Sample records for terminally ill patients

  1. [COMMUNICATION WITH TERMINALLY ILL PATIENT].

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    The communication is a essential therapeutic instrument in every process of relationship in the team patient-family, and mainly in the transmission of bad news. The communication is not just a simple transmission of information. It is a process whose goal is to enable the adaptation of the patient and family to their actual situation and where the "what", "how" and "how much do you want to know", are belonged to the own patient. Along this article, we will expose some thoughts that the team has to take into account when informing the patient. We are going to explain the SPIKES protocol, or its Spanish version EPICEE. 6-step protocol, based on those recommended by the experts to deliver bad news procedures. And finally we'll talk about the conspiracy of silence, one of the most common and difficult situations to handle in day to day due to paternalism by professionals and families, in which they prefer to hide the situation to the patient, thinking it's the best for him. PMID:26121886

  2. When to treat dehydration in a terminally ill patient?

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, R L; Bruera, E

    1997-05-01

    The need to treat dehydration in terminally ill patients has become a very controversial topic. Numerous reports in the literature illustrate opposing view-points from both clinical and ethical perspectives. Arguments for the maintenance of hydration in terminally ill patients have tended to come from "the traditional medical model". Many health care professionals looking after terminally ill patients have reacted to the generalized use of intravenous fluids in dying patients and the perceived negative effects of this management. Our palliative care group has argued that the viewpoint that dehydration in dying patients is not a cause of symptom distress overlooks commonly reported problems, such as agitated delirium, that can be prevented or reversed by the management of dehydration. This review presents a summary of the traditional arguments, a different perspective on the controversy, biochemical parameters reported in terminally ill cancer patients, recent dehydration research, and the use of hypodermoclysis and rectal hydration. We conclude that the data reported to date are insufficient to allow a final conclusion on the benefit or harm of dehydration in terminally ill patients. Nevertheless, it is worth considering that while some dying patients may not suffer any ill effects from dehydration, there may be others who do manifest symptoms, such as confusion or opioid toxicity, that might be alleviated or prevented by parenteral hydration. PMID:9176966

  3. Diarrhea in terminally ill patients: Pathophysiology and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Mercadante

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhea is a distressing symptom that limits the quality of life in terminally ill patients. In these patients, many factors can affect intestinal secretion, absorption, and motility, including drugs, infective agents, antibiotics, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, malnutrition, neuroendocrine tumors, and mechanical bowel obstruction. Diarrhea can result in water and electrolyte losses. This review discusses the pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment of diarrhea

  4. Communicating with Terminally Ill Cancer Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorleifsdottir, Elisabet; Carter, Diana E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 12 fourth-year student nurses in Scotland indicated that they found communicating with terminally ill and dying patients and their families difficult. Although lectures on death and dying were helpful, support and guidance for dealing with these issues in clinical practice were needed. (SK)

  5. Spiritual support for terminally ill patients: nursing staff assessments.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M

    2001-09-01

    This study is part of a larger questionnaire survey concerned with the views of nursing staff on physical, emotional and spiritual support for terminally ill patients and decision making on the transition to the terminal phase of treatment. This article discusses the results concerning the spiritual support offered to terminally ill patients. The results describe the readiness and willingness of nursing staff to provide spiritual support, the expression of spiritual needs by patients, the provision of spiritual support, and problems occurring in providing this support. A total of 328 nurses working on the in-patient wards of 32 community health centres took part. Data were collected with a questionnaire including both multiple choice items and open-ended questions. The data were processed with SPSS software and the responses to the open-ended questions were interpreted using content analysis. The results revealed shortcomings in nurses' readiness and willingness to provide spiritual support and clearly highlighted the need for further training. Half of the nurses said they only rarely offered spiritual support to their patients. The nurses drew attention to problems within themselves, their patients and with the availability of the chaplain's services. The results also pointed to factors related to the health centre and nursing staff. PMID:11822517

  6. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended…

  7. Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

    2002-07-01

    This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547

  8. [Quick guide to communicate important news to terminally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Ghio, P; Dell'Orco, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to be able to publish the information concerning communication with cancer patients as recommended in England. The observation and the study protocol during the stay abroad have been given the opportunity to stylize specific information on the methodology of communication of important information to terminally ill patients. It seems readily apparent as they characterized by both technical precision and sensivity to emotions and descriptions for the individual patient. How is shared by all chronic pain is predominantly complex emotion, a mix of additions and perceived physical and emotional pain - emotional. Because accurate information is beneficial to the patient and that really is not turned, so to speak, a "bullet" it is necessary that you have created, over time, a concrete "therapeutic alliance" between body physician, patient and possibly family. This arises, for sure, even at first accepted the patient during the clinical visit attentive to detail, is renewed in the definition of the common objective to be achieved, so analgesia and it is expressed in the certainty that the physician provides all the resources realistically available. It is then up to the sensitivity of the operator, doctor and/or nurse, described in the "take charge" find, from time to time, the words and manners, verbal and nonverbal, to respond fully to questions of the patient same. PMID:21533322

  9. Information needs in terminal illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean S Kutner; John F Steiner; Kitty K Corbett; Dennis W Jahnigen; Phoebe L Barton

    1999-01-01

    Despite evidence that doctor–patient communication affects important patient outcomes, patient expectations are often not met. Communication is especially important in terminal illness, when the appropriate course of action may depend more on patient values than on medical dogma. We sought to describe the issues important to terminally ill patients receiving palliative care and to determine whether patient characteristics influence the

  10. Analgesia for terminally ill adult patients. Preserve quality of life.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Adequate pain management is crucial in maintaining the best possible quality of life for terminally ill patients. This article examines pain management in the palliative care setting, based on a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Accurate pain evaluation, preferably by the patient, is essential for guiding treatment decisions. Some causes of pain are amenable to specific treatments. The expected benefits and harms of the various treatment options and procedures must be weighed on a case by case basis. Quality of life should always be the first priority. The World Health Organization has developed a "three-step analgesic ladder", based on the use of increasingly potent analgesics: step I analgesics include paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); codeine is the standard step II analgesic; and morphine is the standard step III analgesic. Fentanyl is an alternative to morphine. The daily morphine dose must be determined for each patient. Morphine titration starts with oral doses given every 4 hours, but additional doses can be taken every hour if necessary. Total consumption is then used to calculate the dose required the following day. A sustained-release product can be used to reduce the number of doses required when a consistently effective daily dose has been established. When patients are unable to take morphine orally, it can be given by subcutaneous injection, and by subcutaneous or intravenous infusion. Pumps allow the patient to self-administer morphine on demand. Fentanyl transdermal patches are another option for stable pain. Immediate-release oral forms and injections are useful for preventing or treating breakthrough pain. If morphine requirements increase during treatment, the most likely explanations are exacerbations of pain or an excessively long interval between doses. Pharmacological tolerance and psychological dependence are rare during palliative care. In case of renal failure, the morphine dose should be reduced, sustained-release morphine should be replaced by immediate-release morphine, or morphine should be replaced by fentanyl, as fentanyl metabolism is only slightly affected by renal function. The main adverse effects of morphine are constipation, nausea and vomiting. Drowsiness is frequent at initiation of treatment. Respiratory depression is rare when morphine is introduced gradually. Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have acceptable harm-benefit balances in patients with neuropathic pain. Cannabinoids are another option but have not been adequately assessed. Localised refractory pain may respond to local anaesthesia, chemical neurolysis or surgical ablation. In practice, it is best to allow patients to control their own analgesic consumption, within limits set by their physician to prevent dosing errors. PMID:22066317

  11. [Clinical outcomes of stenting for malignant bowel obstruction in terminally ill cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Sawatsubashi, Takahiro; Morioka, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Takao; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakatsuka, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of stenting for malignant bowel obstruction in terminally ill cancer patients. Six terminally ill cancer patients with malignant bowel obstruction underwent gastrointestinal stenting at our department from November 2010 to October 2012. Stent insertion was successful and abdominal symptoms improved in all cases. Oral intake improved in 4 cases. Descending colon perforation occurred in 1 case. The survival time ranged between 10 and 184 days( median, 71.5 days). The palliative performance status (PPS) improved in 4 cases, and the survival time was extended as assessed by the palliative prognostic index (PPI). In cases with a PPI of were more than 6.0, namely cases for which the estimated survival time was less than 3 weeks, survival time and oral intake did not change. These findings suggest that gastrointestinal stenting is clinically useful for malignant obstruction and improving the PPS and prognosis in terminally ill patients with malignant bowel obstruction. PMID:24394138

  12. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  13. Being in the hospital: an interpretive phenomenological study of terminally ill cancer patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    Spichiger, Elisabeth

    2009-02-01

    This article describes a study exploring terminally ill cancer patients' experiences of being in hospital and the meanings patients assigned to the hospital as their temporary residence. Ten patients and their closest family members participated in this interpretive phenomenological study during the patients' hospitalization. Data were collected in a public tertiary hospital in Switzerland. Patients' care was observed and participants were interviewed repeatedly. Data analysis included thematic analysis as well as searching for paradigm cases and exemplars. Patients described their existence in the hospital on a continuum from "prison" to "heaven." For most of their stay, patients occupied some place between these extremes and could be called "guests of necessity" who accepted the hospital as necessity but were longing for home. The quality of hospital life was not constant rather, patients' experiences were transitory and some faded away. The study revealed an aspect hitherto undescribed in the literature: patients' experiences of the hospital as a temporary residence. Its findings can heighten health care professionals' awareness of patients' experiences. Recognizing patients' perspectives regarding the hospital as their temporary living place will allow professionals to individualize patient care. PMID:19028141

  14. Does Desire for Hastened Death Change in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Marziliano, Allison; Jacobson, Coleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why some terminally ill patients may seek a hastened death (a construct referred to as “desire for hastened death” or DHD) is critical to understanding how to optimize quality of life during an individual’s final weeks, months or even years of life. Although a number of predictor variables have emerged in past DHD research, there is a dearth of longitudinal research on how DHD changes over time and what factors might explain such changes. This study examined DHD over time in a sample of terminally ill cancer patients admitted to a palliative care hospital. A random sample of 128 patients who completed the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death (SAHD) at two time points approximately 2–4 weeks apart participated. Patients were categorized into one of four trajectories based on their SAHD scores at both time points: low (low DHD at T1 and T2), rising (low DHD at T1 and high DHD at T2), falling (high DHD at T1 and low DHD at T2) and high (high DHD at T1 and T2). Among patients who were low at T1, several variables distinguished between those who developed DHD and those who did not: physical symptom distress, depression symptom severity, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, baseline DHD, and a history of mental health treatment. However, these same medical and clinical variables did not distinguish between the falling and high trajectories. Overall, there appears to be a relatively high frequency of change in DHD, even in the last weeks of life. Interventions designed to target patients who are exhibiting subthreshold DHD and feelings of hopelessness may reduce the occurrence of DHD emerging in this population. PMID:24747154

  15. Satisfaction with rehydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients: concept construction, scale development, and identification of contributing factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Morita; Isamu Adachi

    2002-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment is important in determination of the efficacy of rehydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients. To validate a multidimensional satisfaction scale, a multicenter cross-sectional study was performed. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on their satisfaction levels with rehydration therapy, and the primary physician recorded each patient's background. A total of 173 patients were included in

  16. The attitudes of Greek physicians and lay people on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P = .002) reported that in the case of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 8.1% of lay people and 2.1% of physicians agreed on physician-assisted suicide (P = .023). Many of the respondents, especially physicians, supported sedation but not euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. However, many of the respondents would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death. PMID:17060293

  17. Review Article Intrathecal Drug Delivery System with Programmable Morphine Pump for Pain of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kung-Shing Lee; Kowng-Shing Chu; Chia-Li Chung; Chiuh-Lung Lin; Shiuh-Ling Hwang; Shen-Long Howng

    By following the guidelines of the World Health Organization, cancer pain can be well controlled in 80-90% of patients. However, 10-20% will required more intensive measures to control pain. In terminally ill cancer patients with refractory pain, intrathecal opioid therapy may provide an option. We use the type of totally implanted, programmable pump system as the choice of treatment. It

  18. Opinions of private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein, South Africa, regarding euthanasia of terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Brits, L; Human, L; Pieterse, L; Sonnekus, P; Joubert, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the opinions of private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein, South Africa, regarding euthanasia of terminally ill patients. This descriptive study was performed amongst a simple random sample of 100 of 230 private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein. Information was obtained through anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Written informed consent was obtained. 68 of the doctors selected completed the questionnaire. Only three refused participation because they were opposed to euthanasia. Respondents were mainly male (74.2%), married (91.9%) and Afrikaans-speaking (91.9%). More were specialists (53.2%) than general practitioners (46.8%). A smaller percentage (35.5%) would never consider euthanasia for themselves compared to for their patients (46.8%). The decision should be made by the patient (50%), the patient's doctor with two colleagues (46.8%), close family (45.2%) or a special committee of specialists in ethics and medicine (37.1%). The majority (46.9%) indicated that euthanasia should be performed by an independent doctor trained in euthanasia, followed by the patient's doctor (30.7%). Notification should mainly be given to a special committee (49.9%). Only 9.8% felt that no notification was necessary. There was strong opposition to prescribing of medication to let the patient die. Withdrawal of essential medical treatment to speed up death was the most acceptable method. Although the responding group was fairly homogeneous, responses varied widely, indicating the complexity of opinions. PMID:19251970

  19. Palliative Care Services for Indian Migrants in Australia: Experiences of the Family of Terminally Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Sujatha; O'Connor, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: The way that health care systems in developing countries like India care for dying patients, has an impact on the expectations of such care for those who migrate to other countries faces. At the end of life, cultural issues may impact on the quality of life remaining and for that reason, it is important that particular cultural practices are understood. This paper describes a study that investigated the cultural issues of access to palliative care services for Indian migrants in Australia. Purpose of the Study: To investigate the experiences of the family members of terminally ill Indian migrants in Victoria, Australia. Objective of the Study: To explore the issues related to accessing palliative care services for Indian migrants; to identify the effectiveness of palliative care in supporting the patient and family and to recommend strategies for improving this care. Materials and Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized. Up to 6 family members were selected for in-depth interviews in understanding cultural issues related to the palliative care services for a family member. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed that families of Indian patients experience difficulties whilst receiving palliative care services, which fell into three main categories: Indian support systems, cultural issues, and caring experiences. Although each of these issues had a direct influence on the experience of terminal care that their family member received, cultural issues and support systems also influenced the caring experiences. Conclusion: Despite the successful implementation of palliative care services across Australia, there are still problems in accessing and receiving the services among minority and disadvantaged groups like various cultural groups. PMID:20606861

  20. Terminally Ill Can Do without Statins, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151686.html Terminally Ill Can Do Without Statins, Study Finds Reducing pill ... the use of cholesterol-lowering statins in terminally ill patients may improve their quality of life, a ...

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity among terminally ill patients in general practice in the Netherlands: a comparison between patients with cancer and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guan Ng, Chong; Dijkstra, Ellen; Smeets, Hugo; Boks, Marco PM; de Wit, Niek J

    2012-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether psychiatric disorders are specifically related to the terminal phase of cancer, or independent of the underlying disease. Aim To investigate the rate of psychiatric comorbidity and psychotropic drugs prescription in terminally ill patients in the GP setting, comparing both patients with terminal cancer and heart failure. Design and setting Retrospective cohort study using the Utrecht General Practitioner Research Network. Method Equally-sized groups of patients with terminal cancer and heart failure were randomly selected from the database of four general practices over the years 2005–2009. Psychiatric comorbidities were determined using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC) codes and psychotropic drugs prescriptions using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System codes. Results A total of 191 terminally ill patients were included in the study (111 with cancer and 80 with heart failure). The mean age for patients with terminal cancer (70.8 years, standard deviation [SD] = 12.8) was 15 years younger than that of patients with heart failure (85.6 years, SD = 9.2). Half of the terminally ill patients (50.3 %) were prescribed psychotropics, but only 13.6% of them had obtained a psychiatric diagnosis. There were no significant differences in prevalence of psychiatric disease and psychotropic drug prescription between patients with terminal cancer and heart failure. Conclusion The results demonstrate a high use of psychotropic drugs in terminally ill patients, often in the absence of a formal diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. The absence of differences between patients with cancer and heart failure suggests that psychiatric diagnoses and increased psychotropic prescriptions are primarily related to the terminal stage of the disease and not to the background of cancer or heart failure. PMID:23336475

  2. Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition?

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Marketos, S

    1999-06-01

    Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content. PMID:10390682

  3. The Attitudes of Greek Physicians and Lay People on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efi Parpa; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Eleni Tsilika; Pavlos Sakkas; Elisabeth Patiraki; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki; Antonis Galanos; Lambros Vlahos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P

  4. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  5. Defining dignity in terminally ill cancer patients: a factor-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Hack, Thomas F; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2004-10-01

    The construct of 'dignity' is frequently raised in discussions about quality end of life care for terminal cancer patients, and is invoked by parties on both sides of the euthanasia debate. Lacking in this general debate has been an empirical explication of 'dignity' from the viewpoint of cancer patients themselves. The purpose of the present study was to use factor-analytic and regression methods to analyze dignity data gathered from 213 cancer patients having less than 6 months to live. Patients rated their sense of dignity, and completed measures of symptom distress and psychological well-being. The results showed that although the majority of patients had an intact sense of dignity, there were 99 (46%) patients who reported at least some, or occasional loss of dignity, and 16 (7.5%) patients who indicated that loss of dignity was a significant problem. The exploratory factor analysis yielded six primary factors: (1) Pain; (2) Intimate Dependency; (3) Hopelessness/Depression; (4) Informal Support Network; (5) Formal Support Network; and (6) Quality of Life. Subsequent regression analyses of modifiable factors produced a final two-factor (Hopelessness/Depression and Intimate Dependency) model of statistical significance. These results provide empirical support for the dignity model, and suggest that the provision of end of life care should include methods for treating depression, fostering hope, and facilitating functional independence. PMID:15386643

  6. Is the clock ticking for terminally ill patients in Israel? Preliminary comment on a proposal for a bill of rights for the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents and discusses a recent Israeli proposal to legislate on the rights of the dying patient. A gap exists between elitist biases of the committee proposing the law, and popular values and sentiments. The proposed law divides the dying patients into two groups: "those who wish to go on living" and "those who wish to die". The former will have a right to life prolonging extraordinary care. It is not clear who would foot the bill for this care. Also it is hard to see how this munificence could fail to discriminate against all other patients. Both the secular ethicists and the rabbis involved in drawing up the proposal accepted the assumption that it is good for some terminal patients to die. The rabbis objected, however, to direct and active interventions that shorten life. The solution arrived at was to install timers in the ventilators so as to allow them to expire automatically unless the patient wishes for their resetting. PMID:15289517

  7. Predictive role of different dimensions of burden for risk of complicated grief in caregivers of terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Morelli, Emanuela; Galli, Federico; Cappelluti, Roberta; Penco, Italo; Aceto, Paola; Lombardo, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether high levels of caregiver burden, as other confirmed predictors, are associated with the risk of prolonged grief disorder in caregivers of terminally ill patients. A predictive study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. A demographic schedule, the Prolonged Grief 12 (PG-12), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Caregiver Burden Inventory were administered to 60 caregivers of 51 patients who were admitted in Hospice. In the regression analysis, difficulty in recognizing emotions, total burden, depression, and developmental burden dimension were significant predictors of PG-12 levels. Findings showed that feeling of deprivation of existential expectations represents the greater risk factor for the prolonged grief disorder, among the burden dimensions. PMID:23689368

  8. [Daily problems involving contact with terminally ill patients with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Moeller, M J; Heidenreich, S; Gladziwa, U; Floege, J

    2007-08-01

    Practitioners and physicians working in emergency rooms are often confronted with dialysis patients or patients who have received a kidney transplant. For dialysis patients, the mode of dialysis treatment needs to be assessed and dialysis access should be secured. Furthermore, the indications for the next dialysis treatment need to be determined. Dialysis patients often present themselves because of fluid overload, hypo- or hypertensive episodes, electrolyte disturbances, fever or cardiovascular events. Patients undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis are at an increased risk of infection of the catheter or of peritonitis. Patients with a renal transplant require continuation of their immunosuppression and the function of the transplant should be monitored. These patients often present with infections in which case the degree of immunosuppression may need to be reduced. Vaccinations as well as an increased risk for malignancies require special attention in these patients. PMID:17572869

  9. Hope and the ethics of disclosure for terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manship, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis presents a disclosure dilemma for physicians, holding in tension the physician's obligation to provide diagnosis and its impact on the patient. To address this dilemma the traditional approach of physicians, typified as the psychological-empirical approach to hope, needs to be complemented by a patient-oriented approach, described as the phenomenological hermeneutics of hope. PMID:16607707

  10. Are terminally ill patients dying in the ICU suitable for non-heart beating organ donation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Revelly; Luca Imperatori; Philippe Maravic; Marie-Denise Schaller; René Chioléro

    2006-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the feasibility of implementing a program of controlled \\u000anon-heart beating organ donation, in patients undergoing the withdrawal of \\u000aintensive care treatment.Design and setting  Prospective observational study. Medical and Surgical ICUs in a tertiary university hospital.Patients  Consecutive patients younger than 70?years dying in the ICU after treatment \\u000awithdrawal for dire neurological prognosis.Measurements and results  We analyzed prospectively collected data from the ICU clinical information

  11. Maxillofacial prosthesis in a palliative care for terminally ill patient with squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Shah, Farhan K

    2013-01-01

    It is the god given right of every human being to appear human. – Ernest L. DaBreo. A 55-year-old man with combined surgical and radiation therapy for buccal mucosa required the prosthetic rehabilitation for full thickness facial cheek defect. Apart from the aesthetics concerns, he had several oral debilities like difficulty in speaking, eating and swallowing. Though the carcinoma is known for high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is an obligation of a prosthodontist to help the patient to have a dignified and normal social life for their remaining lifespan. Palliative dental care's main focus is to re-establish the quality of the remaining life, in addition to the alleviation of physical and psychological suffering of the far-advanced disease patients. This case report summarises the importance of maxillofacial prosthesis in a postoperative malignancy and palliative care. PMID:23813504

  12. Nutrition and hydration in the terminally ill cancer patient: the nurse's role in helping patients and families cope.

    PubMed

    Holden, C M

    1993-01-01

    Cancer patients and their family members must cope with multiple losses as the disease progresses. The loss of ability to eat and drink is a real and perceived harbinger of the ultimate loss: death. While health care professionals know that these physiologic changes are a normal part of the dying process, families are rarely able to accept them easily. Because these losses have such profound emotional, spiritual, and physical ramifications, it is important that staff be prepared to provide appropriate support and information to patients and families. The suggestions posed in this article may be utilized by all members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:7806179

  13. [Ethical decision making of nurses associated with the feeding of demented patients and terminally ill elderly cancer patients in 7 countries].

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M; Lauri, S

    1991-01-01

    This article clarify the results of the international study, carried out in seven countries. The purpose of the study was to clarify the ethical decision making of the nurses working with demented patients and with elderly cancer patients in terminal state, who refused to eat. In the structured interview a different kind of case study was presented to the nurses (N = 300) working with demented patients and to the nurses working with cancer patients. Nurses were asked to make a decision to feed or not to feed the patient. Justifications to the decision were also demanded. The subjects were also asked under what conditions they would change their decision. The most part of the nurses working with cancer patients made a decision not to feed the patient. Nurses from China and quite many from Israel chose however to feed the patient. The half of the nurses working with demented patients made a decision to feed the patient and an other half prefer not to feed the patient. Nurses from China, Israel, Finland and Kalifornia did prefer feeding and nurses from Australian, Sweden and Canada chose mostly not to feed the patient. The majority who chose not to feed the patient used the principle of autonomy as justification. Nurses who made a decision to feed the patient stressed mostly the principle of sanctity of life. Nurses changed their decision mostly when a doctor, nursing staff or patient's husband had different kind of opinion of the strategy to nurse the patient. Nurses from Sweden and China changed mostly their attitude because of the order of the doctor. The opinion of the staff was most important to australian nurses and the opinion of the husband had most influence to finnish nurses. PMID:1790013

  14. Chronic Illness and Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Caroline S; Christianson, Jon B; Keenan, Patricia; Finch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how the relationship between patient characteristics, patient experience with the health care system, and overall satisfaction with care varies with illness complexity. Data Sources/Study Setting Telephone survey in 14 U.S. geographical areas. Study Design Structural equation modeling was used to examine how relationships among patient characteristics, three constructs representing patient experience with the health care system, and overall satisfaction with care vary across patients by number of chronic illnesses. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Random digital dial telephone survey of adults with one or more chronic illnesses. Principal Findings Patients with more chronic illnesses report higher overall satisfaction. The total effects of better patient–provider interaction and support for patient self-management are associated with higher satisfaction for all levels of chronic illness. The latter effect increases with illness burden. Older, female, or insured patients are more satisfied; highly educated patients are less satisfied. Conclusions Providers seeking to improve their patient satisfaction scores could do so by considering patient characteristics when accepting new patients or deciding who to refer to other providers for treatment. However, our findings suggest constructive actions that providers can take to improve their patient satisfaction scores without selection on patient characteristics. PMID:22515159

  15. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  16. Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)

  17. Trajectory and determinants of the quality of life of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siew Tzuh Tang; Chung-Yi Li; Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen

    2008-01-01

    Background  Family caregiving is common and important in Taiwanese culture. However, the combination of anticipated loss, prolonged psychological\\u000a distress, and the physical demands of caregiving can seriously compromise the quality of life (QOL) of a family caregiver\\u000a (FC). The effect of caring for a dying cancer patient on a FC’s QOL has been explored in western countries—primarily with\\u000a small sample sizes

  18. Talking With Terminally Ill Patients and Their Caregivers About Death, Dying, and Bereavement Is It Stressful? Is It Helpful?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Diane L. Fairclough; Pam Wolfe; Linda L. Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    interviewasveryhelpful,34.3%assomewhathelpful,and 44.9% as offering little or no help. The reported helpful- ness of the second interview was slightly less. Patients experiencing pain (odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confi- dence interval (CI), 1.02-1.56), more personal meaning indying(OR,3.05;95%CI,2.02-4.59),andlesseasewith talking about the end of life (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09- 1.60) were significantly more likely to report stress. Pa- tients who were from

  19. 76 FR 38744 - Proposed Information Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated Benefit; Comment...Title: Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated Benefit (38 CFR...Abstract: An insured person who is terminally ill may request a portion of the face...

  20. Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, C F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F; Sibbald, W J

    1984-01-01

    Five patients developed a severe motor and sensory polyneuropathy at the peak of critical illness (sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction complicating a variety of primary illnesses). Difficulties in weaning from the ventilator as the critical illness subsided and the development of flaccid and areflexic limbs were early clinical signs. However, electrophysiological studies, especially needle electrode examination of skeletal muscle, provided the definite evidence of polyneuropathy. The cause is uncertain, but the electrophysiological and morphological features indicate a primary axonal polyneuropathy with sparing of the central nervous system. Nutritional factors may have played a role, since the polyneuropathy improved in all five patients after total parenteral nutrition had been started, including the three patients who later died of unrelated causes. The features allow diagnosis during life, and encourage continued intensive management since recovery from the polyneuropathy may occur. Images PMID:6094735

  1. End-of-Life Care for Children with Terminal Illness (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    End-of-Life Care for Children With Terminal Illness KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Caring for a Seriously or Chronically Ill Child > End-of-Life Care for Children With Terminal Illness Print ...

  2. Occult hypoadrenalism in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W A; Allo, M

    1993-06-01

    No clear criteria exist to rule out hypoadrenal shock by cosyntropin (alpha 1-24-corticotropin, a synthetic subunit of adrenocorticotropic hormone) testing in persons who have critical nonadrenal illness. Four patients in the surgical intensive care unit with critical multisystem disease and refractory high cardiac output, low vascular resistance shock had significantly diminished or terminated vasopressor requirements after institution of hydrocortisone sodium succinate infusion in doses simulating physiologic stress response (100 to 300 mg of hydrocortisone per day). In each case, cosyntropin testing revealed serum cortisol levels higher than those usually associated with hypoadrenal shock. Positive response was defined as maintenance of blood pressure with a decrease to less than 25% of baseline pressor requirements within 48 hours of treatment. We hypothesize a syndrome of functional hypoadrenalism in patients with multisystem critical illness and refractory shock responsive to glucocorticoid administration in doses simulating physiologic stress response despite cosyntropin stimulation test results that would rule out hypoadrenalism in a normal person. PMID:8503772

  3. Rapid response to methylphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: a four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chong Guan; Boks, Marco P M; Roes, Kit C B; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Tan, Seng Beng; de Wit, Niek J

    2014-04-01

    This is a 4 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine the effects of methylphenidate as add-on therapy to mirtazapine compared to placebo for treatment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients. It involved 88 terminally ill cancer patients from University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They were randomized and treated with either methylphenidate or placebo as add on to mirtazapine. The change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score from baseline to day 3 was analyzed by linear regression. Changes of MADRS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) over 28 days were analyzed using mixed model repeated measures (MMRM). Secondary analysis of MADRS response rates, defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline score. A significantly larger reduction of Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score in the methylphenidate group was observed from day 3 (B=4.14; 95% CI=1.83-6.45). Response rate (defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline MADRS score) in the methylphenidate treated group was superior from day 14. Improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) was greater in the methylphenidate treated group from day 3 until day 28. The drop-out rates were 52.3% in the methylphenidate group and 59.1% in the placebo group (relative risk=0.86, 95%CI=0.54-1.37) due to cancer progression. Nervous system adverse events were more common in methylphenidate treated subjects (20.5% vs 9.1%, p=0.13). In conclusions, methylphenidate as add on therapy to mirtazapine demonstrated an earlier antidepressant response in terminally ill cancer patients, although at an increased risk of the nervous system side effects. PMID:24503279

  4. Teachers' Knowledge and Support Systems Regarding Students with Terminal Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Coleman, Mari Beth; Best, Sherwood J.; Emerson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' knowledge and support when working with students with terminal illness or having experienced a student death. One hundred and ninety teachers of students with physical or multiple disabilities responded to a 40 item questionnaire that was distributed nationally. Results indicated that teachers have greater knowledge…

  5. Hospice, HIPAA, and Hope: Survey Research with the Terminally Ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Kovach

    Quantitative studies have provided insight into the needs and desires of those who are dying as well as those who care for the dying. Yet survey research with the terminally ill is particularly challenging. There are a number of ways for error or bias to occur while researching this population. This is a narrative description of the experience of developing

  6. Corticosteroid Insufficiency in Acutely Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Cooper; Paul M. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    n increase in tissue corticosteroid levels during acute ill- ness is an important protective response. Many diseases and their treatments interfere with the normal corticosteroid response to illness and thus induce tissue corticosteroid insufficiency. In this article, we review the physiology of the cor- ticosteroid response to acute illness, describe the clinical features of hypoadrenalism in patients with acute illness,

  7. Assisted suicide for the terminally ill: Why we must have the choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa Stephany

    1997-01-01

    As someone who believes in assisted suicide (AS) for terminally ill patients, I find the American Nurses Association and National Hospice Organization's official opposition a cause of profound concern. One of the arguments used by these organizations is that the lack of good palliative care is a major reason people request aid in dying. The assumption is that symptoms can

  8. 76 FR 56505 - Agency Information Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ...Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated Benefit (38 CFR...Title: Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated Benefit (38 CFR...Abstract: An insured person who is terminally ill may request a portion of the face...

