These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Influence of Terminalia chebula on dermal wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization. Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and collagen contents in the granulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, also increased upto day 8 post-wounding. Reduced lipid peroxide levels in treated wounds, as well as ESR measurement of antioxidant activity by DPPH radical quenching, suggested that T. chebula possessed antioxidant activities. The tensile strength of tissues from extract-treated incision wounds increased by about 40%. In addition, T. chebula possessed antimicrobial activity and was active largely against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of T. chebula in the acceleration of the healing process. PMID:12164266

Suguna, Lonchin; Singh, Surjeet; Sivakumar, Pitchumani; Sampath, Padmavathi; Chandrakasan, Gowri

2002-05-01

2

The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fam. Combretaceae), is called the 'King of Medicine' in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of 'Ayurvedic Materia Medica' because of its extraordinary power of healing. The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments for human beings. Some of the folklore people used this plant in the treatment of asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, gout, heart and bladder diseases. The plant has been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, radioprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic, anticaries, gastrointestinal motility and wound healing activity. But no systematic updated information on the therapeutic effectiveness of Terminalia chebula, a popular herbal remedy in India and South-East Asia has so far been reported. This review highlights an updated information particularly on the phytochemistry and various pharmacological and medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. and some of its isolated compounds, along with their safety evaluation. This may provide incentive for proper evaluation of the plant as medicinal agent against the human diseases and also to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and future scope which may offer immense opportunity for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective botanical medicine. PMID:23620847

Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

2013-03-01

3

The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fam. Combretaceae), is called the ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of ‘Ayurvedic Materia Medica’ because of its extraordinary power of healing. The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments for human beings. Some of the folklore people used this plant in the treatment of asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, gout, heart and bladder diseases. The plant has been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, radioprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic, anticaries, gastrointestinal motility and wound healing activity. But no systematic updated information on the therapeutic effectiveness of Terminalia chebula, a popular herbal remedy in India and South-East Asia has so far been reported. This review highlights an updated information particularly on the phytochemistry and various pharmacological and medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. and some of its isolated compounds, along with their safety evaluation. This may provide incentive for proper evaluation of the plant as medicinal agent against the human diseases and also to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and future scope which may offer immense opportunity for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective botanical medicine. PMID:23620847

Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

2013-01-01

4

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

5

Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

2012-02-01

6

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:20462461

2010-01-01

7

Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolysable tannins, chebumeinin A (1) and chebumeinin B (2), together with eight known related compounds (3-10), were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The new compounds were structurally determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known compounds characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with literature values. All isolates were evaluated by an HCV protease inhibition assay, and some compounds were found to be potently active. PMID:25261266

Ajala, Olusegun S; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

2014-12-01

8

Studies on Flowability, Compressibility and In-vitro Release ofTerminalia chebula Fruit Powder Tablets.  

PubMed

The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula is widely used for its laxative properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the flowability and compressibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder, subsequently developing its tablet formulations by utilizing wet granulation and direct compression technology. Initial studies on flowability and compressibility revealed that the fruit powder flows poorly, is poorly compressible and mucilaginous in nature. The consolidation behaviors of the fruit powder and of its tablet formulations were studied using the Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger equations. Kawakita analysis revealed reduced cohesiveness hence improved flowability was achieved in formulations prepared by direct compression and the wet granulation technique. The Heckel plot showed that the Terminalia chebula fruit powder when formulated using direct compression showed initial fragmentation followed by plastic deformation and that the granules exhibited plastic deformation without initial fragmentation. The compression susceptibility parameter obtained from the Leuenberger equation for compacts formed by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques indicated that the maximum crushing strength is reached faster and at lower compression pressures. The Tannin content (with reference to standard tannin) in fruit powder and tablet formulations was determined by UV spectrophotometry at 273 nm. The in-vitro dissolution study in simulated SGF (without enzymes) showed more than a 90% release of tannin from the tablets with in 1 h. The brittle fracture index value revealed that tablets prepared from granules showed less fracture tendency in comparison to those formed by direct compression formulation. From this study, it was concluded that the desired flowability, compressibility and compactibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder can be obtained by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques. PMID:24363675

Satya Prakash, Singh; Patra, Niranjan; Santanu, Chakraborty; Hemant Kumar, Pandit; Patro, Jagannath; Devi, Vimala

2011-01-01

9

Studies on Flowability, Compressibility and In-vitro Release of Terminalia Chebula Fruit Powder Tablets.  

PubMed

The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula is widely used for its laxative properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the flowability and compressibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder, subsequently developing its tablet formulations by utilizing wet granulation and direct compression technology. Initial studies on flowability and compressibility revealed that the fruit powder flows poorly, is poorly compressible and mucilaginous in nature. The consolidation behaviors of the fruit powder and of its tablet formulations were studied using the Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger equations. Kawakita analysis revealed reduced cohesiveness hence improved flowability was achieved in formulations prepared by direct compression and the wet granulation technique. The Heckel plot showed that the Terminalia chebula fruit powder when formulated using direct compression showed initial fragmentation followed by plastic deformation and that the granules exhibited plastic deformation without initial fragmentation. The compression susceptibility parameter obtained from the Leuenberger equation for compacts formed by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques indicated that the maximum crushing strength is reached faster and at lower compression pressures. The Tannin content (with reference to standard tannin) in fruit powder and tablet formulations was determined by UV spectrophotometry at 273 nm. The in-vitro dissolution study in simulated SGF (without enzymes) showed more than a 90% release of tannin from the tablets with in 1 h. The brittle fracture index value revealed that tablets prepared from granules showed less fracture tendency in comparison to those formed by direct compression formulation. From this study, it was concluded that the desired flowability, compressibility and compactibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder can be obtained by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques. PMID:24250371

Satya Prakash, Singh; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Santanu, Chakraborty; Hemant Kumar, Pandit; Patro, V Jagannath; Devi, M Vimala

2011-01-01

10

Proteomic Analysis of Terminalia chebula Extract-Dependent Changes in Human Lymphoblastic T Cell Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Abstract Terminalia chebula is a native plant from southern Asia to southwestern China that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study assessed T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) were performed to assess protein expression and networks, respectively. A comparative proteomic profile was determined in T. chebula extract (50??g/mL)-treated and control cells; the expressions of ?-tubulin, ring finger and CHY zinc finger domain containing 1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase were significantly down-regulated in T. chebula extract-treated Jurkat cells. Moreover, the molecular basis for the T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells was determined by IPA. Treatment with the T. chebula extract significantly inhibited nuclear factor-?B activity and affected the proteomic profile of Jurkat cells. The molecular network signatures and functional proteomics obtained in this study may facilitate the evaluation of potential antitumor therapeutic targets and elucidate the molecular mechanism of T. chebula extract-dependent effects in Jurkat cells. PMID:22471968

Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Mi Ran; Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin

2012-01-01

11

Biological activities of phenolic compounds isolated from galls of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds. Gallic acid (1) exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. However, all isolated compounds exhibited less activity than the reference compounds in mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and human tumour cytotoxicity assays. This study has demonstrated that the phenolic compounds isolated from galls of T. chebula might contribute significantly due to their antioxidant and whitening activities. PMID:21108118

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Jiradej

2010-12-01

12

1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-?- d-glucose: A cholinesterase inhibitor from Terminalia chebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a novel pharmacotherapy from medicinal plants for neurodegenerative disorders has significantly advanced. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of one hundred medicinal plants in Korea, where Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) fruits showed significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitions. Further bioassay monitored phytochemical exploration led to the isolation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-d-glucose (compound 1),

S. Sancheti; B.-H. Um; S.-Y. Seo

2010-01-01

13

Triterpenoids from two Terminalia species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytochemical investigations of Terminalia arjuna bark and Terminalia chebula fruits resulted in the isolations of 12 triterpenoids including two new oleanane type triterpene glucosyl esters ajunglucosides IV (1) and V (2) from the n-BuOH layer of MeOH extract of the bark of T. arjuna as well as nin...

14

Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (p<0.1) in the groups with T. chebula and A. sativum, whereas, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and cellulose digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in all the three experimental groups compared with control. The nitrogen balance and plane of nutrition were not affected by inclusion of any of the feed additives. Methane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. PMID:20666858

Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

2011-04-01

15

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 452 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by T. chebula extract was completed within 20 min which was evidenced potentiometrically. Synthesised nanoparticles were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolysable tannins such as di/tri-galloyl-glucose present in the extract were hydrolyzed to gallic acid and glucose that served as reductant while oxidised polyphenols acted as stabilizers. In addition, it showed good antimicrobial activity towards both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922). Industrially it may be a smart option for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.

Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Sinha, Madhulika; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji

2012-06-01

16

Chebulin, Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit-derived peptide with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. In this study, an ACE-hexapeptide inhibitor (Asp-Glu-Asn-Ser-Lys-Phe) designated as chebulin was produced from fruit proteins of Terminalia chebula Retz. by pepsin digestion, ultrafiltrated through a 3 KDa cut-off membrane, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. Chebulin was found to inhibited ACE in a non-competitive manner, as supported by the structural model. It bound to ACE by H-bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions via the interactions of C-terminal Phe (Phe-6); and N-terminal residues (Asp-1 and Glu-2) with the amino acid residues on non-catalytic sites of the ACE. The results showed that chebulin derived from fruit of T. chebula Retz. was a potential ACE-peptide inhibitor that could be used as a functional food additive for prevention of hypertension and alternative to ACE-inhibitor drug. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25410725

Sornwatana, Thakorn; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Ratanapo, Sunanta

2014-11-19

17

Cytochrome P450 inhibition assay for standardized extract of Terminalia chebula Retz.  

PubMed

The hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula Retz. was standardized and evaluated for its safety through cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibition assay. Standardization was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) using gallic acid (GA) standard. Cytochrome P450-CO complex microplate assay was performed using rat liver microsomes. The effect of standardized extract, its fraction and bioactive marker compound were comparatively evaluated for its effect on CYP P450 enzymes. The extract of fruit pulp was used for HPTLC, where the R(f) value of the marker was found to be 0.43. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 2-14?µg of GA and correlation co-efficient of 0.99965. The mean quantity of GA was found to be 2.5% w/w. The CYP P450 concentration of the rat liver microsome sample used in the study was found to be 0.417?nmol/mg protein. The in vitro effect of various concentrations of extracts and fractions showed a linear concentration-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 up to 60?µL. The study showed more inhibition of fraction when compared to the extract and GA. Still, the inhibition showed by fraction is less when compared with standard Ketoconazole. Thus, this study indicated the in vitro cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of T. Chebula. PMID:20623819

Ponnusankar, S; Pandit, S; Venkatesh, M; Bandyopadhyay, A; Mukherjee, Pulok K

2011-01-01

18

Comparative Evaluation of Terminalia chebula Extract Mouthwash and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Plaque and Gingival Infl ammation - 4-week Randomised Control Trial.  

