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Sample records for terminalia chebula terminalia

  1. Anti Cariogenic Effect of Terminalia Chebula

    PubMed Central

    Jayamathi; RamaKrishnan; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki; Kumar, Nandha; Manipal, Sunayana; Keerthidaa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases and possesses a wide variety of therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of Terminalia chebula against oral pathogens related to caries. Materials and Methods: In this study, Antimicrobial activity was tested using Kirby bouer method by streaking. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were analysed. Twenty high caries risk patients were subjected to rinse aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula. Salivary samples were collected for pH and microbial screening. Oral pathogens were identified by qualitative biochemical analysis. Results: The total phenol content of extract was found to be 21.33 ±1.633 (mean ± SD) and total flavonoids was found to be 23.17 ± 2.317 (mean ± SD). There was a gradual increase in pH till 45mts post-rinse when compared to pre-rinse was observed. Antimicrobial effect of Terminalia Chebula aganist microbes showed that there was a significant reduction between the pre-rinse and post-rinse samples. Conclusion: These promising findings suggested the presence of antimicrobial activity of Terminalia Chebula against oral pathogens and proven to be an effective alternate antimicrobial agent. PMID:25302268

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Waheed, S; Fatima, I

    2013-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

  3. Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

  4. Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Rizwan; Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Mehmood, Khalid; Sherkheli, M Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

  5. Triterpenoids from two Terminalia species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigations of Terminalia arjuna bark and Terminalia chebula fruits resulted in the isolations of 12 triterpenoids including two new oleanane type triterpene glucosyl esters ajunglucosides IV (1) and V (2) from the n-BuOH layer of MeOH extract of the bark of T. arjuna as well as nin...

  6. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Chebulagic Acid from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Na; Zhao, Dong-Dong; Gao, Bo; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Wang-Jun; Jia, Li-Rong; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we firstly compared rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity by different ethanol-aqueous extractions from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. The enzymatic assay showed that the 80% ethanol extract was more potent against maltase activity than both 50% and 100% ethanol extracts. By HPLC analysis, it was determined that the 80% ethanol extract had a higher content of chebulagic acid than each of 50% or 100% ethanol extract. Next, we investigated how efficiently chebulagic acid could inhibit sugar digestion by determining the glucose level on the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result showed that the maltose-hydrolysis activity was down-regulated by chebulagic acid, which proved to be a reversible inhibitor of maltase in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, chebulagic acid showed a weak inhibition of sucrose-hydrolysis activity. Meanwhile, chebulagic acid did not have an obvious influence on intestinal glucose uptake and was not effective on glucose transporters. Further animal studies revealed that the oral administration of chebulagic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 11.1% in maltose-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats compared with the control group, whereas the oral administration of chebulagic acid did not show a suppressive effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in sucrose- or glucose-loaded SD-rats. The results presented here suggest that chebulagic acid from T. chebula can be used to control blood glucose and manage type 2 diabetes, although clinical trials are needed. PMID:22754367

  7. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of Standardized Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula in Healthy Human Participants Using Hot Air Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chiranjeevi Uday; Pokuri, Venkata Kishan

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain affects millions of people worldwide, opioid analgesics have been used for chronic painful conditions. Due to their adverse effects, safer alternatives would be beneficial. Terminalia chebula, with proven analgesic action has been evaluated in the hot air pain model for its analgesic activity. Aim To evaluate analgesic activity and safety of single oral dose of Terminalia chebula using hot air pain model in healthy human participants. Setting and Design Randomized, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Cross over study. Materials and Methods After taking written informed consent to IEC approved protocol, 12 healthy human participants were randomized to receive either single oral dose of two capsules of Terminalia chebula 500 mg each or identical placebo capsules in a double blinded manner. Thermal pain was assessed using hot air analgesiometer, to deliver thermal pain stimulus. Mean Pain Threshold time and Mean Pain Tolerance time measured in seconds at baseline and 180 minutes post drug. A washout period of two weeks was given for cross-over between the two treatments. Results Terminalia chebula significantly increased mean pain threshold and tolerance time compared to baseline and placebo. Mean pain threshold time increased from 34.06±2.63 seconds to 41.00±2.99 seconds (p<0.001) and mean pain tolerance time increased from 49.67± 3.72 seconds to 57.30±3.07 seconds (p<0.001). The increase in mean percentage change for pain threshold time is 20.42% (p<0.001) and for pain tolerance time is 17.50% (p<0.001). Conclusion In the present study, Terminalia chebula significantly increased Pain Threshold time and Pain Tolerance time compared to Placebo. Study medications were well tolerated. PMID:26155489

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula against t-BHP-Induced Acute Liver Injury in C57/BL6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jong Suk; Chung, Sun Ho; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia chebula water extract (TCW) and its corresponding pharmacological actions using C57/BL6 mice model of tert-butylhydroperoxide-(t-BHP-) induced acute liver injury. Mice were orally administered with TCW (0, 50, 100, or 200?mg/kg) or gallic acid (100?mg/kg) for 5 days before t-BHP (2.5?mM/kg) injection. Liver enzymes, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant components, and inflammatory cytokines were examined 18?h after t-BHP injection. t-BHP injection caused dramatic elevation of serum AST, ALT, and LDH level, while TCW pretreatment notably attenuated these elevations. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 were notably increased in hepatic tissues, and then these were efficiently attenuated by TCW pretreatment. t-BHP injection notably increased malondialdehyde, total reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide in the liver tissue, while it markedly dropped the antioxidant activities including total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione contents, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. TCW pretreatment remarkably ameliorated these alterations, and these effects were relevant to gene expressions. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Collectively, these findings well prove that TCW beneficially prevents acute and severe liver injury and clarify its corresponding mechanisms involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25691908

  9. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24 ?h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4?×?MBC) and reduced to zero within 20 ?h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp. PMID:26272388

  10. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW) suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7). Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA) expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:25784946

  11. Terminalia catappa (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    extensively to 3 3 differentiate taxa at the genus level, but other anatomical features, such as male and female terminalia, have also been important. Species-level classifications have employed a wide range of character suites to diagnose taxa... species have been differentiated on the basis of morphological differences of the head, mesoscutum, abdominal tergites and male terminalia. Larvae are found in areas of deep sand, including coastal and inland desert dunes, and lack the pit...

  12. Sustained release of a purified tannin component of Terminalia chebula from a titanium implant surface prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Varsha; Bhathena, Zarine

    2015-04-01

    Although biofilms are formed on a variety of surfaces, of utmost significance are those formed on prosthetic devices used as implants. Such biofilms can lead to severe device-related infections that are difficult to treat. In a search for new antibiofilm agents that can be used as "active" implant coatings, purified fraction from a tannin-rich extract of Terminalia chebula was isolated and tested for its antibiofilm properties on a titanium implant material. The fraction, named as Fraction 7, was found to significantly reduce biofilm formation by hospital isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, at sub-inhibitory concentrations that were 64 times lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Simulated local delivery systems of the Fraction 7 set upon the surface of titanium alloy released the fraction in a controlled manner from a biodegradable carrier (PDLLA) and were found to significantly reduce biofilm formation by a methicillin-resistant hospital isolate of S. aureus in a load concentration dependent manner without preventing growth. This study therefore identifies a novel fraction from tannin-rich extract of T. chebula that has potential to be used as an antibiofilm coat on implant surfaces. PMID:25680711

  13. Chebulagic acid from Terminalia chebula enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PPAR? signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shyni, Gangadharan Leela; Kavitha, Sasidharan; Indu, Sasidharan; Arya, Anil Das; Anusree, Sasidharan Suseela; Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Vandana, Sankar; Sundaresan, Andikannu; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZDs) class of drugs are very effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But due to the adverse effects of synthetic TZDs, their use is strictly regulated. The therapeutic actions of TZDs are mediated via modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Naturally occurring PPAR? modulators are more desirable as they lack the serious adverse effects caused by TZDs. This has prompted the exploitation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine, for their potential PPAR? activity. In the present work, we studied chebulagic acid (CHA) isolated from fruits of Terminalia chebula with respect to its effect on adipogenesis, glucose transport, and endocrine function of adipocyte. The mRNA expression profile of PPAR? target gene CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP-?) was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The putative binding mode and the potential ligand-target interactions of CHA, with PPAR? was analyzed using docking software (Autodock and iGEMDOCKv2). The results showed that CHA enhances PPAR? signaling and adipogenesis dose dependently but in a moderate way, less than rosiglitazone. GLUT4 expression and adiponectin secretion was increased by CHA treatment. The mRNA expression of PPAR? target gene C/EBP-? was increased in CHA -treated adipocytes. The comparison of results of various parameters of adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, endocrine function and molecular docking experiments of roziglitazone and chebulagic acid indicate that the latter behaves like partial PPAR? agonist which could be exploited for phytoceutical development against T2DM. PMID:25529897

  14. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and therapeutic mechanisms of Terminalia species and thus to highlight and direct future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus. PMID:26226895

  15. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

  16. An updated review of Terminalia catappa

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Arumugam Vijaya; Divya, Natarajan; Kotti, Pannerselvam Punniya

    2015-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn. is known for its nutritional fruit and possesses medicinal benefits as well. This is a comprehensive review of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits. T. catappa has been recognized for its medicinally essential phytoconstituents, such as phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid. Numerous pharmacological investigations have confirmed this plant's ability to exhibit antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities, all of which support its traditional uses. PMID:26392705

  17. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250?gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2?cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

  18. Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR-Alpha and PPAR-Gamma levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb.(Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. belleric...