  9. The challenges of caring for families of the terminally ill: nurses' lived experience.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Pathmavathy; Orb, Angélica; O'Connor, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Caring for families of the terminally ill is an important aspect of nursing care as nurses are considered the main health care professionals who are closest to families. This paper describes the experience of seven registered nurses caring for families of the terminally ill in Western Australia. Five of the nurses worked in an acute area at a public hospital; the other two nurses worked at long-term care settings at a private hospital. Descriptive phenomenology as described by Husserl (1970) was used to describe and explore nurses' lived experience. Data were collected through in depth interviews and analysed using the Colaizzi method. Four major themes are reported in this paper: 1) walking a journey together; 2) dealing with intense emotions; 3) working as a team; and 4) balancing the dimension of care. Nurses' lived experiences of caring for families of terminally ill patients revealed that nurses are confronted by families' emotions and at the same time needed to manage their own emotions. The findings further indicated that nurses play a significant role in caring for families of the terminally ill. The family's fear of losing their loved ones often resulted in conflicts, which required extra time from nurses. Moreover, some of the major barriers identified were time constraints and excessive workloads. Finally, some implications of the findings for registered nurses are discussed. PMID:16167446

  10. The law regarding assisted dying for the terminally ill in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    2005-11-01

    This article outlines the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill in the UK. The conditions that must be satisfied before an attending physician can assist a patient to die are highlighted and information regarding the declaration is provided. It is not certain that the Bill will obtain legislative approval and, if it does, there are statutory provisions for monitoring each assisted death. PMID:16471045

  11. Nutrition in Trauma and Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bellal Joseph; Julie L. Wynne; Rifat Latifi

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Despite significant improvements in the practice of metabolic support of critically ill patients in recent years, malnutrition\\u000a continues to be common among surgical patients, adding significantly to complications, infections, length of stay, costs,\\u000a and increased mortality. Furthermore, hypercatabolism is the major metabolic response after major trauma and emergency surgery,\\u000a making this patient population a unique subgroup of critically ill

  12. Creating the final conversations scale: a measure of end-of-life relational communication with terminally ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Generous, Mark Alan; Keeley, Maureen P

    2014-01-01

    Final conversations (FCs) are defined as the communicative interactions, both verbal and nonverbal, that occur between terminally ill patients and relational partners. In this study, the "Final Conversations Scale" was developed and tested. A total of 152 participants that had engaged in final conversations with individuals that were terminally ill completed the newly developed instrument. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure, including: messages of spirituality/religion; expressions of love; proactive difficult relationship talk; everyday communication; and talk about illness/death. Participants' perceptions of the relational closeness and difficulty with the deceased significantly influenced the individuals' recalled frequency of FCs messages. Practical and scholarly implications focus on the needs of the family members regarding their communication with terminally ill individuals, as well as directions for future research with the FCs Scale. PMID:25148453

  13. Antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Vassalo, Juliana; Spector, Nelson; de Meis, Ernesto; Soares, Márcio; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis and severe catastrophic cases account for a large morbidly/mortality. Through the connection between the immune, inflammatory and hemostatic systems, it is possible that these antibodies may contribute to the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with poor short and long-term prognoses in critically ill patients. We performed a search of the PubMed/MedLine database for articles written during the period from January 2000 to February 2013 to evaluate the frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients and their impact on the outcomes of these patients. Only eight original studies involving critically ill patients were found. However, the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients seems to be frequent, but more studies are necessary to clarify their pathogenic role and implications for clinical practice. PMID:25028953

  14. Caregiver Grief in Terminal Illness and Bereavement: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers experience multiple losses during the downhill trajectory of a loved one's terminal illness. Using mixed methods, this two-stage study explored caregiver grief during a terminal illness and after the care recipient's death. Caregiver grief was a state of heightened responsiveness during end-stage care: anxiety, hostility, depression,…

  15. Preparation for Counseling Adults with Terminal Illness: Personal and Professional Parallels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manis, Amie A.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on counseling adults with terminal illness, particularly the literature on the nature of preparation that counselors and other professionals who attend to the needs of adults with a terminal illness require. The authors review information and findings from philosophical, psychological, practical,…

  16. Finding Boundaries Inside Prison Walls: Case Study of a Terminally Ill Inmate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2004-01-01

    The number of terminally ill prison inmates rises each year. Mental health professionals are uniquely prepared to provide therapy during the end-of-life process with their assessment, training, empathy, and communication skills. This case study examines the six-month therapy of one terminally ill inmate, using a client-centered approach. Drawing…

  17. Adrenal Insufficiency in Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YORAM SHENKER; JAMES B. SKATRUD

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency in the critical care setting may present with a spectrum of disease severity ranging from life-threatening adrenal crisis to mild organ dysfunction. The recognition of adrenal insufficiency is made more difficult in the critically ill patient because of the unavailability of a reli- able history, delay in reporting of diagnostic laboratory results, and the comorbidities that

  18. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Boonyawat, Kochawan; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is recognized as a common complication in critically ill patients. Risk factors including critical illness, mechanical ventilation, sedative medications, and central venous catheter insertion are major contributing factors to the high risk of VTE. Because of their impaired cardiopulmonary reserve, PE arising from thrombosis in the deep veins of the calf that propagates proximally is poorly tolerated by critically ill patients. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to decrease the incidence of VTE in medical, surgical, and critically ill patients. As a result, over the past decades, VTE prophylaxis had become a standard of preventive measure in the intensive care unit (ICU). In clinical practice, the rate of VTE prophylaxis varies and may be inadequate in some centers. A perception of a high bleeding risk in critically ill patients is a major concern for most physicians that may lead to inadequate prophylaxis. PMID:25594495

  19. The challenge of providing palliative care to terminally ill prison inmates in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felicity Juliette

    2007-03-01

    Terminally ill prison inmates have a right to all aspects of health care including palliative care provision. However, there are numerous difficulties in providing palliative care to high-security prisoners in the UK. Local community hospices may be reluctant to admit terminally ill prisoners and therefore initiatives must be established to provide appropriate palliative care within the prison itself. Dying prisoners need companionship and to be shown respect and compassion to avoid feelings of loneliness and hopelessness. Inmate volunteers can provide an invaluable source of support and friendship for the terminally ill prisoner, helping to improve quality of life. PMID:17505406

  20. Toxicology in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Corbridge, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Intoxications present in many forms including: known drug overdose or toxic exposure, illicit drug use, suicide attempt, accidental exposure, and chemical or biological terrorism. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with toxidromes can lead to early diagnosis and intervention in critically ill, poisoned patients. Despite a paucity of evidence-based information on the management of intoxicated patients, a rational and systematic approach can be life saving. PMID:14710698

  1. Medication adherence for patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Upkar; Vetter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Medication adherence has been studied for some time; however most research has focused on able-bodied patients or the elderly living independently. What has not been studied nearly as much is medication adherence for people with psychiatric or mental illnesses. In this paper, we present a framework that includes the specific challenges in medication adherence for patients with mental illness, algorithms and protocols for evaluating adherence, and some on-going work in developing effective solutions. The architectural framework and associated algorithms leverage the context-aware computing capabilities available on many mobile devices. The system is designed to be able to collect and offer situation-aware information on medication use and adherence for healthcare professionals and other designated persons. PMID:23366355

  2. Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke Osawa; Nina Singh

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The precise role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in contributing to outcomes in critically ill immunocompetent patients has not been fully defined. METHODS: Studies in which critically ill immunocompetent adults were monitored for CMV infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed. RESULTS: CMV infection occurs in 0 to 36% of critically ill patients, mostly between 4 and

  3. Tobacco use treatment in primary care patients with psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Cerimele, Joseph M.; Halperin, Abigail C.; Saxon, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking is higher in patients with psychiatric illness compared to the general population. Smoking causes chronic illnesses which lead to premature mortality in those with psychiatric illness, is associated with greater burden of psychiatric symptoms, and contributes to the social isolation experienced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Most patients with psychiatric illness present initially to primary care rather than specialty care settings, and some patients receive care exclusively in the primary care setting. Therefore, family physicians and other primary care clinicians have an important role in the recognition and treatment of tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illnesses. In this article we review common myths associated with smoking and psychiatric illness, techniques in implementing evidence-based tobacco use treatments, the evidence base for tobacco use treatment for patients with specific psychiatric diagnoses, and factors to consider in treating tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:24808119

  4. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Vitrat, Virginie; Hautefeuille, Serge; Janssen, Cécile; Bougon, David; Sirodot, Michel; Pagani, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. PMID:25349478

  5. 42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...individual's prognosis is for a life expectancy of 6 months or less if the terminal...clinical findings that supports a life expectancy of 6 months or less as part...face-to-face encounter support a life expectancy of 6 months or less....

  6. 42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...individual's prognosis is for a life expectancy of 6 months or less if the terminal...clinical findings that supports a life expectancy of 6 months or less as part...face-to-face encounter support a life expectancy of 6 months or less....

  7. 42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...individual's prognosis is for a life expectancy of 6 months or less if the terminal...clinical findings that supports a life expectancy of 6 months or less as part...face-to-face encounter support a life expectancy of 6 months or less....

  8. 42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...individual's prognosis is for a life expectancy of 6 months or less if the terminal...clinical findings that supports a life expectancy of 6 months or less as part...face-to-face encounter support a life expectancy of 6 months or less....

  9. Nitric oxide production in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H R; Carcillo, J A; Burckart, G; Kaplan, S S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure serum nitrite and nitrate levels in critically ill children as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production. HYPOTHESIS: Endogenous NO production is increased in children with conditions characterised by immune stimulation. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study in a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 137 consecutive critically ill children with a variety of clinical conditions. INTERVENTIONS: Using a rapid microtitre plate technique, daily serum nitrite and nitrate levels were measured from serum samples that remained in the clinical laboratory after daily routine phlebotomy. Clinical and laboratory information was also gathered daily for each patient. RESULTS: The maximum serum nitrite plus nitrate levels (microM) reached by children with infection (41.8 (SD 18.1)), sepsis syndrome (85.1 (39.9)), shock without sepsis (36.4 (19.1)), transplantation alone (61.0 (43.4)), transplantation with sepsis (200.7 (150.5)), or rejection (161.7 (70.4)), were higher than in controls (18.1 (9.3)). In the absence of exogenous NO donors, levels greater than 80 microM were reached only in children with the sepsis syndrome, organ transplantation, or acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Increased endogenous NO production occurs in children with clinical conditions associated with immune stimulation. Further investigation is warranted to determine the value of this simple and rapid test as a clinically useful diagnostic tool and therapeutic monitor in the evaluation of children at risk for the sepsis syndrome or acute allograft rejection. PMID:8758122

  10. Green urine in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Carpenito, Gerardo; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-04-01

    The development of discolored urine in the critically ill patient, although uncommon, may have many possible causes, with the most likely source related to medication administration. Studies were undertaken in a 39-year-old man who developed dark green urine while in the intensive care unit for neutropenic sepsis. Although the patient had developed prior nonoliguric renal failure stemming from his sepsis, his renal function at the time of presentation of urine discoloration was considered normal. Review of his medications and intravenous infusions suggested the most likely cause was the food dye placed in his enteral tube feedings. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the urine confirmed the presence of Food Dye and Color Blue Number 1 (FD&C Blue No. 1). This case shows that significant gastrointestinal absorption of FD&C Blue No. 1 can occur. FD&C Blue No. 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dark green discolored urine. PMID:11920362

  11. Nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Dandagi, Girish L.

    2010-01-01

    The care of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a primary component of modern medicine. ICUs create potential for recovery in patients who otherwise may not have survived. However, they may suffer from problems associated with of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those which manifest in patients 48 hours after admission to hospital. Nosocomial infections are directly related to diagnostic, interventional or therapeutic procedures a patient undergoes in hospital, and are also influenced by the bacteriological flora prevailing within a particular unit or hospital. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for more than 40% of all nosocomial infections. Critical care units increasingly use high technology medicine for patient care, hemodynamic monitoring, ventilator support, hemodialysis, parenteral nutrition, and a large battery of powerful drugs, particularly antibiotics to counter infection. It is indeed a paradox that the use of high-tech medicine has brought in its wake the dangerous and all too frequent complication of nosocomial infections PMID:20931034

  12. Concepts and Definitions for “Actively Dying,” “End of Life,” “Terminally Ill,” “Terminal Care,” and “Transition of Care”: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Nooruddin, Zohra; Didwaniya, Neha; Dev, Rony; De La Cruz, Maxine; Kim, Sun Hyun; Kwon, Jung Hye; Hutchins, Ronald; Liem, Christiana; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Context The terms “actively dying,” “end of life,” “terminally ill,” “terminal care,” and “transition of care” are commonly used but rarely and inconsistently defined. Objectives We conducted a systematic review to examine the concepts and definitions for these terms. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL for published peer-reviewed articles from 1948 to 2012 that conceptualized, defined, or examined these terms. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and then extracted the concepts/definitions when available. We also searched 10 dictionaries, four palliative care textbooks, and 13 organization Web sites, including the U.S. Federal Code. Results One of 16, three of 134, three of 44, two of 93, and four of 17 articles defined or conceptualized actively dying, end of life, terminally ill, terminal care, and transition of care, respectively. Actively dying was defined as “hours or days of survival.” We identified two key defining features for end of life, terminally ill, and terminal care: life-limiting disease with irreversible decline and expected survival in terms of months or less. Transition of care was discussed in relation to changes in 1) place of care (e.g., hospital to home), 2) level of professions providing the care (e.g., acute care to hospice), and 3) goals of care (e.g., curative to palliative). Definitions for these five terms were rarely found in dictionaries, textbooks, and organizational Web sites. However, when available, the definitions were generally consistent with the concepts discussed previously. Conclusion We identified unifying concepts for five commonly used terms in palliative care and developed a preliminary conceptual framework toward building standardized definitions. PMID:23796586

  13. Dignity in the terminally ill: a developing empirical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Max Chochinov; Thomas Hack; Susan McClement; Linda Kristjanson; Mike Harlos

    2002-01-01

    Despite use of the term dignity in arguments for and against a patient's self-governance in matters pertaining to death, there is little empirical research on how this term has been used by patients who are nearing death. The objective of this study was to determine how dying patients understand and define the term dignity, in order to develop a model

  14. Antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel F. Eyler; Bruce A. Mueller

    2011-01-01

    A common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) is sepsis, which makes appropriate dosing of antibiotics in these patients essential. Drug dosing in critically ill patients with AKI, however, can be complicated. Critical illness and AKI can both substantially alter pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with healthy individuals or patients with end-stage renal disease. Furthermore, drug pharmacokinetic parameters are highly variable

  15. Psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L Kimmel; Mae Thamer; Christian M Richard; Nancy F Ray

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness in hospitalized patients with end-stage renal disease. We also examined the association between end-stage renal disease treatment modality and risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of a mental disorder, and compared rates of hospitalization with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness in renal failure patients to patients with other chronic medical

  16. Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress Among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaacov G. Bachner; Norm ORourke; Sara Carmel

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality communication, fear of death, and psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptomatology, emotional exhaustion) among secular and religiously observant family

  17. Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Yaacov G.; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality communication, fear of death, and…

  18. Storytelling by Adults Diagnosed with Terminal Illness: Narrative Identifying through Dialogical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogical qualitative research study was to gain insight into the process of storytelling with adults diagnosed with terminal illness as a way of making meaning of their experiences and lives. The study was informed by the conceptual frameworks of story, storytelling, and story listening which are grounded in the theory of…

  19. The terminally ill Muslim: Death and dying from the Muslim perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabeel Sarhill; Susan LeGrand; Ramez Islambouli; Mellar P. Davis; Declan Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Islam holds life as sacred and belonging to God and that all creatures will die one day. Suicide is forbidden. Muslims believe death is only a transition between two different lives. The terminally ill Muslim desires to perform five ritual requirements. Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are acceptable. A deceased Muslim must always be buried after being ritually washed and

  20. Ethical Guidelines for Counselors when Working with Clients with Terminal Illness Requesting Physician Aid in Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).

  1. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with dementing illness.

    PubMed

    Fields, Julie A; Ferman, Tanis J; Boeve, Bradley F; Smith, Glenn E

    2011-12-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has a distinct role in the detection and monitoring of cognitive and functional changes associated with dementing illness. Molecular, structural and functional neuroimaging studies have advanced our understanding of the anatomy and physiology underlying neurodegenerative disease; however, the overlap in pathological features of different dementia-associated diseases limits the information that can be obtained by these methods. Incorporation of information obtained from multiple sources can help to increase diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Neuropsychological test findings provide unique value as biomarkers of dementia, as differentiators of disease topography and in the estimation of disease risk and trajectory. However, psychometric test properties--such as construct validity, stability and the use of appropriate norms--must be understood, because they influence both the application of neuropsychological tests and the interpretation of their results. Finally, measurement of cognitive strengths and weaknesses in patients at risk of dementia can be helpful to predict changes in functional abilities, design appropriate and effective interventions, and assist family and health-care providers in the planning of the patient's future care needs. This Review describes the key characteristics of neuropsychological testing in the assessment of patients at risk of dementia. PMID:22045270

  2. Ineffective chronic illness behaviour in a patient with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare - which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this 'difficult' case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations. PMID:22798085

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors of pneumonia in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mosconi; M. Langer; M. Cigada; M. Mandelli

    1991-01-01

    Risk factors for pneumonia were analysed in a large population of critically ill patients, collected in two prospective multicentre “pneumonia studies” in Italy. Twenty-three intensive care units were involved and the study time was 150 unit months. Only patients without previous pulmonary infection, with intensive care unit stay = 48 hours and no rapidly irreversible illness at admission were included.

  4. Caregiver grief in terminal illness and bereavement: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Deborah P

    2007-08-01

    Caregivers experience multiple losses during the downhill trajectory of a loved one's terminal illness. Using mixed methods, this two-stage study explored caregiver grief during a terminal illness and after the care recipient's death. Caregiver grief was a state of heightened responsiveness during end-stage care: anxiety, hostility, depression, and trouble concentrating, remembering, and getting things done. Following the death, caregiver grief became a state of sustained reactivity: Overall distress was diminished and anxiety and hostility decreased significantly, but loneliness, sadness, and tears increased. Overwhelming responses were triggered by unforeseen visual or auditory reminders of the person. Sleep disturbances began during end-stage care and continued after the death. At both times, caregiver grief was highly influenced by the social context; relationships with family and friends (more cohesive versus conflicted) shaped responses. Social work practitioners can help caregivers who may be unaware they are experiencing grief to identify and integrate these normal responses to loss. PMID:17896676

  5. Changes in Serum Cortisol with Age in Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Beale; Jay Zhu; Howard Belzberg

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) rises with age, a high basal serum cortisol and a small response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation. Even slight impairment of the adrenal response during severe illness can be lethal. Objectives: To determine if age is associated with changes in basal or stimulated serum cortisol in critically ill patients. Methods: We studied 2

  6. Detection of substance use disorders in severely mentally ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Arthur I. Alterman; Stanley R. Rosenberg

    1993-01-01

    Severe mental illness is frequently complicated by substance use disorder. Approximately half of the severely mentally ill patients treated in acute care psychiatric settings have abused one or more of these substances. Despite the high rate of comorbidity, substance use disorders are generally not detected in acute care psychiatric settings, leading to incorrect diagnoses and ineffective treatments. The reasons for

  7. Expanding the Use of Continuous Sedation Until Death: Moving Beyond the Last Resort for the Terminally Ill.

    PubMed

    LiPuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    As currently practiced, the use of continuous sedation until death (CSD) is controlled by clinicians in a way that may deny patients a key choice in controlling their dying process. Ethical guidelines from the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pain Medicine describe CSD as a "last resort," and a position statement from the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine describe it as "an intervention reserved for extreme situations." Accordingly, patients must progress to unremitting pain and suffering and reach a last-resort stage before the option to pursue CSD is considered. Alternatively, we present and defend a new guideline in which decisionally capable, terminally ill patients who have a life expectancy of less than six months may request CSD before being subjected to the refractory suffering of a treatment of "last resort." PMID:26132059

  8. Treating nonthyroidal illness syndrome in the critically ill patient: still a matter of controversy.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Paliani, G; Annetta, M G; Pontecorvi, A; Antonelli, M

    2009-08-01

    The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a clinical condition of abnormal thyroid function tests observed in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine, with normal or low levels of thyroxine and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is still a matter of controversy whether the NTIS represents a protective adaptation of the organism to a stressful event or a maladaptive response to illness that needs correction. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in certain clinical situations, such as caloric restriction, cardiac disease, acute renal failure, brain-dead potential donors, and burn patients. Treating patients with NTIS seems not to be harmful, but there is no persuasive evidence that it is beneficial. The administration of hypothalamic releasing factors in patients with NTIS appears to be safe and effective in improving metabolism and restoring the anterior pituitary pulsatile secretion in the chronic phase of critical illness. However, also this promising strategy needs to be explored further. Anyhow, an extremely prudent approach is needed if treatment is given. Much of the data appearing in the literature on the treatment of NTIS encourage further randomized controlled trials on large number of patients. At present, however, we believe that there is no indication for treating thyroid hormone abnormalities in critically ill patients until convincing proof of efficacy and safety is provided. PMID:19702524

  9. Connecting with chronically ill patients to improve treatment adherence.

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovana G; Swartz, Martha K; Molony, Sheila L

    2014-09-18

    This study presents an integrative review of the literature assessing the relationships among a patient's style in coping with a long-term health condition, the patient-practitioner therapeutic alliance, and treatment adherence among chronically ill adults. Evidence-based recommendations to improve nurse practitioner-patient therapeutic alliance and treatment adherence are suggested. PMID:25140851

  10. Prevalence of Adrenal Insufficiency in Critically Ill Patients with AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarat Sunthornyothin; Chusana Suankratay

    Background: The most common endocrine disorder in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is adrenocortical dysfunction. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in patients with AIDS is unclear, partly due to different tests, doses of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), and criteria used. In addition, there is controversy regarding the assessment of adrenal insufficiency in patients with and without critical illness. Objective: To

  11. Gentamicin volume of distribution in critically ill septic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Triginer; I. Izquierdo; R. Fernfindez; J. Rello; J. Torrent; S. Benito; A. Net

    1990-01-01

    Gentamicin intrapatient pharmacokinetics variations were studied in 40 critically ill medical patients, suffering gram-negative sepsis. These patients were studied in two phases throughout gentamicin treatment: firstly, on the second day of treatment, when aggressive fluid therapy was required, and secondly, five days later, when patients had achieved a more stable clinical condition. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using least squares linear

  12. The strategy of antibiotic use in critically ill neutropenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Suspicion of sepsis in neutropenic patients requires immediate antimicrobial treatment. The initial regimen in critically ill patients should cover both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the risk of selecting multidrug-resistant pathogens should be considered when using broad-spectrum antibiotics for a prolonged period of time. The choice of the first-line empirical drugs should take into account the underlying malignancy, local bacterial ecology, clinical presentation and severity of acute illness. This review provides an up-to-date guide that will assist physicians in choosing the best strategy regarding the use of antibiotics in neutropenic patients, with a special focus on critically ill patients, based on the above-mentioned considerations and on the most recent international guidelines and literature. PMID:21906359

  13. Chronically ill Australians' satisfaction with accessibility and patient-centredness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UPALI W. JAYASINGHE; JUDY PROUDFOOT; CHRIS HOLTON; GAWAINE POWELL DAVIES; CHERYL AMOROSO; TANYA BUBNER; JUSTIN BEILBY; MARK F. HARRIS

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association of characteristics of patients and general practices with patient assessment of quality of care. Design. Cross-sectional multi-practice study using the general practice assessment survey. Settings. General practices in Australia. Participants. Ninety-six general practices and 7505 chronic illness patients aged 18 years. Main outcome measures. Access of care and patient-centredness. Results. Two factors were identified in

  14. Clinical Correlates of Insomnia in Patients With Chronic Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Katz; Colleen A. McHorney

    1998-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic insomnia are more likely to develop affective disorders, cardiac morbidity, and other adverse health outcomes, yet many clinicians tend to trivialize the complaint of insomnia or to at- tribute it only to psychiatric causes. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and longitudi- nal course of insomnia in patients with documented chronic medical illness and\\/or depression and to

  15. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  16. Bacterial Translocation and Prognosis of Criti- cally Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woon Won Kim; Chun Ki Sung

    Purpose: To identify Bacterial translocation (BT) from the gut to the blood in the critically ill patients by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the sensitivity of PCR in the detection of intestinal bacterial deoxyribo- nucleic acid (DNA) in human blood. Further, to determine the relationship between the identification of BT and the prognosis of these patients. Methods

  17. Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Lucidarme; Amélie Seguin; Cédric Daubin; Michel Ramakers; Nicolas Terzi; Patrice Beck; Pierre Charbonneau; Damien du Cheyron

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Smoking is highly addictive, and nicotine abstinence is associated with withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sudden nicotine abstinence on the development of agitation and delirium, and on morbidities and outcomes in critically ill patients who required respiratory support, either noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We

  18. Intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients: minimising risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Shirley; Julian F. Bion

    2004-01-01

    Sir, “Is your journey really necessary?” asked a railway poster during the privations of the Second World War. A similar question should be asked of clinicians committing sick patients to a transfer between, or within, hospitals, with the additional question, “Is this transfer really safe?” There are many potential risks associated with transporting the critically ill patient, including their greater

  19. Pitfalls in fluid management for critically ill patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongsayreepong, Suneerat

    2014-01-01

    Fluid management is one of the most important treatments for critically ill patients. It has an influence in patients outcomes and is considered one of the most common pitfalls encountered in the management of the critically ill patient. In Thailand, fluid overload (> 10% of fluid accumulation), mismanagement of fluid restrictions and the "bolusing" of colloid solutions are the main pitfalls that may lead to serious complications. These complications can compromise the patient in areas such as decreasing the oxygen index, putting the patient in cardiac failure and possible acute kidney injury (AKI). They can also increase resource utilization and the mortality of critically ill patients. More than 80% of critically ill patients, who are admitted to the intensive care units, are reimbursed from the "universal coverage". Universal coverage does not support the use of albumin solution, which has been reported to improve the function of the endothelial glycocalyx layer vascular permeability and improved outcomes in the hypoalbuminemic patient (serum albumin < or = 2.5 mg/dL) with severe sepsis, in septic shock or undergoing major abdominal surgery. Therefore, primary colloids used for resuscitation the patients are 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES), 4% gelatin and fresh frozen plasma. AKI and renal replacement therapy (RRT) continue to be a major problem when using these synthetic colloids especially in the high-risk patients who receive large amounts of fluids. Evaluation of the fluid responsiveness for goal directed therapy is another problem in Thailand. This has been predominant in critically ill surgical patients both intra-operatively and postoperatively. To obtain optimal benefits of fluid therapy and for the prevention of complications associated with this treatment, physician need to acquire more knowledge, choose the right strategy, choose the proper type and amount of colloid and assure the correct mode of evaluation. PMID:24855856

  20. Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mechanic; Sharon Meyer

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines conceptions of trust among three groups of respondents diagnosed with either breast cancer, Lyme disease or mental illness. Interviews were carried out using an open-ended interview guide to explore how patients made assessments of trust in their doctors and health care plans. The guide followed a conceptual approach that asked questions about competence, agency\\/fiduciary responsibility, control, disclosure

  1. Acute pain and the critically ill trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Lome, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Pain is a frequent experience throughout our lifetime, and each person responds in a different manner to every pain experience. Critically ill trauma patients are obviously more likely to experience pain due to their injuries or iatrogenic causes. To optimize pain management for trauma patients, critical care nurses must continually be aware of the potential for pain. However, pain assessment for critically ill patients is usually complicated by their inability to express the subjective component of their pain experience. Understanding the pathophysiology of pain facilitates the assessment of the objective components of pain. It is imperative for the critical care nurse to function as the patient advocate especially regarding pain management issues. PMID:15875450

  2. The strategy of antibiotic use in critically ill neutropenic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Legrand; Adeline Max; Benoît Schlemmer; Elie Azoulay; Bertrand Gachot

    2011-01-01

    Suspicion of sepsis in neutropenic patients requires immediate antimicrobial treatment. The initial regimen in critically\\u000a ill patients should cover both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the risk of selecting multidrug-resistant pathogens should be considered when using broad-spectrum antibiotics\\u000a for a prolonged period of time. The choice of the first-line empirical drugs should take into account the underlying

  3. Noninvasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Gregoretti, Cesare; Pisani, Lara; Cortegiani, Andrea; Ranieri, Vito Marco

    2015-07-01

    Since its first application in the late 1980s, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been the first-line intervention for certain forms of acute respiratory failure. NIV may be delivered through the patient's mouth, nose, or both using noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. When applied appropriately, NIV may reduce morbidity and mortality and may avert iatrogenic complications and infections associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. This article provides physicians and respiratory therapists with a comprehensive, practical guideline for using NIV in critical care. PMID:26118914

  4. Perception of Illness in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Var, Firdous Ahmad; Rajeswaran, Jamuna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perception of illness plays an important role in recovery process. It affects our coping behaviors, adherence to treatment and preventive measures taken for healthy recovery. Aims: The aim of the study is to examine perception of illness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study design done on sample of 31 patients with mild to moderate TBI. Depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS-21), Brief illness perception questionnaire (IPQ) and Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) was used. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and correlational statistics was used. Results: The results indicated that overall higher percentage falls within low and medium range of IPQ. However higher percentage falls within higher range, on coherence and emotional response subscales of IPQ. Consequence, timeline, personal control, treatment control, concern, emotional control, and total of the subscales of IPQ were positively correlated with RPQ3 and RPQ13 at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation was found between demographic variables and subscales of IPQ at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The study shows one to one relationship between symptoms experienced by patients, how they perceive their illness and socio demographic variables. PMID:23441077

  5. Critical Illness Polyneuropathy in Patients With Major Burn Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Queenie; Ng, Karl; Vandervord, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Critical illness polyneuropathy in burn patients is an underreported condition. It is associated with high mortality rates and prolonged hospital stay and rehabilitation. This study aims to further define the cause and outcome of critical illness polyneuropathy following major burn injuries. Methods: A retrospective review of all burn patients with neuropathy that presented to Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, between the period of 2004 and 2009 was performed. The neurological findings, diagnostic processes, and outcomes were examined. End points such as duration on the ventilator, length of intensive care, and hospital stay were recorded. Results: There were 7 patients in total that exhibited abnormal neurological findings. Ages ranged from 17 to 43 years with all injuries sustained in flame burns. Mean total burnt surface area is 46%. There was no mortality in this series but all 7 had evidence of sepsis and multiorgan failure with an average 42 days spent on the ventilator. Clinical findings varied greatly. Five had involvement of nerves away from the site of burns. Upper-limb weakness tended to have a slower recovery. Examination and neurophysiologic studies were often hampered by pain and bandaging over burnt skin. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations of critical illness polyneuropathy are varied and cannot always be explained by direct thermal or compression injury. This study confirms a strong link to sepsis, multiple organ failure, and slow ventilatory wean. The requirement for a precise neurophysiological diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy needs to be balanced with technical considerations and the likelihood of alternative diagnoses. PMID:21119768

  6. Decreased cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor levels in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Siebig, S; Meinel, A; Rogler, G; Klebl, E; Wrede, C E; Gelbmann, C; Froh, S; Rockmann, F; Bruennler, T; Schoelmerich, J; Langgartner, J

    2010-01-01

    The immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are linked by several mechanisms. Intracellular glucocorticoid receptors represent one important connection. The aim of this study was to examine the coherence between the number of glucocorticoid receptors, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, inflammatory cytokine levels and the severity of illness in critically ill patients. In a prospective study, blood was collected from 20 healthy members of the hospital staff (control group) and 50 ventilated patients (sample group) within the first 24 hours after intubation and within three days of extubation. 3H-dexamethasone-binding assay was used to assess cytoplasmatic free glucocorticoid receptors levels. ACTH, cortisol, IL-6 and TNFa levels were measured by ELISA. In the sample group, specific binding of 3H-dexamethasone was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Glucocorticoid receptor levels tended to be lower in more severely ill patients. Plasma cortisol and ACTH levels were significantly different from the control group after extubation but not at intubation. Severe illness is associated with rapid down-regulation of 3H-dexamethasone binding. This decrease occurs before elevation of plasma cortisol. Therefore, down-regulation of cortisol binding may be directly associated with the stress response and not due to feedback regulation following increase in plasma cortisol levels. PMID:20191789

  7. Clinical and critical care concerns in severely ill obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has acquired an epidemic proportion throughout the globe. As a result, increasing number of obese patients is being presented to critical care units for various indications. The attending intensivist has to face numerous challenges during management of such patients. Almost all the organ systems are affected by the impact of obesity either directly or indirectly. The degree of obesity and its prolong duration are the main factors which determine the harmful effect of obesity on human body. The present article reviews few of the important clinical and critical care concerns in critically ill obese patients. PMID:23087857

  8. Illness perception differences between Russian- and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Popov, Nadia; Heruti, Irit; Levy, Sigal; Lulav-Grinwald, Doron; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2014-03-01

    Illness perception influences health and illness behaviors. This study was designed to estimate illness perception differences between Russian-speaking and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients. Changes in illness perception associated with time spent in Israel among Russian-speaking patients were also evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated differences in illness perception of patients exposed to Chernobyl's consequences. A total of 144 oncology patients (77 Hebrew-speaking, 67 Russian-speaking) completed personal data questionnaires and The illness perception questionnaire revised, translated into Russian for this study. Significantly more Russian-speaking oncology patients perceived their illness as chronic and having negative consequences on life (p < .01). Russian-speaking oncology patients tend to have a more negative perception of cancer compared to Hebrew-speaking patients. Time spent in Israel may create more positive perceptions of cancer among these patients. No illness perception differences were found concerning Chernobyl consequences. PMID:24492913

  9. [Hyperglycemia and its control in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Kotulák, Tomás; Ríha, Hynek; Haluzík, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the critically ill patient, hyperglycemia was believed to be a response by the body to a stressful situation. Stress-induced hyperglycemia is the consequence of increased levels of cortisol, cytokines, growth hormones, catecholamines, and glucagon resulting in the stimulation of endogenous glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis as well as other mechanisms including central and peripheral insulin resistance. Among other things, hyperglycemia has an effect on inflammation and function of the myocardium, kidney, central nervous system, and the immune system. The protective role of intensified insulin therapy (glycemia of 4.4-6.1 mmol/l) in the critically ill patient, as suggested by the Leuven trial, resulted in the quick and widespread adoption of this approach in practice. However, later studies did not support the Leuven trial results while pointing to the possibility of developing severe hyperglycemia. The large multicenter NICE-SUGAR study in 6,022 patients showed higher 90-day mortality in the group with tight glycemic control. The results of NICE-SUGAR led to revision of the guidelines for glycemic control in the critically, recommending to control glycemia below 10 mmol/l. The aim of this overview is to summarize available data on glycemic control in the critically ill patient. PMID:21404483

  10. Improving Primary Care for Patients With Chronic Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bodenheimer; Edward H. Wagner; Kevin Grumbach

    2002-01-01

    The chronic care model is a guide to higher-quality chronic illness manage- ment within primary care. The model predicts that improvement in its 6 in- terrelated components—self-management support, clinical information sys- tems, delivery system redesign, decision support, health care organization, and community resources—can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. Case stud- ies

  11. MPCS: Mobile-Phone Based Patient Compliance System for Chronic Illness Care

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    MPCS: Mobile-Phone Based Patient Compliance System for Chronic Illness Care Guanling Chen, Bo Yan.3 trillion cost of our healthcare system. To improve chronic illness care, patients must be empowered and engaged in health self-management. However, only half of all patients with chronic illness comply

  12. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48?h of medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding), length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB), and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21?days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p?=?0.036) and prealbumin (p?=?0.014) but worsened NB (p?=?0.01), more feeding complications (p?=?0.005), and prolonged ICU stays (p?=?0.005) compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality between groups. Consequently, early feeding shows to be a more beneficial nutritional intervention option than late feeding in patients with more severe illness. PMID:22554240

  13. Decision making in critically ill patients with hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S W

    1991-11-01

    Hematologic neoplasms that were previously considered fatal are now potentially curable with techniques such as bone marrow transplantation. Such therapies also carry significant morbidity and mortality. With the increasing application of these therapies, a growing number of physicians are using medical decision making regarding critical care for these patients. The process by which ethical decisions are reached for these critically ill patients may be baffling because of several factors: rapidly evolving treatments, uncertain probabilities of the cure of the malignant disorder, the relatively young age of many of these patients, and the poor prognosis with critical illness. I discuss a process to reach acceptable decisions, providing a case example of the application of the process. This process is derived from the ethical principles that drive decision making in general medicine and attempts to maximize patients' autonomy. It involves a consideration of accurate information regarding the disease process and the prognosis, a clear delineation of the goals of the medical care, and communication with patients. Appropriate, ethical, and consistent decisions regarding the critical care of patients with hematologic malignancy can be reached when these considerations are addressed. PMID:1815387

  14. Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D; Meyer, S

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines conceptions of trust among three groups of respondents diagnosed with either breast cancer, Lyme disease or mental illness. Interviews were carried out using an open-ended interview guide to explore how patients made assessments of trust in their doctors and health care plans. The guide followed a conceptual approach that asked questions about competence, agency/fiduciary responsibility, control, disclosure and confidentiality. Respondents were given ample opportunity to raise other areas of concern. The data were organized using the NUDIST software package for the analysis of non-numerical and unstructured qualitative data. Patients viewed trust as an iterative process and commonly tested their physicians against their knowledge and expectations. Interpersonal competence, involving caring, concern and compassion, was the most common aspect of trust reported, with listening as a central focus. Most patient comments referred to learnable skills and not simply to personality characteristics. Technical competence also received high priority but was often assessed by reputation or interpersonal cues. Patients were much concerned that doctors be their agents and fight for their interests with health care plans. Disclosure and confidentiality were less common concerns; most patients anticipated that doctors would be honest with them and respect their confidences. Patients' responses also appeared to vary by their disease, their socio-demographic characteristics, their involvement with self-help groups, and how their illness conditions unfolded. PMID:10975226

  15. [Endoscopic treatment in critically ill patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kheladze, Z S; Dzhaiani, S V; Tsutskiridze, B N; Kheladze, Zv Z; Chakhunashvili, G K; Chakhunashvili, D K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to ascertain the optimal methods of an endoscopic haemostasis in critical care patients with GDB. The research was conducted on critically ill patients. The different endoscopic methods of treatment: injectional hemostasis, irrigation with local hemostatics, thermo coagulation, and combined method were used. Treatment with injectional hemostasis resulted in hemostasis in 75% of patients. Irrigation with local hemostatics was conducted using the local hemostatic agent caprofer and (or) 10% solution of epsylonaminocapronal acid. The final hemostasis was achieved in the 90% of the cases; bleeding was stopped in 85% of the cases when the hemorrhages occurred from chronic ulcers. The effect of thermo coagulation method was 80-85%. Combined method of treatment (combination of the irrigation with caprofer and thermo coagulation) helped to achieve 95% of the final hemostasis in critically ill patients. The achieved results certify that the combined use of caprofer and method of electro coagulation in critical care patients with GDB is very perspective. Simultaneously with this, it is also recommended to use anti-segregation therapy with blockers of proton pomp and boosting the defense of the mucous tissue with high doses of mucogen. PMID:20413810

  16. Determinants of complicated grief in caregivers who cared for terminal cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Wen Chiu; Chia-Tsuan Huang; Shao-Min Yin; Yung-Cheng Huang; Ching-hsin Chien; Hung-Yi Chuang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  There is little research on determinants and the grief that caregivers experience after their relatives die of cancer. This\\u000a study evaluated factors which influence complicated grief among caregivers who cared for patients who died of cancer in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective study recruited 668 caregivers who cared for terminally ill cancer patients in the hospice ward or who received\\u000a shared-care consultation.