PubMed

Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula on plaque and gingival inflammation and compare it with the gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX 0.2%) and distilled water as control (placebo). Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomised control trial was conducted among undergraduate students who volunteered. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) Terminalia chebula mouthwash (n = 30); 2) chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 30); 3) distilled water (placebo) (n = 30). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of both mouthwashes. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 17 with p ? 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Terminalia chebula mouthrinse is as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to the placebo. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Terminalia chebula may prove to be an effective mouthwash. Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter. PMID:25386630

Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Vipul

2014-11-01

19

Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Chebulagic Acid from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we firstly compared rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity by different ethanol-aqueous extractions from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. The enzymatic assay showed that the 80% ethanol extract was more potent against maltase activity than both 50% and 100% ethanol extracts. By HPLC analysis, it was determined that the 80% ethanol extract had a higher content of chebulagic acid than each of 50% or 100% ethanol extract. Next, we investigated how efficiently chebulagic acid could inhibit sugar digestion by determining the glucose level on the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result showed that the maltose-hydrolysis activity was down-regulated by chebulagic acid, which proved to be a reversible inhibitor of maltase in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, chebulagic acid showed a weak inhibition of sucrose-hydrolysis activity. Meanwhile, chebulagic acid did not have an obvious influence on intestinal glucose uptake and was not effective on glucose transporters. Further animal studies revealed that the oral administration of chebulagic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 11.1% in maltose-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats compared with the control group, whereas the oral administration of chebulagic acid did not show a suppressive effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in sucrose- or glucose-loaded SD-rats. The results presented here suggest that chebulagic acid from T. chebula can be used to control blood glucose and manage type 2 diabetes, although clinical trials are needed. PMID:22754367

Huang, Yi-Na; Zhao, Dong-Dong; Gao, Bo; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Wang-Jun; Jia, Li-Rong; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

20

Comparative analysis of antioxidant and phenolic content of chloroform extract/fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

In the present study, two chloroform extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula viz. “CHL1” and “CHL 2” prepared by maceration and sequential method respectively was compared for their antioxidant efficacy and phenolic content. The extraction procedure of plant material plays an important role in the activity of phytochemicals. Also, the assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals cannot be executed precisely by any single method due to complex nature of phytochemicals as multiple reaction characteristics and mechanisms can be involved. So, no single assay could accurately reflect comparison in a mixed or complex system. Therefore in the present study the comparison of extracts was done by using most widely used assays viz. DPPH, deoxyribose, reducing power, chelating power and lipid peroxidation assay. Furthermore, the UV-Vis spectrum of both extracts and the correlation between total phenolic content was examined in order to give an orientation to the search of phytochemicals responsible for their activity. From the results, it was concluded that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were predominant in the ‘CHL 2’ prepared by sequential method. The present study enlightening the useful extraction procedure of plant material PMID:24826010

Walia, Harpreet; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

2011-01-01

21

Biological activities of phenolic compounds and triterpenoids from the galls of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz. (myrobalan tree; Combretaceae), were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, and against TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Compounds 6-9 and 12 exhibited potent inhibitory activities against melanogenesis (39.3-66.3% melanin content) with low toxicity to the cells (74.5-105.9% cell viability) at a concentration of 10 ?M. Western-blot analysis revealed that isoterchebulin (8) reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphtalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, and TRP-1 (=tyrosine-related protein 1), mostly in a concentration-dependent manner. Eight triterpenoids, 10-17, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction with the IC50 values in the range of 269-363 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA, while these compounds exhibited no DPPH scavenging activities (IC50 >100 ?M). On the other hand, the nine phenolic compounds, 1-9, exhibited potent radical-scavenging activities (IC50 1.4-10.9 ?M) with weak inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction (IC50 460-518 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). The tannin 6 and seven triterpenoids, 10-16, have been shown to inhibit TPA-induced inflammation (1 ?g/ear) in mice with the ID50 values in the range of 0.06-0.33 ?mol/ear. Arjungenin (10) exhibited inhibitory effect on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9, 12, and 13, against HL60 cell line, compounds 1 and 4, against AZ521 cell line, and compounds 1, 11, and 12, against SK-BR-3 cell line, showed moderate cytotoxic activities (IC50 13.9-73.2 ?M). PMID:23939793

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Ogihara, Eri; Yamamoto, Ayako; Fukatsu, Makoto; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2013-08-01

22

Effect of Extracts of Terminalia chebula on Proliferation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Cells: An Alternative Approach for Wound Healing.  

PubMed

Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present work, different concentrations of various organic and aqueous extracts (solvent-free) of T. chebula were tested on fibroblast (L929) and keratinocytes cells to evaluate its biocompatible concentration by using MTT and live-dead viability/cytotoxic assay. These extracts were found to be effective in decreasing the ammonia accumulation in the media, thereby reducing its toxic effect on cells. DPPH assay further confirmed the free-radical scavenging ability of the extracts which increased with the increase in concentration of each extract. Cell proliferation/apoptosis, cytoskeletal structure, and ECM production were further evaluated by live-dead assay and phalloidin/cytokeratin staining, respectively. The cytoskeletal structure and ECM secretion of the cells treated with extracts showed higher cellular activity in comparison to control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the effect of these extracts of T. chebula on both types of skin cells and optimized concentration in which it could be used as a bioactive component for wound healing applications by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing free-radical production without affecting the normal cellular matrix. It can also find applications in other therapeutics applications where ammonia toxicity is a limiting factor. PMID:24719644

Singh, Dolly; Singh, Deepti; Choi, Soon Mo; Zo, Sun Mi; Painuli, Rakesh Mohan; Kwon, Sung Won; Han, Sung Soo

2014-01-01

23

Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough  

PubMed Central

Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a (1 ? 3)-, (1 ? 6)- and (1 ? 3, 6)-linked ?-D-Galp together with (1 ? 5)- and (1 ? 3)-linked ?-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of ?-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50?mg?kg?1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements. PMID:23878602

Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Bimalendu

2013-01-01

24

Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice. Methods The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound). Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied. Results In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19?±?2.80 ?g/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07?±?0.03 ?g/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p.) caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract also showed potential activity for reductive release of ferritin iron. Conclusions These findings suggest that Terminalia chebula extract may contain active substances capable of lessening iron overload induced toxicity, and hence possibly be useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases. PMID:22938047

2012-01-01

25

Hepatoprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula against t-BHP-Induced Acute Liver Injury in C57/BL6 Mice  

PubMed Central

We aimed to identify the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia chebula water extract (TCW) and its corresponding pharmacological actions using C57/BL6 mice model of tert-butylhydroperoxide-(t-BHP-) induced acute liver injury. Mice were orally administered with TCW (0, 50, 100, or 200?mg/kg) or gallic acid (100?mg/kg) for 5 days before t-BHP (2.5?mM/kg) injection. Liver enzymes, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant components, and inflammatory cytokines were examined 18?h after t-BHP injection. t-BHP injection caused dramatic elevation of serum AST, ALT, and LDH level, while TCW pretreatment notably attenuated these elevations. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 were notably increased in hepatic tissues, and then these were efficiently attenuated by TCW pretreatment. t-BHP injection notably increased malondialdehyde, total reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide in the liver tissue, while it markedly dropped the antioxidant activities including total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione contents, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. TCW pretreatment remarkably ameliorated these alterations, and these effects were relevant to gene expressions. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Collectively, these findings well prove that TCW beneficially prevents acute and severe liver injury and clarify its corresponding mechanisms involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25691908

Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jong Suk; Chung, Sun Ho; Son, Chang-Gue

2015-01-01

26

Azole-synergistic anti-candidal activity of altenusin, a biphenyl metabolite of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz.  

PubMed

In this study, a tropical endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata Tche-153 was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Rezt. The ethyl acetate extract prepared from the fermentation broth exhibited significant ketoconazole-synergistic activity against Candida albicans. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of altenusin (1), isoochracinic acid (2), and altenuic acid (3) together with 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone (4). Using the disc diffusion method and the microdilution chequerboard technique, only altenusin (1) in combination with each of three azole drugs, ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole at their low sub-inhibitory concentrations exhibited potent synergistic activity against C. albicans with the fractional inhibitory concentration index range of 0.078 to 0.188. This first discovery of altenusin (1) as a new azole-synergistic prototype possessing a biphenyl structure is of significance for further development of new azole-synergists to treat invasive candidiasis. PMID:24385360

Phaopongthai, Jatuporn; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Suwanborirux, Khanit

2013-12-01

27

Chebulagic acid from Terminalia chebula enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PPAR? signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The thiazolidinedione (TZDs) class of drugs are very effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But due to the adverse effects of synthetic TZDs, their use is strictly regulated. The therapeutic actions of TZDs are mediated via modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Naturally occurring PPAR? modulators are more desirable as they lack the serious adverse effects caused by TZDs. This has prompted the exploitation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine, for their potential PPAR? activity. In the present work, we studied chebulagic acid (CHA ) isolated from fruits of Terminalia chebula with respect to its effect on adipogenesis, glucose transport, and endocrine function of adipocyte. The mRNA expression profile of PPAR? target gene CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP-?) was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The putative binding mode and the potential ligand-target interactions of CHA , with PPAR? was analyzed using docking software (Autodock and iGEMDOCKv2). The results showed that CHA enhances PPAR? signaling and adipogenesis dose dependently but in a moderate way, less than rosiglitazone. GLUT4 expression and adiponectin secretion was increased by CHA treatment. The mRNA expression of PPAR? target gene C/EBP-? was increased in CHA -treated adipocytes. The comparison of results of various parameters of adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, endocrine function and molecular docking experiments of roziglitazone and chebulagic acid indicate that the latter behaves like partial PPAR? agonist which could be exploited for phytoceutical development against T2DM. © 2014 BioFactors, 40(6):646-657, 2014. PMID:25529897

Shyni, Gangadharan Leela; Kavitha, Sasidharan; Indu, Sasidharan; Arya, Anil Das; Anusree, Sasidharan Suseela; Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Vandana, Sankar; Sundaresan, Andikannu; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

2014-11-01

28

Estimation of genetic diversity and evaluation of relatedness through molecular markers among medicinally important trees: Terminalia arjuna , T. chebula and T. bellerica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia trees are being over-exploited because of their medicinal and economical importance leading to loss of valuable genetic resources.\\u000a For sustainable utilization and conservation, assessment of genetic diversity therefore becomes imperative. We report a comprehensive\\u000a first study on estimation and analysis of genetic variation through Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple\\u000a sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR) and random amplification of

Maryam Sarwat; Sandip Das; Prem S. Srivastava

29

Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree).  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant (the arjun tree) that possesses anticancer activity. An endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, was isolated from the fresh healthy leaves of this tree and was screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug, in artificial culture medium. The taxol produced was analysed chromatographically and spectrometrically. The amount of taxol produced by the fungus was found to be 211.1 microg/litre. This was sufficient for the fungus to be considered as a potential source material for improvement, by engineering, the production of taxol. The fungal taxol extracted from an organic extract of the fungal culture had strong cytotoxic activity towards BT220, H116, Int 407, HL 251 and HLK 210 human cancer cells in vitro when tested using an apoptosis assay. PMID:18254723

Gangadevi, Venkatraman; Muthumary, Johnpaul

2009-01-01

30

Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug  

PubMed Central

Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, ?-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored. PMID:25379463

Dwivedi, Shridhar; Chopra, Deepti

2014-01-01

31

Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

32

A Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Tannin-Related Marker Constituents Gallic Acid, Corilagin, Chebulagic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Chebulinic Acid in Four Terminalia Species from India.  

PubMed

A validated rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for identification and quantification of five tannin-related constituents gallic acid (GA), corilagin (CL), chebulagic acid (CB), ellagic acid (EA) and chebulinic acid (CN) in the extracts prepared from the bark and fruits of four Terminalia species available in India. The separation of the five analytes was achieved on an RP-18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at 25°C using a solvent mixture comprising of acetonitrile and (0.05%) trifluoroacetic acid-water in a gradient elution mode. Limit of detection was 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Similarly, limit of quantification was 2.5, 1.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 2.5 ?g/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.992) was observed for all the five compounds in wide concentration range. Using the developed HPLC method, the five analytes were identified and quantified in bark and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia catappa. This is the first report of identification and quantification of the five tannin-related marker constituents in the bark and fruit extracts of T. chebula, T. bellirica, T. arjuna and T. catappa. PMID:25190275

Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal; Kumar, Satyanshu

2014-09-01

33

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antiplasmodial Investigations of Terminalia brownii  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of stem bark extract of an African medicinal plant Terminalia brownii led to the isolation of a new oleanane-type triterpenoid, along with seven known triterpenoids, seven ellagic acid derivatives, and 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol. The new compound was identified using spectroscopic methods, notably 1D- and 2D NMR, as 3?,24-O-ethylidenyl-2?,19?-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities. Two compounds with a galloyl group (4 and 6) were found to be active against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, whereas three ellagic acid derivatives (5–7) were found active against three species of fungi and one species of bacteria.

Machumi, Francis; Midiwo, Jacob O.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Zhang, Jin; Walker, Larry A.