  19. Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Chopra, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, ?-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored. PMID:25379463

  20. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  1. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  2. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

    2014-09-01

    The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

  3. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene–induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30th day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21st day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa. PMID:22701253

  4. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

  6. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 ?g/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:25876047

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the African deciduous tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Migliore, Jérémy; Tosso, Felicien; Kaymak, Esra; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were designed and characterized in the African timber forest tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae). Due to their high variability, these markers are suitable to investigate gene flow patterns and the structure of genetic diversity. Methods and Results: From a genomic library obtained by next-generation sequencing, seven monomorphic and 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 27 alleles (mean 11.4; expected heterozygosity range 0.283–0.940, mean 0.736) in one population from southeastern Cameroon. Genotypes were typical of an outbreeding diploid species, although null alleles explain a significant heterozygote deficit in three loci. Cross-amplification in three congeneric species (T. ivorensis, T. avicennioides, and T. mantaly) failed, suggesting that T. superba is rather divergent. Conclusions: This set of newly developed microsatellite markers will be useful for assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of T. superba in tropical African forests. PMID:26697276

  8. A Comparison of the Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Six Combretum and Two Terminalia Species from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Van Vuuren, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plants of the family Combretaceae are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes in southern Africa. In particular, many species of Combretum and Terminalia are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, yet their antimicrobial potential has not been rigorously studied and compared. Materials and Methods: A survey of antimicrobial activity was undertaken on selected South African Combretum and Terminalia species. Sixteen extracts from 6 Combretum and 2 Terminalia plant species with a history of medicinal usage were investigated by disc diffusion assay against a panel of bacteria and fungi and their MIC values were determined. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: All extracts tested displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 12-16 (75-100%) of the bacteria tested, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being approximately equally susceptible. Potent antibacterial activities (generally in the range 200-5000 ?g/ml) were evident for all Combretaceae extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the extracts also displayed good antifungal activity, inhibiting the growth of 2-3 (66.7-100%) of the fungal species tested, with fungal growth inhibition activities generally in the range 200–4000 ?g/ml. In general, the Terminalia extracts had better efficacies than the Combretum extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were generally better antimicrobial agents than the water extracts. All extracts were also shown to be non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. Conclusion: The lack of toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of bacteria and fungi indicate their potential as medicinal agents and partially validate their usage in multiple South African traditional medicinal systems. PMID:25709234

  9. Terminoside A, a new triterpene glycoside from the bark of Terminalia arjuna inhibits nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asif; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Abdullah, Tarique; Ali, Mohammed; Niwa, M; Alam, M S

    2003-06-01

    Terminoside A (1), a new oleanane-type triterpene was isolated from the acetone fraction of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna. The structure was established as olean-1alpha,3beta,22beta-triol-12-en-28-oic acid-3beta-D-glucopyranoside. On the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions, terminoside A, potently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:12765198

  10. Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Terminalia arjuna against Dehydrating Induced Oxidative Stress and Uremia in Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Das, Koushik; Pratim Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Debidas; Kumar Nandi, Dilip

    2010-01-01

    The present study has been designed to find out the protective effect of aqueus extract of Terminalia arjuna against dehydration induced oxidative stress and uremia, protection by plant extract in male Wister strain albino rats, and therefore to find out the scientific basis of local use of Terminalia arjuna bark extract by village ayurved doctors to protect the progressive kidney disorder (renal failure) relating to dehydration and other related problems. Water withdrawing for 15 days in male Wister strain albino rats resulted in a significant elevation in the level of blood nitrogenous products (i.e. urea and creatinine). On the other hand, it increased the levels of free radicals, melondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) along with a significant diminution in the activities of superoxide dismutse (SOD) and catalase in blood. All these water markers were significantly prevented after administration of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark. These results suggest that dehydration induced oxidative stress and uremia in male rats may be protected by using the above mentioned medicinal plants extract. This herbal extract showed no toxic effect on blood and kidney, based on the measurements of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities (data not shown). PMID:24363722

  11. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

  12. Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Enhui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Gao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunpeng; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Wuren; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Song, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75??g·mL?1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:25587343

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Terminalia catappa on UVB-Induced Photodamage in Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Shih, I-Chen; Hu, Jhe-Cyuan; Liao, Sue-Tsai; Su, Tsung-Wei; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Terminalia catappa L. hydrophilic extract (TCLW) prevents photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts after exposure to UVB radiation. TCLW exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis. In the gelatin digestion assay, the rates of collagenase inhibition by TCL methanol extract, TCLW, and its hydrolysates were greater than 100% at the concentration of 1?mg/mL. We found that serial dilutions of TCLW (10–500??g/mL) inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner (82.3% to 101.0%). However, TCLW did not significantly inhibit elastase activity. In addition, TCLW inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 protein expression at a concentration of 25??g/mL and inhibited MMP-3 protein expression at a concentration of 50??g/mL. TCLW also promoted the protein expression of type I procollagen. We also found that TCLW attenuated the expression of MMP-1, -3, and -9 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38. These findings suggest that TCLW increases the production of type I procollagen by inhibiting the activity of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and, therefore, has potential use in anti-aging cosmetics. PMID:20981325

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Terminalia catappa on UVB-Induced Photodamage in Fibroblast Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Shih, I-Chen; Hu, Jhe-Cyuan; Liao, Sue-Tsai; Su, Tsung-Wei; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Terminalia catappa L. hydrophilic extract (TCLW) prevents photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts after exposure to UVB radiation. TCLW exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis. In the gelatin digestion assay, the rates of collagenase inhibition by TCL methanol extract, TCLW, and its hydrolysates were greater than 100% at the concentration of 1?mg/mL. We found that serial dilutions of TCLW (10-500??g/mL) inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner (82.3% to 101.0%). However, TCLW did not significantly inhibit elastase activity. In addition, TCLW inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 protein expression at a concentration of 25??g/mL and inhibited MMP-3 protein expression at a concentration of 50??g/mL. TCLW also promoted the protein expression of type I procollagen. We also found that TCLW attenuated the expression of MMP-1, -3, and -9 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38. These findings suggest that TCLW increases the production of type I procollagen by inhibiting the activity of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and, therefore, has potential use in anti-aging cosmetics. PMID:20981325

  15. Physicochemical properties of Malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (Terminalia catappa).

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah Syed; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha

    2015-10-01

    The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23?±?0.09 %, ash 3.78?±?0.04 %, lipid 54.68?±?0.14 %, protein 17.66?±?0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97?±?0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68?±?0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36?±?0.16 %, starch 1.22?±?0.15 %, caloric value 593.48?±?0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human. PMID:26396409

  16. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 ?g/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h. PMID:26434854

  17. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  18. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  19. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Male Terminalia and Its Application to Species Recognition and Phylogenetic Reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans Group

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI?=?87 and RI?=?90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered. PMID:24915442

  20. FEMALE BIASED ATTRACTION OF ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS (HENDEL), TO A BLEND OF HOST FRUIT VOLATILES FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., identified 20 compounds which were detected by oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Compounds eliciting the largest EAD responses were geran...

  1. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    PubMed

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. PMID:25412525

  2. Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-02-11

    The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. PMID:24909378

  3. Micropropagtion of Terminalia bellerica from nodal explants of mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity using ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Bhawna; Khurana-Kaul, Varsha; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports an efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol for a medicinally important tree, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. from nodal segments of a 30 years old tree. Nodal segments taken from the mature tree in March-April and cultured on half strength MS medium gave the best shoot bud proliferation response. Combinations of serial transfer technique (ST) and incorporation of antioxidants (AO) [polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP (50 mg l(-1))?+?ascorbic acid (100 mg l(-1))?+?citric acid (10 mg l(-1))] in the culture medium aided to minimize browning and improve explant survival during shoot bud induction. Highest multiplication of shoots was achieved on medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA, 8.8 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 2.6 ?M) in addition to antioxidants. Shoot elongation was obtained on MS medium containing BA (4.4 ?M)?+?phloroglucinol (PG, 3.9 ?M). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 2.5 ?M) for root development. The acclimatization of plantlets was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was checked using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Comparison of the bands among the regenerants and mother plant confirmed true-to-type clonal plants. PMID:25320474

  4. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed.

    PubMed

    Adu, O B; Ogundeko, T O; Ogunrinola, O O; Saibu, G M; Elemo, B O

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of Terminalia catappa seed. Moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. In vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. For the in vivo experiment, defatted T. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old Wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and nitrogen- free diets. The biological value (BV), net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the diets were determined. Free amino acid composition was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Moisture was highest in the boiled T. catappa seed (8.30?±?0.00 %). The raw, roasted and dried seeds had 5.55?±?0.07, 3.88?±?0.22 and 3.75?±?0.07 % respectively. Crude protein was 19.19, 18.89, 17.62 and 16.36 % in the dried, roasted, boiled and raw seeds respectively. Roasted T. catappa seed had the highest in vitro protein digestibility with 37.52 %, while the dried, boiled and raw samples had digestibility values of 27.57, 27.07 and 24.45 % respectively. All nine essential amino acids were present in T. catappa in high concentrations except methionine and tryptophan. Glutamate was present in the highest concentration. Also, free amino acids were higher in the processed seeds compared to the raw seed. Animals fed T. catappa diet compared favourably with the casein group, thus indicating that the protein is of good quality. PMID:26139937

  5. Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Manisenthilkumar, KT

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2?000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition. PMID:23569911

  6. In Vivo and In Vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Terminalia paniculata Bark: An Evaluation of Possible Phytoconstituents and Mechanisms for Blood Glucose Control in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Adhirajan, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate in vivo, in vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) and characterize its possible phytoconstituents responsible for the actions. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin-nicotinamide (65?mg/kg–110?mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Oral treatment of AETPB using rat oral needle at 100 and 200?mg/kg doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in diabetic rats than diabetic control rats. AETPB-treated diabetic rats body weight, total protein, insulin, and haemoglobin levels were increased significantly (P < 0.001) than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001) reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein levels were observed in type 2 diabetic rats after AETPB administration. Presence of biomarkers gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in AETPB was confirmed in HPLC analysis. AETPB and gallic acid showed significant (P < 0.001) enhancement of glucose uptake action in presence of insulin in muscle cells than vehicle control. Also AETPB inhibited pancreatic ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. In conclusion, the above actions might be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of AETPB due to presence of gallic acid and other biomarkers. PMID:23936668

  7. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

  8. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

  9. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  10. Polyphenol extracts from Punica granatum and Terminalia chebula are anti-inflammatory and increase the survival rate of chickens challenged with Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian colibacillosis, inflammation in multi-organs of chickens, and results in serious economic loss to the chicken industry. Polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects again...

  11. Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

    2012-07-01

    Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna. PMID:22761141

  12. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2006-01-01

    Background Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice. Methods Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of TA (50 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days. Serum marker enzymes, namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in the sera of all study groups. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); as well as by determining the levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined from its DPPH radical quenching ability. Results Results showed that CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of GPT and ALP. TBARS level was also increased significantly whereas GSH, SOD, CAT and GST levels were decreased in the liver and kidney tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated mice. Aqueous extract of TA successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals. Data also showed that the extract possessed strong free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the bark of TA could protect the liver and kidney tissues against CCl4-induced oxidative stress probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities. PMID:17010209

  13. Healing Properties of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulceration of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chaudhuri, Susri R.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

    2007-01-01

    The healing activity of the ethanol extracts of Piper betel, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, and Terminalia chebula against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied and compared with that of misoprostol. Compared to autohealing, all the drugs accelerated the healing process, albeit to different extents. The relative healing activities of the extracts was P. betel>E. officinalis>T. bellerica~T. chebula, that correlated well with their in vivo antioxidant and mucin augmenting activities. The excellent healing activity of the extracts of P. betel and E. officinalis indicated a major role of mucin protection and regeneration in the healing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediated stomach ulceration. PMID:18193104

  14. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  15. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Pooja J; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470

  16. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Sz?yk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  17. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pooja J.; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470

