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 2

Dobrotworsky, N. V.

1967-01-01

169

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

170

Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762

Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

171

Development of Embryonic Pattern in D. melanogaster as Revealed by Accumulation of the Nuclear engrailed Protein  

PubMed Central

Summary engrailed is required to establish and maintain developmental compartments within each segment of the fly. To understand the role of the engrailed protein in this process, we have raised antibodies against engrailed and have visualized an engrailed protein in embryos by indirect immunofluorescence. The protein accumulates in the nucleus, supporting the notion that engrailed is a regulatory factor. The first pattern of expression is in alternating segments followed by expression in every segment, suggesting that engrailed may be responding to pair-rule segmentation gene products. Overall, engrailed protein levels peak in areas undergoing morphogenesis. Finally, the complex final form of the head and terminalia derive from earlier simple subdivision of these areas into developmental fields by engrailed.

DiNardo, Stephen; Kuner, Jerry M.; Theis, James; O'Farrell, Patrick H.

2010-01-01

172

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae).  

PubMed

The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in "Nevada", is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741

Engel, Michael S; Michener, Charles D

2012-11-19

173

Retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity in Thai herbs and spices: screening with Moloney murine leukemia viral enzyme.  

PubMed

Fifty-seven Thai herbs and spices were examined for their retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. All herbs and spices were extracted with hot-water and methanol. Reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the extracts was determined by using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV-RT) reacted with 3H-dTTP and radioactivity measured with a scintillation counter. Eighty-one per cent (46/57) of hot-water extracts and 54% (31/57) of methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, 13% (6/46) of hot-water extracts, namely Eugenia caryophyllus Bullock et Harrison, Phyllanthus urinaria Linn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Psidium guajava Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn., had a relative inhibitory ratio (IR) over 50%. They showed ratios of 100%, 91%, 75%, 74%, 61% and 60%, respectively. For methanol extracts, only 10% (3/31) had IR values over 50%. They were T. belerica, E. caryophyllus and N. nucifera which exhibited IR values of 83%, 54% and 54%, respectively. PMID:7524165

Suthienkul, O; Miyazaki, O; Chulasiri, M; Kositanont, U; Oishi, K

1993-12-01

174

Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona spp., from northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

2011-01-01

175

Removal of chromium by some multipurpose tree seedlings of Indian thar desert.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(lll). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. PMID:21166349

Mathur, Nishi; Singh, Joginder; Bohra, Sachendra; Bohra, Avinash; Vyas, Anil

176

Microwave assisted rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of stable copper nanoparticles using T. arjuna bark extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) bark extract is used to reduce Cu2+ ? Cu0 under microwave irradiation. The formation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) is monitored by recording the UV-Vis absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak, ˜535 nm. The intensity of SPR increased linearly with increasing temperature of the reaction mixture. The formation mechanism of CuNPs is supported by the observed marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential (E) of the reaction mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the CuNPs agrees with the reported data for Cu metal and the crystallite size is ˜23 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state 13C NMR shows the presence of plant residues on the CuNPs, i.e., in situ bio-capping is possible by this method. Thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis shows the thermal degradation of plant residue and the conversion of Cu to CuO. Field emission electron microscopic (FESEM) image shows uniform spherical particles obtained here. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirms the presence of Cu alone, as expected. The in vitro antimicrobial activity is found to be effective for CuNPs dried at RT when compared to CuNPs dried at 70 °C. In addition, CuNPs shows very good antioxidant property.

Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Sindhe, M. A.; Satyanarayan, N. D.; Pramod, S. N.; Nagaraja, K.