2014-01-01

34

Antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous extract of Terminalia avicennoides roots.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal effects of the aqueous root extract of Terminalia avicennoides were evaluated in rodents. Studies were carried out on the isolated rabbit jejunum, gastrointestinal motility in vivo and on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. The results revealed that the extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous pendular movement of the isolated rabbit jejunum and attenuated acetylcholine induced contractions. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) also caused a dose-dependent decrease of gastrointestinal transit and markedly protected mice against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The intraperitoneal LD(50) of the extract was found to be 871.4-917.4 mg/kg in mice (95% confidence). A preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of T. avicennoides roots revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids. The results obtained showed that the water extract of T. avicennoides roots may contain some biologically active principles that may be active against diarrhoea and this may be the basis for its use traditionally for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:11507737

Abdullahi, A L; Agho, M O; Amos, S; Gamaniel, K S; Wambebe, C

2001-08-01

35

Genotoxic, antigenotoxic and phytochemical assessment of Terminalia actinophylla ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

Terminalia actinophylla has been used for anti-diarrheic and haemostatic purposes in Brazil. The fly spot data obtained after exposure of marker-heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster larvae to T. actinophylla ethanolic extract (TAE) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses revealed that TAE did not induce any statistically significant increment in any spot categories. Differences between the two crosses are related to cytochrome P450 (CYPs) levels. In this sense, our data pointed out the absence of TAE-direct and indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). When the anti-genotoxicity of TAE was analyzed, neither mitomycin C (MMC) nor ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) genotoxicity was modified by the post-exposure to TAE, which suggests that TAE has no effect on the mechanisms involved in the processing of the lesions induced by both genotoxins. In the mwh/flr(3) genotype, co-treatment with TAE may lead to a significant protection against the genotoxicity of MMC and a weak but significant effect in the toxic genetic action of EMS. The overall findings suggested that the favorable modulations by TAE could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potential. PMID:24071477

Pádua, P F M R; Dihl, R R; Lehmann, M; de Abreu, B R R; Richter, M F; de Andrade, H H R

2013-12-01

36

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

2014-09-01

37

Genetic diversity of the tropical tree Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) in naturally fragmented populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-term fragmentation on the genetic diversity of populations of the neotropical tree species, Terminalia amazonia, was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Leaf material from 104 trees was collected from three naturally fragmented gallery forest patches and three plots in nearby continuous forest in the Mountain Pine Ridge, Belize. In total, 30 RAPD bands generated

R Pither; J S Shore; M Kellman

2003-01-01

38

Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene–induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30th day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21st day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa. PMID:22701253

Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

2012-01-01

39

Methods of facilitating reforestation of tropical degraded land with the native timber tree, Terminalia amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally compared the effect of fertilization to the effect of interplanting two species of legume trees (Inga edulis and Gliricidia sepium) on growth of a native tropical tree, Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae). The experiment was a randomized block design with trees planted in eroded cattle pasture in Southern Costa Rica. After 8 years, both block and treatment significantly explained variance

F. Lynn Carpenter; J. Doland Nichols; Riley T. Pratt; Kristin C. Young

2004-01-01

40

Camptotarsopoda annulitarsis Stein: redescription, description of terminalia and new record to South Africa (Diptera: Muscidae).  

PubMed

Camptotarsopoda Strand (Diptera, Muscidae) comprises five species restricted to the Afrotropical region. The genus belongs to the subfamily Coenosiinae and tribe Limnophorini. The type-species, C. annulitarsis (Stein), is redescribed and the male and female terminalia are described and illustrated for the first time. The species is newly recorded from South Africa. The systematic placement of the genus is confirmed among the basal Limnophorini. PMID:25283425

Couri, Márcia Souto

2014-01-01

41

Possible mechanisms of hypotension produced 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.) in anaesthetized dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The bark of Terminalia arjuna L. (Combretaceae) is used in Ayurveda since ancient times for the treatment of cardiac disorders. Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated the use of the bark in cardiovascular complications. The present study was aimed to find the effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna on anaesthetized dog blood pressure and probable site of action. Methods Six dogs were anaesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of thiopental sodium and the blood pressure of each dog (n = 6) was measured from the left common carotid artery connected to a mercury manometer on kymograph. The femoral vein was cannulated for administration of drug solutions. The extract of T. arjuna (dissolved in propylene glycol) in the dose range of 5 to 15 mg/kg were administered intravenously in a pilot study and the dose (6 mg/kg) which produced appreciable hypotension was selected for further studies. Results Intravenous administration of T. arjuna produced dose-dependent hypotension in anaesthetized dogs. The hypotension produced by 6 mg/kg dose of the extract was blocked by propranolol but not by atropine or mepyramine maleate. This indicates that muscarinic or histaminergic mechanisms are not likely to be involved in the hypotension produced by the extract. The blockade by propranolol of the hypotension produced by T. arjuna indicates that the extract might contain active compound(s) possessing adrenergic ß2-receptor agonist action and/or that act directly on the heart muscle. Conclusion The results indicated the likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension produced by the 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna and lends support for the claims of its traditional usage in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:14561229

Nammi, Srinivas; Gudavalli, Rambabu; Babu, Behara S Ravindra; Lodagala, Durga S; Boini, Krishna M

2003-01-01

42

Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

Nair, R.; Chanda, Sumitra

2008-01-01

43

Regeneration in Terminalia oblonga (Combretaceae)—A common timber tree from a humid tropical forest (La Chonta, Bolivia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz et Pav.) Steud. is a common timber tree in lowland Latin America which is widely utilized and economically and ecologically valuable. The species suffers from reduced natural recruitment but the control of regeneration by environmental factors is incompletely understood. In the forest management plots of the BOLFOR project (La Chonta, Bolivia) we investigated the effects of soil

M. Schiøtz; M. V. Boesen; J. Nabe-Nielsen; M. Sørensen; J. Kollmann

2006-01-01

44

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

45

Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

2013-01-01

46

Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective: There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Materials and Methods: Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration Observations: Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Withania somnifera may therefore be useful for generalized weakness and to improve speed and lower limb muscular strength and neuro-muscular co-ordination. Terminalia arjuna may prove useful to improve cardio-vascular endurance and lowering systolic blood pressure. Both drugs appear to be safe for young adults when given for mentioned dosage and duration. PMID:21170205

Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Shah, Biren; Shenoy, Shweta; Chauhan, Suresh; Lavekar, G. S.; Padhi, M. M.

2010-01-01

47

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

48

Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

2014-01-01

49

Terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through Erk pathways in Hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. In our previous studies, we have reported that Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) exerts antimetastasis effects on HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HCC metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood. Methods The activities and protein levels of u-PA were determined by casein zymography and western blotting. Transcriptional levels of u-PA were detected by real-time PCR and promoter assays. Results We found that treatment of Huh7 cells with TCE significantly reduced the activities, protein levels and mRNA levels of u-PA. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that TCE inhibited the transcription protein of nuclear factors SP-1 and NF-?B. TCE also did inhibit the effects of u-PA by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway. Conclusions These results show that u-PA expression may be a potent therapeutic target in the TCE-mediated suppression of HCC metastasis. PMID:24886639

2014-01-01

50

Genetic diversity of the tropical tree Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) in naturally fragmented populations.  

PubMed

The effect of long-term fragmentation on the genetic diversity of populations of the neotropical tree species, Terminalia amazonia, was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Leaf material from 104 trees was collected from three naturally fragmented gallery forest patches and three plots in nearby continuous forest in the Mountain Pine Ridge, Belize. In total, 30 RAPD bands generated by five decamer primers were used to compare the genetic diversity of the six populations in the two groups. Genetic variation within the populations (H0), as estimated by the Shannon diversity index, ranged from 0.32 to 0.38, with an overall diversity of 0.38 (Hspecies). Analysis of molecular variation revealed that most (94.4%, P<0.001) of the variation was attributable to differences among individuals within populations. Population differentiation was significantly (P=0.038) lower among the fragmented populations than among continuous forest populations. On average, the fragmented populations also had slightly, but statistically significant (P=0.046) lower levels of genetic diversity. However, one gallery forest site had a higher level of genetic diversity than two of the continuous forest sites. We suggest that the long-term effect of fragmentation on the genetic diversity of tropical trees will depend upon the amount of local forest cover in proximity to the fragmented populations. PMID:12939633

Pither, R; Shore, J S; Kellman, M

2003-09-01

51

High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined. PMID:21131386

De Ridder, Maaike; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Vansteenkiste, Dries; Van Loo, Denis; Dierick, Manuel; Masschaele, Bert; De Witte, Yoni; Mannes, David; Lehmann, Eberhard; Beeckman, Hans; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Van Acker, Joris

2011-01-01

52

In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens  

PubMed Central

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

2015-01-01

53

Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75??g·mL?1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:25587343

Cui, Enhui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Gao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunpeng; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Wuren; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Song, Xiaoping

2014-01-01

54

In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and its different solvent fractions obtained from the fruit pericarp of Terminalia bellerica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia bellerica has been used as a traditional medicine in a variety of ailments including anaemia, asthma, cancer, inflammation, rheumatism and hypertension. In this study, the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of methanol extract (ME) and its different solvent fractions (namely hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BL) and water (WA)) of the T. bellerica fruit pericarp were evaluated

Suresh V. Nampoothiri; S. S. Binil Raj; A. Prathapan; P. A. Abhilash; C. Arumughan; A. Sundaresan

2011-01-01

55

Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.  

PubMed

The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. PMID:24909378

Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2015-02-11

56

Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).  

PubMed

Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. PMID:25412525

Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

2014-09-01

57

In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1?000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

2014-01-01

58

Alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio contributes to Terminalia belerica-induced apoptosis in human lung and breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro anticancer activity of 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia belerica (TBME) against human lung (A549) and human breast (MCF-7) carcinoma and its possible mechanism. TBME showed significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and MCF-7 cells, whereas, no cytotoxicity was found in non-malignant WI-38 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was then performed and 100 ?g/ml of TBME was selected as the effective concentration inducing apoptosis in A549 and MCF-7. At this concentration, TBME caused DNA fragmentation pattern of apoptosis. Furthermore, mechanism of apoptosis induction was demonstrated using western blotting and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in both types of the cells was found increased, which leads to the activation of caspase cascade along with the cleavage of PARP. These results suggested that TBME is able to induce anticancer effects on both lung and breast cancer cell lines through the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:24399255

Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

2014-06-01

59

Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt) was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100?mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21966168

Sampathkumar, M. T.; Kasetti, R. B.; Nabi, S. A.; Sudarshan, P. Renuka; Swapna, S.; Apparao, C.

2011-01-01

60

Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats.  

PubMed

Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p < 0.05), with the goats fed lucerne drinking significantly more water (1270 +/- 31.62 ml) than the goats on T. serecia (1150 +/- 103.2 ml) but not significantly more than those on C. apiculatum (1166 +/- 52.25 ml) or E. schimperi (1184 +/- 100.15 ml). The average daily body weight gain was higher for the goats on lucerne at 78 g, compared to 77 g, 67 g and 64 g, for the C. apiculatum, E. schimperi and T. serecia supplements, respectively, but these were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet. PMID:10509422

Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B

1999-10-01

61

Effect of compression pressure, preservative, and storage with potassium chloride on the microbiological quality of tablets formulated with Terminalia randii Gum (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

Gums are used as binders in tablets and also as emulsion stabilisers, suspending agents and thickeners in syrups. The need for other natural gums apart from the conventional gums to be employed as binding agents in tablets formulation led to this study. A gum obtained from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii (Combretaceae) was evaluated for the effect of compression pressure, methyl paraben preservative and storage with potassium chloride, on the microbial load of tablets formulated with the gum. The microbial load was determined by surface spread method on the processed gum at suitable dilutions, and tablets formulated from the gum at different compression pressures. The formulated tablets were evaluated for microbial load, also when stored in potassium chloride for 8 and 12 weeks with and without preservation with 1% Methyl Paraben. In each case the compressed tablets were incubated in 0.1% peptone water as control. The microbial load recorded reflected generally, reduction in microbial counts in tablets formulated with the gum as a binder both in terms of compression at different pressures and when the different compression pressures were associated with or without 1% methyl paraben in the presence of potassium chloride. Comparatively, the processed gum showed higher microbial load than the pressure compressed tablets. Besides the different compression pressures, duration of storage was also found to cause reduction of microbial load, particularly in the formulated tablets compressed with methyl paraben stored in potassium chloride such that after 8 weeks, the microbial load was zero. The studies showed that compression pressures and duration of storage caused marked reduction in microbial load of the tablets formulated with the processed gum of Terminalia randii as a binder. PMID:23009993

Oluremi, Bolaji Bosede; Bamiro, Oluyemisi Adebowale; Idowu, Abel Olusola; Oduneye, Olayinka Annegret

2012-10-01

62

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

63

Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

Apata, David Friday

2011-01-01

64

Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity.  