  17. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

  18. Acupuncture in Critically Ill Patients Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying: A Randomized

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Acupuncture in Critically Ill Patients Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying: A Randomized Controlled complicated by delayed gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux. Acupuncture has been successfully used acupuncture can improve gastric emptying in comparison with standard promotility drugs in critically ill

  19. Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Monitoring in the Critically Ill Patient

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Guerrero-De-Mier, Manuel; López-Álvaro, Julián

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography has shown to be an essential diagnostic tool in the critically ill patient's assessment. In this scenario the initial fluid therapy, such as it is recommended in the actual clinical guidelines, not always provides the desired results and maintains a considerable incidence of cardiorrespiratory insufficiency. Echocardiography can council us on these patients' clinical handling, not only the initial fluid therapy but also on the best-suited election of the vasoactive/inotropic treatment and the early detection of complications. It contributes as well to improving the etiological diagnosis, allowing one to know the heart performance with more precision. The objective of this manuscript is to review the more important parameters that can assist the intensivist in theragnosis of hemodynamically unstable patients. PMID:22758613

  20. Inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients; expect surprises

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients is increasing. When performed by specialized retrieval teams there are less adverse events compared to transport by ambulance. These transports are performed with technical equipment also used in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). As a consequence technical problems may arise and have to be dealt with on the road. In this study, all technical problems encountered while transporting patients with our mobile intensive care unit service (MICU) were evaluated. Methods From March 2009 until August 2011 all transports were reviewed for technical problems. The cause, solution and, where relevant, its influence on protocol were stated. Results In this period of 30 months, 353 patients were transported. In total 55 technical problems were encountered. We provide examples of how they influenced transport and how they may be resolved. Conclusion The use of technical equipment is part of intensive care medicine. Wherever this kind of equipment is used, technical problems will occur. During inter-hospital transports, without extra personnel or technical assistance, the transport team is dependent on its own ability to resolve these problems. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of having some technical understanding of the equipment used and the importance of training to anticipate, prevent and resolve technical problems. Being an outstanding intensivist on the ICU does not necessarily mean being qualified for transporting the critically ill as well. Although these are lessons derived from inter-hospital transport, they may also apply to intra-hospital transport. PMID:22326110

  1. Tube feeding-related diarrhea in acutely Ill patients.

    PubMed

    Guenter, P A; Settle, R G; Perlmutter, S; Marino, P L; DeSimone, G A; Rolandelli, R H

    1991-01-01

    Acutely ill patients received tube feeding for an average of 15.8 days and, on average, 35% of those days were spent in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were prospectively assigned either a fiber-free formula (FFF-OSMOLITE HN, Ross; n = 50) or a fiber-supplemented (soy polysaccharide 14.4 g/L) formula (FSF = JEVITY, Ross; n = 50). Diarrhea was defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day and occurred in 30% of all patients. Diarrhea developed in 29 (41%) of the 71 patients who received antibiotics during, or within 2 weeks prior to, the feeding period, whereas only 1 (3%) of the 29 patients not receiving antibiotics developed diarrhea (p less than 0.005); and this patient developed diarrhea on the day of death. Among the 30 patients with diarrhea, stool Clostridium difficile (CD) toxin was positive in 15 (50%), negative in 11 (37%), and was not measured in four. The mean serum albumin was significantly lower in patients with diarrhea (2.43) than in those without diarrhea (2.75) (p = 0.043). There were no significant differences in age, sex, diagnoses, number of feeding days, and percent ICU days between patients with and without diarrhea. While not statistically significant, patients who received FSF were observed to have a lower incidence of diarrhea, a lower percentage of diarrhea days per total feeding days, and a lower frequency of positive CD toxin assays than patients who received FFF. In this patient population, antibiotic usage was the factor most strongly associated with diarrhea during tube feedings. PMID:1650854

  2. Communication with patients suffering from serious physical illness.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Costantini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Communication is the corner stone of the relationship with the patient in all medical settings with the main aims of creating a good inter-personal relationship, exchanging information, and making treatment-related decisions. In a rapidly changing cultural and social context, the paternalistic approach of doctors knowing the best and deciding what should be done for a patient has been replaced by a shared decision-making approach, with patients being advised to educate themselves, ask questions and influence the course of the discussion with their doctors. Thus, a need for an improvement in the communication skills of physicians is extremely important for patients affected by serious physical illness (e.g. cancer, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Certain attitudes, behaviour and skills (e.g. capacity to impart confidence, being empathetic, providing a 'human touch', relating on a personal level, being forthright, being respectful, and being thorough) are part of effective communication. However, some specific aspects influencing doctor-patient communication and relationships, such as personality variables, coping and attachment styles, as well as cultural factors, should also be taken in to account. The development of training curricula to help doctors acquire proper skills in communication is mandatory, since research has shown that training in communication may facilitate the effectiveness of a doctor-patient relationship and the patient's satisfaction with care and give a general sense of humanity, which is easily lost in a biotechnologically oriented medicine. PMID:25832510

  3. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  4. Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Teodoro; Bonet, Alfonso; Rubio, Mercedes; Mateo, Dolores; Farré, Mercé; Acosta, José Antonio; Blesa, Antonio; Montejo, Juan Carlos; de Lorenzo, Abelardo García; Mesejo, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients is a complication that seems to be frequent, but it has not been assessed previously in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of incidence in 40 intensive care units. Different liver dysfunction patterns were defined: (a) cholestasis: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l, gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, or bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl; (b) liver necrosis: aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l, plus bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl or international normalized ratio of more than 1.4; and (c) mixed pattern: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l or gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, plus aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l. Results Seven hundred and twenty-five of 3,409 patients received artificial nutrition: 303 received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and 422 received enteral nutrition (EN). Twenty-three percent of patients developed liver dysfunction: 30% in the TPN group and 18% in the EN group. The univariate analysis showed an association between liver dysfunction and TPN (p < 0.001), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score on admission (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.001), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and malnutrition (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, liver dysfunction was associated with TPN (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.02), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and calculated energy requirements of more than 25 kcal/kg per day (p < 0.05). Conclusion TPN, sepsis, and excessive calculated energy requirements appear as risk factors for developing liver dysfunction. Septic critically ill patients should not be fed with excessive caloric amounts, particularly when TPN is employed. Administering artificial nutrition in the first 24 hours after admission seems to have a protective effect. PMID:17254321

  5. [Prevalence and treatment of anemia in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Leal-Noval, S R; García-Erce, J A; Naveira, E

    2007-10-01

    Anemia is a common condition among medical and surgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and generally has a multifactorial origin. In order to avoid the deleterious effects of anemia, 40% of ICU patients receive allogenic blood transfusion (ABT). This figure increases up to 70% if the ICU stay is longer than 7 days. However, ABT is associated with a dose-dependent increase in morbidity and mortality. In contrast, the administration of exogenous erythropoietin plus iron supplements, especially iv iron, improves anemia and reduces ABT requirements, although it does not reduce mortality. To ascertain whether treatment of anemia in the critically ill with exogenous erythropoietin and iron might improve outcomes and to optimize drug administration schedules and dosage, further studies with sufficient statistical power and adequate follow-up are warranted. PMID:17942062

  6. Terminating the Doctor-Patient Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jarald

    1978-01-01

    Emotional aspects of ending the physician-patient relationship should be illustrated in clinical teaching courses. Teaching opportunities include examination of this relationship and professional development, unresolved doctor-patient conflicts, role underevaluation, patient gifts, and referral procedures. (Author/LBH)

  7. Impact of Combined Hospice Care on Terminal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Kung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many patients with advanced cancer will develop physical and psychological symptoms related to their disease. These symptoms are infrequently treated by conventional care. Palliative care programs have been developed to fill this gap in care. However, there are limited beds in hospice units. To allow more terminal cancer patients to receive care from a hospice team, a combined hospice care system was recently developed in Taiwan. This study is a report of our experiences with this system. Patients and Methods From January to December 2009, terminal cancer patients who accepted consultation from a hospice team for combined hospice care were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, referring department, type of cancer, and outcome were analyzed. Results A total of 354 terminal cancer patients in acute wards were referred to a hospice consulting team. The mean patient age was 61 years, and the proportion of males was 63.28%. After combined hospice care, there was a significant improvement in the sign rate of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders from 41.53% to 71.47% (p?terminal cancer patients who were not transferred to hospice ward to receive combined care by a hospice consulting team while in acute wards, thus increasing the hospice utilization of terminal cancer patients. The major symptoms presented by the patients were pain (58%), dyspnea (52%), constipation (45%), and fatigue (23%). Conclusions Through the hospice consulting system, hospice combined care has a positive effect on the utilization of hospice care, rate of DNR signing and quality of end-of-life care for terminal cancer patients. PMID:21504306

  8. HDL-cholesterol level and cortisol response to synacthen in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. J. van der Voort; Rik T. Gerritsen; Andries J. Bakker; E. Christiaan Boerma; Michael A. Kuiper; Loek de Heide

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cholesterol levels and the adrenal cortisol response to synacthen in critically ill patients. Design Prospective observational study. Patients Critically ill patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) with possible adrenal dysfunction defined as unexplained hypotension, ongoing inotropic support, unexplained fever, unexplained hyponatraemia or a combination of these symptoms. Measurements HDL-cholesterol levels (HDL), total cholesterol

  9. Dignity amidst liminality: healing within suffering among Chinese terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andy H Y; Leung, Pamela P Y; Tse, Doris M W; Pang, Samantha M C; Chochinov, Harvey M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2013-01-01

    This study critically examines the concepts of dignity and liminality at the end-of life, in an effort to better understand the processes of healing within suffering among Chinese terminal cancer patients receiving palliative care services in Hong Kong. Meaning-oriented interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese terminal patients, aged 44 to 98, to elicit the narratives and stories of their illness experience. All interviews were analyzed using grounded theory and supplemented by ethnographic observations and field notes. Two major themes and eight subprocesses of healing adopted by patients to achieve and maintain dignity were identified: (a) personal autonomy, which encompasses the need to (i) regain control over living environments, (ii) maintain self-sufficiency despite institutional care, (ii) make informed care decisions to reduce sense of burden, and (iv) engage in future planning to create a lasting legacy; and (b) family connectedness, which encompasses the need to (i) maintain close ties with family members to express appreciation, (ii) achieve reconciliation, (iii) fulfill family obligations, and (iv) establish a continuing bond that transcends generations. Implications of these themes for advanced care planning and life review interventions were discussed with the goal of enhancing patient autonomy and family connectedness, and thereby providing structure and meaning for Chinese terminal patients and their families at the end of life. PMID:24517523

  10. JAMA Patient Page: Palliative Sedation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or for which treatments have failed have a terminal illness . These patients can receive comfort care, which ... To purchase bulk reprints, call 718/946-7424. Terminal illnesses can cause distressing symptoms, such as severe ...

  11. Fear of death, mortality communication, and psychological distress among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-02-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality comunication, fear of death, and psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptomatology, emotional exhaustion) among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 236 participants were recruited over 18 months within the first year of caregiver bereavement. Retrospectively reported mortality communication was statistically greater among secular caregivers; in contrast, both fear of death and depressive symptoms were greater among the religiously observant. Path analyses subsequently revealed notable differences between groups. Among secular caregivers, a significant inverse relationship between mortality communication and the two indices of caregiver distress emerged. In contrast, the association between mortality communication and psychological distress among the religious was moderated by these caregivers' fear of death. The results of this study suggest that fear of death is a significant predictor of psychological distress among religiously observant caregivers of terminal cancer patients (i.e., fear of their own death as elicited by the caregiving role). Fostering morality communication between secular caregivers and patients would appear to be one means of reducing the likelihood of clinically significant psychological distress. This may be insufficient among religiously observant caregivers, however, for whom fear of death may first need to be redressed. PMID:24501834

  12. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    DelDot, Megan E; Lipman, Jeffrey; Tett, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Aims To investigate the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and to see if routine measures approximate vancomycin clearance. Methods Pharmacokinetic profiles (15) of initial and steady-state doses of 750 mg twice daily intravenous vancomycin were obtained from blood and ultrafiltrate samples from 10 critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, with acute renal failure on CVVHDF (1 l h?1 dialysate plus 2 l h?1 filtration solution; 3 l h?1 effluent; extracorporeal blood flow 200 ml min?1). Results CVVHDF clearance of vancomycin was 1.8 ± 0.4 l h?1 (30 ± 6.7 ml min?1). This was 1.3–7.2 times that reported previously for vancomycin using other forms of CRRT. Total vancomycin body clearance was 2.5 ± 0.7 l h?1 (41.7 ± 11.7 ml min?1). The clearance of vancomycin by CVVHDF was 76 ± 16.5% of the total body clearance. CVVHDF removed approximately half the vancomycin dose during the 12-h period (ACVVHDF = 413 mg). The fraction eliminated by all routes was 60%. The sieving coefficient for vancomycin was 0.7 ± 0.1 and for urea was 0.8 ± 0.06. Conclusions Vancomycin is cleared effectively by CVVHDF. Clearance was faster than other forms of CRRT, therefore doses need to be relatively high. Urea clearance slightly overestimates vancomycin clearance. The administered doses of 750 mg every 12 h were too high and accumulation occurred, as only approximately 60% of a dose was cleared over this period. The maintenance dose required to achieve a target average steady-state plasma concentration of 15 mg l?1 can be calculated as 450 mg every 12 h. PMID:15327585

  13. Diagnosis of adrenal failure in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Czepielewski, Mauro A; Friedman, Gilberto; Borba, Evandro Lucas de

    2011-06-01

    In the last two decades there was important evolution on the knowledge of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the last decade, the expression "relative adrenal insufficiency" (RAI) was created, and more recently "critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency" (CIRCI) was used to designate those patients in which cortisol production was not sufficiently increased in stress situations. Patients with CIRCI have elevated hospital morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is a wide discussion about diagnostic criteria for this dysfunction. Besides basal cortisol, some publications now study the role of other tests, such as cortrosyn test - either in low (1 ?g) or high doses (250 ?g); free cortisol, salivary cortisol, metyrapone test and others. With this review, we aimed at summarizing the results of the most influent papers that intended to define diagnostic criteria for CIRCI. We also suggest an approach for CIRCI diagnosis and make it clear that the decision about steroid therapy in septic shock patients is matter apart from RAI. PMID:21881811

  14. Physical activity patterns of patients with cardiopulmonary illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Q.; Steele, Bonnie G.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Burr, Robert

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aims of this paper are to: 1) describe objectively-confirmed physical activity patterns across three chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, and 2) examine the relationship between selected physical activity dimensions with disease severity, self-reported physical and emotional functioning, and exercise performance. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Participant’s home environment. PARTICIPANTS Patients with cardiopulmonary illnesses: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n=63), heart failure (HF, n=60), and patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD, n=60). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Seven ambulatory physical activity dimensions (total steps, percent time active, percent time ambulating at low, medium, and high intensity, maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes, and peak performance) were measured with an accelerometer. RESULTS Subjects with COPD had the lowest amount of ambulatory physical activity compared to subjects with heart failure and cardiac dysrhythmias (all seven activity dimensions, p<.05); total step counts were: 5319 vs. 7464 vs. 9570, respectively. Six minute walk distance were correlated (r=.44 to .65, p<.01) with all physical activity dimensions in the COPD sample, the strongest correlations being with total steps and peak performance. In subjects with cardiac impairment, maximal oxygen consumption had only small to moderate correlations with five of the physical activity dimensions (r=.22 to .40, p<.05). In contrast, correlations between six minute walk test distance and physical activity were higher (r=.48 to .61, p<.01) albeit in a smaller sample of only patients with heart failure. For all three samples, self-reported physical and mental health functioning, age, body mass index, airflow obstruction, and ejection fraction had either relatively small or non-significant correlations with physical activity. CONCLUSIONS All seven dimensions of ambulatory physical activity discriminated between subjects with COPD, heart failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Depending on the research or clinical goal, use of one dimension such as total steps may be sufficient. Although physical activity had high correlations with performance on a six minute walk test relative to other variables, accelerometry-based physical activity monitoring provides unique, important information about real-world behavior in patients with cardiopulmonary illness not already captured with existing measures. PMID:22772084

  15. Importance of illness beliefs and self-efficacy for patients with coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Lau-Walker; Margaret Lau-Walker BA

    2007-01-01

    Title. Importance of illness beliefs and self-efficacy for patients with coronary heart disease Aim. This paper is a report of a study to assess the association between coronary heart disease patients' illness beliefs and their self-efficacy 3 years after hospital discharge. Background. Cardiac rehabilitation guidelines recommend that both the illness representation model and the concept of self-efficacy are relevant frameworks

  16. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  17. Predictive value of an abnormal hepatobiliary scan in patients with severe intercurrent illness

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Froelich, J.W.; Lloyd, R.; Thrall, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients had severe intercurrent illness and the gallbladder could not be seen on a hepatobiliary scan. In 4, surgery and pathological examination showed that the gallbladder was normal; 1 had chronic cholecystitis and 5 had acute acalculous cholecystitis. This study indicates that a positive hepatobiliary scan may not be indicative of acute gallbladder disease in the seriously ill patient.

  18. Illness perception of dropout patients followed up at bipolar outpatient clinic, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Hulya; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Akyaz?, Senem; Y?ld?zhan, Eren; K?l?c, Kas?m Candas; Basyigit, Sehnaz; Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Akyuz, Fatma; Gokce, Esra; Bag, Sevda; Kurt, Erhan; Oral, Esat Timucin

    2015-06-01

    Dropout is a common problem in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorders (BD). The aim of the present study is to investigate illness perceptions of dropout patients with BD. A cross sectional study was done on the participants who attended the Mood Disorder Outpatient Clinic at least 3 times from January 2003 through June 2008, and then failed to attend clinic till to the last one year, 2009, determined as dropout. Thirty-nine dropout patients and 39 attendent patients with BD were recruited for this study. A sociodemographic form and brief illness perception questionnaire were used to capture data. The main reasons of patients with BD for dropout were difficulties of transport (31%), to visit another doctor (26%), giving up drugs (13%) and low education level (59%) is significant for dropout patients. The dropout patients reported that their illness did not critically influence their lives, their treatment had failed to control their illnesses, they had no symptoms, and that their illness did not emotionally affect them. In conclusion, the nonattendance of patients with serious mental illness can result in non-compliance of therapeutic drug regimens, and a recurrence of the appearance symptoms. The perception of illness in dropout patients with BD may be important for understanding and preventing nonattendance. PMID:25921931

  19. Body Consciousness, Illness-Related Impairment, and Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the joint effects of private body consciousness (PBC) and degree of illness-related physical impairment on treatment regimen adherence in a sample of 52 hemodialysis patients. Predicted the effect of PBC on adherence would vary as a function of patients' level of illness-related physical impairment. Results are discussed in terms of…

  20. Insulin therapy and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients—a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Thomas; Maria C. Rojas; Scott K. Epstein; Ethan M. Balk; Orfeas Liangos; Bertrand L. Jaber

    2007-01-01

    Background. Intensive insulin therapy has been found to reduce mortality in some critically ill patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to ascertain the effect of intensive insulin therapy on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in adult critically ill patients. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies that compared

  1. Impact of Fluconazole Prophylaxis on Cortisol Levels in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley S. Magill; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Sandra M. Swoboda; Kathryn A. Carson; Roberto Salvatori; Pamela A. Lipsett; Craig W. Hendrix

    2004-01-01

    Fluconazole is widely used in the intensive care unit for prevention and treatment of fungal infections. Case reports have described an association between fluconazole and adrenal dysfunction, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. We sought to determine whether 400 mg of fluconazole per day administered to critically ill surgical patients was associated with a reduction

  2. Patientsillness schemata of hypertension: The role of beliefs for the choice of treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Figueiras; Dalia Silva Marcelino; Adelaide Claudino; Maria Armanda Cortes; Joao Maroco; John Weinman

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate what are the illness perceptions of hypertensive patients and their relationship with beliefs about specific medicines, and (2) to identify different illness schemata and how they relate to the choice of medication. This was a cross-sectional study in which 191 Portuguese patients (59% females), with a hypertension diagnosis, aged over 18

  3. [Using the illness representation model to provide care for a patient with diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2010-06-01

    Patients interpret illness through personal knowledge and experience, while illness representation guides patient attitudes with regard to seeing a doctor, accepting treatment and adopting healthy behavior. Nurses who understand the illness representation of patients may be better able to provide intervention in order to enhance patient self-care skills and ultimately improve patient health. This article describes a nurse's experience providing care to a patient with diabetic nephropathy. He suffered from decreasing urine output, lower limb edema and shortness of breath. He also underwent a role transformation from a healthy individual to hemodialysis patient. He interpreted hemodialysis to be the end of meaning in his life and as preventing his continuing to work and earn money. He thus rejected hemodialysis treatment. The authors applied the illness presentation model to understand the patient's perception of his illness, then helped the patient to correct his misconceptions about the hemodialysis treatment in order to change his illness representation of hemodialysis and guide him to accept his new role. After one month of care, the patient accepted arterio-venous shunt surgery and accepted that hemodialysis both mitigated his illness and improved life quality. The authors would like to share their report on this case to provide nursing professionals with a reference on one approach to improving healthcare quality. PMID:20535685

  4. The Jewish patient and terminal dehydration: A hospice ethical dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Bodell; Marie-Ange Weng

    2000-01-01

    Culturally competent nursing care regarding the ethical dilemma of terminal dehydration (withholding or withdrawing food and fluid) for the Jewish hospice patient involves applying the ethical principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence to nursing interventions by identifying outcomes that focus on the high value Jews place on life; avoiding stereotyping as to what it means to be Jewish; knowledge

  5. Pituitary-adrenal responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Dimopoulou; Panagiota Alevizopoulou; Urania Dafni; Stylianos Orfanos; Olga Livaditi; Marinella Tzanela; Anastasia Kotanidou; Emmanouil Souvatzoglou; Petros Kopterides; Irini Mavrou; Nikolaos Thalassinos; Charis Roussos; Apostolos Armaganidis; Stylianos Tsagarakis

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the pattern of pituitary-adrenal responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH) in critically ill\\u000a patients and to examine the relation between responses and clinical outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective study in consecutive critically ill patients in a general intensive care unit in a teaching hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  The study included 37 critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients with diverse underlying diagnoses (28 men, 9 women;

  6. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

  7. Subjective illness theory and antipsychotic medication compliance by patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Anita; Loffler, Watter; Muller, Peter; Priebe, Stefan; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2002-09-01

    This study investigates subjective illness theories of patients with schizophrenia, how they define their health problem, what they assume causes their illness and which course of illness they expect. The predictive value of those theories for patients' compliance with antipsychotic medication is tested. A problem-centered interview was conducted with 77 schizophrenic patients at discharge from inpatient or day hospital treatment. All patients were on clozapine treatment. Interviews were analyzed by means of computer-assisted content analysis. In addition, potential determinants of compliance were assessed using the 9th version of the Present State Examination, the UKU side effect rating scale, a checklist for patients' evaluations of the effect of psychotropic drugs, and a helping alliance scale. Compliance with medication was assessed by interviewing patients at discharge and three months later. Only slightly more than one half of the patients considered themselves mentally ill. They tended to endorse psychosocial causes more frequently as compared with biological causes. Slightly more than 25% of the patients each expected an improvement of the illness, a reoccurrence of the acute psychosis, or a chronic course. Whereas the quality of the helping alliance, delusion of grandiosity, and attitude toward psychotropic drugs proved to have an influence on patients' compliance with antipsychotic treatment, the three components of subjective illness theory (definition as mental illness, assumed etiology, and prognosis) did not have a statistically significant influence. Subjective illness theories vary in patients with schizophrenia. Although they might reflect different styles of coping with the illness, there is no evidence that they directly determine compliance with medication. Patients' views of the helping alliance and attitudes toward drugs should be considered in predicting compliance with antipsychotic medication. PMID:12357093

  8. The Mean Machine; Accurate Non-invasive Blood Pressure Measurement in the Critically Ill Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Muecke; Andrew Bersten; John Plummer

    2009-01-01

    Objective  Accurate indirect prehospital blood pressure measurement in the critically ill patient remains an important challenge to both\\u000a patient management and prehospital research. Ambulatory blood pressure measuring devices have not been trialled for prehospital\\u000a use in critically ill patients. Prior to prehospital validation where conditions are suboptimal, we aimed to test under favourable\\u000a conditions in the Intensive Care Unit, a selection

  9. Quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and practice characteristics matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Upali W Jayasinghe; Judith Proudfoot; Christopher A Barton; Cheryl Amoroso; Chris Holton; Gawaine Powell Davies; Justin Beilby; Mark F Harris

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large sample of Australian chronically-ill patients and investigate the impact of characteristics of patients and their general practices on their HRQOL and to assess the construct validity of SF-12 in Australia. METHODS: Cross sectional study with 96 general practices and 7606 chronically-ill patients aged 18 years or more using standard

  10. Assessing Patient Management Plans of Doctors and Medical Students: An Illness Script Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monajemi, Alireza; Schmidt, Henk G.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Illness script theory offers explanations for expert-novice differences in clinical reasoning. However, it has mainly focused on diagnostic (Dx) performance, while patient management (Mx) has been largely ignored. The aim of the present study was to show the role of Mx knowledge in illness script development and how it relates to…

  11. Evidence-Based Management of Critically Ill Patients: Analysis and Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Gropper

    2004-01-01

    A number of important clinical trials focusing on criti- cally ill patients have been completed in the last few years. These trials have been among the first critical care clinical trials to demonstrate mortality reduction in the critically ill. As in any adaptation of evidence-based medicine, it is essential to closely examine the trials and to determine whether the demonstrated

  12. Pretherapy Expectations and Definitions of Mental Illness Among Minority and Low-Income Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank X. Acosta

    1979-01-01

    This study examines pretherapy expectations for psychotherapists and definitions of mental illness among 44 Mexican American and 48 Anglo American outpatients. Patients' expectations for therapist behaviors, expectations for time in therapy, and definitions for concepts of mental illness were measured on three scales. Both Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans were found to primarily expect a therapist who would engage them

  13. Unexpected events occurring during the intra-hospital transport of critically ill ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, Surath M.; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar. P.; Taggu, Alai. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients is a challenging task. However, despite the improvements in intra-hospital transport practices, adverse event incidents remain high and constitute a significant risk for the transport of the critically ill ICU patients. Objectives: To observe the number and types of unexpected-events (UEs) occurring during intra-hospital transport of critically ill ICU patients. Interventions provided along with outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 254 intra-hospital critically-ill ICU patients of our hospital transported for diagnostic purposes during April 2012 - March 2013. The escorting intensivist completed the data of unexpected events during transport. Results: A total of 254 patients were observed prospectively for UEs during intra-hospital transfer of critically ill patients. The overall UEs observed were 139 among 64 patients. Among the UEs which occurred, the maximum were miscellaneous causes [89 (64.00%)] like oxygen probe [38 (27.33%)] or ECG lead displacement [27 (19.42%)]. Major events like fall in spo2 >5% observed in 15 (10.79%) patients, BP variation > 20% from baseline in 22 (15.82%) patients, altered mental status in 5 (3.59%), and arrhythmias in 6 (4.31%) patients. Among 64 (100%) patients with UEs, 3 (2.15%) patients with serious adverse events have been aborted from transport. Conclusion: Unexpected-events (UEs) are common during transport of critically ill ICU patients and these adverse events can be reduced when critically ill patients are accompanied by intensivist/medically qualified person during transport and following strict transport guidelines. PMID:24987233

  14. Caregiver Experience During Patients’ Advanced Chronic Illness and Last Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Jessica M.; Tulsky, James A.; Johnson, Kimberly S.; Olsen, Maren K.; Burton-Chase, Allison M.; Lindquist, Jennifer Hoff; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Steinhauser, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Caregivers of patients with serious illness endure significant burden, yet it is not clear at what stage of advanced illness patient and caregiver needs are greatest. This study compared prevalence and predictors of caregiver esteem and burden during two different stages of patientsillnesses – advanced chronic illness and the last year of life. Design Longitudinal, observational cohort study. Setting Community sample recruited from outpatient clinics at Duke University and Durham VA Medical Centers. Participants Patients living with advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their primary caregiver, retrospectively coded as chronic-illness (n=62) or end-of-life (n=62) patient-caregiver dyads. Measurements We measured caregiver experience monthly with the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA), which includes caregiver esteem and 4 domains of burden: schedule, health, family, and finances. Results During both chronic-illness and end-of-life, high caregiver esteem was almost universal (95%); health, family, and financial burden were endorsed by <25% of the sample. Schedule burden was the most prevalent form of burden and was experienced more frequently by end-of-life caregivers (58%) than the chronic-illness caregivers (32%). Caregiver esteem and all dimensions of burden were relatively stable over one year. Few factors were associated with burden. Conclusion Caregiver experience is relatively stable over one year and similar among caregivers of patients in the last year of life and those further upstream in advanced illness. Schedule burden stands out as most prevalent and variable among dimensions of experience. Because prevalence of burden is not specific to stage of illness and is relatively stable over time, multidisciplinary healthcare teams should assess caregiver burden and refer burdened caregivers to supportive resources early in the course of chronic illness. PMID:24803020

  15. Speculations on the origin of the ill-effects associated with the use of visual display terminals.

    PubMed

    Mawson, A R

    1985-05-21

    There are increasing reports of a wide variety of unexplained ill-effects associated with the occupational use of visual display terminals (VDTs); these include psychological complaints such as headache, irritability, and fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, dry or burning eyes, deteriorating eyesight, cataracts, facial dermatitis, and pregnancy abnormalities. Many VDTs emit near-ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation in amounts ranging from 200 to 1500 times less than the present U.S. safety standard of 1.0 X 10(-3) W/cm2. Although the possibility of a radiation hazard from VDTs is widely discounted, various points of circumstantial evidence are marshalled in this paper in support of the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to even these low amounts of UV-A radiation may result in progressive increases in sensitivity to UV-A and in cumulative biologic damage. It is further proposed that UV-A produces the ill-effects by catabolizing vitamin A in skin and plasma into highly active metabolites, the gradual accumulation of which results in an endogenous form of vitamin A intoxication. In addition to producing the skin and systemic effects of hypervitaminosis A, these metabolites presumably enter the fetal circulation, leading to pregnancy abnormalities similar to those associated with high doses of the vitamin for the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:4033154

  16. Personality Change Pre- to Post- Loss in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Terminal Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Fagerlin, Angela; Mohile, Supriya G.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Personality is relatively stable in adulthood but could change in response to life transitions, such as caring for a spouse with a terminal illness. Using a case-control design, spousal caregivers (n=31) of patients with terminal lung cancer completed the NEO-FFI twice, 1.5 years apart, before and after the patient’s death. A demographically-matched sample of community controls (n=93) completed the NEO-FFI on a similar timeframe. Based on research and theory, we hypothesized that bereaved caregivers would experience greater changes than controls in interpersonal facets of extraversion (sociability), agreeableness (prosocial, nonantagonistic), and conscientiousness (dependability). Consistent with hypotheses, bereaved caregivers experienced an increase in interpersonal orientation, becoming more sociable, prosocial, and dependable (Cohen’s d = .48?.67), though there were no changes in nonantagonism. Changes were not observed in controls (ds ? .11). These initial findings underscore the need for more research on the effect of life transitions on personality. PMID:25614779

  17. Integrating palliative care with intensive care for critically ill patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With newer information indicating more favorable outcomes of intensive care therapy for lung cancer patients, intensivists increasingly are willing to initiate an aggressive trial of this therapy. Concerns remain, however, that the experience of the intensive care unit for patients with lung cancer and their families often may be distressing. Regardless of prognosis, all patients with critical illness should receive high-quality palliative care, including symptom control, communication about appropriate care goals, and support for both patient and family throughout the illness trajectory. In this article, we suggest strategies for integrating palliative care with intensive care for critically ill lung cancer patients. We address assessment and management of symptoms, knowledge and skill needed for effective communication, and interdisciplinary collaboration for patient and family support. We review the role of expert consultants in providing palliative care in the intensive care unit, while highlighting the responsibility of all critical care clinicians to address basic palliative care needs of patients and their families. PMID:22339793

  18. Integrating palliative care with intensive care for critically ill patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gay, Elizabeth B; Weiss, Stefanie P; Nelson, Judith E

    2012-01-01

    With newer information indicating more favorable outcomes of intensive care therapy for lung cancer patients, intensivists increasingly are willing to initiate an aggressive trial of this therapy. Concerns remain, however, that the experience of the intensive care unit for patients with lung cancer and their families often may be distressing. Regardless of prognosis, all patients with critical illness should receive high-quality palliative care, including symptom control, communication about appropriate care goals, and support for both patient and family throughout the illness trajectory. In this article, we suggest strategies for integrating palliative care with intensive care for critically ill lung cancer patients. We address assessment and management of symptoms, knowledge and skill needed for effective communication, and interdisciplinary collaboration for patient and family support. We review the role of expert consultants in providing palliative care in the intensive care unit, while highlighting the responsibility of all critical care clinicians to address basic palliative care needs of patients and their families. PMID:22339793

  19. Psychometric properties of the patient assessment of chronic illness care measure: acceptability, reliability and validity in United Kingdom patients with long-term conditions

    E-print Network

    Rick, Jo; Rowe, Kelly; Hann, Mark; Sibbald, Bonnie; Reeves, David; Roland, Martin; Bower, Peter

    2012-08-31

    Abstract Background The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) is a US measure of chronic illness quality of care, based on the influential Chronic Care Model (CCM). It measures a number of aspects of care, including patient activation...