2013-06-01

177

Taxonomic changes in palaeotropical Xyleborini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Following the recent reclassification of the Palaeotropic xyleborine genera (Hulcr and Cognato in press), additional species are transferred to correct genera or synonymized based on analysis of their morphological characters. The following species are given new combinations: Debus amphicranoides (Hagedorn), comb. n., Debus birmanus (Eggers, 1930), comb. n., Debus dolosus (Blandford, 1896), comb. n., Debus eximius (Schedl, 1970), comb. n., Debus interponens (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus robustipennis (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus spinatus (Eggers, 1923), comb. n., Microperus alpha (Beeson, 1929), comb. n., Microperus corporaali (Eggers), comb. n., Microperus eucalyptica (Schedl, 1938), comb. n., Microperus nugax (Schedl, 1939), comb. n., Pseudowebbia percorthylus (Schedl, 1935), comb. n., Truncaudum circumcinctus (Schedl, 1941), comb. n. The following species are synonymized: Arixyleborus hirtipennis (Eggers), syn. n., with Arixyleborus puberulus (Blandford); Coptoborus palmeri (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Coptoborus terminaliae (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Cyclorhipidion polyodon (Eggers), syn. n., with Truncaudum agnatum (Eggers); Euwallacea artelaevis (Schedl), syn. n., with Planiculus bicolor (Blandford); Xyleborinus perminutissimus (Schedl), syn. n., with Xyleborinus perpusillus (Eggers); Xyleborus exesus Blandford, syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Xyleborus fulvulus (Schedl), syn. n., with Microperus corporaali (Eggers); Xyleborus marginicollis (Schedl), syn. n., with Diuncus justus (Schedl); Xyleborus shoreae Stebbing, syn. n., with Debus fallax (Eichhoff). The following species are given new status: Streptocranus superbus (Schedl, 1951), restored name; Webbia divisus Browne, 1972, restored name; Webbia penicillatus (Hagedorn, 1910), restored name. Genus Taphrodasus Wood (1980) is declared not valid.

Hulcr, Jiri

2010-01-01

178

Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani.

Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

2011-01-01

179

A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Species of the shore-fly genus Gymnoclasiopa Hendel from the New World are revised, including Gymnoclasiopa grecorum sp. n. (Alaska. Juneau: Gastineau Channel, Thane Road (S Juneau; 58°16.9'N, 134°22.4'W)) and Gymnoclasiopa matanuska sp. n. (Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Palmer (Matanuska River; 61°36.5'N, 149°04.1'W)). We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those now discovered to have Holarctic distributions and/or for which sexual dimorphism was not appreciated and the species was described twice, including Gymnoclasiopa montana (Cresson) as a syn. n. of Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni (Becker). Two species, Gymnoclasiopa bella (Mathis), comb. n., and Gymnoclasiopa chiapas (Mathis), comb. n., are transferred from Ditrichophora to Gymnoclasiopa, and Gymnoclasiopa cana Cresson stat. rev. and Ditrichophora canifrons Cresson, stat. rev. are returned to Ditrichophora, the genus in which Cresson originally described them. A neotype is designated for Gymnoclasiopa tacoma to stabilize the nomenclature of this species. The two excluded species, Ditrichophora cana and Ditrichophora canifrons, are diagnosed and distributional data are also provided. For all known New World species of Gymnoclasiopa, structures of the male terminalia are described for the first time and are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps are also included. To provide context and also to facilitate identification, diagnoses are included for the tribe Discocerinini and genus in addition to a key to the genera and species occurring in the New World.

Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

180

A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae).  

PubMed

Species of the shore-fly genus Gymnoclasiopa Hendel from the New World are revised, including Gymnoclasiopa grecorumsp. n. (Alaska. Juneau: Gastineau Channel, Thane Road (S Juneau; 58°16.9'N, 134°22.4'W)) and Gymnoclasiopa matanuska sp. n. (Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Palmer (Matanuska River; 61°36.5'N, 149°04.1'W)). We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those now discovered to have Holarctic distributions and/or for which sexual dimorphism was not appreciated and the species was described twice, including Gymnoclasiopa montana (Cresson) as a syn. n. of Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni (Becker). Two species, Gymnoclasiopa bella (Mathis), comb. n., and Gymnoclasiopa chiapas (Mathis), comb. n., are transferred from Ditrichophora to Gymnoclasiopa, and Gymnoclasiopa cana Cresson stat. rev. and Ditrichophora canifrons Cresson, stat. rev. are returned to Ditrichophora, the genus in which Cresson originally described them. A neotype is designated for Gymnoclasiopa tacoma to stabilize the nomenclature of this species. The two excluded species, Ditrichophora cana and Ditrichophora canifrons, are diagnosed and distributional data are also provided. For all known New World species of Gymnoclasiopa, structures of the male terminalia are described for the first time and are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps are also included. To provide context and also to facilitate identification, diagnoses are included for the tribe Discocerinini and genus in addition to a key to the genera and species occurring in the New World. PMID:23275757

Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-12-05

181

Green synthesis of size controllable gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A facile rapid green eco-friendly method to synthesize gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of tunable size using aqueous Terminalia arjuna fruit extracts has been demonstrated herein. Formation of Au NPs was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) study at 528nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The time of reduction, size and morphological variations of Au NPs were studied with varying quantities of T. arjuna fruit aqueous extracts. Synthesized Au NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Polyphenols responsible for reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) were identified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and pyrogallol. The oxidized forms of polyphenols formed coordination with surface of Au NPs which protected their further growth and aggregation. We also propose a plausible mechanism how to tune size and shape of Au NPs by varying the quantity of extracts. Thus obtained Au NPs were stable for more than four months. PMID:23973603

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Kiran Kumar, Hoskote A; Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu

2013-08-06

182

Prospects for the use of municipal tree pruning wastes in particleboard production.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made ??with pruning wastes from Ipê (Tabebuia serratifolia) and Chapéu-de-Sol (Terminalia catappa) trees. Particleboards were prepared with both wood species, using all the material produced by grinding the pruning wastes. The particleboards had dimensions of 45×45 cm, a thickness of approximately 11.5 mm and an average density of 664 kg/m(3). A urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used in the proportion of 12% of the dry particle mass. The particleboards were pressed at a temperature of 130°C for 10 mins. The physical and mechanical properties analyzed were density, moisture content, thickness swelling, percentage of lignin and cellulose, modulus of resilience, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength parallel to the grain, accordingly to the standards NBR 14810 and CS 236-66 (1968). The particleboards were considered to be of medium density. The particle size significantly affected the static bending strength and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Ipê presented better results, demonstrating a potential for the production and use of particleboard made from this species. PMID:23836102

Duarte da Silva, Manuel Joaquim; Bezerra, Barbara Stolte; Gomes Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida; De Domenico Valarelli, Ivaldo

2013-07-08

183

Malagasyprinus, a new genus of the Saprininae from Madagascar with description of two new species (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae) (First contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Based on the results of recent phylogenetic analysis of the higher taxa of the Saprininae as well as external morphological characters, especially the presence of deep and large prosternal foveae, and the shape and position of the sensory organs of the antennal club, the species Saprinus (s.str.) caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is excluded from the genus Saprinus and a new genus Malagasyprinus, exclusive to Madagascar, is established for it. The new genus shows mainly characters that are apomorphic for the subfamily and contains another two, highly similar allopatric species Malagasyprinus perrieri sp. n., and Malagasyprinus diana sp. n., described herein. The three species are best separated from each other by the structure of the prosternum and male terminalia, especially the shape of the aedeagus. We re-describe Malagasyprinus caeruleatus comb. n. and provide Malagasyprinus perrieri and Malagasyprinus diana with brief differential diagnoses. All taxon descriptions are accompanied with color habitat photographs, SEM micrographs and drawings of their male genitalia. A key to the species of Malagasyprinus is given. Sensory structures of the antenna of Malagasyprinus caeruleatus comb. n. are likewise depicted herein. The systematic position of the newly erected genus is discussed. A lectotype of Saprinus caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is designated.

Lackner, Tomas; Gomy, Yves

2013-01-01

184

Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants from Bunda district for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities.  