  18. Thai ethnomedicinal plants as resistant modifying agents for combating Acinetobacter baumannii infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background Acinetobacter baumannii is well-recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen, however, due to their intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics, treatment options are limited. Synergistic effects between antibiotics and medicinal plants, particularly their active components, have intensively been studied as alternative approaches. Methods Fifty-one ethanol extracts obtained from 44 different selected medicinal plant species were tested for resistance modifying agents (RMAs) of novobiocin against A. baumannii using growth inhibition assay. Results At 250??g/ml, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Punica granatum, Quisqualis indica, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia sp. that possessed low intrinsic antibacterial activity significantly enhanced the activity of novobiocin at 1??g/ml (1/8xminimum inhibitory concentration) against this pathogen. Holarrhena antidysenterica at 7.8??g/ml demonstrated remarkable resistant modifying ability against A. baumannii in combination with novobiocin. The phytochemical study revealed that constituents of this medicinal plant contain alkaloids, condensed tannins, and triterpenoids. Conclusion The use of Holarrhena antidysenterica in combination with novobiocin provides an effective alternative treatment for multidrug resistant A. baumannii infections. PMID:22536985

  19. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  20. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M M; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  2. Evaluation of direct antiviral activity of the Deva-5 herb formulation and extracts of five Asian plants against influenza A virus H3N8

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz. Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8. Methods The water extracts of the herbal parts of G. decumbens, H. erectum and P. bistorta, the seeds of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis and Deva-5 were prepared by boiling and clarified by low-speed centrifugation and filtration. To assess the antiviral properties, avian influenza virus isolate A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010(H3N8) was incubated at 37°C for 30 min in the presence and absence of the extracts of five plants and DEVA-5 in various concentrations. Subsequently, the concentration of infectious virus in each sample was determined by plaque assays. Neutralisation indexes and 90% plaque reduction concentrations were estimated for each extract, and the significance of the data was evaluated using statistical methods. Results The extracts of G. decumbens, H. erectum, P. bistorta and Deva-5 demonstrated no significant toxicity at concentrations up to 2%, whereas extracts of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis were well-tolerated by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells at concentrations up to 1%. The extracts of H. erectum, M. cochinchinensis and T. chebula reduced the titre of A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010 (H3N8) by approximately five-fold (p???0.05). The other three extracts did not significantly reduce the infectivity of the virus. The plaque reduction neutralisation tests revealed that none of the extracts tested were able to inhibit formation of plaques by 90%. However, three extracts, H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis, were able to inhibit formation of plaques by more than 50% at low dilutions from 1:3 to 1:14. The T. chebula extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. Conclusions For the first time, the consistent direct antiviral action of the extracts of H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis was detected. These extracts significantly reduced the infectivity of influenza A virus H3N8 in vitro when used at high concentrations (0.5–1%). However, Deva-5 itself and the remainder of its components did not exhibit significant antiviral action. The results suggest that H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis plants contain substances with direct antiviral activity and could be promising sources of new antiviral drugs. PMID:25012588

  3. Expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 is reduced by ayurvedic decoctions.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Mancini, Irene; Maietti, Silvia; Rossi, Damiano; Poli, Ferruccio; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Eleven decoctions, obtained from indian plants widely used in ayurvedic medicine, have been investigated as a possible source of molecules exhibiting biological activity on the interaction between DNA and NF-kB, a transcription factor involved in the expression of proinflammatory genes. Cystic fibrosis (CF) cell line stimulated by TNF-? has been used as inflammatory cellular model to determinate interleukin-8 (IL-8), one of the most relevant pro-inflammatory mediator in CF regulated by the NF-kB. The chemical characterization of these 11 decoctions by spectrophotometric analysis and NMR fingerprinting highlighted that sugars and polyphenols seemed to be the main compounds. Our results demonstrated that Azadirachta indica, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula, Hemidesmus indicus, Emblica officinalis and Swertia chirata are the most active decoctions in inhibiting NF-kB/DNA interactions by EMSA assay and in reducing pro-inflammatory IL- 8 expression in CF cells at IC50 concentrations by Real-Time and Bio-plex analyses. Finally, we observed the increase of all inhibitory activities with the rise of total polyphenols, procyanidins and flavonoids, except for the levels of IL-8 mRNA accumulation, that were as high as flavonoid content grown up by the statistical multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these six decoctions might be interesting to explore new anti-inflammatory treatments for diseases, such as CF. PMID:24395450

  4. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  5. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  6. Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

  7. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

  8. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  9. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  10. Biological screening of selected flora of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Raza Shah, M; Qayum, Mughal; Ercisli, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of different parts of five medicinal plants, Ferula assafoetidaL. resin, Grewia asiaticaL. leaves, Ipomoea hederaceaJacq. seeds, Lepidium sativumL. seeds and Terminalia chebulaRetz. fruits were tested in vitrofor their cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal and anthelmintic activities. Ipomoea hederaceashowed very significant phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition of Lemna minorgrowth and 100% death of Artemia salinaat concentrations of 1000 and 100 µg mL-1. Grewia asiaticaexhibited very weak activities while Lepidium sativumand Ferula assafoetidashowed moderate to good potential in all three bioassays. The results suggest screening of Ipomoea hederaceaseeds further for isolation of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its toxic potential. PMID:23558994

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rattanasena, Paweena

    2012-09-15

    The vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand have been suggested as rich sources of beneficial phytochemicals. In this study, vegetables and fruits native to the Northeast region of Thailand were evaluated for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. For vegetables, the extracts of Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr. (extracted by 80% ethanol) and Sauropus androgynus (Linn.) Merr. (extracted by distilled water) were found to have significant levels of antioxidant activities measured by DPPH scavenging (IC5o at 4.92+/-0.01 and 4.71+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively) and FRAP antioxidant assays (74.38+/-0.25 and 74.00+/-0.04 mmol FeSO4 g-' of dry weight of vegetable, respectively) and also total phenolic compounds (10.96+/-0.02 and 10.34+/-0.01 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of vegetable). For fruits, the extracts derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. when using distilled water and 80% ethanol as solvents were shown to have significantly high levels of DPPH scavenging (IC50 at 3.73+/-0.01 and 3.81+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively), FRAP antioxidant activities (80.85+/-0.10 and 65.93+/-0.11 mmol FeSO4 g-1of dry weight of fruit, respectively) and total phenolic compounds (13.10+/-0.06 and 10.66+/-0.02 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of fruit, respectively). The antibacterial assays showed that Moringa oleifera Lam., Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. that were extracted using 80% ethanol as solvent were found to have antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Straphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Propionibacterium acnes. The results in this study may be useful for future application of edible plants that are native to Thailand to be used as cosmetic or therapqutic products. PMID:24205757

  12. Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

    2014-06-01

    Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

  13. Investigation of heavy metals in frequently utilized medicinal plants collected from environmentally diverse locations of north western India.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Alpana; Sheorayan, Arun; Bajar, Somvir; Sarkar, Susheel; Chaudhury, Ashok; Kalia, Rajwant K

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of environmental pollution, especially soil contamination with heavy metals has led to their uptake in the human food chains through plant parts. Accumulation and magnification of heavy metals in human tissues through consumption of herbal remedies can cause hazardous impacts on health. Therefore, chemical profiling of nine heavy metals (Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni and Hg) was undertaken in stem and leaf samples of ten medicinal plants (Acacia nilotica, Bacopa monnieri, Commiphora wightii, Ficus religiosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hemidesmus indicus, Salvadora oleoides, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera) collected from environmentally diverse regions of Haryana and Rajasthan states in North-Western India. Concentration of all heavy metals, except Cr, was within permissible limits in the tested stem and leaf samples. Leaf samples had consistently more Cr compared to respective stem samples with highest concentration in leaf samples of Bacopa monnieri (13.19?±?0.0480 ppm) and stem samples of Withania somnifera (4.93?±?0.0185 ppm) both collected from Bahadurgarh (heavy industrial area), Haryana. This amount was beyond the permissible limit of 2.0 ppm defined by WHO for raw herbal material. Other two most perilous metals Pb (2.64?±?0.0260) and Cd (0.04?±?0.0274) were also recorded in Bahadurgarh region, although below permissible limits. Concentration of Hg remained below detectable levels in all the leaf and stem samples tested. These results suggested that cultivation of medicinal plants and other dietary herbs should be curtailed near environmentally polluted especially industrial areas for avoidance of health hazards. PMID:24386622

  14. Assessing the Effects of Multiple Stressors on the Recruitment of Fruit Harvested Trees in a Tropical Dry Forest, Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India’s Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which factors are most important in limiting recruitment of NTFP populations and other plant species that may be in decline, in order to design effective management strategies. PMID:25781482

  15. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which factors are most important in limiting recruitment of NTFP populations and other plant species that may be in decline, in order to design effective management strategies. PMID:25781482

  16. A tropical freshwater wetlands: I. Structure, growth, and regeneration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Waguk, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Forested wetlands dominated by Terminalia carolinensis are endemic to Micronesia but common only on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. On Kosrae, these forests occur on Nansepsep, Inkosr, and Sonahnpil soil types, which differ in degree of flooding and soil saturation. We compared forest structure, growth, nutrition, and regeneration on two sites each on Nansepsep and Inkosr soils and one site on the much less common Sonahnpil soil type. Terminalia tree sizes were similar on all three soil types, but forests differed in total basal area, species of smaller trees, and total plant species diversity. Terminalia regeneration was found only on the Inkosr soil type, which had the highest water table levels. Other Terminalia species are relatively light demanding, and T. carolinensis exhibited similar characteristics. It is therefore likely that Terminalia requires periodic, but perhaps naturally rare, stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., typhoons) in order to maintain its dominanace, except on the wettest sites, where competition from other species is reduced. Terminalia swamps in the Nansepsep soil type appeared to be at the greatest risk of conversion to other uses, but swamps on all three types may face reater pressure as Kosrae's population increases and the island's infrastrucure becomes more developed.

  17. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23800215

  18. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  19. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  20. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials. PMID:18322727

  1. Anti-Arthritic Effect of Chebulanin on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinglan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yao; Zhou, Dan; Dai, Qing; Liu, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic degenerative autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation of synovial membranes, which leads to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. To date, there are no effective therapies to slow the progress of this degenerative condition. Here, we evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of chebulanin, an abundant anti-inflammatory agent isolated from Terminalia chebula, in collagen induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice by intragastric administration. Arthritic severity was scored by performing histopathological evaluation of the joints and measuring the expression of inflammatory cytokines and relative enzymes by immunohistochemical staining. In parallel, bone destruction and erosion were confirmed by micro-CT. Our data revealed that chebulanin significantly improved the severity of arthritis. Specifically, the histopathological characteristics of the tissues were improved and expression of TNF-?, IL-6, MMP-3 and COX-2 in the paws and joints of the treated mice decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with control mice. Furthermore, micro-CT analysis revealed that chebulanin induced a dose-dependent reduction in cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Taken together, our findings suggest that chebulanin suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators and prevents cartilage destruction and bone erosion in mice. Therefore, chebulanin is a strong therapeutic alternative for the treatment of RA. PMID:26402786

  2. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7. PMID:14708456

  3. [Tri-phal? (Three Myrobalans) as Described in the Second Part of the Bower Manuscript, the N?van?taka].