  20. Selenium substitution has no direct effect on thyroid hormone metabolism in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias WA Angstwurm; Jochen Schopohl; Roland Gaertner

    2004-01-01

    Background: In severe illness, plasma selenium levels are decreased; a decreased activity of the sele- noenzyme 50-deiodinase has been hypothesized to contribute to low tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in non-thyroidal illness (NTI) syndrome in these patients. Objective: To analyse the influence of selenium substitution on thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with severe sepsis. Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled study at the

  1. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  2. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  3. Supporting Cancer Patients in Illness Management: Usability Evaluation of a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David R; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile phones and tablets currently represent a significant presence in people’s everyday lives. They enable access to different information and services independent of current place and time. Such widespread connectivity offers significant potential in different app areas including health care. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the usability of the Connect Mobile app. The mobile app enables mobile access to the Connect system, an online system that supports cancer patients in managing health-related issues. Along with symptom management, the system promotes better patient-provider communication, collaboration, and shared decision making. The Connect Mobile app enables access to the Connect system over both mobile phones and tablets. Methods The study consisted of usability tests of a high fidelity prototype with 7 cancer patients where the objectives were to identify existing design and functionality issues and to provide patients with a real look-and-feel of the mobile system. In addition, we conducted semistructured interviews to obtain participants’ feedback about app usefulness, identify the need for new system features and design requirements, and measure the acceptance of the mobile app and its features within everyday health management. Results The study revealed a total of 27 design issues (13 for mobile apps and 14 for tablet apps), which were mapped to source events (ie, errors, requests for help, participants' concurrent feedback, and moderator observation). We also applied usability heuristics to identify violations of usability principles. The majority of violations were related to enabling ease of input, screen readability, and glanceability (15 issues), as well as supporting an appropriate match between systems and the real world (7 issues) and consistent mapping of system functions and interactions (4 issues). Feedback from participants also showed the cancer patients’ requirements for support systems and how these needs are influenced by different context-related factors, such as type of access terminal (eg, desktop computer, tablet, mobile phone) and phases of illness. Based on the observed results, we proposed design and functionality recommendations that can be used for the development of mobile apps for cancer patients to support their health management process. Conclusions Understanding and addressing users’ requirements is one of the main prerequisites for developing useful and effective technology-based health interventions. The results of this study outline different user requirements related to the design of the mobile patient support app for cancer patients. The results will be used in the iterative development of the Connect Mobile app and can also inform other developers and researchers in development, integration, and evaluation of mobile health apps and services that support cancer patients in managing their health-related issues. PMID:25119490

  4. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Infections in Symptomatic (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Family Members of Mycoplasma-Positive Gulf War Illness Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth L. Nicolson; Marwan Y. Nasralla; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY. Immediate family members of veterans diagnosed with Gulf War Illnesses often complain of fatiguing illnesses, and upon analysis they report similar signs and symptoms as their veteran family members. Since a relatively common finding in Gulf War Illness patients is a bacterial infection due to Mycoplasma species, we examined military families (149 patients: 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other

  5. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra K. Kattelmann; Mary Hise; Mary Russell; Pam Charney; Milton Stokes; Charlene Compher

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence behind specific but common patient care decisions in support of enteral feedings for patients admitted to intensive care units. Six specific questions were developed and refined to address clinical outcomes specific to clinical practice decisions pertinent to enteral feeding of critically ill patients. The data sources consisted of an intensive

  6. Diagnostic ability of hand-held echocardiography in ventilated critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Vignon; Catherine Chastagner; Bruno François; Jean-François Martaillé; Sandrine Normand; Michel Bonnivard; Hervé Gastinne

    2003-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic capability of recently available hand-held echocardiography (HHE) and of conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) used as a gold standard in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: A prospective and descriptive study. SETTING: The general intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All mechanically ventilated patients requiring a TTE study with a full-feature echocardiographic

  7. Gastric exocrine “failure” in critically ill patients: incidence and associated features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V A Stannard; A Hutchinson; D L Morris; A Byrne

    1988-01-01

    Following the observation that many critically ill patients cannot maintain their gastric juice pH below 4 without treatment a study was performed to measure the gastric juice pH in such patients and relate it to other clinical data. The case notes of 64 patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit and taken part in two trials of

  8. Rehabilitation of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy and Myopathy Patients: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Primoz; Vidmar, Gaj; Kuret, Zala; Bizovicar, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently develops in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The number of patients with CIPNM admitted to inpatient rehabilitation is increasing. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the outcome of their rehabilitation. Twenty-seven patients with CIPNM were included in…

  9. Correlations Between Awareness of Illness (Insight) and History of Addiction in Heroin-Addicted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Lamanna, Francesco; Bacciardi, Silvia; Perugi, Giulio; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic, and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight). The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behavior. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic, and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period. PMID:22787450

  10. What is the best nutritional support for critically ill patients?

    PubMed Central

    Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimum nutritional support in critical illness remains controversial. A recent review of nutritional interventions in the ICU concluded that few of them improved clinical outcomes. In our view, it is a serious shortcoming of these trials that they focused on calories, falling far short of current recommendations for protein provision. Well designed clinical trials that ensure sufficient protein provision are urgently needed if we are to improve the quality of nutritional support in the ICU. PMID:25202692

  11. Achieving compliance in chronic illness management: illustrations of trust relationships between physicians and nutrition clinic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R Dibben; Mej Lean

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research from a study of trust and co-operation between chronic illness patients and their physicians, conducted in nutrition clinics. The paper details models of trust and co-operative behaviour designed to aid interpretive analysis. The paper then presents an interpretive discussion of 16 examples from interactions observed between patients and their consultants at the initial visit and

  12. Physicians' Nonverbal Rapport Building and Patients' Talk About the Subjective Component of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Ashley P.; Parrott, Roxanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how physicians' nonverbal communication is sometimes associated with patients' affective satisfaction. Examines the relationship between physicians' nonverbal rapport building and patients' disclosure of information related to the subjective component of illness. Considers implications for understanding the role of physicians' nonverbal…

  13. Sodium intake, dietary knowledge, and illness perceptions of controlled and uncontrolled rural hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Aziz; Azadbakht, Leila; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mahaki, Behzad; Sharghi, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nutritional knowledge of the patients is important in dietary adherence. This study aimed to determine the relationship between illness perceptions and nutritional knowledge with the amounts of sodium intake among rural hypertensive patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 671 hypertensive patients were selected in a multistage random sampling from the rural areas of Ardabil city, Iran, in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of four sections and were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions by SPSS-18. Results. The mean of sodium intake in the uncontrolled hypertensive patients was 3599 ± 258?mg/day and significantly greater than controlled group (2654 ± 540?mg/day) (P < 0.001). Knowledge and illness perceptions could predict 47.2% of the variation in sodium intake of uncontrolled group. A significant negative relationship was found between knowledge and illness perceptions of uncontrolled hypertensive patients with dietary sodium intake (r = -0.66, P < 0.001 and r = -0.65, P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusion. Considering the fact that patients' nutritional knowledge and illness perceptions could highly predict their sodium intake, the importance of paying more attention to improve patients' information and perceptions about hypertension is undeniable, especially among the uncontrolled hypertensive patients. PMID:24678414

  14. Outcome predictors and new score of critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Tseng Fang; Ming-Hung Tsai; Ya-Chung Tian; Chang-Chyi Jenq; Chan-Yu Lin; Yung-Chang Chen; Jau-Min Lien; Pan-Chi Chen; Chih-Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    Background. End-stage liver disease is often complicated byrenalfunctiondisturbances.Cirrhoticpatientswithacute renal failure admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) have high mortality rates. This work seeks to identify specific predictors of hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute renal failure. Methods. A total of 111 patients with cirrhosis and acute renal failure were admitted to ICU from March 2003 to February

  15. Patients' beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Horne; John Weinman

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to quantify patients' personal beliefs about the necessity of their prescribed medication and their concerns about taking it and to assess relations between beliefs and reported adherence among 324 patients from four chronic illness groups (asthma, renal, cardiac, and oncology). The findings revealed considerable variation in reported adherence and beliefs about medicines within

  16. Dental Hygiene Students' Preparation for Treatment of Patients with Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)

  17. Physician-elderly patient interactions: The co-construction of illness narratives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Schottenfels Eggly

    1999-01-01

    The current trend in medical history-taking calls for physicians to encourage patients to tell the story of their illness in narrative form This dissertation examines the structure and function of the narratives that emerge out of medical interviews of physicians and elderly patients. Two assumptions underlie this research: first, there is a strong human tendency to make sense of the

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram M Spira; Aviran Nissan; Oded Zamir; Tzeela Cohen; Scott I Fields; Herbert R Freund

    2002-01-01

    Background: The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced

  19. Adrenal function in critically ill patients: how to test? When to treat?

    PubMed

    Hamrahian, Amir

    2005-05-01

    Although the true incidence of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients is unknown, there is evidence that even partial adrenal insufficiency in such patients is associated with increased mortality. But exactly how should adrenal insufficiency be defined and diagnosed, and who should receive treatment? PMID:15929456

  20. Severe mental illness and mortality of hospitalized ACS patients in the VHA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E Plomondon; P Michael Ho; Li Wang; Gwendolyn T Greiner; James H Shore; Joseph T Sakai; Stephan D Fihn; John S Rumsfeld

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness (SMI) has been associated with more medical co-morbidity and less cardiovascular procedure use for older patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether SMI is associated with increased long term mortality risk among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We tested the hypothesis that SMI is associated with higher one-year mortality following ACS hospitalization.

  1. Allocation of transplantable organs: Do people want to punish patients for causing their illness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Ubel; Christopher Jepson; Jonathan Baron; Tara Mohr; Stacey McMorrow; David A. Asch

    2001-01-01

    Some people believe patients with alcoholic cirrhosis should not receive equal priority for scarce transplantable organs. This may reflect a belief that these patients (1) are personally responsible for causing their own illnesses, (2) have poor transplant prognoses, or (3) are unworthy because they have engaged in socially undesirable behavior. We explore the roles that social desirability and personal responsibility

  2. Sodium Intake, Dietary Knowledge, and Illness Perceptions of Controlled and Uncontrolled Rural Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azadbakht, Leila; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mahaki, Behzad; Sharghi, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nutritional knowledge of the patients is important in dietary adherence. This study aimed to determine the relationship between illness perceptions and nutritional knowledge with the amounts of sodium intake among rural hypertensive patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 671 hypertensive patients were selected in a multistage random sampling from the rural areas of Ardabil city, Iran, in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of four sections and were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions by SPSS-18. Results. The mean of sodium intake in the uncontrolled hypertensive patients was 3599 ± 258?mg/day and significantly greater than controlled group (2654 ± 540?mg/day) (P < 0.001). Knowledge and illness perceptions could predict 47.2% of the variation in sodium intake of uncontrolled group. A significant negative relationship was found between knowledge and illness perceptions of uncontrolled hypertensive patients with dietary sodium intake (r = ?0.66, P < 0.001 and r = ?0.65, P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusion. Considering the fact that patients' nutritional knowledge and illness perceptions could highly predict their sodium intake, the importance of paying more attention to improve patients' information and perceptions about hypertension is undeniable, especially among the uncontrolled hypertensive patients. PMID:24678414

  3. Acceptance of illness and satisfaction with life among malaria patients in rivers state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health condition is one of the basic factors affecting satisfaction with life, and the level of illness acceptance. The purpose of the study was to analyse the level of illness acceptance, the level of satisfaction with life among malaria patients, and the level of trust placed in the physician and the nurse. Methods The study employs the method of diagnostic survey based on standardised AIS and SWLS scales, as well as Anderson and Dedrick’s PPTS and PNTS scales. Results The average AIS level was 12 points, while the average level of SwL at the SWLS scale was 16.5 points. The average level of trust in the physician and the nurse amounted to 50.6 points and 51.4 points, respectively. The correlation between the level of illness acceptance and self-evaluated satisfaction with life was statistically significant, with R?=?0.56. The marital status influenced the level of illness acceptance with p?illness acceptance with p?patients did not accept their illness, while the level of satisfaction with life was low. The majority of respondents trusted their physician and nurse. There is a statistically significant correlation between the level of illness acceptance and the self-evaluated satisfaction with life. The marital status had a statistically significant effect on the acceptance of illness and the satisfaction with life. The individuals who had a job demonstrated higher levels of quality of life and illness acceptance. PMID:24885562

  4. Resting transmembrane potential difference of skeletal muscle in normal subjects and severely ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J. N.; Carter, N. W.; Rector, F. C.; Seldin, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    The resting membrane potential difference (Em) of skeletal muscle was measured in 26 normal human subjects, 7 patients with mild illness, and 21 patients with severe, debilitating medical disorders. A closed transcutaneous approach to the muscle was made by needle puncture and the Em was measured utilizing standard Ling electrodes. Measurements revealed an Em of -88 ±3.8 mv in healthy subjects and -89 ±2.1 mv in patients hospitalized for minor medical problems. The mean Em in 21 in-hospital patients, judged to be severely ill clinically from a variety of causes, was -66.3 ±9.0 mv. Open deltoid muscle biopsies were performed in 7 of the healthy subjects and in 13 of the severely ill group. Estimation of the intra-extracellular water partition was made by calculating the chloride space from the previously measured Em. Analysis of the muscle samples revealed no significant difference in the intra-extracellular potassium ratios of the two groups biopsied. Intracellular Na+ concentrations were uniformly increased in the muscle samples of the severely ill subjects and averaged 42.3% higher than those of the normal subjects. The mechanisms which might account for the elevation of intracellular Na+ and a depression of Em independent of changes in intra-extracellular K+ ratios are discussed and it is suggested that this defect may be a generalized cellular abnormality which is a common quality of serious illnesses. PMID:5101298

  5. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gosselink; J. Bott; M. Johnson; E. Dean; S. Nava; M. Norrenberg; B. Schönhofer; K. Stiller; H. van de Leur; J. L. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic\\u000a critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations\\u000a were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However,\\u000a the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy

  6. "Be patient and grateful"--elderly muslim women's responses to illness and suffering.

    PubMed

    Baeke, Goedele; Wils, Jean-Pierre; Broeckaert, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Muslims arriving as first generation immigrants in Western countries gradually grow old and increasingly appeal to Western healthcare. This study presents and discusses the perspectives of elderly (age > or =55) Muslim women on medicine, illness and suffering. We found that theological considerations, centring around God's almightiness, are central for these Muslim women dealing with illness and suffering in a meaningful way. This study concludes that spirituality is an important dimension of their patient care: it not only makes an impact on these patients' ritual needs (e.g. prayer), but also on the ways they deal with illness, suffering, and concrete medical decision-making. The findings are of particular importance for both Muslim and multi-faith hospital chaplains who might act as spiritual care references in medical teams, by informing physicians and nurses about potential specific sensibilities and perspectives of Muslim patients. PMID:23461098

  7. Vitamin D and Delirium in Critically Ill Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, A.; Barnett, N.; Miller, R.R.; Girard, T.D.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Ely, E.W.; Ware, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiology of delirium in critical illness is unclear. 25-OH vitamin D (25-OHD) has neuroprotective properties but a relationship between serum 25-OHD and delirium has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that low serum 25-OHD is associated with delirium during critical illness. Materials and methods In a prospective cohort of 120medical ICU patients, blood was collected within 24 hours of ICU admission for measurement of 25-OHD. Delirium was identified once daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between 25-OHD and delirium assessed the same day and the subsequent day after25-OHD measurement, with adjustments for age and severity of illness. Results Median age was 52 years (IQR, 40, 62), and APACHE II was 23 (IQR, 17, 30). Thirty-seven patients (41%)were delirious on the day of 25-OHD measurement. 25-OHD levels were not associated with delirium on the day of 25-OHD measurement [OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98–1.02)] or on the day after measurement (OR 1.01, 95% CI:0.99–1.03). Conclusions This pilot study suggests that 25-OHD levels measured early during critical illness are not important determinants of delirium risk. Since 25-OHD levels can fluctuate during critical illness, a study of daily serial measurements of 25-OHD levels and their relationship to delirium during the duration of critical illness may yield different results. PMID:22884531

  8. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with mortality among critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Friedman, Gilberto; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Marques, Leonardo S.; Nagel, Fabiano Márcio; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Czepielewski, Mauro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels <12 ng/mL (versus vitamin D levels >12 ng/mL) (32.2% vs. 13.2%), with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05). There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients. PMID:26039948

  9. Management of critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes: The need for personalised therapy.

    PubMed

    Kar, Palash; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Deane, Adam M

    2015-06-10

    Critical illness in patients with pre-existing diabetes frequently causes deterioration in glycaemic control. Despite the prevalence of diabetes in patients admitted to hospital and intensive care units, the ideal management of hyperglycaemia in these groups is uncertain. There are data that suggest that acute hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients without diabetes is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Exogenous insulin to keep blood glucose concentrations < 10 mmol/L is accepted as standard of care in this group. However, preliminary data have recently been reported that suggest that chronic hyperglycaemia may result in conditioning, which protects these patients against damage mediated by acute hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, acute glucose-lowering to < 10 mmol/L in patients with diabetes with inadequate glycaemic control prior to their critical illness appears to have the capacity to cause harm. This review focuses on glycaemic control in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for harm from glucose-lowering and the rationale for personalised therapy. PMID:26069718

  10. Management of critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes: The need for personalised therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Palash; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Deane, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness in patients with pre-existing diabetes frequently causes deterioration in glycaemic control. Despite the prevalence of diabetes in patients admitted to hospital and intensive care units, the ideal management of hyperglycaemia in these groups is uncertain. There are data that suggest that acute hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients without diabetes is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Exogenous insulin to keep blood glucose concentrations < 10 mmol/L is accepted as standard of care in this group. However, preliminary data have recently been reported that suggest that chronic hyperglycaemia may result in conditioning, which protects these patients against damage mediated by acute hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, acute glucose-lowering to < 10 mmol/L in patients with diabetes with inadequate glycaemic control prior to their critical illness appears to have the capacity to cause harm. This review focuses on glycaemic control in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for harm from glucose-lowering and the rationale for personalised therapy.

  11. Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Denied Consideration for Liver Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN P. KRESS; ARNON RUBIN; ANNE S. POHLMAN; JESSE B. HALL

    2000-01-01

    Patients with advanced liver disease (ALD) leading to admission to the ICU are often evaluated for possible orthotopic liver transplan- tation (OLT). Those deemed ineligible for listing for OLT must be managed by medical therapy. The number of patients not eligible for OLT listing will likely increase given the current organ trans- plant shortage. We performed a retrospective multivariate analy-

  12. Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel De Backer; Gustavo Ospina-Tascon; Diamantino Salgado; Raphaël Favory; Jacques Creteur; Jean-Louis Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  To discuss the techniques currently available to evaluate the microcirculation in critically ill patients. In addition, the\\u000a most clinically relevant microcirculatory alterations will be discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Review of the literature on methods used to evaluate the microcirculation in humans and on microcirculatory alterations in\\u000a critically ill patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In experimental conditions, shock states have been shown to be associated with a decrease

  13. [A religious sect, its mental ill patients, its physician and its psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M; Khaleff, M; Labrousse, D

    1975-01-01

    A religious Sect (Jéhovah witness), its mental patients, its doctor and its psychiatrists. The authors study religious sects, specially Jéhovoah witness. Such 15 mentally ill patients among this group have been treated at the psychiatric clinic. The fact that they are members of a community, sharing the same religious faith, and having in common severe rules of life, is considered as having a pathogenic or beneficial effect. One of them, physician, explain their opinion of mental illness : they believe in biological factors and discard any psychotherapeutic mean. PMID:1163915

  14. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Investigated dream content of 104 dreams from nine terminally ill patients with estimated life expectancy of one year or less. Found differences between dreams of terminally ill and dreams of physically healthy individuals, suggesting an adaptive withdrawal and process of social and emotional disengagement by terminally ill individuals. (Author/NB)

  15. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members, donations from neighbors and the community, and additional benefits from employers. However, insured households overall had positive perceptions of insurance. PMID:25308817

  16. Clinical review: Use of helium-oxygen in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Gainnier, Marc; Forel, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Use of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures in critically ill patients is supported by a reliable and well understood theoretical rationale and by numerous experimental observations. Breathing He/O2 can benefit critically ill patients with severe respiratory compromise mainly by reducing airway resistance in obstructive syndromes such as acute asthma and decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the benefit from He/O2 in terms of respiratory mechanics diminishes rapidly with increasing oxygen concentration in the gaseous mixture. Safe use of He/O2 in the intensive care unit requires specific equipment and supervision by adequately experienced personnel. The available clinical data on inhaled He/O2 mixtures are insufficient to prove that this therapy has benefit with respect to outcome variables. For these reasons, He/O2 is not currently a standard of care in critically ill patients with acute obstructive syndromes, apart from in some, well defined situations. Its role in critically ill patients must be more precisely defined if we are to identify those patients who could benefit from this therapeutic approach. PMID:17210068

  17. Family functioning in families of first-episode psychosis patients as compared to chronic mentally ill patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2014-11-30

    The present study aimed to investigate possible differences in family environment among patients experiencing their First Episode of Psychosis (FEP), chronic patients and controls. Family cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV) and psychological distress (GHQ-28) were evaluated in families of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients, as well as 50 controls, whereas expressed emotion (FQ) and family burden (FBS) were assessed in families of FEP and chronic patients. Multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated impaired cohesion and flexibility for families of FEP patients compared to controls, and lower scores for families of chronic patients compared to those of FEP patients. Caregivers of chronic patients scored significantly higher in criticism, and reported higher burden and psychological distress than those of FEP patients. Our findings suggest that unbalanced levels of cohesion and flexibility, high criticism and burden appeared to be the outcome of psychosis and not risk factors triggering the onset of the illness. Furthermore, emotional over-involvement both in terms of positive (i.e. concern) and negative behaviors (i.e. overprotection) is prevalent in Greek families. Psychoeducational interventions from the early stages of the illness should be considered to promote caregivers' awareness regarding the patients' illness, which in turn, may ameliorate dysfunctional family interactions. PMID:25024058

  18. Feeding critically ill patients the right 'whey': thinking outside of the box. A personal view.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscle mass is an almost universal problem in survivors of critical illness and is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Contrary to common practice, the provision of protein/amino acids as a continuous infusion significantly limits protein synthesis whereas intermittent feeding maximally stimulates skeletal muscle synthesis. Furthermore, whey-based protein (high in leucine) increases muscle synthesis compared to soy or casein-based protein. In addition to its adverse effects on skeletal muscle synthesis, continuous feeding is unphysiological and has adverse effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and gastrointestinal function. I propose that critically ill patients' be fed intermittently with a whey-based formula and that such an approach is likely to be associated with better glycemic control, less hepatic steatosis and greater preservation of muscle mass. This paper provides the scientific basis for my approach to intermittent feeding of critically ill patients. PMID:26055186

  19. Variability of linezolid concentrations after standard dosing in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severe infections in intensive care patients show high morbidity and mortality rates. Linezolid is an antimicrobial drug frequently used in critically ill patients. Recent data indicates that there might be high variability of linezolid serum concentrations in intensive care patients receiving standard doses. This study was aimed to evaluate whether standard dosing of linezolid leads to therapeutic serum concentrations in critically ill patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, 30 critically ill adult patients with suspected infections received standard dosing of 600 mg linezolid intravenously twice a day. Over 4 days, multiple serum samples were obtained from each patient, in order to determine the linezolid concentrations by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A high variability of serum linezolid concentrations was observed (range of area under the linezolid concentration time curve over 24 hours (AUC24) 50.1 to 453.9 mg/L, median 143.3 mg*h/L; range of trough concentrations (Cmin)?patients, respectively. Finally, potentially toxic levels (defined as AUC24?>?400 mg*h/L and Cmin?>?10 mg/L) were observed for 7 of the patients. Conclusions A high variability of linezolid serum concentrations with a substantial percentage of potentially subtherapeutic levels was observed in intensive care patients. The findings suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid might be helpful for adequate dosing of linezolid in critically ill patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01793012. Registered 24 January 2013. PMID:25011656

  20. Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deepali; Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Andrews, Liza Barbarello; Narayanan, Navaneeth; Radbel, Jared; Parikh, Amay; Sunderram, Jag

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and is a substantial source of disability in the United States. Moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can progress to respiratory failure, necessitating ventilator assistance in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients in the ICU with AECOPD requiring ventilator support have higher morbidity and mortality rates as well as costs compared with hospitalized patients not in the ICU. The mainstay of management for patients with AECOPD in the ICU includes ventilator support (noninvasive or invasive), rapid-acting inhaled bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics. However, evidence supporting these interventions for the treatment of AECOPD in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU is scant. Corticosteroids have gained widespread acceptance in the management of patients with AECOPD necessitating ventilator assistance, despite their lack of evaluation in clinical trials as well as controversies surrounding optimal dosage regimens and duration of treatment. Recent studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of corticosteroids have found that higher doses are associated with increased adverse effects, which therefore support lower dosing strategies, particularly for patients admitted to the ICU for COPD exacerbations. This review highlights recent findings from the current body of evidence on nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment and prevention of AECOPD in critically ill patients. In addition, the administration of bronchodilators using novel delivery devices in the ventilated patient and the conflicting evidence surrounding antibiotic use in AECOPD in the critically ill is explored. Further clinical trials, however, are warranted to clarify the optimal pharmacotherapy management for AECOPD, particularly in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU. PMID:26032691

  1. Individualization of piperacillin dosing for critically ill patients: dosing software to optimize antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Felton, T W; Roberts, J A; Lodise, T P; Van Guilder, M; Boselli, E; Neely, M N; Hope, W W

    2014-07-01

    Piperacillin-tazobactam is frequently used for empirical and targeted therapy of infections in critically ill patients. Considerable pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is observed in critically ill patients. By estimating an individual's PK, dosage optimization Bayesian estimation techniques can be used to calculate the appropriate piperacillin regimen to achieve desired drug exposure targets. The aim of this study was to establish a population PK model for piperacillin in critically ill patients and then analyze the performance of the model in the dose optimization software program BestDose. Linear, with estimated creatinine clearance and weight as covariates, Michaelis-Menten (MM) and parallel linear/MM structural models were fitted to the data from 146 critically ill patients with nosocomial infection. Piperacillin concentrations measured in the first dosing interval, from each of 8 additional individuals, combined with the population model were embedded into the dose optimization software. The impact of the number of observations was assessed. Precision was assessed by (i) the predicted piperacillin dosage and by (ii) linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations from the second 24 h of treatment. We found that a linear clearance model with creatinine clearance and weight as covariates for drug clearance and volume of distribution, respectively, best described the observed data. When there were at least two observed piperacillin concentrations, the dose optimization software predicted a mean piperacillin dosage of 4.02 g in the 8 patients administered piperacillin doses of 4.00 g. Linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations for 8 individuals after 24 h of piperacillin dosing demonstrated an r(2) of >0.89. In conclusion, for most critically ill patients, individualized piperacillin regimens delivering a target serum piperacillin concentration is achievable. Further validation of the dosage optimization software in a clinical trial is required. PMID:24798288

  2. Constructs of burden of illness in older patients with breast cancer: a comparison of measurement methods.

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblatt, J S; Bierman, A S; Gold, K; Zhang, Y; Ng, J H; Maserejan, N; Hwang, Y T; Meropol, N J; Hadley, J; Silliman, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The burden of illness can influence treatment decisions, but there are limited data comparing the performance of different illness burden measures. We assessed the correlations between five previously validated measures of illness burden and global health and physical function and evaluated how each measure correlates with breast cancer treatment patterns in older women. DATA SOURCE: A cohort of 718 women > 67 years with early-stage breast cancer formed the study group. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION METHODS: The study made a cross-sectional comparison of illness burden measures (Charlson index, Index of Co-existent Diseases, cardiopulmonary burden of illness, patient-specific life expectancy, and disease counts) and physical function and self-rated global health status. Data were collected from records and patient interviews. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All of the measures were significantly correlated with each other and with physical function and self-rated health (p < .001). After controlling for age and stage, life expectancy had the largest effect on surgical treatment, followed by self-rated physical function and health; life expectancy was also independent of physical function. For instance, women with higher life expectancy and better self-rated physical function and health were more likely to receive breast conservation and radiation than sicker women. Women with higher physical functioning were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy than women with lower functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Several measures of illness burden were associated with breast cancer therapy, but each measure accounted for only a small amount of variance in treatment patterns. Future work is needed to develop and validate measures of burden of illness that are feasible, comprehensive, and relevant for diverse clinical and health services objectives. PMID:11775669

  3. Adults Living with Limited Literacy and Chronic Illness: Patient Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…

  4. Usefulness of pulse oximetry using the SET technology in critically ill adult patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Levrat; F. Petitpas; G. Bouche; B. Debaene; O. Mimoz

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundPulse oximeters are routinely used in severely ill patients to detect hypoxemia early. In various clinical situations, however, conventional devices may be unable to display valid values or any value whatsoever. The usefulness of the Signal Extraction Technology (SET) in these situations has not yet been investigated.

  5. Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D Schweickert; Mark C Pohlman; Anne S Pohlman; Celerina Nigos; Amy J Pawlik; Cheryl L Esbrook; Linda Spears; Megan Miller; Mietka Franczyk; Deanna Deprizio; Gregory A Schmidt; Amy Bowman; Rhonda Barr; Kathryn E McCallister; Jesse B Hall; John P Kress

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term complications of critical illness include intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness and neuropsychiatric disease. Immobilisation secondary to sedation might potentiate these problems. We assessed the effi cacy of combining daily interruption of sedation with physical and occupational therapy on functional outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care. Methods Sedated adults (?18 years of age) in the

  6. [A patient who simulates an injury. Illness and other skills and tricks].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, María José Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    This article finalizes a series on Operating Guides for Emergencies in which, from her personal viewpoint, the author explains various "tricks" and skills to use when facing diverse emergency situations. In this article, the author describes some tricks to apply when a patient simulates an injury/illness or other situations in which nurses may find themselves immersed. PMID:18757012

  7. Bench-to-bedside review: Iron metabolism in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Darveau; André Y Denault; Normand Blais; Éric Notebaert

    2004-01-01

    Critically ill patients frequently develop anemia due to several factors. Iron-withholding mechanisms caused by inflammation contribute to this anemia. The iron metabolism imbalances described or reported in all intensive care studies are similar to the values observed in anemia of inflammation. The administration of iron could be useful in the optimization of recombinant human erythropoietin activity, but this could be

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in critically ill patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Dimopoulou; Stylianos Tsagarakis

    2005-01-01

    Background: A significant number of studies have shown that critically ill patients with brain injury (BI) frequently exhibit abnormal pi- tuitary hormonal responses during the immediate postinjury period. Discus- sion: The elucidation of endocrine alterations depends on the criteria used, the diagnostic tests applied, and the timing of testing in relation to BI. The pattern of the detected hormonal abnormalities

  9. Pretherapy Expectations and Definitions of Mental Illness among Minority and Low-Income Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Frank X.

    1979-01-01

    Notes similarities and differences of pretherapy expectations for psychotherapists, length of time in therapy, and definitions of mental illness among 44 Mexican American and 48 Anglo American low income out-patients at an East Los Angeles mental health clinic. (SB)

  10. Treatment delay among Asian-American patients with severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumie Okazaki

    2000-01-01

    Length of treatment delay and cultural-familial correlates were studied in a group of 62 Asian-American patients with severe mental illness, and 40 of their relatives. Contrary to prior findings of long treatment delay among Asian Americans, this cohort reported relatively low levels of stigma and shame and relatively short delay between onset of psychiatric symptoms and inception of treatment. Higher

  11. Bench-to-bedside review: Outcome predictions for critically ill patients in the emergency department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Hargrove; H Bryant Nguyen

    2005-01-01

    The escalating number of emergency department (ED) visits, length of stay, and hospital overcrowding have been associated with an increasing number of critically ill patients cared for in the ED. Existing physiologic scoring systems have traditionally been used for outcome prediction, clinical research, quality of care analysis, and benchmarking in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment. However, there is limited

  12. Hospice Comics: Representations of Patient and Family Experience of Illness and Death in Graphic Novels.

    PubMed

    Czerwiec, Mk; Huang, Michelle N

    2014-08-20

    Non-fiction graphic novels about illness and death created by patients and their loved ones have much to teach all readers. However, the bond of empathy made possible in the comic form may have special lessons for healthcare providers who read these texts and are open to the insights they provide. PMID:25138207

  13. When the severely ill elderly patient refuses food Ethical reasoning among nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilian Jansson; Astrid Norberg; Per-Olov Sandman; Gunilla Åström

    1995-01-01

    Forty registered nurses (RNs) regarded as “good and experienced” in either cancer or dementia care, were asked about their decision to feed or not feed a severely ill elderly woman (a hypothetical case). In order to compare ethical reasoning in the two groups of nurses and to illuminate what it means to RNs to face a situation where the patients

  14. Medication dosing in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Bridget A; Mueller, Bruce A

    2013-03-01

    Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury may be treated with a variety of renal replacement therapies (RRTs). Each of these RRTs has profound yet differing effects on drug dosing. Although the doses of some drugs can be titrated to an immediately observable pharmacodynamic effect, the effects of many drugs, such as antibiotics for example, are not immediately apparent. Attainment of desired pharmacodynamic response is a complex interplay between patient, RRT, and pharmacokinetic factors. In the case of antibiotics, microorganism-specific factors also must be considered. Rational and effective drug dosing in this clinical setting cannot occur until all these issues are addressed by the clinician. Failure to account for the pharmacokinetic influences of critical illness, kidney disease, and choice of intermittent hemodialysis or prolonged intermittent or continuous RRT can contribute to the high mortality rates seen in these patients. Pharmacotherapy considerations for each of these therapies are addressed in this article by applying them to a patient case. PMID:23127618

  15. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  16. Assessing Capacity in Psychiatric Patients With Acute Medical Illness Who Refuse Care

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Three cases are presented that demonstrate the difficulty of assessing medical decision-making capacity in patients with psychiatric illness who are refusing care. Health professionals often assess capacity differently in practice. Provided their patients have some understanding of their illness and have some plans for meeting basic needs, psychiatrists are often inclined to give patients the freedom to refuse care even if they do not exhibit a full understanding of the medical facts of their case and why they are refusing it. Adult medicine physicians, in contrast, are inclined to require patients to state a more complete understanding of the benefits and burdens of evaluation and treatment before allowing them to refuse care when their refusals might result in adverse medical outcomes. The 3 cases exemplify the tension between these approaches and highlight the role of hospital ethics consultation in addressing this conflict. PMID:25834754

  17. Acquired neuromuscular disorders in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. De Jonghe; D. Cook; T. Sharshar; J.-P. Lefaucheur; J. Carlet; H. Outin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the prospective clinical studies of neuromuscular abnormalities in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Study identification and selection: Studies were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, references in primary and review articles, personal files, and contact\\u000a with authors. Through duplicate independent review, we selected prospective cohort studies evaluating ICU-acquired neuromuscular\\u000a disorders. Data abstraction: In duplicate, independently, we abstracted key data

  18. Septic shock in critically ill patients: aetiology, management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Dahmash, N S; Chowdhury, N H; Fayed, D F

    1993-03-01

    Over a period of 28 months, 45 episodes of septic shock from 83 episodes of bacteraemia were studied prospectively to evaluate their clinical profile, management and outcome. Thirty-six patients were studied, the overall incidence of septic shock being 54.2%. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 23 (51.1%) of such episodes, Gram-positive 17 (37.8%), and three episodes were polymicrobial (6.7%). The organisms isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus epidermidis (17.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.3%), Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. (each 11.1%). Coagulation abnormalities were detected in 32 episodes (78%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurred in 11 of these with high mortality. The most common underlying conditions were respiratory, hepatic and renal failures. The majority of these patients received crystalloids, colloids, vasopressor drugs and blood. Swan-Ganz catheters (SGC) were inserted on eight occasions, the majority of times indicating a hyperdynamic circulatory response. The overall mortality was 40%, despite aggressive management and intensive care. The most important factor in reducing mortality is early detection of bacteraemia and prompt management of these patients. PMID:8473762

  19. Support vector machine versus logistic regression modeling for prediction of hospital mortality in critically ill patients with haematological malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Verplancke; S Van Looy; D Benoit; S Vansteelandt; P Depuydt; F De Turck; J Decruyenaere

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several models for mortality prediction have been constructed for critically ill patients with haematological malignancies in recent years. These models have proven to be equally or more accurate in predicting hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancies than ICU severity of illness scores such as the APACHE II or SAPS II 1. The objective of this study is to

  20. Regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with a high risk of bleeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Runolfur Palsson; John L. Niles

    1999-01-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with a high risk of bleeding.BackgroundSystemic heparinization is associated with a high rate of bleeding when used to maintain patency of the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients. Regional anticoagulation can be achieved with citrate, but previously described techniques are cumbersome and associated

  1. Reinstitutionalization Following Psychiatric Discharge among VA Patients with Serious Mental Illness: A National Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Irmiter; John F. McCarthy; Kristen L. Barry; Soheil Soliman; Frederic C. Blow

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI)\\u000a vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings\\u000a for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health\\u000a care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized.