PubMed

Extracts from 50 plant parts obtained from 39 different plants belonging to 22 families used to treat infectious diseases in Bunda district, Tanzania, were screened against twelve microorganisms, including the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium, the fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and the viruses Herpes Simplex Virus type 1, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus T2, Coxsackie B2 and Semliki Forest A7. The highest activity was obtained for the n-hexane extract of Elaeodendron schlechteranum root bark against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus (MIC 0.97 microg/ml and MBC 1.95 microg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 3.90 microg/ml and MBC 31.25 microg/ml). Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive. Only Balanites aegyptiaca stem bark exhibited a high antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC 125 microg/ml and MFC 250 microg/ml). Extracts from four plants; Lannea schweinfurthii, Combretum adenogonium, Ficus sycomorus and Terminalia mollis showed strong antiviral activity with RF values of 10(3) and 10(4) against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 at various concentrations. Our results support, at least in part, the use of most plants as claimed by traditional healers/informants especially against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:18582554

Maregesi, Sheila Mgole; Pieters, Luc; Ngassapa, Olipa David; Apers, Sandra; Vingerhoets, Rita; Cos, Paul; Berghe, Dirk A Vanden; Vlietinck, Arnold J

2008-06-06

185

Complex formation of sericoside with hydrophilic cyclodextrins: improvement of solubility and skin penetration in topical emulsion based formulations.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to devise novel methods for improving the solubility of the anti-inflammatory triterpenoid sericoside, the main component of Terminalia sericea extract, thus enabling its incorporation into topical formulations. Sericoside was stabilized by complex formation with hydrophilic derivatives of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins in a molar ratio of 1.0:1.1. The complex of extract and cyclodextrin was equilibrated in water at 25 degrees C for approximately 24 h. The dehydrated complexes of T. sericea extract and cyclodextrin were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray diffraction. Complex formation with beta-cyclodextrin as well as gamma-cyclodextrin derivatives was detectable using these three analytical tools; however, only complexes with gamma-cyclodextrin derivatives showed stability upon storage after incorporation into topical o/w or w/o formulations. Furthermore, a T. sericea extract/gamma-cyclodextrin complex incorporated in an o/w formulation resulted in a 2.6-fold higher percutaneous penetration of sericoside in in vitro excised pig skin as compared to pure T. sericea extract. For the first time, the virtually insoluble anti-inflammatory active sericoside was incorporated into a topical emulsion based formulation in a stable manner, resulting in efficient skin penetration. PMID:12637096

Rode, T; Frauen, M; Müller, B W; Düsing, H J; Schönrock, U; Mundt, C; Wenck, H

2003-03-01

186

Malagasyprinus, a new genus of the Saprininae from Madagascar with description of two new species (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae) (First contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar).  

PubMed

Based on the results of recent phylogenetic analysis of the higher taxa of the Saprininae as well as external morphological characters, especially the presence of deep and large prosternal foveae, and the shape and position of the sensory organs of the antennal club, the species Saprinus (s.str.) caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is excluded from the genus Saprinus and a new genus Malagasyprinus, exclusive to Madagascar, is established for it. The new genus shows mainly characters that are apomorphic for the subfamily and contains another two, highly similar allopatric species Malagasyprinus perrieri sp. n., and Malagasyprinus diana sp. n., described herein. The three species are best separated from each other by the structure of the prosternum and male terminalia, especially the shape of the aedeagus. We re-describe Malagasyprinus caeruleatus comb. n. and provide Malagasyprinus perrieri and Malagasyprinus diana with brief differential diagnoses. All taxon descriptions are accompanied with color habitat photographs, SEM micrographs and drawings of their male genitalia. A key to the species of Malagasyprinus is given. Sensory structures of the antenna of Malagasyprinus caeruleatus comb. n. are likewise depicted herein. The systematic position of the newly erected genus is discussed. A lectotype of Saprinus caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is designated. PMID:24146560

Lackner, Tomáš; Gomy, Yves

2013-09-20

187

The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach.  