    PubMed

    Natsume, Yohko

    2015-01-01

    In India, since ancient times Tri-phal? (meaning "three fruits" in Sanskrit) has been considered to be a combination of the following fruits: -Har?tak? (Terminalia chebula, Retz.), ?malaka (Embelica officinalis Gaertn), and Vibh?taka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.). These plants are also listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Har?tak? and ?malaka have also been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times in Japan under the Japanese names of (see text) (Kariroku) and (see text) (Annmaroku), respectively. Both have been carefully preserved as treasured drugs in the nationally important Shosoin treasure storehouse. This study attempts to clarify the description of Tri-phal? in the N?van?taka, which is the second part of the Bower Manuscript (Bower Ms.), and examines the reasons why these plants were combined. This paper begins with a summary description of Tri-phal? in the context of traditional Asian medicine, followed by the delineation of drug selection principles in Ayurveda. Tri-phal? formulas in the N?van?taka are then examined. The Carakasamhit? (CS) treats Tri-phal? as a purifier and tonic (ras?yana), describing it as a formula for rejuvenation and longevity. On the other hand, the Susrutasamhitd (SS) regards Tri-phal? as having the efficacy of balancing kapha (phlegm) and pitta (bile), and also as being a medicine to promote excretion and enhance digestive functions for better nutritional intake. It is described to have an effect of curing diseases by keeping the tridh?u (theree element) valance. Tri-phal? is thus used as an ingredient of laxatives for diseases that result from kapha imbalance and tonic. The A???ngah?dayasamhit? (AHS) considers Tri-phal? to have a particular superiority among cure-all medicines with the power to dispel illness. It controls kapha and overcomes blood diseases. Tri-phal? formulas found in the N?van?taka were prescribed for the treatment of abdominal tumors induced by v?yu (wind) disorder as well as for coughs caused by pitta and kapha disorder. Tri-phal? was also administered to facilitate nutrient absorption, regulate bowel function, and promote excretion. Tri-phal? thus restores the balance of tridh?u by facilitating water distribution in the body. For these reasons, the optimal combination of Tri-phal? was then established to adjust kapha for most efficient purification effects. PMID:26427099

  4. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152

  5. Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, V; Mathivha, E; Gouws, M C; van Rensburg, C E J

    2004-12-01

    Aqueous and methanol extracts of Urtica urens, Capparis tomentosa, Dicoma anomala, Leonotis leonorus, Xysmalobium undulatum, Helichrysum foetidum, Pterocarpus angolensis, Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa, plants documented as being used for topical wound healing in the literature, were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol and water extracts of two of these plants, Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa, were more active compared to the other extracts against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The effects of the latter plants on fibroblast growth as well as oxidant production by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine were also studied. The water and methanol extracts of Terminalia sericea and Gunnera perpensa significantly decreased luciginin enhanced chemiluminescence at concentrations of 100 microg/ml and higher. However, the extracts had no effect on the growth of primary human fibroblasts. PMID:15507359

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Chebulagic Acid via Autophagy Induction in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Ju; Kim, Joonki; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Keun Taik; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2014-07-01

    Autophagy is a series of catabolic process mediating the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles through formation of a double-membrane vesicle, known as an autophagosome, and fusing with lysosome. Autophagy plays an important role of death-survival decisions in neuronal cells, which may influence to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Chebulagic acid, the major constituent of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, is a benzopyran tannin compound with various kinds of beneficial effects. This study was performed to investigate the autophagy enhancing effect of chebulagic acid on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. We determined the effect of chebulagic acid on expression levels of autophago-some marker proteins such as, DOR/TP53INP2, Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE 16) and Light chain 3 II (LC3 II), as well as those of its upstream pathway proteins, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Beclin-1. All of those proteins were modulated by chebulagic acid treatment in a way of enhancing the autophagy. Additionally in our study, chebulagic acid also showed a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) - induced cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson's disease. This effect seems partially mediated by enhanced autophagy which increased the degradation of aggregated or misfolded proteins from cells. This study suggests that chebulagic acid is an attractive candidate as an autophagy-enhancing agent and therefore, it may provide a promising strategy to prevent or cure the diseases caused by accumulation of abnormal proteins including Parkinson's disease. PMID:25143804

  7. In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 ?g/ml and 68 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 ?g/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 ?g/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 ?g/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 ?g/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 ?g/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 ?g/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

  8. A new case of an Holarctic element in the Colombian Andes: first record of Cordyla Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from the Neotropical region

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Mycetophilidae – Cordyla monticola sp. n., Cordyla pseudopusilla sp. n. and Cordyla reducta sp. n. – are described from the Colombian Andes, representing the first described species of Cordyla Meigen from the Neotropical region. Colour photos of their habitus, wing and terminalia are provided. The morphological affinities of male terminalia are discussed in a worldwide context. The distributional pattern of the genus clearly indicates a case of northern elements reaching the north-western region of the Neotropics that corresponds to a secondary extension of a Holarctic clade to the south. PMID:26445929

  9. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  10. Redescription of Japanagromyza inferna Spencer, first recorded from Brazil, and a key to the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera, Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Viviane Rodrigues; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    Japanagromyza inferna Spencer is recorded for the first time from Brazil, in the North coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, inducing galls in Centrosema virginianum L. (Fabaceae). The species is redescribed, with illustrations of male and female terminalia. A key to the identification of the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa is presented. PMID:24493964

  11. Redescription of Japanagromyza inferna Spencer, first recorded from Brazil, and a key to the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera, Agromyzidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Viviane Rodrigues; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Japanagromyza inferna Spencer is recorded for the first time from Brazil, in the North coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, inducing galls in Centrosema virginianum L. (Fabaceae). The species is redescribed, with illustrations of male and female terminalia. A key to the identification of the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa is presented. PMID:24493964

  12. RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA TO LIQUID PROTEIN BAITS AND SYNTHETIC LURE FORMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa;...

  13. Studies in the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz with a revision of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell and Omegeleodes, new subgenus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Eleodin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomic history of the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz is reviewed and the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell redefined based on characters of the female terminalia with Blaps carbonaria Say herein designated as type-species. Eleodes debilis LeConte is removed from Melaneleodes to a new monotypic subg...

  14. High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in

    E-print Network

    Terminalia Cacao a b s t r a c t In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplo- dia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao diversity,moderate degreesof genotypic diversity, andhigh levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao

  15. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

    PubMed

    Rege, N N; Thatte, U M; Dahanukar, S A

    1999-06-01

    Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose, following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested. All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked. Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation. PMID:10404532

  16. Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

  17. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of ethnopharmacologically selected guinean plants.

    PubMed

    Traore, Mohammed Sahar; Diane, Sere; Diallo, Mamadou Saliou Telly; Balde, Elhadj Saïdou; Balde, Mamadou Aliou; Camara, Aïssata; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Keita, Abdoulaye; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Pieters, Luc; Balde, Aliou Mamadou

    2014-10-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical survey, 41 Guinean plant species widely used in the traditional treatment of fever and/or malaria were collected. From these, 74 polar and apolar extracts were prepared and tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity along with their cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cells. A potent activity (IC50 Terminalia albida, Vismia guineensis, Spondias mombin, and Pavetta crassipes against Plasmodium falciparum; for Pavetta crassipes, Vismia guineensis, Guiera senegalensis, Spondias mombin, Terminalia macroptera, and Combretum glutinosum against Trypanosoma brucei brucei; for Bridelia ferruginea, G. senegalensis, V. guineensis, P. crassipes, and C. glutinosum against Trypanosoma cruzi. Only the extract of Tetracera alnifolia showed a good activity (IC50 8.1?µg/mL) against Leishmania infantum. The selectivity index of the active samples varied from 0.08 to >?100. These results may validate at least in part the traditional use of some of the plant species. PMID:25180493

  18. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-01

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml). PMID:15894143

  19. High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

  20. A new species of Neomida Latreille from Colombia, with additional records and a complementary description for Neomida suilla (Champion) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Diaperini)

    PubMed Central

    Aloquio, Sergio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neomida diminuta sp. n. is described, based on a single male specimen from Colombia, and a redescription of Neomida suilla (Champion) is given. Data on the morphology of the aedeagus for both species, and on the female abdominal terminalia for Neomida suilla are provided. New records of Neomida suilla from Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Brazil are given. PMID:25901124

  1. A new species of Ptiloglossa from Mexico, with new records of Ptiloglossa cyaniventris from Panama and Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    E-print Network

    Ayala, Ricardo; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-06-30

    - Figures 5–7. Male terminalia of Ptiloglossa chamelensis, new species, from Mexico. 5. Metasomal sternum VII. 6. Metasomal sternum VIII. 7. Ventral view of genital capsule. Journal of Melittology6 No. 35 ally with setae shorter and slightly more sparse... of the female of P. rugata is more prominent and robust, forming in some specimens a discal depres- sion. Ptiloglossa chamelensis seems to form a group of closely related species with P. tomentosa (Friese) and P. rugata. Ptiloglossa cyaniventris Friese (Figs...

  2. Mammals of Cabo Blanco: History, diversity, and conservation after 45 years of regrowth of a Costa Rican dry forest

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton; McClearn, Deedra

    2009-09-01

    ), and panama´ (Sterculia apetala; Sterculiaceae). The common palm species biscoyol (Bactris minor; Arecaceae) and royal palm form aggrega- tionsongentleslopesandterraces;andbeachalmondoralmendro de playa (Terminalia catappa; Combretaceae) and plumeria or flor... of ‘‘tapando frijoles,’’ in which the dried seeds are broadcast over old, drying maize stalks which have been chopped and left on the ground following the harvest. This provides the humid conditions that favor germination, a raised mat of drying cornstalks...

  3. Reproductive Isolation and Morphogenetic Evolution in Drosophila Analyzed by Breakage of Ethological Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, L.; Santamaria, P.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the breaking of ethological barriers through the constitution of soma-germ line chimeras between species of the melanogaster subgroup of Drosophila, which are ethologically isolated. Female Drosophila yakuba and D. teissieri germ cells in a D. melanogaster ovary produced functional oocytes that, when fertilized by D. melanogaster sperm, gave rise to sterile yakuba-melanogaster and teissieri-melanogaster male and female hybrids. However, the erecta-melanogaster and orena-melanogaster hybrids were lethal, since female D. erecta and D. orena germ cells in a D. melanogaster ovary failed to form oocytes with the capacity to develop normally. This failure appears to be caused by an altered interaction between the melanogaster soma and the erecta and orena germ lines. Germ cells of D. teissieri and D. orena in a D. melanogaster testis produced motile sperm that was not stored in D. melanogaster females. This might be due to incompatibility between the teissieri and orena sperm and the melanogaster seminal fluid. A morphological analysis of the terminalia of yakuba-melanogaster and teissieri-melanogaster hybrids was performed. The effect on the terminalia of teissieri-melanogaster hybrids of a mutation in doublesex, a regulatory gene that controls the development of the terminalia, was also investigated. PMID:9286683

  4. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid (CA) and liver (all the extracts). The alterations promoted by TC extract could be related to cardiotonic, antidiabetes and renal toxicity. The alteration in liver in EA and CA extracts could be related to its hepatoprotective activities. The extracts (EA, MI, BG) were not capable to interfere in the survival of E. coli. Moreover, these extracts have protected the E. coli against the SnCl 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some pitfalls in the nuclear medicine.