  2. Long term follow up of severely ill patients who underwent urgent cardiac transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Mulcahy; M Fitzgerald; C Wright; J Sparrow; J Pepper; M Yacoub; K M Fox

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess long term survival (> 5 years) and quality of life in severely ill patients referred for urgent cardiac transplantation. SETTING--Tertiary referral centres: before transplantation at the National Heart Hospital (late 1984 to end 1986); after transplantation at Harefield Hospital. SUBJECTS--Eighteen patients (15 men; three women) who had required intensive support in hospital before cardiac transplantation and were alive

  3. Quality of life and dialysis decisions in critically ill patients with acute renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon E. Maynard; Jeffrey Whittle; Lakshmipathi Chelluri; Robert Arnold

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine whether health-related quality of life (HRQL) in survivors of acute renal failure (ARF) occurring in intensive care is predictable from data available at the time of acute illness.Design and settingProspective pilot study in academic intensive care units.Patients and methodsPatients requiring renal replacement therapy for ARF while in intensive care over a 6-month enrollment period were included. The primary

  4. Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Thomas Cohen; Theodore Erich Spiro; Harry Roger Büller; Lloyd Haskell; Dayi Hu; Russell Hull; Alexandre Mebazaa; Geno Merli; Sebastian Schellong; Alex Spyropoulos; Victor Tapson

    2011-01-01

    Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of\\u000a therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately\\u000a 10 days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE

  5. Implementation of a glucose management protocol to prevent hypo- and hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Kynoch, Kate

    2008-12-01

    Background? Many healthcare providers acknowledge the importance of encouraging health professionals to base their practice on current evidence. There is a plethora of evidence supporting tight glucose control in critically ill patients to reduce mortality and morbidity and many studies have shown that hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to infection and impaired immune response. Methods? This project aimed to improve current practice in the prevention and management of hypo- and hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients based on the best available evidence. The setting for the project was a large public hospital in Brisbane, Queensland, with an 11 bed tertiary referral intensive care unit (ICU) for critically ill adult patients. A pre-implementation audit using a set of evidence-based criteria from a systematic review on tight glucose control in critically ill patients was undertaken. The Joanna Briggs Institute on-line audit and feedback software, paces (Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System), was used to analyse the data to determine ICU's current compliance with established best practice in glucose management. These initial audit results were used to develop an action plan to improve glucose management practice within the unit. This included the development and implementation of a glucose management protocol, the identification of barriers and facilitators and education of clinical staff. Following the implementation of this protocol a post-implementation audit was conducted using the same criteria as in the initial audit. Results? The post audit findings indicated improvement in most areas of glucose management practice within the ICU. Conclusion? The success of this project is not only evident through improved ICU glucose management practice over 12?weeks, but also through clinicians gaining experience in the process of utilising evidence-based recommendations in all areas of practice. PMID:21631838

  6. The doctor, his patient, and the illness: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sowerby, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Psychoanalytical theories seek to explain human behaviour. I believe that they are not scientific, whereas it appears that Balint thought they were. I suggest instead that they are better regarded as myths and part of an artistic discipline. Whereas most of the problems brought by patients to general practitioners can be understood in scientific terms, others can be understood only in artistic terms. These two terms reflect fundamentally different kinds of problems, and different language must be used to discuss them. Neither the two sets of terms nor the two kinds of problem can be confused without giving rise to error. I argue that Michael Balint came to a false conclusion about the nature of the general practitioner's task, about the way the problems posed by his difficult patients may be identified, and about some of the training doctors should receive. Balint's main contribution remains. He showed us that scientific skills alone are not enough if we are to understand our patients fully. He also showed us how a descriptive science of human behaviour in the consulting room was possible. To these insights must be added new understanding. Popper (1963) has provided us with a clear line of demarcation between science and the rest of our knowledge. This idea suggests that general practitioners should reaffirm the importance to them of the intellectual discipline of science. If they wish their understanding and practice to be comprehensive they must also affirm the importance of the arts. What they must not do is to confuse one with the other. PMID:359795

  7. Fluid and electrolyte overload in critically ill patients: An overview.

    PubMed

    Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Gobatto, André Luiz Nunes; Melro, Lívia Maria Garcia; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Park, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Fluids are considered the cornerstone of therapy for many shock states, particularly states that are associated with relative or absolute hypovolemia. Fluids are also commonly used for many other purposes, such as renal protection from endogenous and exogenous substances, for the safe dilution of medications and as "maintenance" fluids. However, a large amount of evidence from the last decade has shown that fluids can have deleterious effects on several organ functions, both from excessive amounts of fluids and from their non-physiological electrolyte composition. Additionally, fluid prescription is more common in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome whose kidneys may have impaired mechanisms of electrolyte and free water excretion. These processes have been studied as separate entities (hypernatremia, hyperchloremic acidosis and progressive fluid accumulation) leading to worse outcomes in many clinical scenarios, including but not limited to acute kidney injury, worsening respiratory function, higher mortality and higher hospital and intensive care unit length-of-stays. In this review, we synthesize this evidence and describe this phenomenon as fluid and electrolyte overload with potentially deleterious effects. Finally, we propose a strategy to safely use fluids and thereafter wean patients from fluids, along with other caveats to be considered when dealing with fluids in the intensive care unit. PMID:25938027

  8. Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1?gm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 ?g/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 ?g/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 ?g ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 ?g ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

  9. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 ?g/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 ?g/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 ?g/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 ?g/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  10. [Ethical problems concerning the feeding of aged patients and of patients in the terminal stage].

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M; Lauri, S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the nurses' and the special nurses' decision making and the facts with it in connection to eating problems with the old, seriously demented patients and with the old cancer patients in terminal stage. The study was carried out by interviewing 40 nurses and special nurses. Twenty of them was working with dementia patients in the wards of two health centers and twenty nurses had experience by caring cancer patients in terminal stage in one central hospital. The structural interview schedule was used and the interviews were recorded. It was found in the study, that the most nurses in cancer care didn't want to feed a patient against his will. In dementia care most of the nurses were ready to feed a patient. The opinion of relatives, order given by a physician, the attitudes of the other medical staff and the suffering caused by feeding the patient were the facts, which effected to the decision making of the nurses, especially in dementia care. PMID:2620003

  11. Management of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients: contemporary role for cholecystostomy and subsequent cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bryan C; Smith, J Brandon; Lawdahl, Richard B; Roettger, Richard H

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients carries a high mortality rate. Although decompression and drainage of the gallbladder through a cholecystostomy tube may be used as a temporary treatment of acute cholecystitis in this population, there is still some debate about the management of the tube and the subsequent need for a cholecystectomy. This series evaluates the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients who underwent the insertion of cholecystostomy tubes for the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis. This is a retrospective review of critically ill patients admitted to the hospital intensive care unit who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and underwent a cholecystostomy tube as a temporary treatment for the disease. Patients were identified through the Greenville Hospital System electronic medical records coding database. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, diagnoses, imaging, complications, and outcomes. From January 2002 through June 2008, 50 patients were identified for the study. The mean age was 72 +/- 11 years, and the majority (66%) were men. The following comorbidities were found: severe cardiovascular disease (40 patients), respiratory failure (30 patients), and multisystem organ dysfunction (30 patients). The mean intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) was 16 +/- 9 days, and the mean hospital LOS was 28 +/- 27 days. At 30 days, the morbidity associated with the cholecystostomy tube itself was 4 per cent, but overall in-hospital morbidity and mortality rates were 62 and 50 per cent, respectively. Of the 25 patients who survived longer than 30 days, 12 retained their cholecystostomy tubes until they underwent cholecystectomy (four open, seven laparoscopic). All of the remaining 13 patients had their cholecystostomy tubes removed, and eight developed recurrent cholecystitis. Of these patients with recurrent of cholecystitis, five had cholecystectomy or repeat cholecystostomy, but the remaining three patients died. Although this is a small patient population, these data suggest that, in critically ill patients, cholecystostomy tubes should remain in place until the patient is deemed medically suitable to undergo cholecystectomy. Removal of the cholecystostomy tube without subsequent cholecystectomy is associated with a high incidence of recurrent cholecystitis and devastating consequences. PMID:20698375

  12. Influence of Body Mass Index on Inflammatory Profile at Admission in Critically Ill Septic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Fernando G.; Jacob, Vanessa; Barbeiro, Hermes V.; de Souza, Heraldo P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Inflammation is ubiquitous during sepsis and may be influenced by body mass index (BMI). We sought to evaluate if BMI was associated with serum levels of several cytokines measured at intensive care unit admission due to sepsis. Methods. 33 septic patients were included. An array of thirty-two cytokines and chemokines was measured using Milliplex technology. We assessed the association between cytokine levels and BMI by generalized additive model that also included illness severity (measured by SAPS 3 score); one model was built for each cytokine measured. Results. We found that levels of epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukins 4, 5, and 13 were associated with BMI in a complex, nonlinear way, independently of illness severity. Higher BMI was associated with higher levels of anti-inflammatory interleukins. Conclusion. BMI may influence host response to infection during critical illness. Larger studies should confirm these findings.

  13. The relationship between anxiety, depression and illness perception in tberculosis patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective As the rates of TB world over have increased during the past 10 years, there has been a growing awareness of depression and its role in the outcome of chronic disorders. Though depression is common in patients with TB no study as yet has examined the prevalence of depression in this group in Pakistan. We aimed to determine the presence of depression, anxiety and illness perceptions in patients suffering from Tuberculosis (TB) in Pakistan. Methods 108 consecutive outpatients with tuberculosis completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ). Results Out of 108 patients, 50 (46.3%) were depressed and 51 (47.2%) had anxiety. Raised depression and anxiety scores were associated with an increase in the number of symptoms reported (HADS Depression: r = 0.346, p = < 0.001), more serious perceived consequences (HADS Depression: r = 0.279, p = 0.004, HADS Anxiety: r = 0.234, p = 0.017) and less control over their illness (HADS Depression: r = 0.239, p = 0.014, HADS Anxiety: r = 0.271, p = 0.005). Conclusion We found that about a half of patients in our sample met the criteria for probable depression and anxiety based on HADS score. Negative illness perceptions were clearly related to reports of mood symptoms. As depression and lack of perceived control over illness in those suffering from tuberculosis are reported to be independent predictors of poor adherence further studies to investigate their relationship with medication adherence are required. PMID:18302758

  14. Yeast central nervous system infection in a critically ill patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Invasive fungal infections are alarmingly common in intensive care unit patients; invasive fungal infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors are the increased use of indwelling central venous catheters, the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, renal replacement therapy and immunosuppression. Diagnosis of these infections might be complicated, requiring tissue cultures. In addition, therapy of invasive fungal infections might be difficult, given the rising resistance of fungi to antifungal agents. Case presentation We describe the case of a 28-year-old Greek man with yeast central nervous system infection. Conclusions Difficult-to-treat fungal infections may complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients and render their prognosis unfavorable. This report presents a case that was rare and difficult to treat, along with a thorough review of the investigation and treatment of these kinds of fungal infections in critically ill patients. PMID:25026870

  15. Adrenocortical function in critically ill patients 24 h after a single dose of etomidate.

    PubMed

    Absalom, A; Pledger, D; Kong, A

    1999-09-01

    We compared the effects of single doses of etomidate and thiopentone on adrenocortical function in a randomised controlled clinical trial involving 35 critically ill patients who needed a general anaesthetic. Just before induction of anaesthesia, a baseline blood cortisol sample was taken. Twenty-four hours later we performed a short adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation test. No patient had a low cortisol level (< 160 nmol.l-1) at any time during the study. Baseline, pre-ACTH and post-ACTH cortisol levels were similar in the two groups. However, significantly more patients in the etomidate group had an ACTH-stimulated cortisol increment < 200 nmol.l-1. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear, but we conclude that single doses of etomidate may interfere with cortisol synthesis for at least 24 h in the critically ill. PMID:10460557

  16. Duration of adrenal inhibition following a single dose of etomidate in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Vinclair; Christophe Broux; Patrice Faure; Julien Brun; Céline Genty; Claude Jacquot; Olivier Chabre; Jean-François Payen

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To determine the incidence and duration of adrenal inhibition induced by a single dose of etomidate in critically ill patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective, observational cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Three intensive care units in a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Forty critically ill patients without sepsis who received a single dose of etomidate for facilitating endotracheal intubation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements and main results  Serial serum cortisol and 11?-deoxycortisol samples were taken at baseline and

  17. Systemic varicella-zoster virus infection in two critically ill patients in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) usually causes localized zoster in adults. However, in immunocompromised patients, it can cause systemic infection accompanied by complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and hepatitis. Although most of critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) are immunologically compromised, they are usually not considered to be at risk for systemic VZV infection. We report two cases of systemic VZV infection occurring in critically ill patients in an ICU. One patient was a 69-year-old man with Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced purpurafulminans, and the other was a 75-year-old woman with severe acute pancreatitis. During the clinical course in the ICU, characteristic vesicles with umbilical fossa appeared diffusely and bilaterally on their face, trunk, and extremities. VZV-specific IgG levels were confirmed to be elevated compared to that of the pre-onset, and a diagnosis of recurrent VZV infection was made in both patients. The patients were treated at the same ICU but did not coincide with each other; therefore a cross-infection was unlikely. They were treated with intravenous acyclovir, but the latter patient eventually died of respiratory failure. VZV infection can cause a number of serious complications, and can lead to death in some patients. Early detection and proper treatment are needed to prevent the infection from spreading out and save the patients. It might be necessary to consider antiviral prophylaxis against VZV infection for a part of critically ill patients in ICU, although the effectiveness of this approach is yet to be established. PMID:23829348

  18. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: obese patient.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, A; Sánchez Álvarez, C; Arboleda Sánchez, J A

    2011-11-01

    As a response to metabolic stress, obese critically-ill patients have the same risk of nutritional deficiency as the non-obese and can develop protein-energy malnutrition with accelerated loss of muscle mass. The primary aim of nutritional support in these patients should be to minimize loss of lean mass and accurately evaluate energy expenditure. However, routinely used formulae can overestimate calorie requirements if the patient's actual weight is used. Consequently, the use of adjusted or ideal weight is recommended with these formulae, although indirect calorimetry is the method of choice. Controversy surrounds the question of whether a strict nutritional support criterion, adjusted to the patient's requirements, should be applied or whether a certain degree of hyponutrition should be allowed. Current evidence suggested that hypocaloric nutrition can improve results, partly due to a lower rate of infectious complications and better control of hyperglycemia. Therefore, hypocaloric and hyperproteic nutrition, whether enteral or parenteral, should be standard practice in the nutritional support of critically-ill obese patients when not contraindicated. Widely accepted recommendations consist of no more than 60-70% of requirements or administration of 11-14 kcal/kg current body weight/day or 22-25 kcal/kg ideal weight/day, with 2-2.5 g/kg ideal weight/day of proteins. In a broad sense, hypocaloric-hyperprotein regimens can be considered specific to obese critically-ill patients, although the complications related to comorbidities in these patients may require other therapeutic possibilities to be considered, with specific nutrients for hyperglycemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. However, there are no prospective randomized trials with this type of nutrition in this specific population subgroup and the available data are drawn from the general population of critically-ill patients. Consequently, caution should be exercised when interpreting these data. PMID:22411521

  19. Candidemia in the critically ill: initial therapy and outcome in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality among critically ill patients with candidemia is very high. We sought to determine whether the choice of initial antifungal therapy is associated with survival among these patients, using need for mechanical ventilatory support as a marker of critical illness. Methods Cohort analysis of outcomes among mechanically ventilated patients with candidemia from the 24 North American academic medical centers contributing to the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Patients were included if they received either fluconazole or an echinocandin as initial monotherapy. Results Of 5272 patients in the PATH registry at the time of data abstraction, 1014 were ventilated and concomitantly had candidemia, with 689 eligible for analysis. 28-day survival was higher among the 374 patients treated initially with fluconazole than among the 315 treated with an echinocandin (66% versus 51%, P?patients with albicans infection (hazard ratio .62, 95% CI .44–.88). While not statistically significant, fluconazole appeared to be associated with higher mortality among patients infected with glabrata (HR 1.13, 95% CI .70–1.84). Conclusions Among ventilated patients with candidemia, those receiving fluconazole as initial monotherapy were significantly more likely to survive than those treated with an echinocandin. This difference persisted after adjustment for non-treatment factors. PMID:24172136

  20. Point-of-care testing in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fries, Dietmar; Streif, Werner

    2015-02-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing in hemostasis has experienced a significant increase in the spectrum of available tests and the number of tests performed. Short turn-around time and observation of rapid changes in test results are facilitated. The quality control process in POC testing must encompass a preanalytic (collection), analytic (measurement), and postanalytic (clinical response) phase. Erroneous interpretation of findings and difficult quality controls can outweigh the advantages of POC testing.Only a limited number of hemostatic POC tests have proven useful so far: prothrombin time POC-monitoring of oral vitamin K antagonists; activated clotting time POC-monitoring of high-dose heparin therapy; platelet function analyzer (PFA; Siemens, Marburg, Germany) closure time (CT)-detection of von Willebrand disease and severe platelet function defects; whole blood aggregometry (WBA) Multiplate (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and the VerifyNow system (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA)-detection of platelet dysfunction due to antiplatelet drugs; thromboelastography-continuous observation of clot formation and fibrinolysis. The use of various agonists in WBA and thromboelastography (TEG) requires some expertise. In experienced hands the PFA CT and WBA and TEG are recommended combinations.Application of POC testing depends strictly on whether it improves medical care and patient outcome. More POC test systems are in the research pipeline, but only a few will resist the ravages of time. PMID:25611850

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Asare, Kwame

    2007-11-01

    The reported incidence of adrenal insufficiency varies greatly depending on the population of critically ill patients studied, the test and cutoff levels used, and the severity of illness. Several studies have shown increased mortality in patients with very low or very high baseline cortisol levels. Manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill patient are numerous and nonspecific, so clinicians are urged to have a high index of suspicion and be alert to important diagnostic clues, such as hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypotension, that are refractory to fluids and vasopressors without any clear causation. Multiple tests have been developed to diagnose adrenal insufficiency, but the most commonly used test in the intensive care unit is the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. The low-dose ACTH stimulation test has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than the high-dose test; however, the high-dose test is preferred since the low-dose test has not been validated. Although diagnosing adrenal insufficiency continues to be difficult in the critically ill patient, administration of high-dose corticosteroids, defined as methylprednisolone 30 mg/kg/day or more (or its equivalent), over a short period of time provides no overall benefit and may even be harmful; however, administration of low-dose corticosteroids for a longer duration decreases both the amount of the time that vasopressors are required and mortality at 28 days. Hydrocortisone 200-300 mg/day, administered in divided doses or as a continuous infusion, is the preferred corticosteroid in patients with septic shock and should be started as early as possible. For patients in whom the ACTH stimulation test cannot be given immediately, clinicians are urged to consider using dexamethasone until such time that the test can be administered, since, unlike hydrocortisone, it does not interfere with the cortisol test. PMID:17963461

  2. Investigational tests and treatments performed in terminal stage cancer patients in two weeks before death: Turkish oncology group (TOG) study.

    PubMed

    Türker, ?brahim; Kömürcü, ?eref; Ar?can, Ali; Doruk, Hatice; Özy?lkan, Özgür; Co?kun, Hasan ?enol; Colak, Dil?en; Üçgül Çavu?o?lu, Emel; Ata, Alper; Sezer, Ahmet; Ye?il Ç?nk?r, Havva; ?enler, Filiz Cay; Arpac?, Fikret

    2014-12-01

    Although more palliative care is necessary for terminally ill cancer patients, excess investigational tests, invasive procedures, and treatments are given instead. Between November 2009 and December 2013, six hundred and twenty-four patients with end-stage cancer who were died at inpatient setting evaluated retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, sites of tumor and metastasis, tests and invasive procedures, treatments performed in the last 2 weeks before death were collected from the hospital files and analyzed. Median age of 624 patients was 58 (range 16-96) years. More than half of the patients (370, 59.3%) were men. The most frequent cancer sites were gastrointestinal (GI) system (32.2%), lung (24.0%), and breast (11.1%). Frequent metastatic sites were liver (34.8%), bone (31.5%), lung (23.3%), and/or brain (16.9%). Causes of death were respiratory failure, infections, and/or liver failure in 49.9, 23.9, and 19.4% of patients, respectively. Radiological tests performed in the last 2 weeks before death were ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan in 25.6, 16.3, 11.4, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Treatments received were intravenous (i.v) serum infusion, blood transfusion, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), human albumin infusion in 55.9, 44.1, 34.9, and 9.5% of patients, respectively. Invasive procedures such as invasive pain relief, terminal sedation, and chemotherapy performed in 12.6, 4.4, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Central venous catheter application, paracentesis, thoracentesis, and GI endoscopy were applied in 41.7, 9.8, 5.6, and 3.4% of the patients, respectively. Radiological tests, invasive procedures, TPN, and human albumin transfusion were used excessively in terminal stage cancer patients in our medical oncology inpatient clinics. Invasive pain relief and terminal sedation were still underused in our cancer clinics. There is an urgent need in developing national palliative care program to improve the understanding of end-of-life care in our medical oncology clinics. PMID:25412940

  3. Hemoglobin levels and transfusions in neurocritically ill patients: a systematic review of comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that, in critically ill patients, a lower hemoglobin transfusion threshold is safe. However, the optimal hemoglobin level and associated transfusion threshold remain unknown in neurocritically ill patients. Methods We conducted a systematic review of comparative studies (randomized and nonrandomized) to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin levels on mortality, neurologic function, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and multiple organ failure in adult and pediatric neurocritically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Studies focusing on any neurocritical care conditions were included. Data are presented by using odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Results Among 4,310 retrieved records, six studies met inclusion criteria (n = 537). Four studies were conducted in traumatic brain injury (TBI), one in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and one in a mixed population of neurocritically ill patients. The minimal hemoglobin levels or transfusion thresholds ranged from 7 to 10 g/dl in the lower-Hb groups and from 9.3 to 11.5 g/dl in the higher-Hb groups. Three studies had a low risk of bias, and three had a high risk of bias. No effect was observed on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, or multiple organ failure. In studies reporting on length of stay (n = 4), one reported a significant shorter ICU stay (mean, -11.4 days (95% confidence interval, -16.1 to -6.7)), and one, a shorter hospital stay (mean, -5.7 days (-10.3 to -1.1)) in the lower-Hb groups, whereas the other two found no significant association. Conclusions We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute a difference in effect between lower- and higher-Hb groups in neurocritically ill patients. Considering the lack of evidence regarding long-term neurologic functional outcomes and the high risk of bias of half the studies, no recommendation can be made regarding which hemoglobin level to target and which associated transfusion strategy (restrictive or liberal) to favor in neurocritically ill patients. PMID:22471943

  4. Adverse events during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transport of critically ill patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures is at risk of complications. Adverse events during transport are common and may have significant consequences for the patient. The objective of the study was to collect prospectively adverse events that occurred during intrahospital transports of critically ill patients and to determine their risk factors. Methods This prospective, observational study of intrahospital transport of consecutively admitted patients with mechanical ventilation was conducted in a 38-bed intensive care unit in a university hospital from May 2009 to March 2010. Results Of 262 transports observed (184 patients), 120 (45.8%) were associated with adverse events. Risk factors were ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, sedation before transport, and fluid loading for intrahospital transports. Within these intrahospital transports with adverse events, 68 (26% of all intrahospital transports) were associated with an adverse event affecting the patient. Identified risk factors were: positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, and treatment modification before transport. In 44 cases (16.8% of all intrahospital transports), adverse event was considered serious for the patient. In our study, adverse events did not statistically increase ventilator-associated pneumonia, time spent on mechanical ventilation, or length of stay in the intensive care unit. Conclusions This study confirms that the intrahospital transports of critically ill patients leads to a significant number of adverse events. Although in our study adverse events have not had major consequences on the patient stay, efforts should be made to decrease their incidence. PMID:23587445

  5. Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Vascular Surgery Patients is Common and Associated with Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Donald G.; Koo, Grace; McCrone, Michelle P.; Weltz, Adam S.; Chiu, William C.; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Scalea, Thomas M.; Diaz, Jose J.; Lissauer, Matthew E.; Crawford, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular surgery patients have multiple risk factors for renal dysfunction, but acute kidney injury (AKI) is poorly studied in this group. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI in high-risk vascular patients. Methods: Critically ill vascular surgery patients admitted during January–December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed with 1-year follow-up. The endpoint was AKI by established RIFLE creatinine criteria. The primary analysis was between patients with or without AKI, with secondary analysis of post-operative AKI. Outcomes were inpatient and 1-year mortality, inpatient lengths of stay, and discharge renal function. Results: One-hundred and thirty six vascular surgery patients were included, representing 27% of all vascular surgery admissions during the study period. Sixty-five (48%) developed AKI. Independent global risk factors for AKI were diabetes, increasing critical illness severity, and sepsis. While intraoperative blood loss and hypotension were associated with subsequent renal dysfunction, post-operative AKI rates were similar for patients undergoing aortic, carotid, endovascular, or peripheral vascular procedures. All RIFLE grades of AKI were associated with worse outcomes. Overall, patients with AKI had significantly increased short- and long-term mortality, longer inpatient lengths of stay, and worse discharge renal function. Conclusion: AKI is common among critically ill vascular surgery patients. Importantly, the type of surgical procedure appears to be less important than intra- and perioperative management in determining renal dysfunction. Regardless of its severity, AKI is a clinically significant complication that is associated with substantially worse patient outcomes. PMID:25806372

  6. A novel equipment bridge for helicopter transport of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Hotter, A

    1994-06-01

    A three-piece equipment bridge designed to simplify transfer of critically ill patients by helicopter or land ambulance is described. A lightweight, support frame is first secured onto a standard stretcher while still allowing access to the patient. An equipment module can then be attached to the frame. Emergency access to the patient is quickly achieved by detaching the equipment module, while ventilation and monitoring continue uninterrupted. The unit is fully self-contained and has a low centre of gravity to assist stability. PMID:8085626

  7. Cytokine Expression Profile of Dengue Patients at Different Phases of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Hu, Yongli; Khan, Asif M.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Lum, Lucy Chai See; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an important medical problem, with symptoms ranging from mild dengue fever to severe forms of the disease, where vascular leakage leads to hypovolemic shock. Cytokines have been implicated to play a role in the progression of severe dengue disease; however, their profile in dengue patients and the synergy that leads to continued plasma leakage is not clearly understood. Herein, we investigated the cytokine kinetics and profiles of dengue patients at different phases of illness to further understand the role of cytokines in dengue disease. Methods and Findings Circulating levels of 29 different types of cytokines were assessed by bead-based ELISA method in dengue patients at the 3 different phases of illness. The association between significant changes in the levels of cytokines and clinical parameters were analyzed. At the febrile phase, IP-10 was significant in dengue patients with and without warning signs. However, MIP-1? was found to be significant in only patients with warning signs at this phase. IP-10 was also significant in both with and without warning signs patients during defervescence. At this phase, MIP-1? and G-CSF were significant in patients without warning signs, whereas MCP-1 was noted to be elevated significantly in patients with warning signs. Significant correlations between the levels of VEGF, RANTES, IL-7, IL-12, PDGF and IL-5 with platelets; VEGF with lymphocytes and neutrophils; G-CSF and IP-10 with atypical lymphocytes and various other cytokines with the liver enzymes were observed in this study. Conclusions The cytokine profile patterns discovered between the different phases of illness indicate an essential role in dengue pathogenesis and with further studies may serve as predictive markers for progression to dengue with warning signs. PMID:23284941

  8. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2014-05-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:24807079

  9. Reflecting on patient-centred care in pharmacy through an illness narrative.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros

    2015-08-01

    Patient-centred care (PCC) is rapidly adopting a central position in discussions on the quality of healthcare, with patient-centredness deemed essential to transforming the healthcare system. PCC speaks to the quality of patient-provider relationships and has been defined as an approach to providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values, while ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions. However its place within pharmacy practice is unclear and is as yet undefined, particularly in relation to pharmaceutical care. Through my personal illness narrative, I briefly explore the visibility and evidence of PCC in the pharmacy literature as well as from personal experience of pharmacy care, and find it lacking. I conclude that an integrated, seamless understanding of PCC and the use of shared language within the health professions is essential in successful teamwork with both the patient and with other health professions. PMID:25832674

  10. Assisted suicide in the care of mentally ill patients: the Lucio Magri's case.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Mancarella, Paola; Cecchi, Rossana; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A year after Mario Monicelli's suicide, the death of another famous person in Italy, Lucio Magri, reawakened the Italian debate on social, ethical and juridical issues in end-of-life decisions. Unlike Monicelli, Lucio Magri decided to end his own life in Switzerland with the help of a physician because his mental illness rendered his life unbearable. Both Monicelli and Magri suffered from a severe depression. The authors analyze the ethical issues regarding the right to die for mentally ill patients and neurological disabled patients, discussing the decision-making autonomy in persons suffering from severe depression. The role of the psychiatry in the management of end-of-life decision requests is considered along with pros and cons of suicide prevention and rationale suicide. PMID:24365684

  11. Low Baseline Urine Creatinine Excretion Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes among Critically Ill Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yi-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Lee, Jiann-Der; Huang, Ying-Chih; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Wu, Chih-Ying; Hsu, Huan-Lin; Lin, Ya-Hui; Huang, Yen-Chu; Yang, Hsin-Ta; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lee, Meng; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) is an established marker of muscle mass. Low CER has been linked to poor coronary artery disease outcomes, but a link between CER and acute stroke prognosis has not been previously explored. We prospectively collected data from patients with acute stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) within 24 hours from symptom onset in a Neurological and Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit in Taiwan. Baseline CER (mg/d) was calculated by urine creatinine concentration in morning spot urine multiplies 24-hour urine volume on the second day of admission. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles with highest, middle, and lowest CER. Primary endpoint was poor outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale 3-6 at 6 months. Among 156 critically ill acute stroke patients meeting study entry criteria, average age was 67.9 years, and 83 (53.2%) patients had ischemic stroke. Patients with lowest CER (vs. highest CER) had a high risk of poor outcome at 6-month after adjustment (odds ratio 4.96, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 20.15, p value = 0.025). In conclusion, low baseline CER, a marker of muscle mass, was independently associated with poor 6-month outcome among critically ill acute stroke patients. We speculate that preservation of muscle mass through exercise or protein-energy supplement might be helpful for improving prognosis in severe stroke patients. PMID:25557376

  12. Recommendations for the intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoît Fanara; Cyril Manzon; Olivier Barbot; Thibaut Desmettre; Gilles Capellier

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to provide Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments with a set of practical procedures (check-lists) for managing critically-ill adult patients in order to avoid complications during intra-hospital transport (IHT). METHODS: Digital research was carried out via the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and HEALTHSTAR databases using the following key words: transferring, transport, intrahospital or intra-hospital, and critically

  13. Personalized and contextualized information in self-management systems for chronically ill patients (PERISCOPE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laverman; J. H. M. Schonk; P. J. M. van der Boog; M. A. Neerincx

    2010-01-01

    Motivation -- It is becoming necessary to seriously consider self-management in the treatment of chronically ill patients. A number of self-management applications have already been developed, but an explicit theoretical model is lacking. The PERISCOPE-project aims to provide (1) a conceptual framework for self-management systems aimed at lifestyle changes, (2) guidelines for implementing personalization and contextualization to enhance self-management skills

  14. EQ-5D versus SF6D in an Older, Chronically Ill Patient Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Gerard; Tricia Nicholson; Mark Mullee; Raj Mehta; Paul Roderick

    2004-01-01

    Choosing between preference-based instruments of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in particular situations is an important area for research. Even where instruments can be assumed to be measuring the same thing, they may not be interchangeable. The study presented investigates the extent to which EQ-5D and SF-6D instruments are interchangeable in an older, chronically ill patient group undergoing haemodialysis. Head-to-head

  15. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in critically ill patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Dimopoulou; Stylianos Tsagarakis

    \\u000a Background: A significant number of studies have shown that critically ill patients with brain injury (BI) frequently exhibit abnormal\\u000a pituitary hormonal responses during the immediate postinjury period. Discussion: The elucidation of endocrine alterations depends on the criteria used, the diagnostic tests applied, and the timing of testing\\u000a in relation to BI. The pattern of the detected hormonal abnormalities shows considerable

  16. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation for glycemic control in diabetic and critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkata Radhakrishna Kondepati; H. Michael Heise

    2007-01-01

    Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients.\\u000a For this reason, many different analytical, mainly electrochemical and optical sensor approaches for glucose measurements\\u000a have been developed. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been recognised as being an indispensable tool for intensive\\u000a diabetes therapy. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation, allowing submicroliter

  17. Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Predicts the Onset of Acute Lung Injury in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ashish; Matthay, Michael A.; Kangelaris, Kirsten N.; Stein, John; Chu, Jeffrey C.; Imp, Brandon M.; Cortez, Alfredo; Abbott, Jason; Liu, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Current clinical prediction scores for acute lung injury (ALI) have limited positive predictive value. No studies have evaluated predictive plasma biomarkers in a broad population of critically ill patients or as an adjunct to clinical prediction scores. Objectives: To determine whether plasma angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), von Willebrand factor (vWF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and/or receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) predict ALI in critically ill patients. Methods: Plasma samples were drawn from critically ill patients (n = 230) identified in the emergency department. Patients who had ALI at baseline or in the subsequent 6 hours were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of ALI. Measurements and Main Results: Nineteen patients developed ALI at least 6 hours after the sample draw. Higher levels of Ang-2 and IL-8 were significantly associated with increased development of ALI (P = 0.0008, 0.004, respectively). The association between Ang-2 and subsequent development of ALI was robust to adjustment for sepsis and vasopressor use. Ang-2 and the Lung Injury Prediction Score each independently discriminated well between those who developed ALI and those who did not (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74 for each), and using the two together improved the area under the curve to 0.84 (vs. 0.74, P = 0.05). In contrast, plasma levels of sRAGE and vWF were not predictive of ALI. Conclusions: Plasma biomarkers such as Ang-2 can improve clinical prediction scores and identify patients at high risk for ALI. In addition, the early rise of Ang-2 emphasizes the importance of endothelial injury in the early pathogenesis of ALI. PMID:23328529

  18. Comparison of psychologic stress responses in patients and spouses ten weeks after a cardiac illness event.

    PubMed

    Yates, B C; Booton-Hiser, D A

    1992-01-01

    A stress scale that is brief and easy to administer would be clinically useful to assess patients' and spouses' psychological stress responses to a cardiac illness situation and provide objective data for health care recommendations. The purpose of this study was to: a) develop and test an instrument to evaluate the stress or difficulties associated with the recovery process after a cardiac event; and b) assess the similarities and differences between patients' and spouses' perceptions of stress. Stress was conceptualized to be reflected by two broad dimensions, namely environmental stress and individual stress. A correlational survey design was used to examine patients' (n = 180) and spouses' (n = 168) stress responses 10 weeks after the cardiac event. The findings suggested that the tool demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity in measuring the patients' but to a lesser extent the spouses' stress responses. The three most significant stresses reported by most patients were uncertainty about if and when the illness might recur, not being able to participate in work or retirement activities, and adopting a low cholesterol diet. For the majority of spouses, the three most significant stresses were uncertainty about the husband's illness, increased demands within the marital relationship, and assuming more family roles. For those individuals trying to quit smoking or who quit immediately prior to the cardiac event, smoking was the most stressful change for patients and the second most stressful for spouses. Educational programs for cardiac patients and spouses need to provide information related to these stresses to offset the potentially adverse impact of stress and promote adjustment. PMID:1301568

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in critically ill patients with a low free thyroxine index.