PubMed

Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047

Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K

2005-09-01

188

Ameliorative effect of three medicinal plants (P. fraternus, Terminelia a., and Moringa oleifera) on arsenic trioxide induced alteration of lipid peroxidation and protein contents in chicken liver homogenate: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The ameliorative effect of the aqueous extract of three medicinal plants P. fraternus. Terminalia A., and Moringa oleifera (PF, TA, and MO) on arsenic trioxide (As2O3) induced alteration in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein contents was studied in vitro. Liver from healthy chicken (Gallus domesticus) weighing 1.2 to 1.5 kg was bought to laboratory in frozen condition from local slaughter house and used for study. When 0.2 mL of liver homogenate was treated with 1-5 microg/mL of As2O3, it caused significant alterations in LPO and total protein content of chicken liver. The maximum alteration was observed at 3 mg/mL concentration of As2O3. Addition of each plant extract to liver homogenate did not caused significant alteration in LPO and protein contents. However, concurrent addition of As2O3 and plant extract (25-100 microg/mL) caused significant ameliorative effect. Ameliorative effect of each plant extract was studied separately. The maximum amelioration of PF, MO, and TA was observed at 50 mg/mL, 100 microg/mL, and 100 microg/mL respectively. Thus it is concluded that aqueous extract of PF was observed to have better ameliorative effect. PMID:18540161

Verma, Ramtej; Trivedi, Mrugesh; Keshwani, Heena; Choksi, Pooja; Sangai, Neha

189

Mutagenicity of wood smoke condensates in the Salmonella/microsome assay.  

PubMed

Smoke condensates of woods used for food preservation and aromatization in Nigeria were tested for mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were: white mangrove (Avicennia nitida), red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), mahogany Khaya sp.), abura (Mitragyna ciliata), alstonia (Alstonia boonei) and black afara (Terminalia ivorensis). Cigarette tar was tested for comparison. The condensates induced dose-dependent increases in the number of His+ revertants mainly with S9 mix. With the exception of mahogany and cigarette smoke condensate, the smoke condensates induced more revertants/microgram condensate in TA100 than in TA98. The number of revertants/microgram condensate ranged between 0.04 and 0.9 for the wood smoke condensates and was 0.12 for the cigarette smoke in TA100. The range was between 0.1 and 0.30 for the wood smoke condensates and 0.18 revertants/microgram condensate for cigarette smoke condensate in TA98. Concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the condensates were determined namely, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The condensates contained varying concentrations of the individual PAHs and those with higher concentrations generally showed greater mutagenic activities. However, the order of mutagenic potency in the bacterial strains differed from the order of PAH concentrations, which were lower than the concentrations at which they are reported to induce mutations. When 6 of the PAHs were mixed in the concentrations in which they were found in the individual condensates, the mixtures did not induce mutation so that the contribution of the PAHs to the mutagenic activities of the condensates could not be determined. PMID:1881415

Asita, A O; Matsui, M; Nohmi, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, M; Ishidate, M; Sofuni, T; Koyano, M; Matsushita, H

1991-09-01

190

Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium.

Gonzalez-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

2012-01-01

191

Effect of crude extract of Bombyx mori coccoons in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. PMID:21760692

Ali, Mir Mahdi; Arumugam, Sarasa Bharati A

2011-04-01

192

Effect of crude extract of Bombyx mori coccoons in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect.

Ali, Mir Mahdi; Arumugam, Sarasa Bharati A.