  5. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed. PMID:19070189

  6. Evaluation of the yield of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer on selected economic tree species.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, S M; Akpaja, E O; Anyiador, F

    2007-12-01

    Sawdust from seven economic trees (Mansonia altissima, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Nesogordonia papaverifera, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Terminalia sp., Khaya ivorensis and Brachystegia nigerica were used to cultivate Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer. The highest mycelial density was observed in the sawdust of Mansonia altissimia and lowest in Piptadeniastrum africanum. Time of premodial emergence, fresh weight of mushroom and number of flushes varied from one sawdust to the other. The best sawdust for the growth of this mushroom among the sawdust of the economic trees was that of Combretodendron macrocarpum. PMID:19086587

  7. Phoomyia, a new genus of Dolichopodinae from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Dolichopodidae).

    PubMed

    Naglis, Stefan; Grootaert, Patrick; Brooks, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Phoomyia Naglis & Grootaert gen. nov. is described to include two new species of beach-dwelling dolichopodine flies from coastal Sri Lanka and Thailand: Phoontyia srilankensis Naglis & Brooks sp. nov. and Phoomnyia thailandensis Naglis & Grootaert sp. nov. The new genus is closely related to the genera Argyrochlamys Lamb and Pseudargyrochlamys Grichanov, and is distinguished based on characters of the hind leg, and features of the male and female terminalia. Adults of Phoomyia are found on sandy coastal beaches often near the burrows of ghost crabs. PMID:26217840

  8. Baeopterogyna mihalyii Matile (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): association of sexes using morphological and molecular approaches with the first description of females

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Õunap, Erki; Ramel, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Both males and females of Baeopterogyna mihalyiiMatile, 1975 are recorded from northern Greece. Females are described for the first time providing photographs of the general facies and terminalia. In contrast to the single congener with stenopterous females – Baeopterogyna nudipes Vockeroth, 1972 – Baeopterogyna mihalyii is shown to have normally developed wings in both sexes. Association of sexes is based on both morphological characters and sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI). DNA sequences are used for the first time for the association of sexes in Mycetophilidae. PMID:21976994

  9. A new species of Alhajarmyia Stuckenberg (Diptera: Vermileonidae), the first wormlion fly described from East Africa and its biogeographical implications.

    PubMed

    Swart, Vaughn R; Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Copeland, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    A second species of the genus Alhajarmyia Stuckenberg (A. stuckenbergi Swart, Kirk-Spriggs & Copeland, sp. n.), is described and figured, from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya (Kasigau Mountain and Taita Hills), being the first vermileonid recorded from East Africa. The species is shown to differ from its congener, A. umbraticola (Stuckenberg & Fisher), described from Oman in the Arabian Peninsula, based on external characters including male and female terminalia. An identification key is provided together with distribution maps for the two species, and biogeographical aspects are discussed. PMID:26624725

  10. Ceriomicrodon petiolatus Hull, 1937 (Diptera, Syrphidae, Microdontinae): Redescription and new records.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Gil Felipe Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The monotypic genus Ceriomicrodon Hull, 1937 was known in the current literature by a few specimens, all from Brazil but with records only for Mato Grosso and Roraima states. The only species of the genus is here redescribed including the description of the female and its terminalia, in addition to a preliminary description of the egg. Images of male and female genitalia and egg are provided. New Brazilian records for Amazonas, Maranhão and Rondônia and a brief diagnosis to distinguish that genus from other similar Microdontinae genera are presented.  PMID:25112269

  11. Revision of the genus Ateralphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni, 2001 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Diego De S; Monné, Marcela L

    2013-01-01

    A revision of the genus Ateralphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni, 2001, based on the detailed study of the morphology of the type-species and on the external morphology and terminalia of the others species is presented. The genus and species are redescribed and three new species are described. The genus is composed of nine species: A. dejeani (Lane, 1973), A. javariensis (Lane, 1965), A. lacteus Galileo & Martins, 2006, A. senilis (Bates, 1862), A. subsellatus (White, 1855), A. variegatus (Mendes, 1938), A. auritarsus new species, A. lucianeae new species and A. tumidus new species. A key for identification of the species and maps of their geographical distribution are provided. PMID:25112632

  12. Remarks of the genus Mirollia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Hai-Jian; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Mirollia species from China are discussed with six new species described. The male stridulatory structures and abdominal terminalia are used as the main taxonomic characters. The species are: M. maculosus sp. nov., M. terminalis sp. nov., M. petiolulata sp. nov., M. acutilobata sp. nov., M. amplecta sp. nov. and M. unispina sp. nov. Two species are reported as new records for China, namely M. caligata Ingrisch, 1998 and M. hexapinna Ingrisch, 1998, the female of M. deficientis Gorochov, 2005 is described for the first time. A key to species and a distribution map for the genus Mirollia in China are provided. All specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University. PMID:26624131

  13. New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Eight species are recognized among New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin, including seven new species (A. cajanuma sp. nov. (Ecuador), A. chilensis sp. nov. (Chile), A. chiricahua sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. dominica sp. nov. (Dominica), A. havasu sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. lutea sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and A. mexicana sp. nov. (Mexico)). The new species are described, male terminalia illustrated, distributions mapped and a key to species is presented. Two additional undescribed species based on single females, are known from Ecuador and Venezuela. PMID:26624767

  14. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2015-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

  15. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-01

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis. PMID:17825510

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-? and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gusman, Grasielle S.; Campana, Priscilla R. V.; Castro, Luciano C.; Castilho, Rachel O.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Braga, Fernão C.

    2015-01-01

    Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ? and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-? and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-? production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-? effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-? or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25878716

  17. Inhibition of Heinz body induction in an in vitro model and total antioxidant activity of medicinal Thai plants.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Tamaporn; Pradniwat, Paweena; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries and known to possess antioxidant properties that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We screen aqueous extracts from 20 medicinal plants in Thailand that were believed to possess anti-tumor activity, help immune-stimulating property and maintain blood stasis. The antioxidant activities were investigated in two bioassays. Firstly, we demonstrated inhibition of Heinz bodies induction caused by oxidants under in vitro condition. The percentages of Heinz body inhibition activity in plant extracts from Terminalia citrina, Cassia timoriensis, and Derris elliptica were the highest followed by Anamirta cocculus, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. In addition, we investigated total antioxidant activity in plant extracts by improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The total antioxidant activity of the extract from Terminalia citrina was also the highest activity followed by Ficus pubigera, Derris elliptica, Anamirta cocculus, Caesalpinia sappan, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. Our results suggest medicinal Thai plants as valuable sources of antioxidants, which may have a potential anti-carcinogenic activity. PMID:16435991

  18. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa-of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera-and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Acrochaeta based on features of the head, thorax and abdomen. An inner clade (Acrochaeta flaveola species group) within the genus was clearly recovered based on characters of male and female terminalia. There is good evidence for the paraphyly of Merosargus with Acrochaeta as a subclade, demanding a wider study of the subfamily for a sound solution for the genus Merosargus. PMID:26624773

  19. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043

  20. Taxonomic revision of Phygopoda Thomson, 1864 and Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Carelli, Allan; Monné, Marcela L

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic revision based on the study of the external morphology and the terminalia of Phygopoda Thomson, 1864 and Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 is presented. The genera and their species are redescribed. Five synonymies are proposed: Panamapoda Clarke, 2014 and Paraphygopoda Clarke, 2014 = Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007; Paraphygopoda viridimicans (Fisher, 1952); Paraphygopoda nappae Clarke, 2014; and Paraphygopoda longipennis (Zajciw, 1963) = Pseudophygopoda albitarsis (Klug, 1825). The genus Phygopoda is composed of five species: Phygopoda fugax Thomson, 1864; Phygopoda fulvitarsis Gounelle, 1911; Phygopoda ingae Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004; Phygopoda jacobi Fuchs, 1961; and Phygopoda nigritarsis Gounelle, 1911. Pseudophygopoda is now composed of three species: Pseudophygopoda subvestita (White, 1855), Pseudophygopoda panamensis (Giesbert, 1996) comb. nov., and Pseudophygopoda albitarsis (Klug, 1825) comb. nov. New geographical records are reported for six species. A key to the species of Phygopoda and Pseudophygopoda, photographs, plates of drawings, and maps of the geographical distribution of the species are provided. PMID:26624128

  1. Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Adams, Gerard C; Cannon, Paul F; Castlebury, Lisa A; Crous, Pedro W; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Mejia, Luis C; Stoykov, Dmitar; Udayanga, Dhanushka; Voglmayr, Hermann; Walker, Donald M

    2015-06-01

    In advancing to one name for fungi, this paper treats generic names competing for use in the order Diaporthales (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) and makes a recommendation for the use or protection of one generic name among synonymous names that may be either sexually or asexually typified. A table is presented that summarizes these recommendations. Among the genera most commonly encountered in this order, Cytospora is recommended over Valsa and Diaporthe over Phomopsis. New combinations are introduced for the oldest epithet of important species in the recommended genus. These include Amphiporthe tiliae, Coryneum lanciforme, Cytospora brevispora, C. ceratosperma, C. cinereostroma, C. eugeniae, C. fallax, C. myrtagena, Diaporthe amaranthophila, D. annonacearum, D. bougainvilleicola, D. caricae-papayae, D. cocoina, D. cucurbitae, D. juniperivora, D. leptostromiformis, D. pterophila, D. theae, D. vitimegaspora, Mastigosporella georgiana, Pilidiella angustispora, P. calamicola, P. pseudogranati, P. stromatica, and P. terminaliae. PMID:26203420

  2. Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

  3. Two new Neuratelia Rondani (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) species from Western Palaearctic: a case of limited congruence between morphology and DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Õunap, Erki; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new Mycetophilidae species, Neuratelia jabalmoussae sp. n. and Neuratelia salmelai sp. n. are described on the basis of material collected from Lebanon, Estonia and Finland. Detailed figures of male terminalia and photographs of general facies are provided along with discussions of their morphological distinction from sibling species. For the first time molecular characters are used to distinguish new fungus gnat species. Molecular analysis relies on cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) but has additionally been corroborated by information from the 28S and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Situations where morphological and molecular data provide conflicting evidence for species delimitation are discussed. A new country record from Georgia is provided for Neuratelia caucasica. PMID:25931957

  4. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of plants used by the Tacana ethnic group in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deharo, E; Baelmans, R; Gimenez, A; Quenevo, C; Bourdy, G