    PubMed

    Mechanick, J I; Sacks, H S; Cobin, R H

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities with the free thyroxine index (FTI) in critically ill patients. Fourteen critically ill patients and twenty healthy volunteers were studied using combined anterior pituitary gland testing with CRF, GHRH, TRH, and GnRH. The subjects were grouped as follows: I-healthy volunteers; II-sick/normal FTI; and III-sick/low FTI. Serial measurements of hormones were performed over a two-hour interval and the following parameters were measured: baseline level, response amplitude and time to maximal response. Response velocities and area-under-the-curves (integrated responses) were also computed. Group III had a longer mean ICU duration prior to testing than group II. Urinary cortisol, serum cortisol and serum PRL levels were elevated in groups II and III. However, group III had lower baseline ACTH levels, slower ACTH and TSH response velocities and decreased PRL integrated responses. Cortisol response parameters were similar between groups II and III. There were no differences in LH, FSH or GH response velocities or integrated responses among the 3 groups. These data confirm that critically ill patients develop hyperprolactinemia and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation but when a low FTI exists, a plurality of changes occur reflected by attenuated PRL, TSH and ACTH responses despite unaffected adrenal cortisol output. PMID:9364249

  20. Patients’ Perspectives on Stigma of Mental Illness (an Egyptian Study in a Private Hospital)

    PubMed Central

    Sidhom, Emad; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Carter, Julie M.; El-Dosoky, Ahmed; El-Islam, Mohamed Fakhr

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the stigma of mental illness. It examines the subjective element of the experience of stigma among a sample of in-patients with different mental disorders. The sample was taken from consecutive admissions of in-patients meeting International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria for mental disorders who had capacity to decide on participation in the study and were willing to respond to the structured interview. The study was undertaken in an Egyptian private psychiatric hospital. The structured clinical interview included aspects of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of having a psychiatric diagnosis on in-patients with various diagnostic labels in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. It also studied whether this effect changes with specific disorders, total duration of illness, or sociodemographic variables as gender, age, or educational level. The study illustrated the core items of stigmatization attached to the diagnosis of mental illness (1), which more than half of the participants responded affirmatively. The study aimed to explore the most prevailing aspects of stigma or social disadvantage; hoping that this may offer a preliminary guide for clinicians to address these issues in their practice. PMID:25505426

  1. Recommendations for the intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted to provide Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments with a set of practical procedures (check-lists) for managing critically-ill adult patients in order to avoid complications during intra-hospital transport (IHT). Methods Digital research was carried out via the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and HEALTHSTAR databases using the following key words: transferring, transport, intrahospital or intra-hospital, and critically ill patient. The reference bibliographies of each of the selected articles between 1998 and 2009 were also studied. Results This review focuses on the analysis and overcoming of IHT-related risks, the associated adverse events, and their nature and incidence. The suggested preventive measures are also reviewed. A check-list for quick execution of IHT is then put forward and justified. Conclusions Despite improvements in IHT practices, significant risks are still involved. Basic training, good clinical sense and a risk-benefit analysis are currently the only deciding factors. A critically ill patient, prepared and accompanied by an inexperienced team, is a risky combination. The development of adapted equipment and the widespread use of check-lists and proper training programmes would increase the safety of IHT and reduce the risks in the long-term. Further investigation is required in order to evaluate the protective role of such preventive measures. PMID:20470381

  2. A Prospective Evaluation of Propylene Glycol Clearance and Accumulation During Continuous-Infusion Lorazepam in Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie L. Nelsen; Curtis E. Haas; Bahru Habtemariam; David C. Kaufman; Amy Partridge; Stephen Welle; Alan Forrest

    2008-01-01

    Propylene glycol is a commonly used diluent in several pharmaceutical preparations, including the sedative lorazepam. Fifty critically ill patients receiving continuous-infusion lorazepam for a minimum of 36 hours were prospectively evaluated to determine the extent of propylene glycol accumulation over time, characterize propylene glycol clearance in the presence of critical illness, and develop a pharmacokinetic model that would predict clearance

  3. Do the pharmacokinetics of vecuronium change during prolonged administration in critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Segredo, V; Caldwell, J E; Wright, P M; Sharma, M L; Gruenke, L D; Miller, R D

    1998-06-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs may be administered over several days to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), but their pharmacokinetics have been studied at only one point in time, or assumed to be constant throughout the period of administration. We sought to determine if, in individual patients, the pharmacokinetics of vecuronium changed over the course of its administration in the ICU. In six critically ill patients, we measured plasma vecuronium concentrations during two periods: first, during initial administration of vecuronium and second, after its administration continuously for 3-6 days. A pharmacokinetic model was fitted to these plasma concentration data, and its parameters permitted to vary between the periods to determine if they had altered. Individual clearance values during the study ranged from 1.4 to 4.4 ml kg-1 min-1. During prolonged administration, vecuronium clearance increased in three and decreased in two patients. This change ranged from a 61% decrease to a 58% increase, and was not linked to any clinical factor. The steady-state volume of distribution (range 368-1765 ml kg-1; median 494 ml kg-1) did not change in any patient during the study. The change in clearance of vecuronium during its prolonged administration in critically ill patients suggests that future studies of neuromuscular blocking drugs in the ICU should take account of their changing pharmacokinetics over the course of administration. PMID:9771295

  4. The distinct clinical profile of chronically critically ill patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Reina, Rosa; Canales, Héctor S; Saenz, María Gabriela; Gonzalez, Francisco E; Aprea, María M; Laffaire, Enrique; Gola, Victor; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to describe the epidemiology, clinical profiles, outcomes, and factors that might predict progression of critically ill patients to chronically critically ill (CCI) patients, a still poorly characterized subgroup. Methods We prospectively studied all patients admitted to a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2005. On admission, we recorded epidemiological data, the presence of organ failure (multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS)), underlying diseases (McCabe score), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock. Daily, we recorded MODS, ARDS, shock, mechanical ventilation use, lengths of ICU and hospital stay (LOS), and outcome. CCI patients were defined as those having a tracheotomy placed for continued ventilation. Clinical complications and time to tracheal decannulation were registered. Predictors of progression to CCI were identified by logistic regression. Results Ninety-five patients (12%) fulfilled the CCI definition and, compared with the remaining 690 patients, these CCI patients were sicker (APACHE II, 21 ± 7 versus 18 ± 9 for non-CCI patients, p = 0.005); had more organ dysfunctions (SOFA 7 ± 3 versus 6 ± 4, p < 0.003); received more interventions (TISS 32 ± 10 versus 26 ± 8, p < 0.0001); and had less underlying diseases and had undergone emergency surgery more frequently (43 versus 24%, p = 0.001). ARDS and shock were present in 84% and 83% of CCI patients, respectively, versus 44% and 48% in the other patients (p < 0.0001 for both). CCI patients had higher expected mortality (38% versus 32%, p = 0.003), but observed mortality was similar (32% versus 35%, p = 0.59). Independent predictors of progression to CCI were ARDS on admission, APACHE II and McCabe scores (odds ratio (OR) 2.26, p < 0.001; OR 1.03, p < 0.01; and OR 0.34, p < 0.0001, respectively). Lengths of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital stay were 33 (24 to 50), 39 (29 to 55) and 55 (37 to 84) days, respectively. Tracheal decannulation was achieved at 40 ± 19 days. Conclusion CCI patients were a severely ill population, in which ARDS, shock, and MODS were frequent on admission, and who suffered recurrent complications during their stay. However, their prognosis was equivalent to that of the other ICU patients. ARDS, APACHE II and McCabe scores were independent predictors of evolution to chronicity. PMID:16784546

  5. Adverse Hospital Events for Mentally Ill Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Glance, Laurent G; Cai, Xueya; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Context Patients with mental disorders show higher burden of coronary heart disease, and may face special safety issues during in-hospital cardiac care. Objectives To compare the postoperative complication rate between patients with and without mental disorders undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analyses of New York state hospital claims between 1997 and 2004 (N=135,701). Complications were defined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ PSI). Principal Findings Mental disorders were significantly associated with higher anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=6.44, p<.001), decubitus ulcer (AOR=1.42, p=.006), postoperative hip fracture (AOR=3.29, p<.001), and overall complication rate representing nine PSIs (AOR=1.27, p<.001). Conclusions Mentally ill patients undergoing CABG surgery are more likely to experience potentially preventable complications and injuries. The mechanism underlying this observation warrants further study. PMID:18665856

  6. A Holistic Approach to MRSA Eradication in Critically Ill Patients with MRSA Pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wenisch; H. Laferl; M. Szell; K. H. Smolle; A. Grisold; G. Bertha; R. Krause

    2006-01-01

    Background:  The number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia cases is increasing in many European countries. In this observational study in one medical and three surgical\\u000a ICUs multiple interventions for the treatment and eradication of nosocomial MRSA-pneumonia were used.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  Twenty-one critically ill patients (age: 59 14 years, 15 males\\/6 females, 18 ventilator-associated, 3 nosocomial, clinical\\u000a pulmonary infection score >

  7. Temporal Trends in the Use of Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M.; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend enteral over parenteral nutrition in critical illness and do not recommend early initiation. Few data are available on parenteral nutrition use or timing of initiation in the ICU or how this use may have changed over time. Methods: We used the Project IMPACT database to evaluate temporal trends in parenteral nutrition use (total and partial parenteral nutrition and lipid supplementation) and timing of initiation in adult ICU admissions from 2001 to 2008. We used ?2 tests and analysis of variance to examine characteristics of patients receiving parenteral nutrition and multilevel multivariate logistic regression models to assess parenteral nutrition use over time, in all patients and in specific subgroups. Results: Of 337,442 patients, 20,913 (6.2%) received parenteral nutrition. Adjusting for patient characteristics, the use of parenteral nutrition decreased modestly over time (adjusted probability, 7.2% in 2001-2002 vs 5.5% in 2007-2008, P < .001). Enteral nutrition use increased simultaneously (adjusted probability, 11.5% in 2001-2002 vs 15.3% in 2007-2008, P < .001). Use of parenteral nutrition declined most rapidly in emergent surgical patients, patients with moderate illness severity, patients in the surgical ICU, and patients admitted to an academic facility (P ? .01 for all interactions with year). When used, parenteral nutrition was initiated a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), after ICU admission and > 90% of patients had parenteral nutrition initiated within 7 days; timing of initiation of parenteral nutrition did not change from 2001 to 2008. Conclusions: Use of parenteral nutrition in US ICUs declined from 2001 through 2008 in all patients and in all examined subgroups, with the majority of parenteral nutrition initiated within the first 7 days in ICU; enteral nutrition use coincidently increased over the same time period. PMID:24233390

  8. Effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in critically ill adult patients: systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Roberto; Pifferi, Silvia; Leonetti, Cinzia; Torri, Valter; Tinazzi, Angelo; Liberati, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis reduces respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in unselected critically ill adult patients. Design: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials from 1984 and 1996 that compared different forms of antibiotic prophylaxis used to reduce respiratory tract infections and mortality with aggregate data and, in a subset of trials, data from individual patients. Subjects: Unselected critically ill adult patients; 5727 patients for aggregate data meta-analysis, 4343 for confirmatory meta-analysis with data from individual patients. Main outcome measures: Respiratory tract infections and total mortality. Results: Two categories of eligible trials were defined: topical plus systemic antibiotics versus no treatment and topical preparation with or without a systemic antibiotic versus a systemic agent or placebo. Estimates from aggregate data meta-analysis of 16 trials (3361 patients) that tested combined treatment indicated a strong significant reduction in infection (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.41) and total mortality (0.80; 0.69 to 0.93). With this treatment five and 23 patients would need to be treated to prevent one infection and one death, respectively. Similar analysis of 17 trials (2366 patients) that tested only topical antibiotics indicated a clear reduction in infection (0.56; 0.46 to 0.68) without a significant effect on total mortality (1.01; 0.84 to 1.22). Analysis of data from individual patients yielded similar results. No significant differences in treatment effect by major subgroups of patients emerged from the analyses. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of 15 years of clinical research suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis with a combination of topical and systemic drugs can reduce respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in critically ill patients. This effect is significant and worth while, and it should be considered when practice guidelines are defined. Key messages Over 40% of patients who need ventilation in intensive care develop respiratory tract infections and about 30% may die in the units If the most effective antibiotic prophylaxis (that is, a protocol combining topical and systemic antibiotics) is used the incidence of respiratory tract infections can be reduced by 65% and total mortality by 20% A regimen of topical antibiotics alone reduces respiratory tract infections but does not influence survival The concern that widespread antibiotic use may lead to resistance cannot be confirmed or ruled out by this review. Trials with different design are probably warranted to handle this question This important effect of antibiotic prophylaxis with a combination of topical and systemic antibiotics on survival should be considered by intensivists when treatment policies are designed PMID:9554897

  9. Preventive and therapeutic strategies in critically ill patients with highly resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; De Waele, Jan J; Eggimann, Philippe; Garnacho-Montero, Josè; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Menichetti, Francesco; Nicolau, David P; Paiva, Jose Arturo; Tumbarello, Mario; Welte, Tobias; Wilcox, Mark; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Poulakou, Garyphallia

    2015-05-01

    The antibiotic pipeline continues to diminish and the majority of the public remains unaware of this critical situation. The cause of the decline of antibiotic development is multifactorial and currently most ICUs are confronted with the challenge of multidrug-resistant organisms. Antimicrobial multidrug resistance is expanding all over the world, with extreme and pandrug resistance being increasingly encountered, especially in healthcare-associated infections in large highly specialized hospitals. Antibiotic stewardship for critically ill patients translated into the implementation of specific guidelines, largely promoted by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, targeted at education to optimize choice, dosage, and duration of antibiotics in order to improve outcomes and reduce the development of resistance. Inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, meaning the selection of an antibiotic to which the causative pathogen is resistant, is a consistent predictor of poor outcomes in septic patients. Therefore, pharmacokinetically/pharmacodynamically optimized dosing regimens should be given to all patients empirically and, once the pathogen and susceptibility are known, local stewardship practices may be employed on the basis of clinical response to redefine an appropriate regimen for the patient. This review will focus on the most severely ill patients, for whom substantial progress in organ support along with diagnostic and therapeutic strategies markedly increased the risk of nosocomial infections. PMID:25792203

  10. Systematic monitoring of needs for care and global outcomes in patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It was hypothesised that the introduction of tools that allow clinicians to assess patients' needs and to negotiate treatment (Cumulative Needs for Care Monitor; CNCM), would be associated with global outcome improvements in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness. Methods The CNCM was introduced in one region in South Limburg (the Netherlands) in 1998 (REGION-1998) and in the rest of South Limburg in 2004 (REGION-2004). By comparing these two regions, changes after the introduction of the CNCM could be assessed (between-region comparison). In addition, a pre-post within-patient comparison was conducted in both regions. Results The within-patient comparison revealed that global outcomes of psychopathology and impairment improved in the first 3-5 years after the introduction of the CNCM. The between-region comparison revealed an improvement in global psychopathology but not in global impairment in REGION-2004 after 2004, while there was no such improvement in REGION-1998. Conclusion Systematic clinical monitoring of individual severe mental illness patients, in combination with provision of feedback, is associated with global improvement in psychopathology. More research is needed to determine the degree to which this association reflects a causal effect. PMID:20500826

  11. Effects of paracentesis on hemodynamic parameters and respiratory function in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ascites is a major and common complication of liver cirrhosis. Large or refractory ascites frequently necessitates paracentesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of paracentesis on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in critically ill patients. Methods Observational study comparing hemodynamic and respiratory parameters before and after paracentesis in 50 critically ill patients with advanced hemodynamic monitoring. 28/50 (56%) required mechanical ventilation. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean?±?standard deviation for normally distributed data and median, range, and interquartile range (IQR) for non-normally distributed data. Comparisons of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters before and after paracentesis were performed by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Bivariate relations were assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient and univariate regression analyses. Results Median amount of ascites removed was 5.99 L (IQR, 3.33-7.68 L). There were no statistically significant changes in hemodynamic parameters except a decrease in mean arterial pressure (-7 mm Hg; p?=?0.041) and in systemic vascular resistance index (-116 dyne·sec/cm5/m2; p?=?0.016) when measured 2 hours after paracentesis. In all patients, oxygenation ratio (PaO2/FiO2; median, 220 mmHg; IQR, 161–329 mmHg) increased significantly when measured immediately (+58 mmHg; p?=?0.001), 2 hours (+9 mmHg; p?=?0.004), and 6 hours (+6 mmHg); p?=?0.050) after paracentesis. In mechanically ventilated patients, lung injury score (cumulative points without x-ray; median, 6; IQR, 4–7) significantly improved immediately (5; IQR, 4–6; p?ill patients is safe regarding circulatory function and is related to immediate and sustained improvement of respiratory function. PMID:24467993

  12. Endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients: the effect of exogenous glutamine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Methods Mechanically ventilated patients (n?=?11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. Results A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P?=?0.009). Conclusions The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen. PMID:24731231

  13. Physician reimbursement for critical care services integrating palliative care for patients who are critically ill.

    PubMed

    Lustbader, Dana R; Nelson, Judith E; Weissman, David E; Hays, Ross M; Mosenthal, Anne C; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret L; Cortez, Therese B; Curtis, J Randall

    2012-03-01

    Patients with advanced illness often spend time in an ICU, while nearly one-third of patients with advanced cancer who receive Medicare die in hospitals, often with failed ICU care. For most, death occurs following the withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining treatments. The integration of palliative care is essential for high-quality critical care. Although palliative care specialists are becoming increasingly available, intensivists and other physicians are also expected to provide basic palliative care, including symptom treatment and communication about goals of care. Patients who are critically ill are often unable to make decisions about their care. In these situations, physicians must meet with family members or other surrogates to determine appropriate medical treatments. These meetings require clinical expertise to ensure that patient values are explored for medical decision making about therapeutic options, including palliative care. Meetings with families take time. Issues related to the disease process, prognosis, and treatment plan are complex, and decisions about the use or limitation of intensive care therapies have life-or-death implications. Inadequate reimbursement for physician services may be a barrier to the optimal delivery of high-quality palliative care, including effective communication. Appropriate documentation of time spent integrating palliative and critical care for patients who are critically ill can be consistent with the Current Procedural Terminology codes (99291 and 99292) for critical care services. The purpose of this article is to help intensivists and other providers understand the circumstances in which integration of palliative and critical care meets the definition of critical care services for billing purposes. PMID:22396564

  14. Safety and efficacy of a graduated intravenous insulin infusion protocol in critically ill trauma patients receiving specialized nutritional support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland N. Dickerson; Cortney E. Swiggart; Laurie M. Morgan; George O. Maish; Martin A. Croce; Gayle Minard; Rex O. Brown

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveThe intent of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our protocol for providing continuous intravenous regular human insulin (RHI) infusion to hyperglycemic critically ill trauma patients receiving specialized nutritional support.

  15. Technology-based interventions for psychiatric illnesses: improving care, one patient at a time.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zeev, D

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, individuals with severe psychiatric illnesses struggle to receive evidence-based care. While science has made remarkably slow progress in the development and implementation of effective psychiatric treatments, we have witnessed enormous progress in the emergence and global penetration of personal computing technology. The present paper examines how digital resources that are already widespread (e.g., smartphones, laptop computers), can be leveraged to support psychiatric care. These instruments and implementation strategies can increase patient access to evidenced-based care, help individuals overcome the barriers associated with the stigma of mental illness, and facilitate new treatment paradigms that harness wireless communication, sensors and the Internet, to enhance treatment potency. Innovative digital treatment programmes that have been used successfully with a range of conditions (i.e., schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder) are presented in the paper to demonstrate the utility and potential impact of technology-based interventions in the years ahead. PMID:25046343

  16. Critical illness in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Kathleen M; Huang, Laurence; Morris, Alison; Justice, Amy C; Pisani, Margaret; Crothers, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    As HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) are living longer and rates of opportunistic infections have declined, serious non-AIDS-related diseases account for an increasing proportion of deaths. Consistent with these changes, non-AIDS-related illnesses account for the majority of ICU admissions in more recent studies, in contrast to earlier eras of the AIDS epidemic. Although mortality after ICU admission has improved significantly since the earliest HIV era, it remains substantial. In this article, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of ART on incidence, etiology, and outcomes of critical illness among HIV-infected patients. In addition, we consider issues related to administration of ART in the ICU and identify important areas of future research. PMID:21653532

  17. Critical Illness in HIV-Infected Patients in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Akgün, Kathleen M.; Huang, Laurence; Morris, Alison; Justice, Amy C.; Pisani, Margaret; Crothers, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    As HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) are living longer and rates of opportunistic infections have declined, serious non–AIDS-related diseases account for an increasing proportion of deaths. Consistent with these changes, non–AIDS-related illnesses account for the majority of ICU admissions in more recent studies, in contrast to earlier eras of the AIDS epidemic. Although mortality after ICU admission has improved significantly since the earliest HIV era, it remains substantial. In this article, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of ART on incidence, etiology, and outcomes of critical illness among HIV-infected patients. In addition, we consider issues related to administration of ART in the ICU and identify important areas of future research. PMID:21653532

  18. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  19. Use of EEG Monitoring and Management of Non-Convulsive Seizures in Critically Ill Patients: A Survey of Neurologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Abend; Dennis J. Dlugos; Cecil D. Hahn; Lawrence J. Hirsch; Susan T. Herman

    2010-01-01

    Background  Continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) of critically ill patients is frequently utilized to detect non-convulsive seizures (NCS)\\u000a and status epilepticus (NCSE). The indications for cEEG, as well as when and how to treat NCS, remain unclear. We aimed to\\u000a describe the current practice of cEEG in critically ill patients to define areas of uncertainty that could aid in designing\\u000a future research.

  20. The Mean Prehospital Machine; accurate prehospital non-invasive blood pressure measurement in the critically ill patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Muecke; Andrew Bersten; John Plummer

    2010-01-01

    Objective  Non-invasive blood pressure recordings may be inaccurate in the critically ill patient and measurement difficulties are intensified\\u000a in the prehospital setting. This may adversely impact upon outcomes for many critically ill patients, particularly those with\\u000a traumatic brain injury and\\/or lengthy prehospital times. This study aimed to validate a non-invasive, oscillometric, ambulatory\\u000a blood pressure measuring device, the Oscar 2, Model 222

  1. Computed tomography to estimate cardiac preload and extravascular lung water. A retrospective analysis in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Saugel; Konstantin Holzapfel; Jens Stollfuss; Tibor Schuster; Veit Phillip; Caroline Schultheiss; Roland M Schmid; Wolfgang Huber

    2011-01-01

    Background  In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many\\u000a critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT)-scan of the thorax after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).\\u000a This study investigates whether CT-based estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration can accurately assess volume\\u000a status and can contribute to an

  2. Performance of an oxygen delivery device for weaning potentially infectious critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    So, C Y; Gomersall, C D; Chui, P T; Chan, M T V

    2004-07-01

    Oxygen delivery via a heat and moisture exchange filter with an attached T-shaped reservoir satisfies infection control requirements of high efficiency bacterial and viral filtration and low gas flows. In order to assess the performance of such a device in critically ill patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation, we simulated 16 patients using a human patient simulator, measuring fractional inspired oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations and work of breathing at three oxygen flow rates. Oxygen concentration was dependent on peak inspiratory flow rate, tidal volume and oxygen flow rate. Rebreathing, as indicated by inspired carbon dioxide concentration, was greatest at high respiratory rates and low tidal volumes. Imposed inspiratory work of breathing was relatively high (mean 0.88 J.l(-1)[SD 0.30]). We conclude that this method of oxygen delivery is only suitable for patients in whom rapid extubation is anticipated. PMID:15200546

  3. Vancomycin therapy in critically ill patients on continuous renal replacement therapy; are we doing enough?

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Ali S.; Mously, Alaa; Cabaluna, Marylie P.; Kawas, John; Albarrak, Mohammed M.; Alfahad, Wafa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring in critically ill patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are limited. This is a retrospective study to assess the adequacy of current vancomycin dosing and monitoring practice for patients on CRRT in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted between 1 April 2011 and 30 March 2013 to critical care and received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT was performed. Results A total of 68 patients received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one percent were males and median (range) age was 62.5 (19 – 90) years. Median APACHE II score was 33.5 (22–43) and median Charlson Comorbidity Score was 4 (0–8). The mean (± standard deviation) dose of vancomycin was 879.9 mg (± 281.2 mg) for an average duration of 5.9 days (± 3.7 days). All patients received continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). A total of 55 vancomycin level readings were available from the study population, ranging from 6.6 to 41.3, with wide variations within the same sampling time frames. Vancomycin levels of > 15 mg/L or were achieved at least once in 24 patients (75.0%), but only 11 patients (34.3%) had 2 or more serum vancomycin level readings of 15 mg/L or more. Conclusion Therapeutic vancomycin levels are difficult to maintain in critically ill patients who are receiving IV vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT. Aggressive dosing schedules and frequent monitoring are required to ensure adequate vancomycin therapy in this setting.

  4. Clinimetric properties of illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) and brief illness perception questionnaire (Brief IPQ) in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leysen, Marijke; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Paul van Wilgen, C; Struyf, Filip; Vermandel, Alexandra; Kuppens, Kevin; Roussel, Nathalie A

    2015-02-01

    Several questionnaires are available to evaluate illness perceptions in patients, such as the illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) and the brief version (Brief IPQ). This study aims to systematically review the literature concerning the clinimetric properties of the IPQ-R and the Brief IPQ in patients with musculoskeletal pain. The electronic databases Web of Sciences and PubMed were searched. Studies were included when the clinimetric properties of the IPQ-R or Brief IPQ were assessed in adults with musculoskeletal pain. Methodological quality was determined using the COSMIN checklist. Eight articles were included and evaluated. The methodological quality was good for 3 COSMIN boxes, fair for 11 and poor for 3 boxes. None of the articles obtained an excellent methodological score. The results of this review suggest that the IPQ-R is a reliable questionnaire, except for illness coherence. Internal consistency is good, except for the causal domain. The IPQ-R has good construct validity, but the factor structure is unstable. Hence, the IPQ-R appears to be a useful instrument for assessing illness perceptions, but care must be taken when generalizing the results of adapted versions of the questionnaires. The Brief IPQ shows moderate overall test-retest reliability. No articles examining the validity of the Brief IPQ were found. Further research should therefore focus on the content and criterion validity of the IPQ-R and the clinimetric properties of the Brief IPQ. PMID:25435470

  5. The Pursuit of Preventive Care for Chronic Illness: Turning Healthy People into Chronic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kreiner, Meta J.; Hunt, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Preventive health care has become prominent in clinical medicine in the United States, emphasizing risk assessment and control, rather than addressing the signs and symptoms of pathology. Current clinical guidelines, reinforced by evidence-based decision aids and quality of care assessment, encourage clinicians to focus on maintaining rigid test thresholds which are based on population norms. While achieving these goals may benefit the total population, this may be of no benefit or even harmful to individual patients. In order to explore how this phenomenon is manifest in clinical care, and consider some factors that promote and sustain this trend, we analyze observations of over 100 clinical consultations, and open-ended interviews with 58 primary care clinicians and 70 of their patients. Both clinicians and patients equated at-risk states with illness, and viewed the associated interventions not as prevention, but as treatment. This conflation of risk and disease redefines clinical success such that reducing the threat of anticipated future illness requires acceptance of aggressive treatments and any associated adverse effects in the present. While the expanding emphasis on preventive medicine may improve the health profile of the total population, the implications of these innovations for the well-being of individual patients merits careful reconsideration. PMID:24372285

  6. The pursuit of preventive care for chronic illness: turning healthy people into chronic patients.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Meta J; Hunt, Linda M

    2013-07-01

    Preventive health care has become prominent in clinical medicine in the US, emphasising risk assessment and control, rather than addressing the signs and symptoms of pathology. Current clinical guidelines, reinforced by evidence-based decision aids and quality of care assessment, encourage clinicians to focus on maintaining rigid test thresholds that are based on population norms. While achieving these goals may benefit the total population, this may be of no benefit or even harmful to individual patients. In order to explore how this phenomenon is manifested in clinical care and consider some factors that promote and sustain this trend, we analysed observations of over 100 clinical consultations, and open-ended interviews with 58 primary care clinicians and 70 of their patients. Both clinicians and patients equated at-risk states with illness and viewed the associated interventions not as prevention, but as treatment. This conflation of risk and disease redefines clinical success such that reducing the threat of anticipated future illness requires the acceptance of aggressive treatments and any associated adverse effects in the present. While the expanding emphasis on preventive medicine may improve the health profile of the total population, the implications of these innovations for the wellbeing of individual patients merits careful reconsideration. PMID:24372285

  7. Anemia, transfusion, and phlebotomy practices in critically ill patients with prolonged ICU length of stay: a cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarence Chant; Gail Wilson; Jan O Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anemia among the critically ill has been described in patients with short to medium length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), but it has not been described in long-stay ICU patients. This study was performed to characterize anemia, transfusion, and phlebotomy practices in patients with prolonged ICU LOS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of

  8. Beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the most important intervention for successful treatment of septic shock, data guiding optimization of beta-lactam prescription in critically ill patients prescribed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are still limited. Being small hydrophilic molecules, beta-lactams are likely to be cleared by CRRT to a significant extent. As a result, additional variability may be introduced to the per se variable antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients. This article aims to describe the current clinical scenario for beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and CRRT, to highlight the sources of variability among the different studies that reduce extrapolation to clinical practice, and to identify the opportunities for future research and improvement in this field. Three frequently prescribed beta-lactams (meropenem, piperacillin and ceftriaxone) were chosen for review. Our findings showed that present dosing recommendations are based on studies with drawbacks limiting their applicability in the clinical setting. In general, current antibiotic dosing regimens for CRRT follow a one-size-fits-all fashion despite emerging clinical data suggesting that drug clearance is partially dependent on CRRT modality and intensity. Moreover, some studies pool data from heterogeneous populations with CRRT that may exhibit different pharmacokinetics (for example, admission diagnoses different to septic shock, such as trauma), which also limit their extrapolation to critically ill patients with septic shock. Finally, there is still no consensus regarding the %T>MIC (percentage of dosing interval when concentration of the antibiotic is above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the pathogen) value that should be chosen as the pharmacodynamic target for antibiotic therapy in patients with septic shock and CRRT. For empirically optimized dosing, during the first day a loading dose is required to compensate the increased volume of distribution, regardless of impaired organ function. An additional loading dose may be required when CRRT is initiated due to steady-state equilibrium breakage driven by clearance variation. From day 2, dosing must be adjusted to CRRT settings and residual renal function. Therapeutic drug monitoring of beta-lactams may be regarded as a useful tool to daily individualize dosing and to ensure optimal antibiotic exposure. PMID:25042938

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder in somatic disease: lessons from critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-recognized complication of severe illness. PTSD has been described in patients after multiple trauma, burns, or myocardial infarction with a particularly high incidence in survivors of acute pulmonary failure (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) or septic shock. Many patients with evidence of PTSD after critical illness have been treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Studies in long-term survivors of ICU treatment demonstrated a clear and vivid recall of different categories of traumatic memory such as nightmares, anxiety, respiratory distress, or pain with little or no recall of factual events. A high number of these traumatic memories from the ICU has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the later development of PTSD in long-term survivors. In addition, patients in the ICU are often treated with stress hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine, or cortisol. The number of the above-mentioned categories of traumatic memory increased with the totally administered dosages of catecholamines and cortisol, and the evaluation of these categories at different time points after discharge from the ICU showed better memory consolidation with higher dosages of stress hormones administered. Conversely, the prolonged administration of beta-adrenergic antagonists during the recovery phase after cardiac surgery resulted in a lower number of traumatic memories and a lower incidence of stress symptoms at 6 months after surgery. Findings with regard to the administration of the stress hormone cortisol were more complex, however. Several studies from our group have demonstrated that the administration of stress doses of cortisol to critically ill patients resulted in a significant reduction of PTSD symptoms measured after recovery without influencing the number of categories of traumatic memory. This can possibly be explained by a cortisol-induced temporary impairment in traumatic memory retrieval that has previously been demonstrated in both rats and humans. ICU therapy of critically ill patients can serve as a stress model that allows the delineation of stress hormone effects on traumatic memory and PTSD development. This could also result in new approaches for prophylaxis and treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:18037018

  10. Case-Control Study of Drug Monitoring of ?-Lactams in Obese Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Wolff, Fleur; Cotton, Frédéric; Beumier, Marjorie; De Backer, Daniel; Roisin, Sandrine; Lorent, Sophie; Surin, Rudy; Seyler, Lucie; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Jacobs, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock can alter the pharmacokinetics of broad-spectrum ?-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam), resulting in inappropriate serum concentrations. Obesity may further modify the pharmacokinetics of these agents. We reviewed our data on critically ill obese patients (body mass index of ?30 kg/m2) treated with a broad-spectrum ?-lactam in whom therapeutic drug monitoring was performed and compared the data to those obtained in critically nonobese patients (body mass index of <25 kg/m2) to assess whether there were differences in reaching optimal drug concentrations for the treatment of nosocomial infections. Sixty-eight serum levels were obtained from 49 obese patients. There was considerable variability in ?-lactam serum concentrations (coefficient of variation of 50% to 92% for the three drugs). Standard drug regimens of ?-lactams resulted in insufficient serum concentrations in 32% of the patients and overdosed concentrations in 25%. Continuous renal replacement therapy was identified by multivariable analysis as a risk factor for overdosage and a protective factor for insufficient ?-lactam serum concentrations. The serum drug levels from the obese cohort were well matched for age, gender, renal function, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score to 68 serum levels measured in 59 nonobese patients. The only difference observed between the two cohorts was in the subgroup of patients treated with meropenem and who were not receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: serum concentrations were lower in the obese cohort. No differences were observed in pharmacokinetic variables between the two groups. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring of ?-lactams should be continued in obese critically ill patients. PMID:23147743

  11. Diagnostic ability of hand-held echocardiography in ventilated critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Vignon, Philippe; Chastagner, Catherine; François, Bruno; Martaillé, Jean-François; Normand, Sandrine; Bonnivard, Michel; Gastinne, Hervé

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives To compare the diagnostic capability of recently available hand-held echocardiography (HHE) and of conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) used as a gold standard in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. Design A prospective and descriptive study. Setting The general intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Patients All mechanically ventilated patients requiring a TTE study with a full-feature echocardiographic platform (Sonos 5500®; Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA) also underwent an echocardiographic examination using a small battery-operated device (33 × 23 cm2, 3.5 kg) (Optigo®; Philips Medical Systems). Interventions Each examination was performed independently by two intensivists experienced in echocardiography and was interpreted online. For each patient, the TTE videotape was reviewed by a cardiologist experienced in echocardiography and the final interpretation was used as a reference diagnosis. Results During the study period, 106 TTE procedures were performed in 103 consecutive patients (age, 59 ± 18 years; Simplified Acute Physiology Score, 46 ± 14; body mass index, 26 ± 9 kg/m2; positive end-expiratory pressure, 8 ± 4 cmH2O). The number of acoustic windows was comparable using HHE and TTE (233/318 versus 238/318, P = 0.72). HHE had a lower overall diagnostic capacity than TTE (199/251 versus 223/251 clinical questions solved, P = 0.005), mainly due to its lack of spectral Doppler capability. In contrast, diagnostic capacity based on two-dimensional imaging was comparable for both approaches (129/155 versus 135/155 clinical questions solved, P = 0.4). In addition, HHE and TTE had a similar therapeutic impact in 45 and 47 patients, respectively (44% versus 46%, P = 0.9). Conclusions HHE appears to have a narrower diagnostic field when compared with conventional TTE, but promises to accurately identify diagnoses based on two-dimensional imaging in ventilated critically ill patients. PMID:12974974

  12. Broad-spectrum ?-lactams in obese non-critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Hites, M; Taccone, F S; Wolff, F; Maillart, E; Beumier, M; Surin, R; Cotton, F; Jacobs, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Obesity may alter the pharmacokinetics of ?-lactams. The goal of this study was to evaluate if and why serum concentrations are inadequate when standard ?-lactam regimens are administered to obese, non-critically ill patients. Subjects and methods: During first year, we consecutively included infected, obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ?30?kg?m?2) who received meropenem (MEM), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefepime/ceftazidime (CEF). Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, or those hospitalized in the intensive care unit were excluded. Serum drug concentrations were measured twice during the elimination phase by high-performance liquid chromatography. We evaluated whether free or total drug concentrations were >1 time (fT>minimal inhibition concentration (MIC)) or >4 times (T>4MIC) the clinical breakpoints for Pseudomonas aeruginosa during optimal periods of time: ?40% for MEM, ?50% for TZP and ?70% for CEF. Results: We included 56 patients (median BMI: 36?kg?m?2): 14 received MEM, 31 TZP and 11 CEF. The percentage of patients who attained target fT>MIC and T>4MIC were 93% and 21% for MEM, 68% and 19% for TZP, and 73% and 18% for CEF, respectively. High creatinine clearance (107 (range: 6–398) ml?min?1) was the only risk factor in univariate and multivariate analyses to predict insufficient serum concentrations. Conclusions: In obese, non-critically ill patients, standard drug regimens of TZP and CEF resulted in insufficient drug concentrations to treat infections due to less susceptible bacteria. Augmented renal clearance was responsible for these low serum concentrations. New dosage regimens need to be explored in this patient population (EUDRA-CT: 2011-004239-29). PMID:24956136

  13. Quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and practice characteristics matter

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Upali W; Proudfoot, Judith; Barton, Christopher A; Amoroso, Cheryl; Holton, Chris; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Beilby, Justin; Harris, Mark F

    2009-01-01

    Background To study health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large sample of Australian chronically-ill patients and investigate the impact of characteristics of patients and their general practices on their HRQOL and to assess the construct validity of SF-12 in Australia. Methods Cross sectional study with 96 general practices and 7606 chronically-ill patients aged 18 years or more using standard SF-12 version 2. Factor analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized component structure of the SF-12 items. SF-12 physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) were derived using the standard US algorithm. Multilevel regression analysis (patients at level 1 and practices at level 2) was applied to relate PCS-12 and MCS-12 to patient and practice characteristics. Results There were significant associations between lower PCS-12 or MCS-12 score and poorer general health (10.8 (regression coefficient) lower for PCS-12 and 7.3 lower for MCS-12), low socio-economic status (5.1 lower PCS-12 and 2.9 lower MCS-12 for unemployed, 0.8 lower PCS-12 and 1.7 lower MCS-12 for non-owner-occupiers, 1.0 lower PCS-12 for less well-educated) and having two or more chronic conditions (up to 2.7 lower PCS-12 and up to 1.5 lower MCS-12 than those having a single disease). Younger age was associated with lower MCS-12 (2.2 and 6.0 lower than middle age and older age respectively) but higher PCS-12 (4.7 and 7.6 higher than middle age and older age respectively). Satisfaction with quality of care (regression coefficient = 1.2) and patients who were married or cohabiting (regression coefficient = 0.6) was positively associated with MCS-12. Patients born in non-English-speaking countries were more likely to have a lower MCS-12 (1.5 lower) than those born in Australia. Employment had a stronger association with the quality of life of males than that of females. Those attending smaller practices had lower PCS-12 (1.0 lower) and MCS-12 (0.6 lower) than those attending larger practices. At the patient level (level 1) 42% and 21% of the variance respectively for PCS-12 and MCS-12 were explained by the patients and practice characteristics. At the practice level (level 2), 73% and 49% of the variance respectively for PCS-12 and MCS-12 were explained by patients and practice characteristics. Conclusion The strong association between patient characteristics such as socio-economic status, age, and ethnicity and SF-12 physical and mental component summary scores underlines the importance of considering these factors in the management of chronically-ill patients in general practice. The SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing HRQOL of Australian chronically-ill patients. PMID:19493336

  14. A case of masked toxic adenoma in a patient with non-thyroidal illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) refers to changes in thyroid hormone levels in critically ill patients in the absence of primary hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid dysfunction, and these abnormalities usually resolve after clinical recovery. However, NTI can be accompanied by primary thyroid dysfunction. We report herein a case of a woman with NTI accompanied by primary hyperthyroidism. Case presentation A 52-year-old female was admitted to the intensive care unit with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. She had a longstanding thyroid nodule, and a thyroid function test revealed low levels of triiodothyronine and free thyroxine as well as undetectable thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). She was diagnosed with NTI, and her TSH level began to recover but not completely at discharge. The thyroid function test was repeated after 42 months to reveal primary hyperthyroidism, and a thyroid scan confirmed a toxic nodule. Conclusion This case suggests that although NTI was diagnosed, primary hyperthyroidism should be considered as another possible diagnosis if TSH is undetectable. Thyroid function tests should be repeated after clinical recovery from acute illness. PMID:24383500

  15. New Colistin Population Pharmacokinetic Data in Critically Ill Patients Suggesting an Alternative Loading Dose Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, N.; Mimoz, O.; Mégarbane, B.; Comets, E.; Chatelier, D.; Lasocki, S.; Gauzit, R.; Balayn, D.; Gobin, P.; Marchand, S.