2011-01-01

193

The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene–Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.–Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1–27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4–28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6–26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180–3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

2012-11-01

194

Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei bloodstream form parasites were propagated axenically in suitable standard media at 34 degrees C. The effects of 33 plant extracts, fractions and pure compounds were evaluated on two clones of T. brucei and drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant clones of T. congolense. The cytotoxic activity of the trypanocidal extracts was also evaluated on calf aorta endothelial cells in vitro. Of the extracts tested, 22% killed T. congolense IL 1180 at a concentration of 100 microg/ml while 18% killed 90-100% of T. brucei ILTat 1.4 at the same concentration. However, 6% of the active extracts killed 93% of a dyskinetoplastid form of T. brucei IL Tat 1.1, indicating that the intact kinetoplast is a target of some of the compounds tested. Of the 12 extracts that displayed activity against drug sensitive trypanosomes, 66.7% had trypanocidal activity on a multi-drug-resistant clone, T. congolense IL 3338. The extracts of Eugenia uniflora, Acacia artaxacantha, Terminalia ivorensis, T. superba and Alchornea cordifolia had median lethal concentrations of between 13 and 69 microg/ml on both the drug-sensitive, IL 1180 and multi-drug-resistant clone, IL 3338. The median lethal doses of the active plant extracts on the calf aorta endothelial cells varied between 112 and 13750 microg/ml while the calculated selective indices ranged between 0.71 and 246.8 indicating bright prospects for the development of some of these extracts as potential trypanocidal agents. PMID:11483373

Adewunmi, C O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Adebajo, A C; Aladesanmi, A J; Murphy, N; Wando, J

2001-09-01

195

Differential seed and seedling predation by crabs: impacts on tropical coastal forest composition.  

PubMed

Recently, the importance of seed predation by crabs on mangrove species distributions and densities has been established by several studies. In a tropical coastal terrestrial forest in Costa Rica, we investigated the relative importance of predation by land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus, and hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus, on measured forest composition through a series of seed removal and seedling establishment experiments. We also used natural light-gaps and adjacent non-gap sites to test how canopy cover affects crab predation (seed removal) and seedling establishment. We found fewer tree species (S=18) and lower densities (seedlings, saplings, and adults) in the coastal zone within 100 m of coastline, than in the inland zone (S=59). Land crab densities were higher in the coastal zone (3.03+/-1.44 crabs m(-2)) than in the inland zone (0.76+/-0.78 crabs m(-2)), and hermit crabs were not present in the inland zone. Seed removal and seedling mortality also were higher in the coastal zone than in the inland zone, and in the open controls than in the crab exclosures. Mortality of seeds and seedlings was two to six times higher in the controls than exclosures for four of the five experiments. Crabs preferred seeds and younger seedlings over older seedlings but showed no species preferences in the seed (Anacardium excelsum, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, and Terminalia oblonga) and seedling (Pachira quinata and E. cyclocarpum) stages. We conclude that the observed differences in tree densities were caused by differential crab predation pressure along the coastal gradient, while the differences in species composition were due to predator escape (satiation) by seed quantity. Canopy cover did not affect seed removal rates, but did affect seedling survival with higher mortality in the non-gap versus gap environments. In summary, crab predation of seeds and seedlings, and secondarily canopy cover, are important factors affecting tree establishment in terrestrial coastal forests. PMID:15349766

Lindquist, Erin Stewart; Carroll, C Ronald

2004-09-03

196

Exudativory in the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, northeast India.  

PubMed

In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.3+/-2.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. PMID:19937974

Swapna, N; Radhakrishna, Sindhu; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Ajith

2010-02-01

197

A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided.

Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

198

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)  

PubMed Central

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes.

2010-01-01

199

Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini).  