    2004-09-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight ethanolic plant extracts from the pharmacopoeia of the Tacana, an ethnic group from Bolivia, were screened for immunomodulatory activity using complement cascade inhibition and ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition assays. Six impaired both complement pathways (classical and alternative): stem bark from Astronium urundeuvea (Anacardiaceae), Cochlospermum vitifolium (Cochlospermaceae), Terminalia amazonica (Combretaceae), Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae), Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae) and Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) roots. Inhibition of complement cascade was independent of essential ion complexation, and was not due to direct hemolytic activity on target red blood cells. For A. urundeuvea, C. vitifolium, and T. amazonica, anti-inflammatory activity relied on cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. Four of these species (A. urundeuva, T. americana, U. tomentosa and E. precatoria) are used traditionally to treat inflammatory processes. PMID:15500263

  5. Revision of the genus Macrostomus Wiedemann (Diptera, Empididae, Empidinae). IV. The amazonensis species-group.

    PubMed

    Rafael, José Albertino; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Six new species of Macrostomus Wiedemann are described, namely M. acreanus sp. nov. from Brazil (Acre state), M. amazonensis sp. nov. from Guyana and Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, and Mato Grosso states), M. albicaudatus sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas, and Pará states), M. paraiba sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraíba state), M. trombetensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Pará state) and M. xavieri sp. nov. from Guyana and Brazil (Amazonas state). The six species are all treated in the M. amazonensis species-group, which is defined on the basis of one pair of ocellar setae and no supra-alar postsutural setae in combination with characters of the male and female terminalia. A key to the included species is presented and the geographical distributions of the species are mapped. PMID:25947722

  6. Taxonomic revision of the genus Callimerus Gorham s. l. (Coleoptera, Cleridae). Part I. latifrons species-group

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gan-Yan; Montreuil, Olivier; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The latifrons species-group (=Brachycallimerus sensu Chapin 1924, Corporaal 1950; = flavofasciatus-group sensu Kolibá? 1998) of Callimerus Gorham is redefined and revised. Five species are recognized including one new species Callimerus cacuminis Yang & Yang sp. n. (type locality: Yunnan, China). Callimerus flavofasciatus Schenkling, 1902 is newly synonymized with Callimerus latifrons Gorham, 1876. Callimerus trifasciatus Schenkling, 1899a is transferred to the genus Corynommadius Schenkling, 1899a. Callimerus gorhami Corporaal, 1949 and Callimerus pallidus Gorham, 1892 are excluded from the latifrons species-group (their assignment to a species-group will be dealt with in a subsequent paper). A key to species of the latifrons species-group is given and habitus of each type specimen, male terminalia, and other diagnostic characters are illustrated. PMID:23794870

  7. First record of Neoempheria Osten Sacken (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) biology in the Neotropical region, with associations between its larvae and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian; Borkent, Christopher James; Amorim, Dalton S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid—Neoempheria puncticoxa Edwards—and fungi in this region. Immatures of N. puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N. puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given. New information We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region. PMID:26175610

  8. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-01-01

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lav?iev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lav?iev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia. PMID:26623610

  9. Activity study of biogenic spherical silver nanoparticles towards microbes and oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskote Anand, Kiran Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The eco-friendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Terminalia bellirica (T. bellirica) fruit extract is reported herein. Initially formation of SNP was noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further analyzed by surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) band at 429 nm using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Identification of different polyphenols present in T. bellirica extract was done using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Aqueous T. bellirica extract contains high amount of gallic acid which is major secondary metabolite responsible for the reduction and stabilization process. It was established by analyses of extracts before and after reduction using HPLC. Formation of spherical SNP was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study revealed crystalline nature of SNP. Presence of different functional groups on the surface of SNP was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. A plausible mechanism of reduction and stabilization processes involved in the synthesis of stable SNP was also explained based on HPLC and FTIR data. In addition, the synthesized SNP was tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. SNP showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. It also showed good antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant by using standard DPPH method.

  10. The Mycetophila ruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Jürgenstein, Siiri; Kurina, Olavi; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract European species of the Mycetophila ruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophila ichneumonea and Mycetophila uninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophila evanida, Georgia for Mycetophila ichneumonea, Mycetophila idonea and Mycetophila ruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophila strobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species. PMID:26167119

  11. Rediscovery of Nuvol umbrosus Navás (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, Leucochrysini): a redescription and discussion

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, Catherine A.; Sosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The monotypic leucochrysine genus Nuvol was previously known from three specimens of Nuvol umbrosus Navás, collected in the Atlantic Forest region of Brazil. For many years these specimens have been missing, and the genus has remained without a modern description. Here, the species is redescribed based on two newly discovered specimens (females) from the Amazonian region. The female terminalia are relatively simple, except for the subgenitale, which is enlarged, folded into two sections, and heavily sclerotized. Unique aspects of the wing venation and the unusual pattern of banding on the wings support the retention of Nuvol as a valid genus within the Leucochrysini. There are differences between the Amazonian specimens studied here and the earlier descriptions based on specimens from the Atlantic Forest. These differences may indicate the presence of two distinct, geographically separated species within the genus. However, largely because we do not know the sexes of the earlier specimens, we are treating the differences discovered in the two female specimens as expressions of intraspecific variation. PMID:26448710

  12. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for T. catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation. PMID:23703103

  13. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system. PMID:25391347

  14. Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

    2010-01-01

    Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

  15. Discovery, optimization, and pharmacophore modeling of oleanolic acid and analogues as breast cancer cell migration and invasion inhibitors through targeting Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 axis.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Heba E; Akl, Mohamed R; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Sallam, Asmaa A; Haggag, Eman G; Kamal, Amel M; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Terminalia bentzoe L. leaves methanol extract identified the known triterpene oleanolic acid (1) as its major breast cancer cell migration inhibitor. Further chemical optimization afforded five new (9-12 and 15) and seven known (4-8, 13, and 14) semisynthetic analogues. All compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells migration, proliferation, and invasion. The results revealed that 3-O-[N-(3'-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (11) and 3-O-[N-(5'-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (12) were the most active hits at low ?M concentration. Western blot analysis indicated the activity of 1, 11, and 12 might be related, at least in part, to the suppression of Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 signaling pathway. Pharmacophore modeling study was conducted to better understand the common structural binding epitopes important for the antimigratory activity. The sulfonyl carbamoyl moiety with an optimal bulkiness electron-deficient phenyl ring is associated with improved activity. This study is the first to discover the antimigratory and anti-invasive activities of oleanolic acid and analogues through targeting the Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 axis. PMID:24954090

  16. Casuarinin protects cultured MDCK cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Hsein; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Kuo, Tsun-Cheng; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Yu-Chin; Chang-Chien, Yi-Wen; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-11-01

    Casuarinin has been shown to be an antioxidant in acellular experiments. This study was designed to assess the ability of casuarinin, extracted from Terminalia arjuna, to protect cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. A comparison with trolox, a hydrosoluble vitamin E analogue was performed. MDCK cells were pretreated with casuarinin or trolox for 1 h, then exposed to H2O2. After incubation with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 1 h, casuarinin caused a decrease in intracellular peroxide production as shown by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence in a concentration-dependent manner. After 3 h exposure to 8 mM H2O2, the percentage of intracellular glutathione (GSH)-negative cells was reduced in the casuarinin-treated group. Addition of 32mM H2O2 to MDCK cells for 3 h induced an increase in the percentage of cells containing 8-oxoguanine but the level of such cells declined in casuarinin-treated cells. These results show that casuarinin is more effective against H2O2-induced oxidative damage than trolox. The data suggest that casuarinin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress, decreases DNA oxidative damage and prevents the depletion of intracellular GSH in MDCK cells. PMID:15549656

  17. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  18. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ?5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops. PMID:22251685

  19. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of selected chewing sticks.

    PubMed

    Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Okeke, Iruka N; Lamikanra, Adebayo; Adesina, Simeon K; Aboderin, Oliadipo

    2005-08-15

    This aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity in extracts obtained from various Nigerian chewing sticks. Aqueous extracts from seventeen chewing sticks and the fruit of C. ferruginea, one fruit used in oral hygiene in Nigeria, were screened for antibacterial activity against type cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of the test extracts showed activity against at least two of these referenced organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these eleven extracts against clinical isolates from orofacial infection were determined. All the extracts demonstrated activity against Staphylococcal and Streptococcal isolates. Over half of the extracts were active against Enterobacteriaceae and obligate anaerobic isolates, including Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas gigivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus prevotii. Extracts of the Vitellaria paradoxa root, Bridellia ferruginea stem and twigs, Garcinia cola stem, Terminalia glaucescens root, Morinda lucida root, and Cnestis ferruginea fruit showed appreciable activity against all classes of bacterial isolates. The extracts of these plants may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of orofacial infections. PMID:16127476

  20. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  1. Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level carbon stock mapping in Kayar Khola watershed, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Yogendra K.; Hussin, Yousif Ali; Gilani, Hammad; Bronsveld, M. C.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Qamer, Faisal Mueen; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Bhattarai, Thakur; Aigong, Xu; Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2015-06-01

    Integration of WorldView-2 satellite image with small footprint airborne LiDAR data for estimation of tree carbon at species level has been investigated in tropical forests of Nepal. This research aims to quantify and map carbon stock for dominant tree species in Chitwan district of central Nepal. Object based image analysis and supervised nearest neighbor classification methods were deployed for tree canopy retrieval and species level classification respectively. Initially, six dominant tree species (Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia tomentosa, Mallotus philippinensis and Semecarpus anacardium) were able to be identified and mapped through image classification. The result showed a 76% accuracy of segmentation and 1970.99 as best average separability. Tree canopy height model (CHM) was extracted based on LiDAR's first and last return from an entire study area. On average, a significant correlation coefficient (r) between canopy projection area (CPA) and carbon; height and carbon; and CPA and height were obtained as 0.73, 0.76 and 0.63, respectively for correctly detected trees. Carbon stock model validation results showed regression models being able to explain up to 94%, 78%, 76%, 84% and 78% of variations in carbon estimation for the following tree species: S. robusta, L. parviflora, T. tomentosa, S. wallichii and others (combination of rest tree species).

  2. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-06-12

    The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 ?g g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 ?g g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 ?g g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 ?g g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. PMID:22632043

  3. Species-level diversity of belowground structure in savanna woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2013-05-01

    Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca

  4. Evaluation of Ophthacare eye drops--a herbal formulation in the management of various ophthalmic disorders.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N R; Gupta, S K; Das, G K; Kumar, N; Mongre, P K; Haldar, D; Beri, S

    2001-11-01

    An open prospective multicentre clinical trial was conducted in patients suffering from various ophthalmic disorders namely, conjunctivitis, conjunctival xerosis (dry eye), acute dacryocystitis, degenerative conditions (pterygium or pinguecula) and postoperative cataract patients with a herbal eye drop preparation (Ophthacare) containing basic principles of different herbs which have been conventionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. These include Carum copticum, Terminalia belirica, Emblica officinalis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum camphora, Rosa damascena and meldespumapum. These herbs reportedly possess antiinfective and antiinflammatory properties. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of this herbal product in a variety of eye ailments. Side effects, if any, were noted during the study. An improvement was observed with the treatment of the herbal eye drop treatment in most cases. There were no side effects observed during the course of the study and the eye drop was well tolerated by the patients. The herbal eye drop Ophthacare has a useful role in a variety of infective, inflammatory and degenerative ophthalmic disorders. PMID:11746845

  5. Vegetation change in the coastal-lowland rainforest at Avai'o'vuna Swamp, Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    2005-11-01

    Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.