    2014-01-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest as the last-line defense therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and it was shown that due to slow CMS conversion, colistin plasma concentrations increase very slowly after treatment initiation, which constitutes the rationale for a loading dose in critically ill patients. However, faster CMS conversion was observed in healthy volunteers but using a different CMS brand, which may also have a major impact on colistin pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three critically ill patients not undergoing dialysis received multiple doses of CMS. The CMS concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach. We confirmed that CMS renal clearance and colistin concentrations at steady state are mostly governed by creatinine clearance, but we predict a typical maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of colistin close to 2 mg/liter, occurring 3 h after an initial dose of 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS. Accordingly, the estimated colistin half-life (t1/2) was relatively short (3.1 h), with rapid attainment of steady state. Our results are only partially consistent with other recently published results. We confirm that the CMS maintenance dose should be adjusted according to renal function in critically ill patients. However, much higher than expected colistin concentrations were observed after the initial CMS dose, with rapid steady-state achievement. These discrepancies challenge the pharmacokinetic rationale for a loading dose, which may still be appropriate for rapid bacterial eradication and an improved clinical cure rate. PMID:25267662

  16. New colistin population pharmacokinetic data in critically ill patients suggesting an alternative loading dose rationale.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, N; Mimoz, O; Mégarbane, B; Comets, E; Chatelier, D; Lasocki, S; Gauzit, R; Balayn, D; Gobin, P; Marchand, S; Couet, W

    2014-12-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest as the last-line defense therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and it was shown that due to slow CMS conversion, colistin plasma concentrations increase very slowly after treatment initiation, which constitutes the rationale for a loading dose in critically ill patients. However, faster CMS conversion was observed in healthy volunteers but using a different CMS brand, which may also have a major impact on colistin pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three critically ill patients not undergoing dialysis received multiple doses of CMS. The CMS concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach. We confirmed that CMS renal clearance and colistin concentrations at steady state are mostly governed by creatinine clearance, but we predict a typical maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of colistin close to 2 mg/liter, occurring 3 h after an initial dose of 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS. Accordingly, the estimated colistin half-life (t1/2) was relatively short (3.1 h), with rapid attainment of steady state. Our results are only partially consistent with other recently published results. We confirm that the CMS maintenance dose should be adjusted according to renal function in critically ill patients. However, much higher than expected colistin concentrations were observed after the initial CMS dose, with rapid steady-state achievement. These discrepancies challenge the pharmacokinetic rationale for a loading dose, which may still be appropriate for rapid bacterial eradication and an improved clinical cure rate. PMID:25267662

  17. Care of the Critically Ill Emergency Department Patient with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Jennifer; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common and associated with significant mortality and complications. Exact data on the epidemiology of AKI in the Emergency Department (ED) are sparse. This review aims to summarise the key principles for managing AKI patients in the ED. Principal Findings. Timely resuscitation, goal-directed correction of fluid depletion and hypotension, and appropriate management of the underlying illness are essential in preventing or limiting AKI. There is no specific curative therapy for AKI. Key principles of secondary prevention are identification of patients with early AKI, discontinuation of nephrotoxic medication where possible, attention to fluid resuscitation, and awareness of the risks of contrast-induced nephropathy. In patients with advanced AKI, arrangements for renal replacement therapy need to be made before the onset of life-threatening uraemic complications. Conclusions. Research and guidelines regarding AKI in the ED are lacking and AKI practice from critical care departments should be adopted. PMID:22145079

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Venovenous Hemodialysis or Hemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Vilay, A. Mary; Nader, Ahmed M.; Heung, Michael; Pleva, Melissa; Sowinski, Kevin M.; DePestel, Daryl D.; Sörgel, Fritz; Kinzig, Martina; Mueller, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem, a carbapenem antibiotic, in critically ill adult subjects receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Eight critically ill patients with suspected/known Gram-negative infections receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and ertapenem were enrolled. One gram of ertapenem was infused over 30 min. Predialyzer blood samples were drawn with the first dose of ertapenem from the hemodialysis tubing at time zero, 30 min, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after the start of the ertapenem infusion. Effluent was collected at the same time points. Ertapenem total serum, unbound serum, and effluent concentrations from all eight subjects were used simultaneously to perform a population compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling procedure using NONMEM. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the ability of several ertapenem dosing regimens (500 mg once daily, 750 mg once daily, 500 mg twice daily, and 1,000 mg once daily) to obtain effective unbound serum concentrations above 0.5, 1, and 2 ?g/ml. For our simulated patients, all regimens produced unbound ertapenem concentrations above 2 ?g/ml for 40% of the dosing interval for at least 96% of simulated patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00877370.) PMID:24323468

  19. Proton pump inhibitor use is not associated with cardiac arrhythmia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kenneth P; Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger G; Feng, Mengling; Celi, Leo A; Malley, Brian E; Danziger, John

    2015-07-01

    Hypomagnesemia can lead to cardiac arrythmias. Recently, observational data have linked chronic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure to hypomagnesemia. Whether PPI exposure increases the risk for arrhythmias has not been well studied. Using a large, single-center inception cohort of critically ill patients, we examined whether PPI exposure was associated with admission electrocardiogram readings of a cardiac arrhythmia in more than 8000 patients. There were 25.4% PPI users, whereas 6% were taking a histamine 2 antagonist. In all, 14.0% had a cardiac arrhythmia. PPI use was associated with an unadjusted risk of arrhythmia of 1.15 (95% CI,1.00-1.32; P?=.04) and an adjusted risk of arrhythmia of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.06; P?=.22). Among diuretic users (n?=?2476), PPI use was similarly not associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia. In summary, in a large cohort of critically ill patients, PPI exposure is not associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:25655574

  20. Clinical Conundrums in Management of Hypothyroidism in Critically Ill Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Rinku; Bajaj, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly. Evidence acquisition: Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology. Results: Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Conclusions: The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients. PMID:24719636

  1. Cost of Care: A Study of Patients Hospitalized for Treatment of Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rejani, P. P.; Sumesh, T. P.; Shaji, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Combination of ill health and poverty poses special challenges to health care providers. Mental illness and costs are linked in terms of long-term treatment and lost productivity, and it affects social development. The purpose of the present study is to assess the economic burden of poor families when a family member needs hospitalization due to psychosis. Materials and Methods: The information was gathered from caregivers of 100 psychotic inpatients of Medical College Hospital of Kerala during a period of 6 months. Data regarding components of expenses such as cost of medicine, laboratory investigations, food, travel, and other miscellaneous expenses during their inpatient period were collected by direct personal interview using specially designed proforma. The data were analyzed using Epi-info software. The patients below the poverty line (BPL) were compared with those above poverty line (APL). Results: There was no significant difference between patients from BPL and APL in respect of amounts spent on the studied variables except for laboratory investigations during the hospital stay. Conclusions: The results showed that the studied subjects are facing financial difficulties not only due to hospitalization, but also due to the recurrent expense of their ongoing medication. The study recommends the need of financial support from the government for the treatment of psychotic patients. PMID:25722516

  2. Acute appendicitis in acute leukemia and the potential role of decitabine in the critically ill patient

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Deepti; Kohorst, Mira A.; Altaf, Sadaf; Ishitani, Michael B.; Khan, Shakila; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia is uncommon and often recognized late. Immunocompromised host state coupled with the importance of avoiding treatment delays makes management additionally challenging. Leukemic infiltration of the appendix though rare must also be considered. Although successful conservative management has been reported, surgical intervention is required in most cases. We present our experience with acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia and a case of complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with a short course of decitabine. Decitabine may serve as bridging therapy in critically ill patients who are unable to undergo intensive chemotherapy. PMID:25870788

  3. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Radiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research (Italy); Crucitti, Pierfilippo [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Surgery, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research (Italy); Carboni, Giampiero [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Cardiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research (Italy); Coppola, Roberto [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Surgery, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Radiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in critically ill patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Dimopoulou; Stylianos Tsagarakis

    \\u000a \\u000a Background  A significant number of studies have shown that critically ill patients with brain injury (BI) frequently exhibit abnormal\\u000a pituitary hormonal responses during the immediate postinjury period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  The elucidation of endocrine alterations depends on the criteria used, the diagnostic tests applied, and the timing of testing\\u000a in relation to BI. The pattern of the detected hormonal abnormalities shows considerable variability. Altered

  5. Pharmaconutrition with selenium in critically ill patients: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Manzanares, William; Langlois, Pascal L; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-02-01

    Selenium is a component of selenoproteins with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiorgan dysfunction (MOD), and multiorgan failure (MOF) are associated with an early reduction in plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), and both parameters correlate inversely with the severity of illness and outcomes. Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluated selenium therapy as monotherapy or in antioxidant cocktails in intensive care unit (ICU) patient populations, and more recently several meta-analyses suggested benefits with selenium therapy in the most seriously ill patients. However, the largest RCT on pharmaconutrition with glutamine and antioxidants, the REducing Deaths due to Oxidative Stress (REDOXS) Study, was unable to find any improvement in clinical outcomes with antioxidants provided by the enteral and parenteral route and suggested harm in patients with renal dysfunction. Subsequently, the MetaPlus study demonstrated increased mortality in medical patients when provided extra glutamine and selenium enterally. The treatment effect of selenium may be dependent on the dose, the route of administration, and whether administered with other nutrients and the patient population studied. Currently, there are few small studies evaluating the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenous (IV) selenium in SIRS, and therefore more data are necessary, particularly in patients with MOD, including those with renal dysfunction. According to current knowledge, high-dose pentahydrate sodium selenite could be given as an IV bolus injection (1000-2000 µg), which causes transient pro-oxidant, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory effects, and then followed by a continuous infusion of 1000-1600 µg/d for up to 10-14 days. Nonetheless, the optimum dose and efficacy still remain controversial and need to be definitively established. PMID:25524883

  6. Fluid therapy and perfusional considerations during resuscitation in critically ill patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Regli, Adrian; De Keulenaer, Bart; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are consistently associated with morbidity and mortality among the critically ill or injured. Thus, avoiding or potentially treating these conditions may improve patient outcomes. With the aim of improving the outcomes for patients with IAH/ACS, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome recently updated its clinical practice guidelines. In this article, we review the association between a positive fluid balance and outcomes among patients with IAH/ACS and how optimisation of fluid administration and systemic/regional perfusion may potentially lead to improved outcomes among this patient population.Evidence consistently associates secondary IAH with a positive fluid balance. However, despite increased research in the area of non-surgical management of patients with IAH and ACS, evidence supporting this approach is limited. Some evidence exists to support implementing goal-directed resuscitation protocols and restrictive fluid therapy protocols in shocked and recovering critically ill patients with IAH. Data from animal experiments and clinical trials has shown that the early use of vasopressors and inotropic agents is likely to be safe and may help reduce excessive fluid administration, especially in patients with IAH. Studies using furosemide and/or renal replacement therapy to achieve a negative fluid balance in patients with IAH are encouraging. The type of fluid to be administered in patients with IAH remains far from resolved. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation endpoint in patients with IAH. However, it is important to recognise that IAH either abolishes or increases threshold values for pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness, while the presence of IAH may also result in a false negative passive leg raising test.Correct fluid therapy and perfusional support during resuscitation form the cornerstone of medical management in patients with abdominal hypertension. Controlled studies determining whether the above medical interventions may improve outcomes among those with IAH/ACS are urgently required. PMID:25421925

  7. Clinical review: practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Overgaard-Steensen, Christian; Ring, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of hypernatraemia/hypertonicity is critical, but should not exceed 12 mmol/l/day in order to reduce the risk of rebounding brain oedema. PMID:23672688

  8. Co-enrollment of critically ill patients into multiple studies: patterns, predictors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research on co-enrollment practices and their impact are limited in the ICU setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe patterns and predictors of co-enrollment of patients in a thromboprophylaxis trial, and 2) to examine the consequences of co-enrollment on clinical and trial outcomes. Methods In an observational analysis of an international thromboprophylaxis trial in 67 ICUs, we examined the co-enrollment of critically ill medical-surgical patients into more than one study, and examined the clinical and trial outcomes among co-enrolled and non-co-enrolled patients. Results Among 3,746 patients enrolled in PROTECT (Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial), 713 (19.0%) were co-enrolled in at least one other study (53.6% in a randomized trial, 37.0% in an observational study and 9.4% in both). Six factors independently associated with co-enrollment (all P < 0.001) were illness severity (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 1.53 for each 10-point Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score increase), substitute decision-makers providing consent, rather than patients (OR 3.31, 2.03 to 5.41), experience of persons inviting consent (OR 2.67, 1.74 to 4.11 for persons with > 10 years' experience compared to persons with none), center size (all ORs > 10 for ICUs with > 15 beds), affiliation with trials groups (OR 5.59, 3.49 to 8.95), and main trial rather than pilot phase (all ORs > 8 for recruitment year beyond the pilot). Co-enrollment did not influence clinical or trial outcomes or risk of adverse events. Conclusions Co-enrollment was strongly associated with features of the patients, research personnel, setting and study. Co-enrollment had no impact on trial results, and appeared safe, acceptable and feasible. Transparent reporting, scholarly discourse, ethical analysis and further research are needed on the complex topic of co-enrollment during critical illness. PMID:23298553

  9. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Revised II (PRISM-RII) – a novel method to assess perceived burden of illness in diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Klis, Sandor; Vingerhoets, Ad JJM; de Wit, Maartje; Zandbelt, Noortje; Snoek, Frank J

    2008-01-01

    Background The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review. Methods Participants were 308 adult outpatients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Measures: (1) the PRISM-RII, yielding Self-Illness Separation (SIS) and Illness Perception Measure (IPM); (2) the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, a measure of diabetes-related distress; (3) the WHO-5 Well-Being Index; (4) and a validation question on suffering (SQ). In addition, patients' complication status, comorbidity and glycemic control values(HbA1c) were recorded. Results Patients with complications did have marginally significant higher scores on IPM, compared to patients without complications. Type 2 patients had higher IPM scores than Type 1 patients. SIS and IPM showed low intercorrelation (r = -.25; p < .01). Convergent validity of PRISM-RII was demonstrated by significant correlations between IPM and PAID (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), WHO-5 (r = -.26; p < 0.01) and SQ (r = 0.36; p < 0.01). SIS showed only significant correlations with PAID (r = -0.28; p < 0.01) and SQ (r = -0.22; p < 0.01). Neither IPM nor SIS was significantly associated with HbA1c. The PRISM-RII appeared easy to use and facilitated discussion with care providers on coping with the burden of diabetes. Conclusion PRISM-RII appears a promising additional tool to assess the psychological burden of diabetes. PMID:19038050

  10. Incidence and impact of risk factors in critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Grant V; Joshi, Manjari; Bochicchio, Kelly; Shih, Diane; Meyer, W; Scalea, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the incidence of pre-existing diseases or risk factors and their effects in trauma patients. We conducted a prospective study to determine the incidence of such factors in critically ill trauma patients and to evaluate their impact on outcome. The study, performed over a 2-year period, examined the hospital course of all trauma patients admitted to the ICU. Multiple risk factors were evaluated and analyzed via multivariate regression analysis. Outcome was evaluated by infection rate, hospital length of stay, ventilator days, and mortality matched for age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). A total of 1172 patients (73% blunt injury) were enrolled over the study period. Of these, 873 (74.5%) were male. The mean age was 42.5 years with an ISS of 19.8. Tobacco use (24%) was the most common risk factor identified, followed by hypertension (HTN, 17%), coronary artery disease (9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/reactive airway disease (4%), non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) (4%), insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) (3.2%), cancer (3%), liver disease (2%), and HIV/AIDS (1.4%). Of these risk factors, IDDM was found to be an independent risk factor for infection (0.004) and ventilator days (0.047), increasing age was found to be an independent risk factor for hospital length of stay (0.023) and mortality (<0.001), and HTN was found to be an independent risk factor for increased ventilator days (0.04). In addition, COPD/reactive airway disease was found to be an independent predictor of ventilator days, infection, and ICU days (P < 0.05). Thus, increased age, IDDM, COPD, and HTN are most predictive of outcome in critically ill trauma patients. With our aging population it is becoming increasingly important to identify pre-existing risk factors on admission in order to minimize their effects on outcome. PMID:16369714

  11. Bioactivity of enoxaparin in critically ill patients with normal renal function

    PubMed Central

    Gouya, Ghazaleh; Palkovits, Stefan; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Madl, Christian; Locker, Gottfried; Stella, Alexander; Wolzt, Michael; Heinz, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    Aim In critically ill patients, reduced anti-FXa plasma activity following subcutaneous administration of enoxaparin or nadroparin has been described. In this study, we aimed to investigate the bioactivity of enoxaparin in critically ill patients and controls. Methods A prospective, controlled, open label study was performed on a medical intensive care unit (ICU) and a general medical ward. Fifteen ICU patients (male = 12, median age 52 years [IQR 40?65], with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score of 30 [IQR 18?52]) and sex- and age-matched medical ward patients were included. The anti-FXa plasma activity was measured after a single subcutaneous dose of 40 mg enoxaparin. The thrombus size of a clot formed in an ex vivo perfusion chamber and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured. Results The anti-FXa plasma activity increased significantly after enoxaparin administration, with peak levels at 3 h after treatment, but was comparable between the ICU and medical ward groups (median 0.16 IU ml?1[IQR 0?0.22 IU ml?1]vs. 0.2 IU ml?1[IQR 0.15?0.27 IU ml?1], respectively, P= 0.13). The area under the anti-FXa activity curve from 0–12 h was similar between the groups (median 0.97 IU ml?1 h [IQR 0.59?2.1] and 1.48 IU ml?1 h1[IQR 0.83?1.62], P= 0.42 for the ICU group compared with the control group, respectively). The ETP was lower in the ICU group (P < 0.05) at baseline, but it was comparable at 3 h between the groups. Thrombus size decreased at 3 h compared with predose (P= 0.029) and was not different between the groups. Conclusion Similar bioactivity was achieved with a standard dose of subcutaneous enoxaparin in this selected cohort of ICU and general ward patients with normal renal function. PMID:23227470

  12. The Perfidious Experiences of Men as Palliative Caregivers of People Living with HIV/AIDS and other Terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Kangethe, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. Conclusions: The article recommends: (1) a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2) making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3) Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4) diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5) and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government. PMID:21218009

  13. Illness-induced exacerbation of Leigh syndrome in a patient with the MTATP6 mutation, m. 9185 T>C.

    PubMed

    Saneto, Russell P; Singh, Keshav K

    2010-08-01

    The most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations giving rise to Leigh syndrome reside in the MTATP6 gene. We report a rare mutation, m. 9185 T>C that gives rise to a progressive, but episodic pattern of neurological impairment with partial recovery. Disease progression corresponded to febrile viral illness and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. The patient displayed nearly 100% homoplasmy, while his asymptomatic mother was 30%. Phenotypically, exacerbations of muscle weakness with endurance intolerance, dysarthric speech, ataxia, and eyelid ptosis accompanied febrile viral illness. This case demonstrates an episodic pattern of febrile illness-induced disease exacerbation with corresponding MRI changes. PMID:20546952

  14. Health Care Providers and Dying Patients: Critical Issues in Terminal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Jeanne Quint

    1988-01-01

    Identifies three major areas of concern in relationship between health care providers and dying patients: (1) nature of difficulties and stresses associated with terminal care; (2) education of providers for work; and (3) influence of organizational structure and institutionalized values on services for dying patients and families. Reviews…

  15. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships.

  16. Higher serum chloride concentrations are associated with acute kidney injury in unselected critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chloride administration has been found to be harmful to the kidney in critically ill patients. However the association between plasma chloride concentration and renal function has never been investigated. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary 24-bed intensive care unit from September 2010 to November 2012. Data on serum chloride for each patient during their ICU stay were abstracted from electronic database. Cl0 referred to the initial chloride on ICU entry, Clmax, Clmin and Clmean referred to the maximum, minimum and mean chloride values before the onset of AKI, respectively. AKI was defined according to the conventional AKIN criteria. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed to examine the association of chloride and AKI development. Results A total of 1221 patients were included into analysis during study period. Three hundred and fifty-seven patients (29.2%) developed AKI. Clmax was significantly higher in AKI than in non-AKI group (111.8?±?8.1 vs 107.9 ±5.4 mmol/l; p?patients; Clmean was significantly higher in AKI than non-AKI (104.3 ±5.8 vs 103.4?±?4.5; p?=?0.0047) patients. Clmax remained to be associated with AKI in multivariable analysis (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.13). Conclusion Chloride overload as represented by Clmean and Clmax is significantly associated with the development of AKI. PMID:24164963

  17. Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Chronically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128

  18. Use of Opiates to Manage Pain in the Seriously and Terminally Ill Patient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for control of moderate pain) such as: • Codeine/Acetaminophen combinations (e.g., Tylenol #2, 3, or 4) • Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen combinations (e.g., Vicodin) • Hydrocodone/Ibuprofen combinations (e. ...

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Diabetes Care in California Medicaid Patients with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim E. Banta; Elaine H. Morrato; Scott W. Lee; Mark G. Haviland

    2009-01-01

    Background  Serious mental illness often is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and sub-optimal diabetes care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To examine diabetes prevalence and care among Medicaid patients from one county mental health system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective cohort study combining county records and 12 months of state Medicaid claims.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Patients ages 18 to 59 receiving mental health services between November 1 and 14, 2004.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Dependent

  20. Hand-held echocardiography with doppler capability for the assessment of critically-ill patients: is it reliable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Vignon; Mickaël B. J. Frank; Jérôme Lesage; Frédérique Mücke; Bruno François; Sandrine Normand; Michel Bonnivard; Marc Clavel; Hervé Gastinne

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a hand-carried ultrasound device (HCU) in critically ill patients when using conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as a reference. Design Prospective, descriptive study. Setting Medical-surgical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Patients All patients requiring a TTE study were eligible. Interventions Each patient underwent an echocardiographic examination using a full-feature echocardiographic platform (Sonos

  1. Analysis of patients with decompression illness transported via physician-staffed emergency helicopters

    PubMed Central

    Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Osaka, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Context: There have been few reports investigating the effects of air transportation on patients with decompression illness (DCI). Aims: To investigate the influence of air transportation on patients with DCI transported via physician-staffed emergency helicopters (HEMS: Emergency medical system of physician-staffed emergency helicopters). Settings and Design: A retrospective medical chart review in a single hospital. Materials and Methods: A medical chart review was retrospectively performed in all patients with DCI transported via HEMS between July 2009 and June 2013. The exclusion criteria included cardiopulmonary arrest on surfacing. Statistical analysis used: The paired Student's t-test. Results: A total of 28 patients were treated as subjects. Male and middle-aged subjects were predominant. The number of patients who suddenly surfaced was 15/28. All patients underwent oxygen therapy during flight, and all but one patient received the administration of lactate Ringer fluid. The subjective symptoms of eight of 28 subjects improved after the flight. The range of all flights under 300 m above sea level. There were no significant differences between the values obtained before and after the flight for Glasgow coma scale, blood pressure, and heart rate. Concerning the SpO2, statistically significant improvements were noted after the flight (96.2 ± 0.9% versus 97.3 ± 0.7%). There were no relationships between an improvement in subjective symptoms and the SpO2. Conclusion: Improvements in the subjective symptoms and/or SpO2 of patients with DCI may be observed when the patient is transported via HEMS under flights less than 300 m in height with the administration of oxygen and fluids. PMID:25709249

  2. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

  3. Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yuko; Hagihara, Akihito; Kobori, Eiko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. Methods Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily participated in in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed by grounded theory. Results Of the 87 uninformed participants at the time of hospitalization, 67% (N = 59) died without being informed of their diagnosis. All were male, 51–66 years of age, and all experienced five psychological stages: anxiety and puzzlement, suspicion and denial, certainty, preparation, and acceptance. At the end of each stage, obvious and severe feelings were observed, which were called "gates." During the final acceptance stage, patients spent a peaceful time with family, even talking about their dreams with family members. Conclusion Unlike in other studies, the uninformed patients in this study accepted death peacefully, with no exceptional cases. Despite several limitations, this study showed that almost 70% of the uninformed terminal cancer patients at hospitalization died without being informed, suggesting an urgent need for culturally specific and effective terminal care services for cancer patients in Japan. PMID:16948863

  4. Outcome of delirium in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salluh, Jorge I F; Wang, Han; Schneider, Eric B; Nagaraja, Neeraja; Yenokyan, Gayane; Damluji, Abdulla; Serafim, Rodrigo B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relation between delirium in critically ill patients and their outcomes in the short term (in the intensive care unit and in hospital) and after discharge from hospital. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO, with no language restrictions, up to 1 January 2015. Eligibility criteria for selection studies Reports were eligible for inclusion if they were prospective observational cohorts or clinical trials of adults in intensive care units who were assessed with a validated delirium screening or rating system, and if the association was measured between delirium and at least one of four clinical endpoints (death during admission, length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and any outcome after hospital discharge). Studies were excluded if they primarily enrolled patients with a neurological disorder or patients admitted to intensive care after cardiac surgery or organ/tissue transplantation, or centered on sedation management or alcohol or substance withdrawal. Data were extracted on characteristics of studies, populations sampled, identification of delirium, and outcomes. Random effects models and meta-regression analyses were used to pool data from individual studies. Results Delirium was identified in 5280 of 16?595 (31.8%) critically ill patients reported in 42 studies. When compared with control patients without delirium, patients with delirium had significantly higher mortality during admission (risk ratio 2.19, 94% confidence interval 1.78 to 2.70; P<0.001) as well as longer durations of mechanical ventilation and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and in hospital (standard mean differences 1.79 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 3.27; P<0.001), 1.38 (0.99 to 1.77; P<0.001), and 0.97 (0.61 to 1.33; P<0.001), respectively). Available studies indicated an association between delirium and cognitive impairment after discharge. Conclusions Nearly a third of patients admitted to an intensive care unit develop delirium, and these patients are at increased risk of dying during admission, longer stays in hospital, and cognitive impairment after discharge. PMID:26041151

  5. The effect of telemedicine in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine extends intensivists' reach to critically ill patients cared for by other physicians. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of telemedicine on patients' outcomes. Methods We searched electronic databases through April 2012, bibliographies of included trials, and indexes and conference proceedings in two journals (2001 to 2012). We selected controlled trials or observational studies of critically ill adults or children, examining the effects of telemedicine on mortality. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data on outcomes (mortality and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital) and methodologic quality. We used random-effects meta-analytic models unadjusted for case mix or cluster effects and quantified between-study heterogeneity by using I2 (the percentage of total variability across studies attributable to heterogeneity rather than to chance). Results Of 865 citations, 11 observational studies met selection criteria. Overall quality was moderate (mean score on Newcastle-Ottawa scale, 5.1/9; range, 3 to 9). Meta-analyses showed that telemedicine, compared with standard care, is associated with lower ICU mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65 to 0.96; nine studies, n = 23,526; I2 = 70%) and hospital mortality (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.94; nine studies, n = 47,943; I2 = 72%). Interventions with continuous patient-data monitoring, with or without alerts, reduced ICU mortality (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95; six studies, n = 21,384; I2 = 74%) versus those with remote intensivist consultation only (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.20 to 2.07; three studies, n = 2,142; I2 = 71%), but effects were statistically similar (interaction P = 0.74). Effects were also similar in higher (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.02) versus lower (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.19; interaction, P = 0.53) quality studies. Reductions in ICU and hospital length of stay were statistically significant (weighted mean difference (telemedicine-control), -0.62 days; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.04 days and -1.26 days; 95% CI, -2.49 to -0.03 days, respectively; I2 > 90% for both). Conclusions Telemedicine was associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality among critically ill patients, although effects varied among studies and may be overestimated in nonrandomized designs. The optimal telemedicine technology configuration and dose tailored to ICU organization and case mix remain unclear. PMID:22809335

  6. Functional evolution of critically ill patients undergoing an early rehabilitation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Fernanda Murata; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira; Onoue, Mirian Akemi; Mendes, Juliana Mesti; Pedrosa, Renata Santos; Maida, Ana Lígia Vasconcellos; Kondo, Cláudia Seiko; de Salles, Isabel Chateaubriand Diniz; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Rodrigues, Miguel Koite

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the functional outcomes of patients undergoing an early rehabilitation protocol for critically ill patients from admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted that included 463 adult patients with clinical and/or surgical diagnosis undergoing an early rehabilitation protocol. The overall muscle strength was evaluated at admission to the intensive care unit using the Medical Research Council scale. Patients were allocated to one of four intervention plans according to the Medical Research Council score, the suitability of the plan’s parameters, and the increasing scale of the plan expressing improved functional status. Uncooperative patients were allocated to intervention plans based on their functional status. The overall muscle strength and/or functional status were reevaluated upon discharge from the intensive care unit by comparison between the Intervention Plans upon admission (Planinitial) and discharge (Planfinal). Patients were classified into three groups according to the improvement of their functional status or not: responsive 1 (Planfinal > Planinitial), responsive 2 (Planfinal = Planinitial) and unresponsive (Planfinal < Planinitial). Results In total, 432 (93.3%) of 463 patients undergoing the protocol responded positively to the intervention strategy, showing maintenance and/or improvement of the initial functional status. Clinical patients classified as unresponsive were older (74.3 ± 15.1 years of age; p = 0.03) and had longer lengths of intensive care unit (11.6 ± 14.2 days; p = 0.047) and hospital (34.5 ± 34.1 days; p = 0.002) stays. Conclusion The maintenance and/or improvement of the admission functional status were associated with shorter lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays. The results suggest that the type of diagnosis, clinical or surgical, fails to define the positive response to an early rehabilitation protocol.