PubMed

Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

2014-01-01

65

Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-?B and AP-1 Activity  

PubMed Central

High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE) exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:23258989

Yeh, Chao-Bin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Pen-Yuan; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa

2012-01-01

66

Terminalia paniculata bark extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver via down regulation of fatty acid synthase in high fat diet-fed obese rats  

PubMed Central

Background This study was performed to understand the possible therapeutic activity of Terminalia paniculata ethanolic extract (TPEE) on non alcoholic fatty liver in rats fed with high fat diet. Methods Thirty six SD rats were divided into 6 groups (n?=?6): Normal control (NC), high fat diet (HFD), remaining four groups were fed on HFD along with different doses of TPEE (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b.wt) or orlistat, for ten weeks. Liver tissue was homogenized and analyzed for lipid profiles, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, the expression levels of FAS and AMPK-1? were also studied in addition to histopathology examination of liver tissue in all the groups. Results HFD significantly increased hepatic liver total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and MDA but decreased the activities of SOD and CAT which were subsequently reversed by supplementation with TPEE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TPEE administration significantly down regulated hepatic mRNA expression of FAS but up regulated AMPK-1? compared to HFD alone fed group. Furthermore, western blot analysis of FAS has clearly demonstrated decreased expression of FAS in HFD?+?TPEE (200 mg/kg b.wt) treated group when compared to HFD group at protein level. Conclusions Our biochemical studies on hepatic lipid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities supported by histological and expression studies suggest a potential therapeutic role for TPEE in regulating obesity through FAS. PMID:24678767

2014-01-01

67

Insulin-secretagogue, antihyperlipidemic and other protective effects of gallic acid isolated from Terminalia bellerica Roxb. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus causes derangement of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism which eventually leads to a number of secondary complications. Terminalia bellerica is widely used in Indian medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compound from the fruit rind of T. bellerica and assess its chemico-biological interaction in experimental diabetic rat models. Bioassay guided fractionation was followed to isolate the active compound, structure was elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, UV and mass spectrometry and the compound was identified as gallic acid (GA). GA isolated from T. bellerica and synthetic GA was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses for 28 days. Plasma glucose level was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the control.Histopathological examination of the pancreatic sections showed regeneration of ?-cells of islets of GA-treated rats when compared to untreated diabetic rats. In addition, oral administration of GA (20mg/kg bw) significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and at the same time markedly increased plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose tolerance level. Also GA restored the total protein, albumin and body weight of diabetic rats to near normal. Thus our findings indicate that gallic acid present in fruit rind of T. bellerica is the active principle responsible for the regeneration of ?-cells and normalizing all the biochemical parameters related to the patho-biochemistry of diabetes mellitus and hence it could be used as a potent antidiabetic agent. PMID:21078310

Latha, R Cecily Rosemary; Daisy, P

2011-01-15

68

Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)  

PubMed Central

Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

2011-01-01

69

Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.  

PubMed

The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but the aedeagus is curved and slender with a pair of small lateral processes at the apex and very thin paraphyses rami bifurcating only in the final portion, with the length of the rami just one third of the total length. Oragua schwertineri sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. insipida, however the male genitalia differs from the latter by the lack of paraphyses and aedeagus with pair of basal processes curved dorsally and shaft with pair of apical lateral processes. Oragua unifasciata sp. nov. is dark brown with pale spots over the body with a pale transverse stripe over the anteapical cells and paraphyses stem slender and abruptly broadened at apical two thirds, with rami robust and flattened with posterior margin serrate with large and irregular tooth-like projections. This work raises the number of Oragua species occurring in Amazonas State from three to twelve.  PMID:25082054

Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

2014-01-01

70

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae),

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan

2010-01-01

71

HPLC-SPE-NMR identification of a novel metabolite containing the benzo[c]oxepin skeleton from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula culture.  

PubMed

HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis of a crude extract of fermentation broth of cultured PESTALOTIOPSIS VIRGATULA isolate TC-320 from TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. (Combretaceae) disclosed the presence of a simple but unprecedented low-molecular-weight metabolite, 9-hydroxybenzo[ C]oxepin-3[1 H]-one, subsequently isolated by a targeted purification procedure. PMID:19609838

Kesting, Julie R; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

2009-08-01

72

18, 19-Secooleanane Type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five novel 18,19-secooleanane type triterpene glycosides, 1-5, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the bark of Teminalia arjuna, along with nine known oleanane triterpenoids. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR, HRESIMS and CD spectra....

73

Rostraureum tropicale gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales) associated with dying Terminalia ivorensis in Ecuador  

E-print Network

, Myrtales) is native to the rainforests of Central Africa (Lamb & Ntima 1971). A similar species, T. superba, also occurs in tropical central Africa (Groulez & Wood 1985). Both trees are planted in the tropics

74

Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials. PMID:11837686

Saleem, A; Ahotupa, M; Pihlaja, K

2001-01-01

75

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

76

Antimicrobial Activity of Few Medicinal Plants against Clinically Isolated Human Cariogenic Pathogens-An In Vitro Study.  

PubMed

Hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Terminalia chebula, Mimusops elengi and Achyranthes aspera were tested against the dental caries causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans and fungus Candida albicans isolated from caries infected patients. All the four extracts of P. guajava showed activity against both S. mutans and C. albicans. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed in ethyl acetate of P. guajava. The four extracts of T. chebula and M. elengi showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. M. elengi extracts and ethanol extract of T. chebula did not show any antifungal activity against C. albicans. Except for the hexane extract of A. aspera, the other three extracts showed activity against the tested microbes. The ethyl acetate P. guajava leaf extract showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. mutans to be <0.076?mg/mL in both MHB and BHI. The P. guajava ethyl acetate extract was subjected to GC-MS. PMID:21991479

Jebashree, H Shyla; Kingsley, S Jayasurya; Sathish, Emmanuel S; Devapriya, D

2011-01-01

77

Antimicrobial Activity of Few Medicinal Plants against Clinically Isolated Human Cariogenic Pathogens—An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Terminalia chebula, Mimusops elengi and Achyranthes aspera were tested against the dental caries causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans and fungus Candida albicans isolated from caries infected patients. All the four extracts of P. guajava showed activity against both S. mutans and C. albicans. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed in ethyl acetate of P. guajava. The four extracts of T. chebula and M. elengi showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. M. elengi extracts and ethanol extract of T. chebula did not show any antifungal activity against C. albicans. Except for the hexane extract of A. aspera, the other three extracts showed activity against the tested microbes. The ethyl acetate P. guajava leaf extract showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. mutans to be <0.076?mg/mL in both MHB and BHI. The P. guajava ethyl acetate extract was subjected to GC-MS. PMID:21991479

Jebashree, H. Shyla; Kingsley, S. Jayasurya; Sathish, Emmanuel S.; Devapriya, D.

2011-01-01

78

Role of Triphala in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda is considered as the “science of life,” because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ‘Triphala’ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM). It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry. PMID:24872616

Prakash, Shobha; Shelke, Anup U.

2014-01-01

79

Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in edible wild fruits from Nepal.  

PubMed

Fifteen fruits commonly used by the ethnic population in Nepal were studied for the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content (TPC). Among them, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Spondias pinnata were the most potent antioxidants as compared with vitamin C based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical assay. These fruits also contained high TPCs. Spondias pinnata, Pyrularia edulis, Melastoma malabathricum, Cipadema bacifera and Choerospondias axillaries fruits were evaluated for the first time. Moreover, Spondias pinnata was found to be more potent (16% radical scavenging activity at 5 microg/ml) than vitamin C (5% radical scavenging activity at 5 microg/ml). Antioxidant activity showed correlation to TPC with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) as 0.7189 and 0.7246 for the methanol and water extracts, respectively. This study suggests that a number of these fruits may have the potential to confer beneficial health effects due to their antioxidant activity and TPC. PMID:20187713

Chalise, Jaya Prakash; Acharya, Kalpana; Gurung, Nirmala; Bhusal, Ram Prasad; Gurung, Reenu; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa; Basnet, Purusotam

2010-06-01

80

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-10-01

81

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

82

Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

2015-01-01

83

Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

2013-01-01

84

An evaluation of extracts of five traditional medicinal plants from Iran on the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity and scavenging of free radicals.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions. PMID:19467035

Khazaeli, P; Goldoozian, R; Sharififar, F

2009-10-01

85

Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review  

PubMed Central

The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators.

Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

2014-01-01

86

A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

2010-01-01

87

Evaluation of direct antiviral activity of the Deva-5 herb formulation and extracts of five Asian plants against influenza A virus H3N8  

PubMed Central

Background The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz. Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8. Methods The water extracts of the herbal parts of G. decumbens, H. erectum and P. bistorta, the seeds of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis and Deva-5 were prepared by boiling and clarified by low-speed centrifugation and filtration. To assess the antiviral properties, avian influenza virus isolate A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010(H3N8) was incubated at 37°C for 30 min in the presence and absence of the extracts of five plants and DEVA-5 in various concentrations. Subsequently, the concentration of infectious virus in each sample was determined by plaque assays. Neutralisation indexes and 90% plaque reduction concentrations were estimated for each extract, and the significance of the data was evaluated using statistical methods. Results The extracts of G. decumbens, H. erectum, P. bistorta and Deva-5 demonstrated no significant toxicity at concentrations up to 2%, whereas extracts of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis were well-tolerated by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells at concentrations up to 1%. The extracts of H. erectum, M. cochinchinensis and T. chebula reduced the titre of A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010 (H3N8) by approximately five-fold (p???0.05). The other three extracts did not significantly reduce the infectivity of the virus. The plaque reduction neutralisation tests revealed that none of the extracts tested were able to inhibit formation of plaques by 90%. However, three extracts, H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis, were able to inhibit formation of plaques by more than 50% at low dilutions from 1:3 to 1:14. The T. chebula extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. Conclusions For the first time, the consistent direct antiviral action of the extracts of H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis was detected. These extracts significantly reduced the infectivity of influenza A virus H3N8 in vitro when used at high concentrations (0.5–1%). However, Deva-5 itself and the remainder of its components did not exhibit significant antiviral action. The results suggest that H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis plants contain substances with direct antiviral activity and could be promising sources of new antiviral drugs. PMID:25012588

2014-01-01

88

In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey's HSD and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. PMID:23716972

Vinothkumar, Thilla S; Rubin, Mohamed I; Balaji, Lakshmi; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

2013-01-01

89

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599

Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho

2008-01-01

90

Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

2014-06-01

91

Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies  

PubMed Central

Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100?M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 ?mole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats’ eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract. PMID:21731375

Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kalaiselvan, V.; Srivastava, Sushma; Agrawal, Shyam S.; Saxena, Rohit

2010-01-01

92

Effect of Triphala on oxidative stress and on cell-mediated immune response against noise stress in rats.  

PubMed

Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) on noise-stress induced alterations in the antioxidant status and on the cell-mediated immune response in Wistar strain male albino rats. Noise-stress employed in this study was 100 dB for 4 h/d/15 days and Triphala was used at a dose of 1 g/kg/b.w/48 days. Eight different groups of rats namely, non-immunized: control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala with noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood cells (5 x 10(9) cells/ml) were used to immunize the animals. Biochemical indicators of oxidative stress namely lipid peroxidation, antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues (thymus and spleen) and SOD, GPx and corticosterone level in plasma were estimated. Cell-mediated immune response namely foot pad thickness (FPT) and leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test were performed only in immunized groups. Results showed that noise-stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and corticosterone level with concomitant depletion of antioxidants in plasma and tissues of both non-immunized and immunized rats. Noise-stress significantly suppressed the cell-mediated immune response by decreased FPT with an enhanced LMI test. The supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats. This study concludes that Triphala restores the noise-stress induced changes may be due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:16444587

Srikumar, Ramasundaram; Parthasarathy, Narayanaperumal Jeya; Manikandan, Sundaramagalingam; Narayanan, Govindarajulu Sathya; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

2006-02-01

93

Preparation and Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Kshiramandura  

PubMed Central

Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO3 and 1.32% CaCO3. PMID:22557361

Jadar, P.G.; Jagadeesh, M.S.

2010-01-01

94

Preparation and physico-chemical evaluation of kshiramandura.  

PubMed

Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO(3) and 1.32% CaCO(3). PMID:22557361

Jadar, P G; Jagadeesh, M S

2010-04-01

95

The Pselaphinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Madagascar. III. Additional description of Andasibe sahondrae Hlavá? & Ba?a?, 2012 based on males.  

PubMed

An additional description of Andasibe sahondrae Hlavá? & Ba?a?, 2012 is given due to the discovery of male, male terminalia and sexual dimorphism are described. Distribution of the species is illustrated.  PMID:25283400

Ba?a?, Petr; Hlavá?, Peter

2014-01-01

96

Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

. Vochysia guatemalensis 3. Stryphnodendron microstachium 4. Hymenolobium mesoamericanum 5 . Termi nali a i vorensi s 6. Terminalia amazonia 7. Jacaranda copaia 8. Rollinia microsepala 9. Dipteryx panamensis 10. Genipa americana 11. Laetia procera 12...

Toness, Anna Sutherland

2012-06-07

97

A tropical freshwater wetlands: I. Structure, growth, and regeneration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested wetlands dominated by Terminalia carolinensis are endemic to Micronesia but common only on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. On Kosrae, these forests occur on Nansepsep, Inkosr, and Sonahnpil soil types, which differ in degree of flooding and soil saturation. We compared forest structure, growth, nutrition, and regeneration on two sites each on Nansepsep and Inkosr soils and one site on the much less common Sonahnpil soil type. Terminalia tree sizes were similar on all three soil types, but forests differed in total basal area, species of smaller trees, and total plant species diversity. Terminalia regeneration was found only on the Inkosr soil type, which had the highest water table levels. Other Terminalia species are relatively light demanding, and T. carolinensis exhibited similar characteristics. It is therefore likely that Terminalia requires periodic, but perhaps naturally rare, stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., typhoons) in order to maintain its dominanace, except on the wettest sites, where competition from other species is reduced. Terminalia swamps in the Nansepsep soil type appeared to be at the greatest risk of conversion to other uses, but swamps on all three types may face reater pressure as Kosrae's population increases and the island's infrastrucure becomes more developed.

Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Waguk, E.E.

2005-01-01

98

Inhibition of Angiogenesis In Vitro by Chebulagic Acid: A COX-LOX Dual Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a crucial step in the growth of cancer and its metastasis. It is regulated by several endogenous factors which may stimulate or inhibit the new blood vessel growth. Besides these endogenous factors, several exogenous factors including some natural compounds are known to modulate angiogenesis. Angiogenesis being a potential target for drugs against a number of pathological conditions, search for compounds from natural sources that can affect angiogenesis is of great interest. The objective of our present study was to understand the effect of chebulagic acid, a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., on angiogenesis. The model systems used were rat aortic rings and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that chebulagic acid exerts an antiangiogenic effect. This was evidenced from decreased sprouting in rat aortic rings and decrease in biochemical markers in endothelial cells treated with chebulagic acid. It downregulated the production of CD31, E-selectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC). Further studies to understand the molecular mechanism of action of chebulagic acid revealed that CA exerts its anti angiogenic effect by modulating VE cadherin-? catenin signalling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:24288615

Athira, A. P.; Helen, A.; Saja, K.; Reddanna, P.; Sudhakaran, P. R.

2013-01-01

99

A novel sample preparation and on-line HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD analysis for rapid screening and characterization of specific enzyme inhibitors in herbal extracts: case study of ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

Drug discovery from complex mixture like Chinese herbs is a challenge and extensive false positives make the obtainment of specific bioactive compounds difficult. In the present study, a novel sample preparation method was proposed to rapidly reveal the specific bioactive compounds from complex mixtures using ?-glucosidase as a case. Firstly, aqueous and methanol extracts of 500 traditional Chinese medicines were carried out with the aim of finding new sources of ?-glucosidase inhibitors. As a result, the extracts of fruit of Terminalia chebula (FTC), flowers of Rosa rugosa (FRR) and Eugenia caryophyllata (FEC) as well as husk of Punica granatum (HPG) showed high inhibition on ?-glucosidase. On-line liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical detection (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD) was performed to rapidly screen and characterize ?-glucosidase inhibitors in these four extracts. After tentative identification, most of compounds with inhibitory activity in the investigated crude extracts were found to be tannins commonly recognized as non-specific enzyme inhibitors in vitro. Subsequently, the four extracts were treated with gelatin to improve specificity of the on-line system. Finally, two compounds with specific ?-glucosidase inhibition were identified as corilagin and ellagic acid. The developed method could discover specific ?-glucosidase inhibitors in complex mixtures such as plant extracts, which could also be used for discovery of specific inhibitors of other enzymes. PMID:24055848

Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Xie, J; Li, S P

2014-01-01

100

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic fingerprint analysis for determining the identity, stability, and consistency of TCHM as well as the identification of adulterants as follows: (1) species authentication of various species of ginseng (Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax noto-ginseng) and stability of ginseng preparations using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis; (2) batch-to-batch consistency of extracts of Total Glycosides of Peony (TGP), to be used as a raw material and in finished products (TGP powdered extract products), using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis with a pattern recognition software interface (CASE); (3) documenting the representative HPLC fingerprints of Immature Fruits of Terminalia chebula (IFTC) through the assessment of raw material, in-process assay of the extracts, and the analysis of the finished product (tablets); (4) HPLC fingerprint study demonstrating the consistent quality of total flavonoids of commercial extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaves (EGb) along with detection of adulterations. The experimental conditions as well as general comments on the application of chromatographic fingerprint analysis are discussed. PMID:16472540

Xie, Peishan; Chen, Sibao; Liang, Yi-zeng; Wang, Xianghong; Tian, Runtao; Upton, Roy

2006-04-21

101

Production of unusual dispiro metabolites in Pestalotiopsis virgatula endophyte cultures: HPLC-SPE-NMR, electronic circular dichroism, and time-dependent density-functional computation study.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula, derived from the plant Terminalia chebula and previously found to produce a large excess of a single metabolite when grown in the minimal M1D medium, was induced to produce a variety of unusual metabolites by growing in potato dextrose broth medium. Analysis of the fermentation medium extract was performed using an HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR hyphenated system, which led to the identification of a total of eight metabolites (1-8), six of which are new. Most of the metabolites are structurally related and are derivatives of benzo[c]oxepin, rare among natural products. This includes dispiro derivatives 7 and 8 (pestalospiranes A and B), having a novel 1,9,11,18-tetraoxadispiro[6.2.6.2]octadecane skeleton. Relative and absolute configurations of the latter were determined by a combination of NOESY spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations (B3LYP/TZVP level). This work demonstrates that a largely complete structure elucidation of numerous metabolites present in a raw fermentation medium extract can be performed by the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique using only a small amount of the extract, even with unstable metabolites that are difficult to isolate by traditional methods. PMID:21942847

Kesting, Julie R; Olsen, Lars; Staerk, Dan; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

2011-10-28

102

Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The absence of a vaccine and the rampant resistance to almost all antimalarial drugs have accentuated the urgent need for new antimalarial drugs and drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to discover effective plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Citrus sinensis (peel), Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus acidus (leaf), Terminalia chebula (seed) were tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) strain of P. falciparum which was cultured following the candle-jar method. Antimalarial evaluations of daily replacement of culture medium containing CQ and different plant crude extracts were performed on 96-well plates at 37°C for 24 and 48 h. Parasitemia was determined microscopically on thin-film Giemsa-stained preparations. Plant extracts were tested for their cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on human laryngeal cancer cell line (HEp-2) and normal cell line (Vero). Out of the 25 extracts tested, six showed good (IC(50) 4.76-22.76 ?g/mL), 15 exhibited moderate (IC(50) 31.42-88.03 ?g/mL), while four displayed mild (IC(50)?>?100 ?g/mL) antiplasmodial activity. The leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of L. aspera; ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of P. acidus; and seed acetone extract of T. chebula had good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)?=?7.81, 22.76, 9.37, 14.65, 12.68, and 4.76 ?g/mL) with selectivity indices 5.43, 2.04, 4.88, 3.35, 3.42, and 9.97 for HEp-2 and >5.79, >2.20, >11.75, >3.41, >3.94, and >7.38 for Vero cells, respectively. These analyses have revealed for the first time that the components present in the solvent extracts of L. aspera, P. acidus, and T. chebula have antiplasmodial activity. The high antiplasmodial activity observed make these plants good candidates for isolation of anti-protozoal compounds which could serve as new lead structures for drug development. PMID:21079994

Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Sahal, Dinkar

2011-05-01

103

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

104

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

2010-05-01

105

Revision of the bee genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae), Part II: South American species and generic diagnosis.  

E-print Network

, with narrow shallow medio-longitudinal furrow in apical half of disc, not bordered by carinae (Fig. 8); apical margin of SV weakly concave; apical margin of SVI emarginate; terminalia as depicted in fi gures 14 and 15. Michael S. Engel / ZooKeys 47: 1... margin of SV with broad, shallow medioapical emar- gination; apical margin of SVI emarginate; terminalia as depicted in fi gures 16 and 17. Clypeus and supraclypeal area imbricate with weak punctures separated by 2–4 times a puncture width; face...

Engel, Michael S.

2010-05-21

106

The first Cordyla Meigen species (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from continental Australia and Tasmania  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Mycetophilidae, Cordyla australica sp. n., is described from continental Australia and Tasmania, representing the first Cordyla record in the region. A detailed description of its morphology with illustrations of male and female terminalia and a map of the collecting localities are provided. According to the structure of male terminalia, Cordyla australica sp. n. belongs to the Cordyla murina species-group that has 13 species worldwide. Within the group Cordyla australica sp. n. resembles Cordyla murina but has a unique outline of the hypoproct and medial branch of the gonostylus. The observed distributional pattern is restricted to the rainforest of eastern Australia and Tasmania. PMID:24194654

Kurina, Olavi; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

2013-01-01

107

Neuroprotective Effect of Chebulagic Acid via Autophagy Induction in SH-SY5Y Cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a series of catabolic process mediating the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles through formation of a double-membrane vesicle, known as an autophagosome, and fusing with lysosome. Autophagy plays an important role of death-survival decisions in neuronal cells, which may influence to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Chebulagic acid, the major constituent of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, is a benzopyran tannin compound with various kinds of beneficial effects. This study was performed to investigate the autophagy enhancing effect of chebulagic acid on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. We determined the effect of chebulagic acid on expression levels of autophago-some marker proteins such as, DOR/TP53INP2, Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE 16) and Light chain 3 II (LC3 II), as well as those of its upstream pathway proteins, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Beclin-1. All of those proteins were modulated by chebulagic acid treatment in a way of enhancing the autophagy. Additionally in our study, chebulagic acid also showed a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) - induced cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson’s disease. This effect seems partially mediated by enhanced autophagy which increased the degradation of aggregated or misfolded proteins from cells. This study suggests that chebulagic acid is an attractive candidate as an autophagy-enhancing agent and therefore, it may provide a promising strategy to prevent or cure the diseases caused by accumulation of abnormal proteins including Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25143804

Kim, Hee Ju; Kim, Joonki; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Keun Taik; Yang, Hyun Ok

2014-01-01

108

Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of new and efficacious antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23983370

Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

2012-01-01

109

In vitro screening and evaluation of some Indian medicinal plants for their potential to inhibit Jack bean and bacterial ureases causing urinary infections.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Bacterial ureases play an important role in pathogenesis of urinary infections. Selection of plants was done on the basis of their uses by the local people for the treatment of various bacterial and urinary infections. Objective: Our investigation screens and evaluates 15 Indian medicinal plants for their possible urease inhibitory activity as well as their ability to inhibit bacteria causing urinary infections. Materials and methods: Plant extracts in three different solvents (methanol, aqueous, and cow urine) were screened for their effect on Jack-bean urease using the phenol-hypochlorite method. Subsequently, seven bacterial strains were screened for their ability to release urease and further antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the tested extracts were evaluated by the agar well diffusion and microdilution method, respectively. Results: Five plants out of 15 crude extracts revealed good urease inhibitory activity (?20% at 1?mg/ml conc.) and IC50 values for these extracts ranged from 2.77 to 0.70?mg/ml. Further testing of these extracts on urease-producing bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus NCDC 109, S. aureus MTCC 3160, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 4030, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7453) showed good anti-urease potency with an MIC ranging from 500 to 7.3?µg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The results of screening as well as susceptibility assay clearly revealed a strong urease inhibitory effect of Acacia nilotica L. (Fabaceae), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Phyllanthaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Rosa indica L. (Rosaceae), and Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae). Our findings may help to explain the beneficial effect of these plants against infections associated with the urease enzyme. PMID:25366133

Bai, Sheema; Bharti, Pooja; Seasotiya, Leena; Malik, Anupma; Dalal, Sunita

2014-11-01

110

Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477

Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T

2013-06-01

111

Hesperinus ninae Papp & Krivosheina (Diptera: Hesperinidae) from Georgia: the second record of this peculiar species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A second record of Hesperinus ninae Papp & Krivosheina, 2010 is given on the basis of material collected by sweep net from the northern slope of the Saguramo range north of Tbilisi, Georgia. The habitus and male terminalia are illustrated and the systematics briefly discussed. PMID:24723756

2013-01-01

112

Studies in the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz with a revision of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell and Omegeleodes, new subgenus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Eleodin)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomic history of the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz is reviewed and the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell redefined based on characters of the female terminalia with Blaps carbonaria Say herein designated as type-species. Eleodes debilis LeConte is removed from Melaneleodes to a new monotypic subg...

113

ORIGINAL PAPER Aurifilum, a new fungal genus in the Cryphonectriaceae  

E-print Network

of Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, orange to yellow fungal fruiting structures, resembling those of fungi, known regarding the diseases that affect these trees. During an investi- gation into possible diseases with disease symptoms on T. ivorensis, suggest that the fungus is a pathogen of this important tree. Keywords

114

Hesperinusninae Papp & Krivosheina (Diptera: Hesperinidae) from Georgia: the second record of this peculiar species.  