  6. Activity study of biogenic spherical silver nanoparticles towards microbes and oxidants.

    PubMed

    Hoskote Anand, Kiran Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar

    2015-01-25

    The eco-friendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Terminalia bellirica (T. bellirica) fruit extract is reported herein. Initially formation of SNP was noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further analyzed by surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) band at 429 nm using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Identification of different polyphenols present in T. bellirica extract was done using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Aqueous T. bellirica extract contains high amount of gallic acid which is major secondary metabolite responsible for the reduction and stabilization process. It was established by analyses of extracts before and after reduction using HPLC. Formation of spherical SNP was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study revealed crystalline nature of SNP. Presence of different functional groups on the surface of SNP was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. A plausible mechanism of reduction and stabilization processes involved in the synthesis of stable SNP was also explained based on HPLC and FTIR data. In addition, the synthesized SNP was tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. SNP showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. It also showed good antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant by using standard DPPH method. PMID:25128676

  7. Combination of spices and herbal extract restores macrophage foam cell migration and abrogates the athero-inflammatory signalling cascade of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nimgulkar, Chetan; Ghosh, Sudip; Sankar, Anand B; Uday, Kumar P; Surekha, M V; Madhusudhanachary, P; Annapurna, B R; Raghu, P; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The trapping of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial intima is a critical but reversible step in atherogenesis. However, information about possible treatments for this condition is lacking. Here, we hypothesized that combining the polyphenol-rich fractions (PHC) of commonly consumed spices (Allium sativum L (Liliaceae), Zingiber officinale R (Zingiberaceae), Curcuma longa L (Zingiberaceae)) and herbs (Terminalia arjuna (R) W & A (Combretaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L (Cyperaceae)) prevents foam cell formation and atherogenesis. Using an in vitro foam cell formation assay, we found that PHC significantly inhibited lipid-laden macrophage foam cell formation compared to the depleted polyphenol fraction of PHC (F-PHC). We further observed that PHC attenuated the LDL and LPS induced CD36, p-FAK and PPAR-? protein expression in macrophages and increased their migration. NK-?B-DNA interaction, TNF-?, ROS generation, and MMP9 and MMP2 protein expression were suppressed in PHC-treated macrophages. The anti-atherosclerotic activity of PHC was investigated in a high fat- and cholesterol-fed rabbit model. The inhibition of foam cell deposition within the aortic intima and atheroma formation confirmed the atheroprotective activity of PHC. Therefore, we conclude that the armoury of polyphenols in PHC attenuates the CD36 signalling cascade-mediated foam cell formation, enhances the migration of these cells and prevents atherogenesis. PMID:25869517

  8. A review of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy of the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions (Diptera: Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Tian; Shima, Hiroshi; Wang, Qiang; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The species of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae) from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions are        revised. Ten described species are recognized, viz. B. atkinsoni (Baranov) (new records for Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand), B. ficorum (Townsend), B. fortis (Rondani), B. impigra Kolomiets (new record for China), B. kolomyetzi Mesnil, B. malayana Malloch, B. morosa Mesnil, B. robusta Malloch, B. steini (Brauer et Bergenstamm) and B. triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and nine species are described as new to science, B. brevicauda Zhang et Shima sp. nov.       (China), B. carinata Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. chinensis Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Vietnam), B. flava Zhang et Wang sp. nov. (China), B. kurahashii Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Laos and Thailand), B. micronychia Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Japan; previously misidentified from China as B. irrorata (Meigen)), B. papei Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Malaysia), B. setigera Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China) and B. verticalis Shima et Zhang sp. nov. (China). Billaea fasciata (Townsend, 1928) is treated as a junior synonym of B. ficorum (Townsend, 1916), syn. nov. Billaea irrorata is no longer recorded from the eastern Palearctic. A key to 19 species of Billaea from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions and 101 figures of male terminalia, bodies, heads and abdomens are given. PMID:25947790

  9. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  10. A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of the shore-fly genus Gymnoclasiopa Hendel from the New World are revised, including Gymnoclasiopa grecorum sp. n. (Alaska. Juneau: Gastineau Channel, Thane Road (S Juneau; 58°16.9'N, 134°22.4'W)) and Gymnoclasiopa matanuska sp. n. (Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Palmer (Matanuska River; 61°36.5'N, 149°04.1'W)). We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those now discovered to have Holarctic distributions and/or for which sexual dimorphism was not appreciated and the species was described twice, including Gymnoclasiopa montana (Cresson) as a syn. n. of Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni (Becker). Two species, Gymnoclasiopa bella (Mathis), comb. n., and Gymnoclasiopa chiapas (Mathis), comb. n., are transferred from Ditrichophora to Gymnoclasiopa, and Gymnoclasiopa cana Cresson stat. rev. and Ditrichophora canifrons Cresson, stat. rev. are returned to Ditrichophora, the genus in which Cresson originally described them. A neotype is designated for Gymnoclasiopa tacoma to stabilize the nomenclature of this species. The two excluded species, Ditrichophora cana and Ditrichophora canifrons, are diagnosed and distributional data are also provided. For all known New World species of Gymnoclasiopa, structures of the male terminalia are described for the first time and are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps are also included. To provide context and also to facilitate identification, diagnoses are included for the tribe Discocerinini and genus in addition to a key to the genera and species occurring in the New World. PMID:23275757

  11. Revision of the genus Reichardtiolus Kryzhanovskij, 1959 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Reichardtiolus Kryzhanovskij, 1959 is revised herein. It now contains five species: R. duriculus (Reitter, 1904) from middle Asia (with a doubtful female specimen from western China that is here tentatively assigned to this species), R. pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1959 from Turkmenistan, R. sphingis (Peyerimhoff, 1936), comb. n. (transferred from Saprinus Erichson, 1834) from Egypt and Jordan, R. perses sp. n. from Iran and R. aldhaferi sp. n. from Saudi Arabia. Except for R. pavlovskii, which is a rather distinct species known only from two females, the remaining species are allopatric, very similar externally and are best separated from each other by their male terminalia. R. pavlovskii is kept in Reichardtiolus only tentatively, pending the examination of more specimens, and especially its male genitalia. R. duriculus and R. pavlovskii are re-described, while R. perses sp. n., R. aldhaferi sp. n. and R. sphingis comb. n. are provided with diagnostic descriptions because of their overall similarity with R. duriculus. Morphological differences of all species are illustrated using SEM micrographs. Male genitalia of R. duriculus, R. sphingis comb. n., R. perses sp. n. and R. aldhaferi sp. n. are illustrated and a key to the species is given. R. duriculus is newly recorded from Tajikistan. PMID:24574855

  12. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants. It also sheds light on the dependence of rural communities in Colombia on medicinal plants. PMID:21939522

  13. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/'hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Trower, Gary; Backwell, Lucinda; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Ju/'hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/'hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/'hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of Diepkloof, Sibudu, and Border Cave. PMID:26509730

  14. [Environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in the department of Cundinamarca-Colombia].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Elizabeth; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Alejandro

    2005-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that could cause infection in patients with immunodeficiency and healthy patients. The AIDS epidemic has shown the importance of studying the ecology and epidemiology of this fungus. The aim of this investigation was to determine if there was a relationship between the environmental distribution of the different varieties of C. neoformans and the climate zones in two transects located in department of Cundinamarca, in Colombia. For the isolation and identification of the yeast, conventional phenotypic methods were used and it was determined the population density (CFU/g of sample) and which was the variety of greater prevalence in each altitudinal rank. A total of 765 samples, from 26 municipalities were collected; of these 146 corresponded to pigeon droppings (Columba livia), 437 to Eucalyptus detritus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and related species) and 182 to detritus of almond trees (Terminalia cattapa). C. neoformans was isolated from 46% of the studied municipalities, in both transects and the climate zones: warm, temperate and cold. The results indicated that the greater frequency of positive isolations came from the last climate zone (cold). The population density in pigeon excrements oscillated between 50 and 9.2 x 1,000,000, in eucalyptus between 500 and 10 x 1,000,000 and in almond trees was 50 CFU/g. Of 100,000 positive isolations 31% were serotype A, 59% serotype B and 10% serotype C; 96% of the isolates grew to 37 degrees C and all showed capsule. In conclusion, C. neoformans prevails in the three habitats studied but it showed a predilection for the cold thermal floor; the population densities did not allow defining a standard pattern of occurrence. PMID:16107166

  15. Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium. PMID:23056486

  16. In vitro determination of the spermicidal activity of plant saponins.

    PubMed

    Primorac, M; Sekulovi?, D; Antoni?, S

    1985-08-01

    The plant kingdom might yield an effective antifertility drug. A Mentha arvensis L. (Labiatae) fraction with uterotonic activity was isolated, and was found to be active on the nonpregnant as well as the pregnant rat uterus. According to folklore medicine, the Mexican plant Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. (zoapatle) possesses antifertility activity in women. The effect of various isolated preparations from this plant on early pregnancy were investigated in serveral rodent species including the mouse, rat hamster, and guinea pig. It was concluded that zoapatle plant extracts possess unique antifertility activity. Lin-Hsim and coworkers isolated fractions from Aristolochia molissima Hanceith contrceptive activity in female mice. Saponins of some plants were used in contraceptive formulations either as foaming agents or as spermicidal substances. Elbary and Nour investigated the spermicidal effects of saponins isolated from the following plants: Gypsophila paniculata L., Saponaria officinalis L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Griseb., Terminalia horrida Steud., Melilotus sicula Vitm., and Ruscus hypoglossum L. All of the saponins tested possessed spermicidal activity. Jain and coworkers isolated 2 new saponins in Pittosporum nilghrense with spermicidal effects. In this paper we have determined the spermicidal activity of saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants, which in that aspect have not been investigated. The results are illustrated in the table. They show that all of the saponins tested were spermicidal in dependence on their nature. Saponins of Primula vulgaris Huds. and Cyclamen persicum Mill. immobilized human spermatozoa within a period of 20 s at a dilution 1:1000. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata L. was spermicidal at dilution 1:20. These findings show that saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants may be useful spermicides of natural origin. PMID:4080814

  17. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/’hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ju/’hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/’hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/’hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of Diepkloof, Sibudu, and Border Cave. PMID:26509730

  18. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  19. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

  20. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  1. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

  2. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  3. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

  4. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23204912

  5. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of three Rwandan medicinal plants and identification of their active compounds.