PubMed

The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:22303122

Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-04

200

Carbon, Water, and Energy Dynamics in a Savanna Mosaic: Results From an African Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savanna ecosystems cover a large fraction of the terrestrial landscape with a shifting mosaic of vegetation that is poorly understood. Vegetation dynamics in savannas are believed to be triggered by variation in climate forcing with potential local and regional scale feedbacks on climate and with nonlinear behavior, such as self-organization. Recent debate has brought attention to uncertainty regarding the role of savannas in global carbon and water cycles, identifying the need for data that can address the coupled water and carbon dynamics of these sensitive ecosystems. We report results from a 30-day field campaign conducted in southern Africa near Ghanzi, Botswana along the Kalahari Transect. This water-limited site is ideal for studies of soil and plant water relations because high spatial and temporal variability in rainfall has direct effects on vegetation function, extent, and composition. We characterized the functional response of tree/grass/bare soil mosaics during a prolonged drydown following a large rain event (85 mm) at the end of the 2002 wet season. Net radiation, sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes, carbon dioxide exchange, soil moisture, soil temperature, and vegetation temperatures were measured at two sites, one dominated by woody vegetation (Acacia and Terminalia) and the other composed of native grasses, shrubs, and bare soil. We characterized the vegetation structure within the footprints of both towers with measurements of leaf area, fractional vegetation cover, and profiles of aboveground and belowground biomass. Additionally, leaf-level gas exchange measurements were conducted on dominant species. Soil moisture decayed from a peak of 0.28 after the storm to 0.05, measured 5 cm below the soil surface. The drydown resulted in a continual increase in the daytime Bowen ratio, a decrease of leaf-level evapotranspiration, and reduced net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Biophysical differences between C3 trees and C4 grasses were evident from vapor pressure deficit and temperature controls on assimilation. Allometric relationships were developed for woody vegetation relating diameter, height and canopy dimensions. Patch scale patterns of vegetation assemblages reflect multiple resource acquisition and life form strategies. The contrasting response of the woody and grass plant functional groups to the decreased soil water content is to be highlighted, with a discussion of implications for longer-term dynamics.

Williams, C. A.; Albertson, J. D.

2002-12-01

201

Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided.

Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

202

Seasonal variations in the distribution and abundance of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans in eastern Zambia.  

PubMed

The seasonal changes in the distribution of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) and its main host, cattle, were examined in a cultivated area of the plateau of eastern Zambia. During four consecutive years, the tsetse and cattle populations were monitored along a fly-round transect traversing the two main vegetation types in the study area. These were miombo, a one-storied open woodland with the genera Brachystegia and Julbernardia dominant, and munga, a one- or two-storied woodland where the principal tree genera were Acacia, Combretum and Terminalia. Concurrently, a capture/mark/release/recapture (CMRR) exercise was conducted along two other transects also traversing both vegetation types. The index of apparent abundance of tsetse (IAA) in miombo increased at the beginning of the rainy season (November), reached its peak at the end of the rainy season (April) and was low during the cold season (May to late August), but especially the hot dry season (September to late October). The IAA of tsetse in munga showed a pattern that was the reverse of that in miombo. The seasonal changes in the IAA of tsetse in both vegetation types were in accordance with changes in the movement patterns of tsetse between the two vegetation type as observed using CMRR. The distribution and abundance of cattle along the transect also showed a seasonal trend. This was especially so in munga, during the first three years of observations, where cattle abundance increased gradually from June onwards, reached a maximum at the end of the hot dry season (October-November) and declined steeply at the start of the rainy season (November-December). In both vegetation types, the monthly mean IAA of tsetse was positively correlated with the abundance of cattle in the previous month. It is concluded that the distribution of tsetse in cultivated area of the eastern plateau of Zambia undergoes substantial seasonal changes, which can partly be attributed to changes in the distribution of cattle. The implications of these observations for the control of tsetse are discussed. PMID:12109711

Van den Bossche, P; De Deken, R

2002-06-01

203

Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

2012-04-01

204

A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae).  

PubMed

The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrellasp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorumsp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manzasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panamasp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarcasp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorumsp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barbasp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavellasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorumsp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostrasp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosasp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbressp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salixsp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorumsp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolatasp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23204912

Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-10-24

205

Sizing up Septoria  

PubMed Central

Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1?, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verk

Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

206

Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India  

PubMed Central

Background The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. Methods The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate) for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women) were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. Results Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual species.

2011-01-01

207

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The

Anupam Ghosh; Bidus Kanti Das; Arup Roy; Biplab Mandal; Goutam Chandra

2008-01-01