PubMed

A second record of Hesperinusninae Papp & Krivosheina, 2010 is given on the basis of material collected by sweep net from the northern slope of the Saguramo range north of Tbilisi, Georgia. The habitus and male terminalia are illustrated and the systematics briefly discussed. PMID:24723756

Kurina, Olavi

2013-01-01

115

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

116

Evaluation of common tree leaves or pods as supplements for goats on range area of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out at Kimose in Baringo district of Kenya, with the aim of determining the chemical composition and in vitro DM digestibility of pods of Acacia tortilis, A. nilotica, A. brevispica and leaves of Terminalia brownii and Berchemia discolor. In addition, the influence of supplementing Boer×Galla goats with these pods and leaves on weight gain and forage

J. J Sawe; J. K Tuitoek; J. M Ottaro

1998-01-01

117

Technologies for Licensing Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms (C-CAMP)  

E-print Network

as commercialize it. Publications: IN Granted Patent #12;Oral Mucositis plant extract mouthwash Invention ID: CMP), Terminalia bellerica (dried fruit), Azadiracta indica (leaf & bark), Glycyrrhiza glabra (root). The mouthwash symptoms. The analgesic usage by patients using herbal mouthwash was significantly low (p value=.0001

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

118

Description of a new species of Terminalichus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) from China.  

PubMed

A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided. PMID:24872294

Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian

2014-01-01

119

Journal of Natural History Vol. 44, Nos. 12, January 2010, 4180  

E-print Network

of mouthparts, male and female terminalia, and of other external and internal structures are reported methods (Kuschel 1995; Marvaldi 1997; Marvaldi et al. 2002). Although the delimitation of weevil families such as the exclusively Caribbean Lachnopus Schoenherr (55 species; placed in the Geonemini Gistel in Alonso

Franz, Nico M.

120

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

2011-01-01

121

High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

2012-03-01

122

In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of ethnopharmacologically selected guinean plants.  

PubMed

Based on an ethnobotanical survey, 41 Guinean plant species widely used in the traditional treatment of fever and/or malaria were collected. From these, 74 polar and apolar extracts were prepared and tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity along with their cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cells. A potent activity (IC50 Terminalia albida, Vismia guineensis, Spondias mombin, and Pavetta crassipes against Plasmodium falciparum; for Pavetta crassipes, Vismia guineensis, Guiera senegalensis, Spondias mombin, Terminalia macroptera, and Combretum glutinosum against Trypanosoma brucei brucei; for Bridelia ferruginea, G. senegalensis, V. guineensis, P. crassipes, and C. glutinosum against Trypanosoma cruzi. Only the extract of Tetracera alnifolia showed a good activity (IC50 8.1?µg/mL) against Leishmania infantum. The selectivity index of the active samples varied from 0.08 to >?100. These results may validate at least in part the traditional use of some of the plant species. PMID:25180493

Traore, Mohammed Sahar; Diane, Sere; Diallo, Mamadou Saliou Telly; Balde, Elhadj Saïdou; Balde, Mamadou Aliou; Camara, Aïssata; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Keita, Abdoulaye; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Pieters, Luc; Balde, Aliou Mamadou

2014-10-01

123

Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.  

PubMed

Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml). PMID:15894143

Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

2005-06-01

124

Revision of Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  

PubMed

A revision of the genus Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912, based on a study of external morphology and terminalia, is presented. The genus and its species are redescribed. Five species are recognized, two of which are described as new: T. bella sp. nov. from Bolivia and T. opaca sp. nov. from Argentina. A new host plant for T. maculicollis Audinet-Serville, 1834 is recorded. A key to all species, and their photographs and distribution maps are provided.  PMID:24870189

Quintino, Hingrid Yara S; Monné, Marcela L

2014-01-01

125

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin  

PubMed Central

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-01-01

126

Butterfly diversity and silvicultural practice in lowland rainforests of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterfly diversity and abundance were sampled across eight 1-ha silvicultural treatment plots in southern Cameroon. The plotsincluded a cleared and unplanted farm fallow, cleared and replanted forestplots, and uncleared forest plots. The replanted plots were line-planted withTerminalia ivorensis, but differed in the degree and methodof clearance. A total of 205 species of butterflies were collected over twodifferent seasons. Several sampling

N. E. Stork; D. S. Srivastava; A. D. Watt; T. B. Larsen

2003-01-01

127

Productivity of Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems with timber or legume service shade trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system\\u000a (CL, Erythrina\\u000a poeppigiana, Gliricidia\\u000a sepium or Inga\\u000a edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia\\u000a rosea or Terminalia\\u000a ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major goals: (1) to evaluate the use of mono-specific timber shade canopies\\u000a as an

Eduardo Somarriba; John Beer

2011-01-01

128

Arjunolic acid: A promising new building block for nanochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arjunolic acid, the major extractable constituent of the heavy wood of textit{Terminalia Arjuna}, has the potential to be used as a rigid and functional molecular framework for the construction of nanosized supramolecular architectures and nanomaterials. The nanosized triterpenoid, arjunolic acid, showed efficient gelation of various organic solvents at low concentrations. The low molecular mass gelator molecules self-assembled in the solvents to form fibers of nanometer diameters. The movement of the solvent molecules was hindered inside the fibrous network leading to the formation of a gel.

Bag, Braja G.; Maity, Gopal C.; Pramanik, Subhash R.

2005-11-01

129

An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed. PMID:19070189

Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

2007-07-01

130

Evaluation of Senegalese plants used in malaria treatment: focus on Chrozophora senegalensis.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Dakar area of Senegal to investigate the species used in the treatment of malaria. Seven plants are principally used: Cissampelos mucronata, Maytenus senegalensis, Terminalia macroptera, Bidens engleri, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Chrozophora senegalensis and Mitracarpus scaber. From a bibliographic study, it had been shown that the Cissampelos mucronata, Maytenus senegalensis and Terminalia macroptera have already been studied by several authors, and so only Bidens engleri, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Chrozophora senegalensis and Mitracarpus scaber were evaluated in the present study. For each plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents and tested in vitro on two chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Crude extracts from the leaves and the stems of Chrozophora senegalensis showed the best in vitro results. The IC(50) value of an aqueous extract of Chrozophora senegalensis was 1.6 microg/ml without cytotoxicity. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Chrozophora extracts was determined by both the oral and the intraperitoneal ways. The stages of Plasmodium cycle targeted by Chrozophora were then studied in vitro. These results could justify the traditional use of this plant in malaria treatment. PMID:18063330

Benoit-Vical, F; Soh, P Njomnang; Saléry, M; Harguem, L; Poupat, C; Nongonierma, R

2008-02-28

131

Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in Bunda district, Tanzania, were screened for activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1, IIIB strain) and Type 2 (HIV-2, ROD strain). Antiplasmodial activity was observed for the 80 % MeOH extract of Ormocarpum kirkii (root; MIC = 31.25 microg/mL), Combretum adenogonium (leaves), Euphorbia tirucalli (root), Harrisonia abyssinica (root), Rhynchosia sublobata (root), Sesbania sesban (root), Tithonia diversifolia (leaves), and Vernonia cinerascens (leaves; MIC value of 62.5 microg/mL). With regard to HIV, 80 % MeOH extracts of Barleria eranthemoides (root), Combretum adenogonium (leaves and stem bark), Elaeodedron schlechteranum (stem bark and root bark), Lannea schweinfurthii (stem bark), Terminalia mollis (stem bark and root bark), Acacia tortilis (stem bark), Ficus cycamorus (stem bark) and Indigofera colutea (shoot), as well as H2O extracts from Barleria eranthemoides (root), Combretum adenogonium (leaves and stem bark), and Terminalia mollis (stem bark and root bark) exhibited IC50 values below 10 microg/mL against HIV-1 (IIIB strain). The highest anti-HIV-1 activity value was obtained for the B. eranthemoides 80 % MeOH root extract (IC50 value 2.1 microg/mL). Only a few extracts were active against HIV-2, such as the 80 % MeOH extract from Lannea schweinfurthii (stem bark) and Elaeodedron schlechteranum (root bark), showing IC50 values < 10 microg/mL. PMID:19653145

Maregesi, Sheila; Van Miert, Sabine; Pannecouque, Christophe; Feiz Haddad, Mohammed H; Hermans, Nina; Wright, Colin W; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

2010-02-01

132

The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of Ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflam mation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5 %) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

2015-02-01

133

Evolutionary novelties in islands: Drosophila santomea, a new melanogaster sister species from São Tomé.  

PubMed Central

The finding of new melanogaster sister species may help us in understanding more about how the emergence of genetic novelties, particularly in insular habitats, can result in speciation. Here we report on the discovery of Drosophila santomea, which is the first melanogaster sibling found off West-equatorial Africa, on São Tomé, one of the Gulf of Guinea islands. Although the eight other melanogaster sister species are remarkably conservative in their morphology except for their terminalia, the new find has a morphological trait distinguishing it from all of these: a pure yellow body coloration of both sexes without the normal black abdominal banding. Evidence from the terminalia, polytene and mitotic chromosomes, period gene and allozymes are provided indicating that it is nonetheless the nearest relative of Drosophila yakuba with which it coexists on the island. The new find is a clear-cut taxon as shown by the production of sterile male hybrids, eventually with developmental defects, in both directions of cross with yakuba and by the existence of an altitudinal divide accompanied by a hybrid zone at mid-elevation on the island. Molecular and karyotypic data further support this conclusion. In contrast to the significant divergence of their nuclear DNAs, an intriguing similarity in their cytochrome b sequences was observed indicating a recent coalescence common to santomea, yakuba and also teissieri cytoplasms. These were shown to harbour the same Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria which could possibly be responsible for mitochondrial DNA hitchhiking across the species barrier. PMID:11007323

Lachaise, D; Harry, M; Solignac, M; Lemeunier, F; Bénassi, V; Cariou, M L

2000-01-01

134

Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.  

PubMed

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043

Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

2013-12-01

135

New data on Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952) (Diptera, Muscidae).  

PubMed

Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera) genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952), which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here--Mimus saturninus (Mimidae), Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae), Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae), Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae), Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae) and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae) in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon--are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species. PMID:16532187

Couri, M S; Rabuffetti, F L; Reboreda, J C

2005-11-01

136

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741

Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

2012-01-01

137

In vitro immunomodulatory activity of plants used by the Tacana ethnic group in Bolivia.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy-eight ethanolic plant extracts from the pharmacopoeia of the Tacana, an ethnic group from Bolivia, were screened for immunomodulatory activity using complement cascade inhibition and ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition assays. Six impaired both complement pathways (classical and alternative): stem bark from Astronium urundeuvea (Anacardiaceae), Cochlospermum vitifolium (Cochlospermaceae), Terminalia amazonica (Combretaceae), Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae), Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae) and Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) roots. Inhibition of complement cascade was independent of essential ion complexation, and was not due to direct hemolytic activity on target red blood cells. For A. urundeuvea, C. vitifolium, and T. amazonica, anti-inflammatory activity relied on cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. Four of these species (A. urundeuva, T. americana, U. tomentosa and E. precatoria) are used traditionally to treat inflammatory processes. PMID:15500263

Deharo, E; Baelmans, R; Gimenez, A; Quenevo, C; Bourdy, G

2004-09-01

138

New species, new records and new morphological characters of the genus Tillicera Spinola from China (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of the genus Tillicera Spinola, 1841 from China are described and illustrated: Tillicera sensibilis sp. n. from Yunnan (also from Myanmar, Thailand and Laos) and Tillicera wenii sp. n. from Taiwan. Tillicera bibalteata Gorham, 1892, Tillicera hirsuta (Pic, 1926) and Tillicera michaeli Gerstmeier & Bernhard, 2010 are newly recorded from China. Tillicera auratofasciata (Pic, 1927) is newly recorded in some provinces of China. A key to species of the genus from China is provided. Relationships between species are discussed with emphasis on characters of male phallus, female internal reproductive organs and pit-like sensilla in male terminal antennomere, which is discovered in Tillicera for the first time. The present generic definition of Tillicera is discussed as well. Photos of terminalia of the previously known species are also provided for comparison. PMID:21998525

Yang, Ganyan; Montreuil, Olivier; Yang, Xingke

2011-01-01

139

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

2002-02-01

140

Further studies of the engrailed phenotype in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Although most mutations at the engrailed locus of Drosophila cause embryonic death when homozygous, they are viable in clones of cells. We describe the phenotype of such clones in the eye-antenna, proboscis, humerus, wing, legs, and terminalia. When in anterior compartments the clones are normal, but in most posterior compartments they are abnormal and fail to respect the anteroposterior compartment boundary. We find that the yield of engrailed-lethal clones in posterior compartments is often significantly lower than expected, indicating that these clones are lost during development. Mutant clones are abnormal in the analia and rare in the humerus, suggesting that both structures are of posterior provenance. These results support the hypothesis that the engrailed+ gene is required exclusively in cells of posterior compartments to specify their characteristic cell affinities and pattern. PMID:6152896

Lawrence, P A; Struhl, G

1982-01-01

141

Neoethilla, a new genus for the first record of the Ethillini from the New World (Diptera, Tachinidae, Exoristinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New genus Neoethilla gen. n., is described to include two New World nominal species formerly recognized as valid species in Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy: Exorista ignobilis van der Wulp and Winthemia antennalis Coquillett. Winthemia antennalis is proposed as a junior synonym of Exorista ignobilis syn. n. Neoethilla ignobilis comb. n. is removed from the Winthemiini and placed in the tribe Ethillini (Exoristinae) based on a study of the external features of adults, male terminalia, female reproductive system, and egg morphology. The small tribe Ethillini, not hitherto known from the New World, currently comprises fourteen genera worldwide. The phylogeny and systematics of the Ethillini and their relationships with related tribes are discussed and documented by descriptions and illustrations of relevant character states. PMID:23378795

Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Wood, D. Monty; O’Hara, James E.