    PubMed

    Muganga, Raymond; Angenot, Luc; Tits, Monique; Frédérich, Michel

    2014-04-01

    In our previous study, we reported the interesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some Rwandan plant extracts. This gave rise to the need for these extracts to also be evaluated in vivo and to identify the compounds responsible for their antiplasmodial activity. The aim of our study was, on the one hand, to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity in vivo and the safety of the selected Rwandan medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria, with the objective of promoting the development of improved traditional medicines and, on the other hand, to identify the active ingredients in the plants. Plant extracts were selected according to their selectivity index. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts was then evaluated using the classical 4-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The activity of the plant extracts was estimated by measuring the percentage of parasitemia reduction, and the survival of the experimental animals was recorded. A bioguided fractionation was performed for the most promising plants, in terms of antiplasmodial activity, in order to isolate active compounds identified by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The highest level of antiplasmodial activity was observed with the methanolic extract of Fuerstia africana (>?70?%) on days 4 and 7 post-treatment after intraperitoneal injection and on day 7 using oral administration. After oral administration, the level of parasitemia reduction observed on day 4 post-infection was 44?% and 37?% with the aqueous extract of Terminalia mollis and Zanthoxylum chalybeum, respectively. However, the Z. chalybeum extract presented a high level of toxicity after intraperitoneal injection, with no animals surviving on day 1 post-treatment. F. africana, on the other hand, was safer with 40?% mouse survival on day 20 post-treatment. Ferruginol is already known as the active ingredient in F. Africana, and ellagic acid (IC50?=?175?ng/mL) and nitidine (IC50?=?77.5?ng/mL) were identified as the main active constituents of T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. F. africana presented very promising antiplasmodial activity in vivo. Although most of the plants tested showed some level of antiplasmodial activity, some of these plants may be toxic. This study revealed for the first time the role of ellagic acid and nitidine as the main antimalarial compounds in T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. PMID:24710900

  6. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the family Periscelididae and subfamily Stenomicrinae are diagnosed and for the latter, a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23166461

  7. Seasonal variations in the distribution and abundance of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans in eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, P; De Deken, R

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal changes in the distribution of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) and its main host, cattle, were examined in a cultivated area of the plateau of eastern Zambia. During four consecutive years, the tsetse and cattle populations were monitored along a fly-round transect traversing the two main vegetation types in the study area. These were miombo, a one-storied open woodland with the genera Brachystegia and Julbernardia dominant, and munga, a one- or two-storied woodland where the principal tree genera were Acacia, Combretum and Terminalia. Concurrently, a capture/mark/release/recapture (CMRR) exercise was conducted along two other transects also traversing both vegetation types. The index of apparent abundance of tsetse (IAA) in miombo increased at the beginning of the rainy season (November), reached its peak at the end of the rainy season (April) and was low during the cold season (May to late August), but especially the hot dry season (September to late October). The IAA of tsetse in munga showed a pattern that was the reverse of that in miombo. The seasonal changes in the IAA of tsetse in both vegetation types were in accordance with changes in the movement patterns of tsetse between the two vegetation type as observed using CMRR. The distribution and abundance of cattle along the transect also showed a seasonal trend. This was especially so in munga, during the first three years of observations, where cattle abundance increased gradually from June onwards, reached a maximum at the end of the hot dry season (October-November) and declined steeply at the start of the rainy season (November-December). In both vegetation types, the monthly mean IAA of tsetse was positively correlated with the abundance of cattle in the previous month. It is concluded that the distribution of tsetse in cultivated area of the eastern plateau of Zambia undergoes substantial seasonal changes, which can partly be attributed to changes in the distribution of cattle. The implications of these observations for the control of tsetse are discussed. PMID:12109711

  8. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbae sp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the family Periscelididae and subfamily Stenomicrinae are diagnosed and for the latter, a key to included genera is provided. PMID:23166461

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214-280.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Quaedvlieg, W; van der Bank, M; Zhang, Y; Summerell, B A; Guarro, J; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Alfenas, A C; Braun, U; Cano-Lira, J F; García, D; Marin-Felix, Y; Alvarado, P; Andrade, J P; Armengol, J; Assefa, A; den Breeÿen, A; Camele, I; Cheewangkoon, R; De Souza, J T; Duong, T A; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fournier, J; Frisullo, S; García-Jiménez, J; Gardiennet, A; Gené, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Hirooka, Y; Hospenthal, D R; King, A; Lechat, C; Lombard, L; Mang, S M; Marbach, P A S; Marincowitz, S; Marin-Felix, Y; Montaño-Mata, N J; Moreno, G; Perez, C A; Pérez Sierra, A M; Robertson, J L; Roux, J; Rubio, E; Schumacher, R K; Stchigel, A M; Sutton, D A; Tan, Y P; Thompson, E H; van der Linde, E; Walker, A K; Walker, D M; Wickes, B L; Wong, P T W; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25264390

  10. Deuterium labeling of soil water movement in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Koeniger, Paul; Hamutoko, Josefina; Uugulu, Shoopi; Wanke, Heike; Lohe, Christoph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Billib, Max

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater recharge estimations in semi-arid areas are challenging, especially in developing countries such as large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, where data is generally scarce. Due to high heterogeneity in soil characteristics, vegetation and land use as well as spatially and temporally highly variable rainfall, precise site studies are necessary in order to characterize processes and quantify groundwater recharge rates. The stable isotope deuterium, 2H has been shown to be particularly suitable for such investigations. In this study, a field experiment using deuterium as an artificial tracer (2H2O, 70% deuterated water) was conducted to characterize movement of water during and after a synthetic rain event. The study was carried out in the framework of the project SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) in the Niipele catchment of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia at two locations differing in both soil and vegetation type: A forest site dominated by terminalia sericea, baikiaea plurijuga, burkea africana and acacia erioloba with deep pure sand soil and a shrub-/woodland site characterized by smaller burkea africana, borchemia discolor and acacia erioloba on a dark loamy sand soil underlain by a thick layer of calcrete. At both locations, soils were first saturated to trigger typical rainy season conditions and avoid immediate evaporation of the deuterated water. Subsequently, 500 ml of 2H2O was applied homogenously over a 0.25 m2 test plot at 25 cm depth. Finally, a 10 mm artificial rain event was applied onto the plot. Soil samples were collected every 10 cm to a maximum depth of 2.5 m with an Eijkelkamp hand auger after 1, 2, and 5 (respective 10) days. From these, soil water is extracted in the laboratory and subsequently analyzed for deuterium concentrations using a Picarro L2120-i cavity-ringdown (CRD) water vapor analyzer after vaporization. Additionally, grain size distribution, water content and bulk density are determined in the lab. Results demonstrate how the artificially applied deuterium distributes after a rain event of 10 mm. Both up- and downward movement of the applied deuterium could be tracked analyzing the isotopic composition of the soil profiles. Whilst the deuterium front at the sand forest site travelled towards a depth of more than 1.5 m, the peak at the loamy sand/calcrete woodland site only reached the calcrete layer at 1.2 m. Deeper infiltration into the calcrete layer was not observed. Soil sampling will be repeated at the same plots to investigate the travel depth of the deuterium front after the rainy season to enable the quantification of groundwater recharge at a site level.

  11. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina simplex Loew and a neotype is designated for Allotrichoma bezzii Becker. Allotrichoma filiforme Becker, Allotrichoma trispinum Becker, and Allotrichoma dahli Beschovski are reported as new synonyms of Allotrichoma simplex (Loew) and Allotrichoma yosemite Cresson is a new synonym of Allotrichoma atrilabre Cresson. We also clarify the status of previously described species, including those with Holarctic distributions. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Hecamedini is diagnosed and a key to included genera is provided. PMID:22303122

  12. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1?, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verk

  13. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. Methods The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate) for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women) were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. Results Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual species. PMID:22011

  14. Developing Remote Sensing Methodology to Characterize Savanna Vegetation Structure and Composition for Rangeland Monitoring and Conservation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsalyuk, M.; Kelly, M.; Getz, W.

    2012-12-01

    Rangeland ecosystems cover more than fifty percent of earth's land surface, host considerable biodiversity and provide vital ecosystem services. However, rangelands around the world face degradation due to climate change, land use change and overgrazing. Human-driven changes to fire and grazing regimes enhance degradation processes. The purpose of this research is to develop a remote sensing methodology to characterize the structure and composition of savanna vegetation, in order to improve the ability of conservation managers to monitor and address such degradation processes. Our study site, Etosha National Park, is a 22,270 km^2 semi-arid savanna located in north-central Namibia. Fencing and provision of artificial water sources for wildlife have changed the natural grazing patterns, which has caused bush encroachment and vegetation degradation across the park. We used MODIS and Landsat ETM+ 7 satellite imagery to map the vegetation type, dominant species, density, cover and biomass of herbaceous and woody vegetation in Etosha. We used imagery for 2007-2012 together with extensive field sampling, both in the wet and the dry seasons. At each sampling point, we identified the dominant species and measured the density, canopy size, height and diameter of the trees and shrubs. At only 31% of the sampling points, the identified vegetation type matched the class assigned at the 1996 classification. This may indicate significant habitat modifications in Etosha. We used two parallel analytical approaches to correlate between radiometric and field data. First, we show that traditional supervised classification identifies well five classes: bare soil, grassland, steppe, shrub savanna and tree savanna. We then refined this classification to enable us to identify the species composition in an area utilizing the phenological differences in timing and duration of greenness of the dominant tree and shrub species in Etosha. Specifically, using multi-date images we were able to identify additional six sub-classes based on the dominant species in each class: Colophospermum mopane woodland, Colophospermum mopane shrubland, Cataphractes alexandri woodland, Acacia nebrownii shrubland, mixed Combretum species woodland and Terminalia prunioides woodland. Second, we used quantitative methods to relate satellite-based vegetation indices to the biometric properties measured on the ground. We found a correlation among measured height, diameter and canopy cover of woody vegetation and used this to improve the correlation between cover and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We showed that the Soil Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were related to both greenness and density at a site. In order to measure grass biomass in the field, we calibrated Disc Pasture Mater by clipping, weighing and drying grass in 1m^2 plots, in the dry and wet seasons, with resulting R^2 of 0.87 and 0.83, respectively. MODIS-derived leaf area index (LAI) data was best correlated with dry grass biomass. We used these correlations to produce detailed maps of each vegetation parameter for the whole park. These maps will provide a baseline to employ historical imagery to better understand the effects of the park's management and changing grazing pressure on vegetation structure.

  15. A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W)), H. simplicum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°01.2'N, 83°26.2'W; 300 m)), H. sinuatum (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins Creek (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)), H. spinosum (Costa Rica. Limón: Westfalia (4 km S; 09°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach)), H. urnulum (Dominican Republic. Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W)), H. viridum (Guyana. Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W)), H. williamsae (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins River (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina incisum Coquillett and Hydrochasma zernyi Hendel. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera in the New World is provided. PMID:24363601

  16. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper. PMID:7842869