2012-01-01

142

The status of Crossopalpus obscuripes (Adams), a new junior synonym of Crossopalpus aenescens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Hybotidae: Tachydromiinae).  

PubMed

Adams (1905) described a new species, Stilpon obscuripes, from two female specimens collected near Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe) by Frank L. Snow. Although Smith (1969) briefly treated this species under the genus Stilpon Loew in his monograph on the Empididae of southern Africa, it is evident that he had not seen the type material. The species remained little known until Cumming & Cooper (1992) examined the syntypes and transferred the species to Crossopalpus Bigot, indicating that C. obscuripes (Adams) was allied to C. aenescens (Wiedemann). During preparation of the Hybotidae chapter for the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (Sinclair & Cumming, accepted), C. obscuripes was re-examined and discovered to be identical to C. aenescens, which was originally described from South Africa. The Crossopalpus aenescens-group was previously studied by Collin (1960), who recognized four included species, and Smith (1967), who provided a key to the species and illustrations of the male terminalia (i.e., right surstylus) of this complex.  PMID:25544094

Cumming, Jeffrey M; Sinclair, Bradley J

2014-01-01

143

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic. PMID:19057813

Cyrus, Wagate G; Daniel, Gakuya W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Njonge, Francis K; Mbaria, James M

2008-11-01

144

Revision of the genus Reichardtiolus Kryzhanovskij, 1959 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae).  

PubMed

The genus Reichardtiolus Kryzhanovskij, 1959 is revised herein. It now contains five species: R. duriculus (Reitter, 1904) from middle Asia (with a doubtful female specimen from western China that is here tentatively assigned to this species), R. pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1959 from Turkmenistan, R. sphingis (Peyerimhoff, 1936), comb. n. (transferred from Saprinus Erichson, 1834) from Egypt and Jordan, R. perses sp. n. from Iran and R. aldhaferi sp. n. from Saudi Arabia. Except for R. pavlovskii, which is a rather distinct species known only from two females, the remaining species are allopatric, very similar externally and are best separated from each other by their male terminalia. R. pavlovskii is kept in Reichardtiolus only tentatively, pending the examination of more specimens, and especially its male genitalia. R. duriculus and R. pavlovskii are re-described, while R. perses sp. n., R. aldhaferi sp. n. and R. sphingis comb. n. are provided with diagnostic descriptions because of their overall similarity with R. duriculus. Morphological differences of all species are illustrated using SEM micrographs. Male genitalia of R. duriculus, R. sphingis comb. n., R. perses sp. n. and R. aldhaferi sp. n. are illustrated and a key to the species is given. R. duriculus is newly recorded from Tajikistan. PMID:24574855

Lackner, Tomáš

2014-01-01

145

Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

2011-01-01

146

Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

2014-01-01

147

Discovery, optimization, and pharmacophore modeling of oleanolic Acid and analogues as breast cancer cell migration and invasion inhibitors through targeting brk/paxillin/rac1 axis.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of Terminalia bentzoe L. leaves methanol extract identified the known triterpene oleanolic acid (1) as its major breast cancer cell migration inhibitor. Further chemical optimization afforded five new (9-12 and 15) and seven known (4-8, 13, and 14) semisynthetic analogues. All compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells migration, proliferation, and invasion. The results revealed that 3-O-[N-(3'-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (11) and 3-O-[N-(5'-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (12) were the most active hits at low ?m concentration. Western blot analysis indicated the activity of 1, 11, and 12 might be related, at least in part, to the suppression of Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 signaling pathway. Pharmacophore modeling study was conducted to better understand the common structural binding epitopes important for the antimigratory activity. The sulfonyl carbamoyl moiety with an optimal bulkiness electron-deficient phenyl ring is associated with improved activity. This study is the first to discover the antimigratory and anti-invasive activities of oleanolic acid and analogues through targeting the Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 axis. PMID:24954090

Elsayed, Heba E; Akl, Mohamed R; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Sallam, Asmaa A; Haggag, Eman G; Kamal, Amel M; El Sayed, Khalid A

2015-02-01

148

Mapping East African tropical forests and woodlands — A comparison of classifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mapping the forest-woodland-savannah mosaic of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, four classification methods were compared, i.e. Maximum Likelihood classifier (MLC), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Maximum Likelihood combined with an Expert System (MaxExpert) and Spectral Angle Mapper combined with an Expert System (SAMExpert). The combination of conventional classifiers with an Expert System proved to be an effective approach for forest mapping. This was also the first time that the SAMExpert had been used in the mapping of tropical forests. SAMExpert not only maps with high accuracy, but is also fast and easy to use, making it attractive for use in less developed countries. Another advantage is that it can be executed on a standard PC set up for image processing. Combining the conventional classifiers (MLC and SAM) with the Expert System significantly improved the classification accuracy. The highest overall accuracy (94.6%) was obtained with SAMExpert. The MaxExpert approach yielded a map with an accuracy of 85.2%, which was also significantly higher than that obtained using the conventional MLC approach. The SAMExpert classifier accurately mapped individual classes. Of the four classes of woodland mapped, the Open Woodland (with Terminalia) and Wooded Grassland classes were more accurately mapped using SAMExpert. The Open Woodland had been previously identified by ecologists, but had never been mapped.

Nangendo, Grace; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van Oosten, Henk

149

Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.  

PubMed

In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system. PMID:25391347

Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

2014-11-12

150

Removal of chromium by some multipurpose tree seedlings of Indian thar desert.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(lll). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. PMID:21166349

Mathur, Nishi; Singh, Joginder; Bohra, Sachendra; Bohra, Avinash; Vyas, Anil

2010-01-01

151

Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.  

PubMed

The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 ?g g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 ?g g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 ?g g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 ?g g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. PMID:22632043

Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

2012-06-12

152

Activity study of biogenic spherical silver nanoparticles towards microbes and oxidants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eco-friendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Terminalia bellirica (T. bellirica) fruit extract is reported herein. Initially formation of SNP was noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further analyzed by surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) band at 429 nm using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Identification of different polyphenols present in T. bellirica extract was done using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Aqueous T. bellirica extract contains high amount of gallic acid which is major secondary metabolite responsible for the reduction and stabilization process. It was established by analyses of extracts before and after reduction using HPLC. Formation of spherical SNP was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study revealed crystalline nature of SNP. Presence of different functional groups on the surface of SNP was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. A plausible mechanism of reduction and stabilization processes involved in the synthesis of stable SNP was also explained based on HPLC and FTIR data. In addition, the synthesized SNP was tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. SNP showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. It also showed good antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant by using standard DPPH method.

Hoskote Anand, Kiran Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar

2015-01-01

153

Systematic review of the firefly genus Amydetes Illiger, 1807 (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), with description of 13 new species.  

PubMed

A systematic review of Amydetes Illiger, 1807, based on examination of the type-material. We fix A. fastigiata Illiger, 1807 as the type-species of the genus; redescribe the genus and six out of eight species; describe 13 new species; and provide illustrations and a key to species. We place A. vigorsi Westwood, 1830 syn. n. and A. gorhami Kuntzen, 1912 syn. n. in synonymy with A. fastigiata; A. suturalis Pic, 1925 syn. n. and A. brasiliensis Pic, 1925 in synonymy with A. apicalis; and A. flavicollis Olivier, 1888 syn. n. in synonymy with A. lucioloides Olivier, 1888. We report the first record of Amydetes from Venezuela and Argentina, and establish more precise distributions of the studied species. We describe the circadian period of A. apicalis (diurnal), A. fastigiata and Amydetes bellorum sp. nov. (nocturnal) and discuss the circadian diversity of the genus. Fronto-clypeus, antenna, labrum, maxillary palpomere, prothorax, mesosternum, lanterns, abdominal segment VIII and terminalia were structures that provided important characters for delimitation and diagnosis of the species. PMID:24870897

Da Silveira, Luiz Felipe Lima; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

2014-01-01

154

Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.  

PubMed

The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for T. catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation. PMID:23703103

Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

2014-06-01

155

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

156

Species-level diversity of belowground structure in savanna woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

2013-05-01

157

Biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their effect on As(III)-induced toxicity on human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

A bioreductive capacity of a plant, Terminalia arjuna leaf extract, was utilized for preparation of selenium nanoparticles. The leaf extract worked as good capping as well as stabilizing agent and facilitated the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The colloidal solution showed the absorption maximum at 390 nm while TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated the formation of polydispersed, crystalline selenium nanoparticles of size raging from 10 to 80 nm. FT-IR analysis suggested the involvement of O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O functional group of the leaf extract in particle formation while EDAX analysis indicated the presence of selenium in synthesized nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles on human lymphocytes treated with arsenite, As(III), has been studied. Studies on cell viability using MTT assay and DNA damage using comet assay revealed that synthesized selenium nanoparticles showed protective effect against As(III)-induced cell death and DNA damage. Chronic ingestion of arsenic infested groundwater, and prevalence of arsenicosis is a serious public health issue. The synthesized benign nanoselenium can be a promising agent to check the chronic toxicity caused due to arsenic exposure. PMID:24469678

Prasad, Kumar Suranjit; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal

2014-03-01

158

Taxonomic changes in palaeotropical Xyleborini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Following the recent reclassification of the Palaeotropic xyleborine genera (Hulcr and Cognato in press), additional species are transferred to correct genera or synonymized based on analysis of their morphological characters. The following species are given new combinations: Debus amphicranoides (Hagedorn), comb. n., Debus birmanus (Eggers, 1930), comb. n., Debus dolosus (Blandford, 1896), comb. n., Debus eximius (Schedl, 1970), comb. n., Debus interponens (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus robustipennis (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus spinatus (Eggers, 1923), comb. n., Microperus alpha (Beeson, 1929), comb. n., Microperus corporaali (Eggers), comb. n., Microperus eucalyptica (Schedl, 1938), comb. n., Microperus nugax (Schedl, 1939), comb. n., Pseudowebbia percorthylus (Schedl, 1935), comb. n., Truncaudum circumcinctus (Schedl, 1941), comb. n.THE FOLLOWING SPECIES ARE SYNONYMIZED: Arixyleborus hirtipennis (Eggers), syn. n., with Arixyleborus puberulus (Blandford); Coptoborus palmeri (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Coptoborus terminaliae (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Cyclorhipidion polyodon (Eggers), syn. n., with Truncaudum agnatum (Eggers); Euwallacea artelaevis (Schedl), syn. n., with Planiculus bicolor (Blandford); Xyleborinus perminutissimus (Schedl), syn. n., with Xyleborinus perpusillus (Eggers); Xyleborus exesus Blandford, syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Xyleborus fulvulus (Schedl), syn. n., with Microperus corporaali (Eggers); Xyleborus marginicollis (Schedl), syn. n., with Diuncus justus (Schedl); Xyleborus shoreae Stebbing, syn. n., with Debus fallax (Eichhoff).THE FOLLOWING SPECIES ARE GIVEN NEW STATUS: Streptocranus superbus (Schedl, 1951), restored name; Webbia divisus Browne, 1972, restored name; Webbia penicillatus (Hagedorn, 1910), restored name. Genus Taphrodasus Wood (1980) is declared not valid. PMID:21594174

Hulcr, Jiri

2010-01-01

159

Taxonomic changes in palaeotropical Xyleborini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Following the recent reclassification of the Palaeotropic xyleborine genera (Hulcr and Cognato in press), additional species are transferred to correct genera or synonymized based on analysis of their morphological characters. The following species are given new combinations: Debus amphicranoides (Hagedorn), comb. n., Debus birmanus (Eggers, 1930), comb. n., Debus dolosus (Blandford, 1896), comb. n., Debus eximius (Schedl, 1970), comb. n., Debus interponens (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus robustipennis (Schedl, 1954), comb. n., Debus spinatus (Eggers, 1923), comb. n., Microperus alpha (Beeson, 1929), comb. n., Microperus corporaali (Eggers), comb. n., Microperus eucalyptica (Schedl, 1938), comb. n., Microperus nugax (Schedl, 1939), comb. n., Pseudowebbia percorthylus (Schedl, 1935), comb. n., Truncaudum circumcinctus (Schedl, 1941), comb. n. The following species are synonymized: Arixyleborus hirtipennis (Eggers), syn. n., with Arixyleborus puberulus (Blandford); Coptoborus palmeri (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Coptoborus terminaliae (Hopkins), syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Cyclorhipidion polyodon (Eggers), syn. n., with Truncaudum agnatum (Eggers); Euwallacea artelaevis (Schedl), syn. n., with Planiculus bicolor (Blandford); Xyleborinus perminutissimus (Schedl), syn. n., with Xyleborinus perpusillus (Eggers); Xyleborus exesus Blandford, syn. n., with Debus emarginatus (Eichhoff); Xyleborus fulvulus (Schedl), syn. n., with Microperus corporaali (Eggers); Xyleborus marginicollis (Schedl), syn. n., with Diuncus justus (Schedl); Xyleborus shoreae Stebbing, syn. n., with Debus fallax (Eichhoff). The following species are given new status: Streptocranus superbus (Schedl, 1951), restored name; Webbia divisus Browne, 1972, restored name; Webbia penicillatus (Hagedorn, 1910), restored name. Genus Taphrodasus Wood (1980) is declared not valid. PMID:21594174

Hulcr, Jiri

2010-01-01

160

Two new species of Geodiscelis Michener & Rozen (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae) with a phylogenetic analysis and subgeneric classification of the genus.  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Geodiscelis are described: Geodiscelis nazcalinea Packer & Dumesh, sp. nov. from Peru (the first record of the genus from that country) and G. phisquiri Packer & Dumesh, sp. nov. from northern Chile. The new species are most closely related to G. longiceps, but differ primarily in having somewhat less elongate heads and in details of the male terminalia. A key to the five known species of the genus is provided as are the results of a phylogenetic analysis based upon 68 characters, and the genus is formally divided into three subgenera: Geodiscelis s. str. Michener and Rozen, Geodiscelis (Nazcoediscelis) Packer and Dumesh, subgenus nov. and Geodiscelis (Thaumoediscelis) Packer and Dumesh, subgenus nov. The two new species described herein belong to subgenus Geodiscelis (Nazcoediscelis). Figures of the most important characters are provided. Tiquilia sp. (Boraginaceae) is the probable floral host of both new species and it is suggested that all species are ground-nesters. Sexual dimorphism in an unusual character is recorded for G. thaumaskelos Packer.  PMID:25283109

Packer, Laurence; Dumesh, Sheila

2014-01-01

161

Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

2010-01-01

162

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed. While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. PMID:12499084

Kar, Ajit; Choudhary, B K; Bandyopadhyay, N G

2003-01-01

163

Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

2012-01-01

164

In vitro determination of the spermicidal activity of plant saponins.  

PubMed

The plant kingdom might yield an effective antifertility drug. A Mentha arvensis L. (Labiatae) fraction with uterotonic activity was isolated, and was found to be active on the nonpregnant as well as the pregnant rat uterus. According to folklore medicine, the Mexican plant Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. (zoapatle) possesses antifertility activity in women. The effect of various isolated preparations from this plant on early pregnancy were investigated in serveral rodent species including the mouse, rat hamster, and guinea pig. It was concluded that zoapatle plant extracts possess unique antifertility activity. Lin-Hsim and coworkers isolated fractions from Aristolochia molissima Hanceith contrceptive activity in female mice. Saponins of some plants were used in contraceptive formulations either as foaming agents or as spermicidal substances. Elbary and Nour investigated the spermicidal effects of saponins isolated from the following plants: Gypsophila paniculata L., Saponaria officinalis L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Griseb., Terminalia horrida Steud., Melilotus sicula Vitm., and Ruscus hypoglossum L. All of the saponins tested possessed spermicidal activity. Jain and coworkers isolated 2 new saponins in Pittosporum nilghrense with spermicidal effects. In this paper we have determined the spermicidal activity of saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants, which in that aspect have not been investigated. The results are illustrated in the table. They show that all of the saponins tested were spermicidal in dependence on their nature. Saponins of Primula vulgaris Huds. and Cyclamen persicum Mill. immobilized human spermatozoa within a period of 20 s at a dilution 1:1000. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata L. was spermicidal at dilution 1:20. These findings show that saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants may be useful spermicides of natural origin. PMID:4080814

Primorac, M; Sekulovi?, D; Antoni?, S

1985-08-01

165

Exudativory in the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, northeast India.  

PubMed

In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.3+/-2.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. PMID:19937974

Swapna, N; Radhakrishna, Sindhu; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Ajith

2010-02-01

166

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

167

Effect of crude extract of Bombyx mori coccoons in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. PMID:21760692

Ali, Mir Mahdi; Arumugam, Sarasa Bharati A.

2011-01-01

168

Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.  

PubMed

Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium. PMID:23056486

González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

2012-01-01

169

Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.  

PubMed

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

170

Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

171

DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: A case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.  

PubMed

The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. PMID:25596347

Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

2015-03-15

172

Anti-inflammatory properties of BHUx, a polyherbal formulation to prevent atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

BHUx is a polyherbal formulation consisting of water-soluble fractions of five medicinal plants (Commiphora mukul, Terminalia arjuna, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica). The present study was undertaken to evaluate its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. BHUx, standardized by HPLC fingerprinting and filtered through 0.2 microm filter paper, was employed for different studies under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, BHUx significantly reduced inflammation in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model of inflammation, suggesting its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to test the mechanism of action of BHUx, further in vitro studies were undertaken on cumene-hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation (CHP) in liver homogenate, LPS-induced NO production in peritoneal macrophages and on key enzymes of arachidonic acid cascade, involved in the mediation of inflammation. Under the conditions, BHUx showed concentration-dependent inhibition of CHP-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate, suggesting its antioxidant properties. Similarly the potent anti-inflammatory effects of BHUx are evident by (a) preferential inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 for COX-2 = 80 microg/ml and IC50 for COX-1 = 169 microg/ml), (b) low ratios in the IC50 values of COX-2/COX-1 (0.47), (c) decreased production of NO in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages and (d) inhibition of 5-LOX (IC50 = 795 microg/ml). BHUx also showed a preference for inhibiting 15-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 44 microg/ml), a key enzyme implicated in LDL oxidation. These studies suggest that BHUx is acting mainly at three levels, i.e., as a potent natural antioxidant, by reduction of key inflammatory mediators of arachidonic acid cascade and by preventing 15-LOX-mediated LDL oxidations, to prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:15265316

Tripathi, Yamini B; Reddy, M Mallikarjuna; Pandey, R S; Subhashini, J; Tiwari, O P; Singh, B K; Reddanna, P

2004-01-01

173

Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium. PMID:23056486

González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

2012-01-01

174

Fungal Planet description sheets: 214-280.  

PubMed

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25264390

Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Quaedvlieg, W; van der Bank, M; Zhang, Y; Summerell, B A; Guarro, J; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Alfenas, A C; Braun, U; Cano-Lira, J F; García, D; Marin-Felix, Y; Alvarado, P; Andrade, J P; Armengol, J; Assefa, A; den Breeÿen, A; Camele, I; Cheewangkoon, R; De Souza, J T; Duong, T A; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fournier, J; Frisullo, S; García-Jiménez, J; Gardiennet, A; Gené, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Hirooka, Y; Hospenthal, D R; King, A; Lechat, C; Lombard, L; Mang, S M; Marbach, P A S; Marincowitz, S; Marin-Felix, Y; Montaño-Mata, N J; Moreno, G; Perez, C A; Pérez Sierra, A M; Robertson, J L; Roux, J; Rubio, E; Schumacher, R K; Stchigel, A M; Sutton, D A; Tan, Y P; Thompson, E H; van der Linde, E; Walker, A K; Walker, D M; Wickes, B L; Wong, P T W; Groenewald, J Z

2014-06-01

175

Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:22303122

Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

176

A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbae sp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the family Periscelididae and subfamily Stenomicrinae are diagnosed and for the latter, a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23166461

Mathis, Wayne N.; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

2012-01-01

177

Deuterium labeling of soil water movement in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge estimations in semi-arid areas are challenging, especially in developing countries such as large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, where data is generally scarce. Due to high heterogeneity in soil characteristics, vegetation and land use as well as spatially and temporally highly variable rainfall, precise site studies are necessary in order to characterize processes and quantify groundwater recharge rates. The stable isotope deuterium, 2H has been shown to be particularly suitable for such investigations. In this study, a field experiment using deuterium as an artificial tracer (2H2O, 70% deuterated water) was conducted to characterize movement of water during and after a synthetic rain event. The study was carried out in the framework of the project SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) in the Niipele catchment of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia at two locations differing in both soil and vegetation type: A forest site dominated by terminalia sericea, baikiaea plurijuga, burkea africana and acacia erioloba with deep pure sand soil and a shrub-/woodland site characterized by smaller burkea africana, borchemia discolor and acacia erioloba on a dark loamy sand soil underlain by a thick layer of calcrete. At both locations, soils were first saturated to trigger typical rainy season conditions and avoid immediate evaporation of the deuterated water. Subsequently, 500 ml of 2H2O was applied homogenously over a 0.25 m2 test plot at 25 cm depth. Finally, a 10 mm artificial rain event was applied onto the plot. Soil samples were collected every 10 cm to a maximum depth of 2.5 m with an Eijkelkamp hand auger after 1, 2, and 5 (respective 10) days. From these, soil water is extracted in the laboratory and subsequently analyzed for deuterium concentrations using a Picarro L2120-i cavity-ringdown (CRD) water vapor analyzer after vaporization. Additionally, grain size distribution, water content and bulk density are determined in the lab. Results demonstrate how the artificially applied deuterium distributes after a rain event of 10 mm. Both up- and downward movement of the applied deuterium could be tracked analyzing the isotopic composition of the soil profiles. Whilst the deuterium front at the sand forest site travelled towards a depth of more than 1.5 m, the peak at the loamy sand/calcrete woodland site only reached the calcrete layer at 1.2 m. Deeper infiltration into the calcrete layer was not observed. Soil sampling will be repeated at the same plots to investigate the travel depth of the deuterium front after the rainy season to enable the quantification of groundwater recharge at a site level.

Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Koeniger, Paul; Hamutoko, Josefina; Uugulu, Shoopi; Wanke, Heike; Lohe, Christoph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Billib, Max

2014-05-01

178

A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23204912

Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

179

Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.  

PubMed

Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition. PMID:24506032

Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

2013-12-01

180

A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae).  

PubMed

A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W)), H. simplicum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°01.2'N, 83°26.2'W; 300 m)), H. sinuatum (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins Creek (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)), H. spinosum (Costa Rica. Limón: Westfalia (4 km S; 09°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach)), H. urnulum (Dominican Republic. Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W)), H. viridum (Guyana. Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W)), H. williamsae (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins River (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina incisum Coquillett and Hydrochasma zernyi Hendel. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera in the New World is provided. PMID:24363601

Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

2013-01-01

181

Sizing up Septoria  

PubMed Central

Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1?, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verk

Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

182

[Studies on the crude drugs used for the folk medicine described in "mimi-bukuro"].  

PubMed

"Mimi-bukuro" is a book written by Moriyasu Negishi in the Edo period. M. Negishi (1737-1815) was a magistrate in the town of Edo. He was very much interested in listening and recording many kinds of stories, which were told by the various kinds of people, such as public officers, samurais, merchants, doctors, etc. Among the stories of this book, some stories were found concerning folk medicine, medicinal substance and charms. In this report, I studied the medicines which were used in these stories. The medicines originated from zoological, botanical and mineral substances. As the results of my studies, there were zoological, botanical and mineral medicines were 13, 36 and 4 species, respectively. The examples of such medicines were as follows. Zoological samples: Felis catus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anguilla japonica and Rapana venosa. Botanical samples: Artemisia princeps, Nicotiana tabacum, Panax ginseng, Terminaria chebula and Piper nigrum. PMID:11613523

Hamada, T

1995-01-01

183

Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. Aim To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. Method White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr), 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD), the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments) for 4 weeks. Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB) the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile. Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR) significantly increased in HFD in comparison with the control group. The treatment with L-carnitine or HMF improved the condition. HFD elevated hepatic MDA and lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in hepatic GSH and catalase activity; whereas administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly ameliorated these hepatic alterations. Conclusion HFD induced obesity associated with a disturbed lipid profile, defective antioxidant stability, and high values of IR parameters; this may have implications for the progress of obesity related problems. Treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF extract improved obesity and its associated metabolic problems in different degrees. Also HMF has antioxidant, hypolipidaemic insulin sensitizing effects. Moreover HMF might be a safe combination on the organs whose functions were examined, as a way to surmount the obesity state; and it has a distinct anti-obesity effect. PMID:19835614

Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

2009-01-01