  7. Long-term psychological effects of a no-sedation protocol in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A protocol of no sedation has been shown to reduce the time patients receive mechanical ventilation and to reduce intensive care and total hospital length of stay. The long-term psychological effects of this strategy have not yet been described. The purpose of the study was to test whether a strategy of no sedation alters long-term psychological outcome compared with a standard strategy with sedation. Methods During intensive care stay, 140 patients requiring mechanical ventilation were randomized to either no sedation or sedation with daily interruption of sedation. This study was done as a single-blinded cohort study. After discharge, patients were interviewed by a neuropsychologist assessing quality of life, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Two years after randomization, 38 patients were eligible for interview, and 26 patients were interviewed (13 from each group). No difference was found with respect to quality of life (Medical Outcome Study, 36-item short-form health survey). Both mental and physical components were nonsignificant. The Beck depression index was low in both groups (one patient in intervention group versus three patients in the control group were depressed, p = 0.32). Evaluated with the Impact of Events Scale, both groups had low stress scores (one in the intervention group versus two in the control group had scores greater than 32; p = 0.50). State anxiety scores were also low (28 in the control group versus 30 in the intervention group, p = 0.58). Conclusions Our data suggest that a protocol of no sedation applied to critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation does not increase the risk of long-term psychological sequelae after intensive care compared with standard treatment with sedation. PMID:22166673

  8. Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire. PMID:24947538

  9. When agreeing with the patient is not enough: a schizophrenic woman requests pregnancy termination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise M. Dudzinski; Mark Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the ethical dilemma health care providers faced when Rebecca, a pregnant schizophrenic patient who lacked decision-making capacity, inconsistently requested elective pregnancy termination. When a patient's decision-making capacity is severely impaired, how does the physician balance obligations to protect the patient from harm (beneficence) while also respecting her reproductive preferences and decisions (respect for autonomy)?Rebecca suffers

  10. Retrospective evaluation of possible renal toxicity associated with continuous infusion of vancomycin in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous infusion of vancomycin is increasingly preferred as an alternative to intermittent administration in critically ill patients. Intermittent vancomycin treatment is associated with an increased occurrence of nephrotoxicity. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) during continuous infusion of vancomycin. Methods This was a retrospective, observational, two-center, cohort study in patients with microbiologically documented Gram-positive pneumonia and/or bacteremia and normal baseline renal function. Vancomycin dose was adjusted daily aiming at plateau concentrations of 15-25 ?g/mL. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dL or a 1.5 to 2 times increase from baseline on at least 2 consecutive days after the initiation of vancomycin. Primary data analysis compared patients with AKI with patients who did not develop AKI. A binary logistic regression analysis using the forward stepwise method was used to assess the risk factors associated with AKI. Results A total of 129 patients were studied of whom 38 (29.5%) developed AKI. Patients with AKI had higher body weight (77.3 ± 15 vs. 70.5 ± 15.2 kg; p = 0.02), more diabetes (79% vs. 54%; p = 0.01), and a higher vasopressor need (87% vs. 59%; p = 0.002). Serum vancomycin levels, body weight, and SAPS 3 score were identified as variables contributing to AKI. The incidence of AKI increased substantially when treatment duration was prolonged (14.9 ± 9.8 vs. 9.2 ± 4.9 days; p = 0.05) and plasma levels exceeded 30 ?g/mL. Conclusions AKI is frequently observed during continuous vancomycin infusion, particularly when conditions that cause acute (shock) or chronic (diabetes) renal dysfunction are present and vancomycin levels above target range are achieved. Although this study challenges the concept that continuous vancomycin infusion might alleviate the risk of nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients, a direct relationship between vancomycin and nephrotoxicity remains to be proven. PMID:21906376

  11. First-dose pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in critically ill haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (C(peak)) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24 mg/L; amikacin 32-48 mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n = 34; amikacin, n = 24). Median Vd was 0.38 L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445 mg (5.8 mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200 mg (13.8 mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target C(peak) (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target C(peak) achievement (tobramycin 20 mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal C(peak) in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848

  12. Timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) is used in a step-up approach when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. Recent nutrition guidelines present divergent advices regarding timing of SPN in critically ill patients ranging from early SPN (<48 h after admission; EPN) to postponing initiation of SPN until day 8 after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (LPN). This systematic review summarizes results of prospective studies among adult ICU patients addressing the best timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition (S)PN. A structured PubMed search was conducted to identify eligible articles. Articles were screened and selected using predetermined criteria and appraised for relevance and validity. After critical appraisal, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two prospective observational studies remained. One RCT found a higher percentage of alive discharge from the ICU at day 8 in the LPN group compared to EPN group (p?=?0.007) but no differences in ICU and in-hospital mortality. None of the other RCTs found differences in ICU or in-hospital mortality rates. Contradicting or divergent results on other secondary outcomes were found for ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, infection rates, nutrition targets, duration of mechanical ventilation, glucose control, duration of renal replacement therapy, muscle wasting and fat loss. Although the heterogeneity in quality and design of relevant studies precludes firm conclusions, it is reasonable to assume that in adult critically ill patients, there are no clinically relevant benefits of EPN compared with LPN with respect to morbidity or mortality end points, when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. However, considering that infectious morbidity and resolution of organ failure may be negatively affected through mechanisms not yet clearly understood and acquisition costs of parenteral nutrition are higher, the early administration of parenteral nutrition cannot be recommended. PMID:25593747

  13. Tissue Doppler Septal Tei Index Indicates Severity of Illness in Pediatric Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Aura A Sanchez; Simpson, Kathleen E.; Hildebolt, Charles F; Pahl, Elfriede; Matthews, Kathleen L; Rainey, Cheryl A; Canter, Charles E; Jay, Patrick Y; Johnson, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Doppler Tei index is an independent predictor of outcomes in adult heart failure. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may be a superior method to measure the Tei index in children, as it is less affected by heart rate variability. We hypothesized that the TDI Tei index reflects severity of illness in pediatric heart failure. Methods: Twenty-five pediatric heart failure patients were prospectively enrolled. Listing for heart transplantation or death were the outcomes used to define severity of illness. Baseline demographics, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), standard echocardiographic and TDI-derived parameters were analyzed to determine outcome indicators. Results: Ten of the 25 patients (40%) were listed for transplantation. There were no deaths. Multivariate analysis combining age, heart rate, standard echocardiographic parameters, and BNP, resulted in shortening fraction (p=0.002) as the best indicator of listing for transplantation (R2 = 0.32). A second multivariate analysis combining age, heart rate, TDI parameters and BNP, resulted in age (p = 0.03) and septal Tei index (p = 0.03) as the best predictive model (R2 = 0.36). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for septal Tei index was 0.84 (0.64-0.96, 95% confidence interval) and it was comparable to the ROC curve for shortening fraction, p=0.76. Optimal values of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (60%) were obtained with septal Tei index values > 0.51. Conclusion: The TDI septal Tei index is an indicator of disease severity in pediatric heart failure patients and offers potential advantages in comparison with standard echocardiographic measures of left ventricular ejection. PMID:24061276

  14. Tissue Doppler septal Tei index indicates severity of illness in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Mejia, Aura A; Simpson, Kathleen E; Hildebolt, Charles F; Pahl, Elfriede; Matthews, Kathleen L; Rainey, Cheryl A; Canter, Charles E; Jay, Patrick Y; Johnson, Mark C

    2014-03-01

    The Doppler Tei index is an independent predictor of outcomes in adult heart failure. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may be a superior method to measure the Tei index in children because it is less affected by heart rate variability. We hypothesized that the TDI Tei index reflects severity of illness in pediatric heart failure. Twenty-five pediatric heart failure patients were prospectively enrolled. Listing for heart transplantation or death were the outcomes used to define severity of illness. Baseline demographics, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and standard echocardiographic and TDI-derived parameters were analyzed to determine outcome indicators. Ten of the 25 patients (40%) were listed for transplantation. There were no deaths. Multivariate analysis combining age, heart rate, standard echocardiographic parameters, and BNP resulted in shortening fraction (p = 0.002) as the best indicator of listing for transplantation (R(2) = 0.32). A second multivariate analysis combining age, heart rate, TDI parameters, and BNP resulted in age (p = 0.03) and septal Tei index (p = 0.03) as the best predictive model (R(2) = 0.36). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for septal Tei index was 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.64-0.96,), and it was comparable with the ROC curve for shortening fraction, p = 0.76. Optimal values of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (60%) were obtained with septal Tei index values >0.51. The TDI septal Tei index is an indicator of disease severity in pediatric heart failure patients and offers potential advantages compared with standard echocardiographic measures of left-ventricular ejection. PMID:24061276

  15. Internalized stigma and stigma resistance among patients with mental illness in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Chang, Hsin-An; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that accurate measurement is essential in evaluating internalized stigma and abilities to combat with stigma for treatment compliances and outcomes in individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS-C), which is one of the few tools available to measure internalized stigma and stigma resistance (SR) simultaneously. A total of 160 outpatients with (n = 103) and without (n = 57) psychotic disorders were administrated with the ISMIS-C, and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Overall, the 29-item ISMIS-C was presented to be internal reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90), and reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.36-0.73). The construct validity of the ISMIS-C derived from the factor analysis was nearly identical to the original version. ISMIS-C dimension scores were well correlated with each other and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Our data also demonstrated that psychotic patients experienced higher internalized stigma scores than those without psychotic diagnoses, but endorsed indifferently on SR scores. This scale can be used as an informative device when investigating "internalized stigma" and "SR" among individuals with or without psychotic disorders. PMID:25150055

  16. Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with severe mental illness: a review.

    PubMed

    Mabey, Linda; van Servellen, Gwen

    2014-02-01

    Although the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high among those with severe mental illness, little is known about the use of interventions to lessen the burden of PTSD in this population. Currently, there are limited data about safe and effective interventions to treat these individuals. This systematic published work review presents the scientific published work reporting studies of psychological treatment approaches for individuals with comorbid PTSD and severe mental illness. A secondary aim of this study was to identify the specific models implemented and tested, and their impact upon patient outcomes. A review of the published work from January 2001 through January 2012 of English-language publications retrieved from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, and the American Psychological Association generated abstracts (PsycINFO) databases was conducted. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The treatment programs described were cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, exposure-based cognitive-behavioural therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Evidence of the effectiveness of these programs is examined. Data to support the use of these interventions are limited, indicating the need for further research and efficacy trials. Future areas of research and implications for nursing are discussed. PMID:23363327

  17. Accuracy of Alpha Amylase in Diagnosing Microaspiration in Intubated Critically-Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dewavrin, Florent; Zerimech, Farid; Boyer, Alexandre; Maboudou, Patrice; Balduyck, Malika; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Amylase concentration in respiratory secretions was reported to be a potentially useful marker for aspiration and pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy of ?-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration in critically ill patients. Methods Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data collected in a medical ICU. All patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h, and included in a previous randomized controlled trial were eligible for this study, provided that at least one tracheal aspirate was available for ?-amylase measurement. As part of the initial trial, pepsin was quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during a 48-h period. All tracheal aspirates were frozen, allowing subsequent measurement of ?-amylase for the purpose of the current study. Microaspiration was defined as the presence of at least one positive tracheal aspirate for pepsin (>200 ng.mL?1). Abundant microaspiration was defined as the presence of pepsin at significant level in >74% of tracheal aspirates. Results Amylase was measured in 1055 tracheal aspirates, collected from 109 patients. Using mean ?-amylase level per patient, accuracy of ?-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration was moderate (area under the receiver operator curve 0.72±0.05 [95%CI 0.61–0.83], for an ?-amylase value of 1685 UI.L?1). However, when ?-amylase levels, coming from all samples, were taken into account, area under the receiver operator curve was 0.56±0.05 [0.53–0.60]. Mean ?-amylase level, and percentage of tracheal aspirates positive for ?-amylase were significantly higher in patients with microaspiration, and in patients with abundant microaspiration compared with those with no microaspiration; and similar in patients with microaspiration compared with those with abundant microaspiration. ?-amylase and pepsin were significantly correlated (r2?=?0.305, p?=?0.001). Conclusion Accuracy of mean ?-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration is moderate. Further, when all ?-amylase levels were taken into account, ?-amylase was inaccurate in diagnosing microaspiration, compared with pepsin. PMID:24603906

  18. Evaluation of a Model for Glycemic Prediction in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pappada, Scott M.; Cameron, Brent D.; Tulman, David B.; Bourey, Raymond E.; Borst, Marilyn J.; Olorunto, William; Bergese, Sergio D.; Evans, David C.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P. A.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a neural network model for prediction of glucose in critically ill trauma and post-operative cardiothoracic surgical patients. A prospective, feasibility trial evaluating a continuous glucose-monitoring device was performed. After institutional review board approval, clinical data from all consenting surgical intensive care unit patients were converted to an electronic format using novel software. This data was utilized to develop and train a neural network model for real-time prediction of serum glucose concentration implementing a prediction horizon of 75 minutes. Glycemic data from 19 patients were used to “train” the neural network model. Subsequent real-time simulated testing was performed in 5 patients to whom the neural network model was naive. Performance of the model was evaluated by calculating the mean absolute difference percent (MAD%), Clarke Error Grid Analysis, and calculation of the percent of hypoglycemic (?70 mg/dL), normoglycemic (>70 and <150 mg/dL), and hyperglycemic (?150 mg/dL) values accurately predicted by the model; 9,405 data points were analyzed. The models successfully predicted trends in glucose in the 5 test patients. Clark Error Grid Analysis indicated that 100.0% of predictions were clinically acceptable with 87.3% and 12.7% of predicted values falling within regions A and B of the error grid respectively. Overall model error (MAD%) was 9.0% with respect to actual continuous glucose modeling data. Our model successfully predicted 96.7% and 53.6% of the normo- and hyperglycemic values respectively. No hypoglycemic events occurred in these patients. Use of neural network models for real-time prediction of glucose in the surgical intensive care unit setting offers healthcare providers potentially useful information which could facilitate optimization of glycemic control, patient safety, and improved care. Similar models can be implemented across a wider scale of biomedical variables to offer real-time optimization, training, and adaptation that increase predictive accuracy and performance of therapies. PMID:23894489

  19. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients: focus on the clinical utility of (low-dose) fondaparinux

    PubMed Central

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Porreca, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication among acutely ill medical patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory insufficiency, rheumatologic disorders, and acute infectious and/or inflammatory diseases. Based on robust data from randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses showing a reduced incidence of VTE by 40% to about 60% with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, prevention of VTE with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), or fondaparinux is currently recommended in all at-risk hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. In patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, mechanical prophylaxis with graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression may be suggested. Thromboprophylaxis is generally continued for 6 to 14 days or for the duration of hospitalization. Selected cases could benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis beyond this period, although the risk of major bleeding remains a concern, and additional studies are needed to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged prophylaxis. For hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with renal insufficiency, a low dose (1.5 mg once daily) of fondaparinux or prophylactic LMWH subcutaneously appears to have a safe profile, although proper evaluation in randomized studies is lacking. The evidence on the use of prophylaxis for VTE in this latter group of patients, as well as in those at higher risk of bleeding complications, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, remains scarce. For critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units with no contraindications, LMWH or UFH are recommended, with frequent and careful assessment of the risk of bleeding. In this review, we discuss the evidence for use of thromboprophylaxis for VTE in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, with a focus on (low-dose) fondaparinux. PMID:24068866

  20. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients: focus on the clinical utility of (low-dose) fondaparinux.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Porreca, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication among acutely ill medical patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory insufficiency, rheumatologic disorders, and acute infectious and/or inflammatory diseases. Based on robust data from randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses showing a reduced incidence of VTE by 40% to about 60% with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, prevention of VTE with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), or fondaparinux is currently recommended in all at-risk hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. In patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, mechanical prophylaxis with graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression may be suggested. Thromboprophylaxis is generally continued for 6 to 14 days or for the duration of hospitalization. Selected cases could benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis beyond this period, although the risk of major bleeding remains a concern, and additional studies are needed to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged prophylaxis. For hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with renal insufficiency, a low dose (1.5 mg once daily) of fondaparinux or prophylactic LMWH subcutaneously appears to have a safe profile, although proper evaluation in randomized studies is lacking. The evidence on the use of prophylaxis for VTE in this latter group of patients, as well as in those at higher risk of bleeding complications, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, remains scarce. For critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units with no contraindications, LMWH or UFH are recommended, with frequent and careful assessment of the risk of bleeding. In this review, we discuss the evidence for use of thromboprophylaxis for VTE in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, with a focus on (low-dose) fondaparinux. PMID:24068866

  1. Reduced Serum Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Indicates Severe Systemic Inflammation in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Aleksandar R.; Schmidt, Karsten; Sigl, Annette; Decker, Sebastian O.; Brenner, Thorsten; Hofer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is an immune response to a nonspecific insult of either infectious or noninfectious origin and remains a challenge in the intensive care units with high mortality rate. Cholinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response during inflammation. We hypothesized that the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) might serve as a marker to identify and prognose systemic inflammation. By using a point-of-care-testing (POCT) approach we measured BChE activity in patients with severe systemic inflammation and healthy volunteers. We observed a decreased BChE activity in patients with systemic inflammation, as compared to that of healthy individuals. Furthermore, BChE activity showed an inverse correlation with the severity of the disease. Although hepatic function has previously been found essential for BChE production, we show here that the reduced BChE activity associated with systemic inflammation occurs independently of and is thus not caused by any deficit in liver function in these patients. A POCT approach, used to assess butyrylcholinesterase activity, might further improve the therapy of the critically ill patients by minimizing time delays between the clinical assessment and treatment of the inflammatory process. Hence, assessing butyrylcholinesterase activity might help in early detection of inflammation. PMID:25762852

  2. Goal-Oriented Respiratory Management for Critically Ill Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques) in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), biomarkers and response to infection therapy) allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality. PMID:22957224

  3. Peripheral vascular reconstruction using deep vein graft for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Yie, Kilsoo; Kim, Keun-Woo; Kang, Seong-Sik; Na, Chan-Young

    2011-10-01

    The great saphenous veins are gaining wide popularity as acceptable native vascular grafts, but in terms of flow capacity, their small caliber may be unsuitable for immediate replacement of arterial flow. Ten peripheral vascular or central venous reconstructions were performed using superficial femoral vein free grafts for re-establishment of immediate high-flow patency. Seven of the patients were men with a mean age of 61.5 ± 17.9 years (range, 21-81 years). The majority of the patients were of preoperative or intraoperative critically ill statuses in that they had extensive infection (n = 5), bleeding (n = 4), renal failure (n = 3) or hepatic failure (n = 1). The mean preoperative physiology score of the vascular POSSUM was 24.1 ± 8.8 (range, 15-37), and the mean operative severity score was 18.4 ± 4.9 (range, 10-26). All patients survived and recovered from systemic infection or critical hemodynamic instability. During the mean 28.9 months of follow-up, complications such as aneurysmal dilation, recurrent infection, graft stenosis/occlusion, lower limb edema and other clinical problems that required attention were not observed. In conclusion, we determined that deep veins can be applied as ideal graft conduits for reconstructing the major peripheral vessels under complicated conditions in select patients. PMID:21917742

  4. Reduced serum butyrylcholinesterase activity indicates severe systemic inflammation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Aleksandar R; Schmidt, Karsten; Sigl, Annette; Decker, Sebastian O; Brenner, Thorsten; Hofer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is an immune response to a nonspecific insult of either infectious or noninfectious origin and remains a challenge in the intensive care units with high mortality rate. Cholinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response during inflammation. We hypothesized that the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) might serve as a marker to identify and prognose systemic inflammation. By using a point-of-care-testing (POCT) approach we measured BChE activity in patients with severe systemic inflammation and healthy volunteers. We observed a decreased BChE activity in patients with systemic inflammation, as compared to that of healthy individuals. Furthermore, BChE activity showed an inverse correlation with the severity of the disease. Although hepatic function has previously been found essential for BChE production, we show here that the reduced BChE activity associated with systemic inflammation occurs independently of and is thus not caused by any deficit in liver function in these patients. A POCT approach, used to assess butyrylcholinesterase activity, might further improve the therapy of the critically ill patients by minimizing time delays between the clinical assessment and treatment of the inflammatory process. Hence, assessing butyrylcholinesterase activity might help in early detection of inflammation. PMID:25762852

  5. Do not drown the patient: appropriate fluid management in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Polderman, Kees H; Varon, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Administering intravenous fluids to support the circulation in critically ill patients has been a mainstay of emergency medicine and critical care for decades, especially (but not exclusively) in patients with distributive or hypovolemic shock. However, in recent years, this automatic use of large fluid volumes is beginning to be questioned. Analysis from several large trials in severe sepsis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome have shown independent links between volumes of fluid administered and outcome; conservative fluid strategies have also been associated with lower mortality in trauma patients. In addition, it is becoming ever more clear that central venous pressure, which is often used to guide fluid administration, is a completely unreliable parameter of volume status or fluid responsiveness. Furthermore, 2 recently published large multicenter trials (ARISE and ProCESS) have discredited the "early goal-directed therapy" approach, which used prespecified targets of central venous pressure and venous saturation to guide fluid and vasopressor administration. This article discusses the risks of "iatrogenic submersion" and strategies to avoid this risk while still giving our patients the fluids they need. The key lies in combining good clinical judgement, awareness of the potential harm from excessive fluid use, restraint in reflexive administration of fluids, and use of data from sophisticated monitoring tools such as echocardiography and transpulmonary thermodilution. Use of smaller volumes to perform fluid challenges, monitoring of extravascular lung water, earlier use of norepinephrine, and other strategies can help further reduce morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis. PMID:25698681

  6. Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noe´mi D. de Stoutz; Eduardo Bruera; Maria Suarez-Almazor

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of active (toxic) metabolites of opioids might explain cases of opioid toxicity when high doses are used for long periods of time. Other mechanisms of late toxicity of opioids may be found at the receptor level. Whatever the cause, a change of opioids using equianalgesic doses can be expected to improve symptoms of toxicity in some patients, while maintaining

  7. Thromboprophylaxis patterns and determinants in critically ill patients: a multicenter audit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Heparin is safe and prevents venous thromboembolism in critical illness. We aimed to determine the guideline concordance for thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients and its predictors, and to analyze factors associated with the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), as it may be associated with a lower risk of pulmonary embolism and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia without increasing the bleeding risk. Methods We performed a retrospective audit in 28 North American intensive care units (ICUs), including all consecutive medical-surgical patients admitted in November 2011. We documented ICU thromboprophylaxis and reasons for omission. Guideline concordance was determined by adding days in which patients without contraindications received thromboprophylaxis to days in which patients with contraindications did not receive it, divided by the total number of patient-days. We used multilevel logistic regression including time-varying, center and patient-level covariates to determine the predictors of guideline concordance and use of LMWH. Results We enrolled 1,935 patients (62.3?±?16.7 years, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score 19.1?±?8.3). Patients received thromboprophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH) (54.0%) or LMWH (27.6%). Guideline concordance occurred for 95.5% patient-days and was more likely in patients who were sicker (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.75 per 10-point increase in APACHE II), heavier (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05, 1.65 per 10-m/kg2 increase in body mass index), had cancer (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.81, 5.72), previous venous thromboembolism (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.46,10.66), and received mechanical ventilation (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.32,2.52). Reasons for not receiving thromboprophylaxis were high risk of bleeding (44.5%), current bleeding (16.3%), no reason (12.9%), recent or upcoming invasive procedure (10.2%), nighttime admission or discharge (9.7%), and life-support limitation (6.9%). LMWH was less often administered to sicker patients (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48, 0.89 per 10-point increase in APACHE II), surgical patients (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.72), those receiving vasoactive drugs (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35, 0.64) or renal replacement therapy (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.05, 0.23). Conclusions Guideline concordance for thromboprophylaxis was high, but LMWH was less commonly used, especially in patients who were sicker, had surgery, or received vasopressors or renal replacement therapy, representing a potential quality improvement target. PMID:24766968

  8. e-Patients Perceptions of Using Personal Health Records for Self-management Support of Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Gee, Perry M; Paterniti, Debora A; Ward, Deborah; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic illness self-management is largely moving from healthcare professionals and into the hands of the patient. One tool that has been promoted to facilitate self-management support of chronic illness by policymakers, health advocates, providers, and consumers is the personal health record. Little is known about how consumers effectively use personal health records for self-management support and for productive patient-provider interactions. The purpose of this study was to learn from chronically ill engaged, experienced, and educated (e-patient) adults how and why they use personal health records for self-management support and productive patient-provider interactions. Eighteen purposively selected consumers were interviewed in two communities. Qualitative description methods were used, and we used a grounded theory approach to analyzing interview data, which was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. We identified four major thematic categories that capture the perceptions of the chronically ill using personal health records: (1) patient engagement and health self-management, (2) access to and control over personal health data, (3) promotion of productive communication, and (4) opportunities for training and education. Knowledge gained from the e-patient personal health record users suggest that making improvements to the portal system and providing education to consumers and providers will increase the utility among the experienced users and encourage new users to embrace adoption and use. PMID:25899440

  9. The role of HIV infection and drug and alcohol dependence in hospital mortality among critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palepu; N. A. Khan; M. Norena; H. Wong; D. R. Chittock; P. M. Dodek

    2008-01-01

    PurposeCritical care outcomes among HIV-infected patients have improved because of advances in HIV therapy and general improvements in intensive care unit (ICU) management. There is a high co-occurrence of drug and alcohol dependence among HIV-infected patients, and the independent role of drug and alcohol dependence among patients with and without HIV infection in outcomes of critical illness is unclear.

  10. Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness

    PubMed Central

    J. Katon, Wayne.

    2011-01-01

    There is a bidirectional relationship between depression and chronic medical disorders. The adverse health risk behaviors and psychobiological changes associated with depression increase the risk for chronic medical disorders, and biological changes and complications associated with chronic medical disorders may precipitate depressive episodes. Comorbid depression is associated with increased medical symptom burden, functional impairment, medical costs, poor adherence to self-care regimens, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic medical disorders. Depression may worsen the course of medical disorders because of its effect on proinflammatory factors, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, autonomic nervous system, and metabolic factors, in addition to being associated with a higher risk of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and poor adherence to medical regimens. Both evidence-based psychotherapies and antidepressant medication are efficacious treatments for depression. Collaborative depression care has been shown to be an effective way to deliver these treatments to large primary care populations with depression and chronic medical illness. PMID:21485743

  11. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study 1

    PubMed Central

    Borghardt, Andressa Tomazini; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet; Bringuente, Maria Edla de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients. METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow) upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories. RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71%) and low specificity (21% and 47%) respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale. CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power. PMID:25806628

  12. Waiting times in the ambulatory sector - the case of chronically Ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims First, the influence of determinants on the waiting times of chronically ill patients in the ambulatory sector is investigated. The determinants are subdivided into four groups: (1) need, (2) socio-economic factors, (3) health system and (4) patient time pressures. Next, the influence of waiting times on the annual number of consultations is examined to assess whether the existing variation in waiting times influences the frequency of medical examinations. The waiting times of chronically ill patients are analysed since regular ambulatory care for this patient group could both improve treatment outcomes and lower costs. Data sources Individual data from the 2010 Representative Survey conducted by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV) together with regional data from the Federal Office of Construction and Regional Planning. Study design This is a retrospective observational study. The dependent variables are waiting times in the ambulatory sector and the number of consultations of General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist physicians in the year 2010. The explanatory variables of interest are ‘need’ and ‘health system’ in the first model and ‘length of waiting times’ in the second. Negative binomial models with random effects are used to estimate the incidence rate ratios of increased waiting times and number of consultations. Subsequently, the models are stratified by urban and rural areas. Results In the pooled regression the factor ‘privately insured’ shortens the waiting time for treatment by a specialist by approximately 28% (about 3 days) in comparison with members of the statutory health insurance system. The category of insurance has no influence on the number of consultations of GPs. In addition, the regression results stratified by urban and rural areas show that in urban areas the factor ‘privately insured’ reduces the waiting time for specialists by approximately 35% (about 3.3 days) while in rural areas there is no evidence of statistical influence. In neither of the models, however, does the waiting time have a documentable effect on the number of consultations in the ambulatory sector. Conclusions In our random sample, characteristics of the health care system have an influence on the waiting time for specialists, but the waiting time has no documentable effect on the number of consultations in the ambulatory sector. In the present analysis this applies to consultations of both GPs and specialists. Nevertheless, it does not rule out the possibility that the length of waiting times might influence the treatment outcomes of certain patient populations. PMID:24020453

  13. Person-Centered Psychopathology of Schizophrenia: Building on Karl Jaspers’ Understanding of Patient’s Attitude Toward His Illness

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this article, building on and extending Jaspers’ concept of the “patient’s attitude toward his illness” we draw attention to the active role that the person, as a self-interpreting agent engaged in a world shared with other persons, has in interacting with his/her basic disorder and in the shaping of psychopathological syndromes. This person-centered approach helps us to see patients as meaning-making entities rather than passive individuals and their attempt at self-understanding as not necessarily pathological and potentially adaptive. We describe 3 contemporary resources for a person-centered psychopathology: dialectical psychopathology, contemporary approaches to the meanings-causes debate, and value-based practice. Each of these provides a theoretical framework and practical resources for understanding the diversity of schizophrenic phenotypes, including symptom presentation, course, and outcome as a consequence of the different ways people with schizophrenia seek to make sense of the basic changes in self and world experiences. A person-centered approach, in building on patients’ individual values and experiences as key aspects of their self-understanding of their psychosis, supports recovery and development of self-management skills. PMID:23314193

  14. Challenges and Potential Solutions – Individualised Antibiotic Dosing at the Bedside for Critically Ill Patients: a structured review

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jason A.; Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Abdul; Lipman, Jeffrey; Mouton, Johan W.; Vinks, Alexander A.; Felton, Timothy W.; Hope, William W.; Farkas, Andras; Neely, Michael N.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Drusano, George; Frey, Otto R.; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Kuti, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Infections in critically ill patients are associated with persistently poor clinical outcomes. These patients have severely altered and variable antibiotic pharmacokinetics and are infected by less susceptible pathogens. Antibiotic dosing that does not account for these features is likely to result in sub-optimal outcomes. In this paper, we review the patient- and pathogen-related challenges that contribute to inadequate antibiotic dosing and discuss how a process for individualised antibiotic therapy, that increases the accuracy of dosing, can be implemented to further optimise care for the critically ill patient. The process for optimised antibiotic dosing firstly requires determination of the physiological derangements in the patient that can alter antibiotic concentrations including altered fluid status, microvascular failure, serum albumin concentrations as well as altered renal and hepatic function. Secondly, knowledge of the susceptibility of the infecting pathogen should be determined through liaison with the microbiology laboratory. The patient and pathogen challenges can then be solved by combining susceptibility data with measured antibiotic concentration data (where possible) into a clinical dosing software. Such software uses pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models from critically ill patients to accurately predict the dosing requirements for the individual patient with the aim of optimising antibiotic exposure and maximising effectiveness. PMID:24768475

  15. Microbiological Profile of Organisms Causing Bloodstream Infection in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Jose; Mainardi, Carlo; Muzylo, Eliza; Karki, Niraj; Cohen, Nina; Sakoulas, George

    2012-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most frequent infection in critically ill patients. As BSI’s among patients in intensive care units (ICU’s) are usually secondary to intravascular catheters, they can be caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms as well as fungi. Infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms is becoming more common, making the choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy challenging. The objective of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of microorganisms causing BSI’s in a Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit (MSICU) and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Methods A prospective observational study among all adult patients with clinical signs of sepsis was conducted in a MSICU of an inner-city hospital in New York City between May 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011. Results A total of 722 adult patients with clinical signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and/or sepsis were admitted to the MSICU between May 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011. From those patients, 91 (12.6%) had one or more positive blood culture. A 122 isolates were identified: 72 (59%) were Gram-positive bacteria, 38 (31.1%) were Gram-negative organisms, and 12 (9.8%) were fungi. Thirteen (34.2%) Gram-negative organisms and 14 (19.4%) Gram-positive bacteria were classified as MDR. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Gram-negative organisms, continues to increase at a rapid rate, especially in the ICU’s. Coordinated infection control interventions and antimicrobial stewardship policies are warranted in order to slow the emergence of resistance. PMID:23226169

  16. Predicting Premature Termination within a Randomized Controlled Trial for Binge-Eating Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluckiger, Christoph; Meyer, Andrea; Wampold, Bruce E.; Gassmann, Daniel; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Munsch, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the dropout rates of efficacious forms of psychotherapy for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) is an unsolved problem within this increasing population. Up until now the role of psychotherapy process characteristics as predictors of premature termination has not been investigated in the BED literature. Within a randomized…

  17. [Present status and characteristics of the terminal care of dying patients in head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Ono, I; Ebihara, S; Saito, Y; YoshizumiT; Abe, E

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two head and neck cancer patients who died in 1981 and 1982 were analyzed. At the terminal stage, most of the patients could see or feel their tumors by themselves. Seventy-one percent of them were laryngectomized or tracheotomized, so they could not speak, and its was frequently difficult to know what they wanted to say or ask. These 2 facts made the clinical care of these patients difficult. More than half of the families of these patients did not want them to live longer only to be tortured by their disease. PMID:3981799

  18. The Adolescent with a Life-Threatening Illness: Cultural Myths and Social Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nannis, Ellen D.; And Others

    This paper discusses the attitudes of terminally ill adolescent patients towards their illness and their behaviors during their treatment. Preliminary results are reported on an ongoing study of 12 boys and six girls (age 8-21) with metastatic pediatric solid tumors and lymphomas that failed to respond to conventional treatment. Interviews of…

  19. A prospective determination of the incidence of perceived inappropriate care in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Rohit K; Sibbald, Robert; Morgan, Brenda; Quinlan, Mel; Parry, Neil; Radford, Michael; Martin, Claudio M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care providers’ perceptions regarding appropriateness in end-of-life treatments have been widely studied. While nurses and physicians believe that rationing and other cost-related practices sometimes occur in the intensive care unit (ICU), they allege that treatment is often excessive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the incidence and causes of health care providers’ perceptions regarding appropriateness of end-of-life treatments. METHODS: The present prospective study collected data from patients admitted to the medical-surgical trauma ICU of a 30-bed, Canadian teaching hospital over a three-month period. Daily surveys were completed independently by bedside nurses, charge nurses and attending physician. RESULTS: In total, 5224 of 6558 expected surveys (representing 294 patients) were analyzed, yielding a response rate of 79.7%. The incidence of perceived inappropriate care in the present study was 6.5% (19 of 294 patients), with ongoing treatment for >2 days after this determination occurring in 1% (three of 294 patients). However, at least one caregiver perceived inappropriate care at some point in 110 of 294 (37.5%) patients. In these cases, in which processes to address care were not already underway, respondents believed that important issues resulting in provision of inappropriate treatments included patient-family issues and communication before or in the ICU. Caregivers did not know their patients’ wishes 22% (1129 of 5224) of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Although ongoing inappropriate care appeared to be a rare occurrence, the issue was a concern to at least one caregiver in one-third of cases. Public awareness for end-of-life issues, adequate communication, and up-to-date knowledge and practice in determining the wishes of critically ill patients are potential target areas to improve end-of-life care and reduce inappropriate care in the ICU. A daily, prospective survey of multidisciplinary caregivers, such as the survey used in the present study, is a viable and valuable means of determining the scope and causes of inappropriate care in the ICU. PMID:24367791

  20. Hospitalization of influenza-like illness patients recommended by general practitioners in France between 1997 and 2010

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Hospitalization of influenza-like illness patients recommended by general practitioners-hospitalization ratio; emerging pathogens; influenza pandemics; surveillance, severity. Corresponding author (present.pelat@gmail.com inserm-00709172,version1-18Jun2012 Author manuscript, published in "Influenza and Other Respiratory

  1. Diagnostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in critically ill patients with pulmonary edema: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E Levitt; Ajeet G Vinayak; Brian K Gehlbach; Anne Pohlman; William Van Cleve; Jesse B Hall; John P Kress

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Distinguishing pulmonary edema due to acute lung injury (ALI) or the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from hydrostatic or cardiogenic edema is challenging in critically ill patients. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can effectively identify congestive heart failure in the emergency room setting but, despite increasing use, its diagnostic utility has not been validated in the intensive care unit

  2. High Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus Bacteria in Patients with Febrile Illness, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Thiga, Jacqueline W.; Mutai, Beth K.; Eyako, Wurapa K.; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, <1% for typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers. PMID:25811219

  3. A prospective study on the incidence and predictive factors of relative adrenal insufficiency in Korean critically-ill patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Soo; Kang, Eunhae; Suh, Gee Young; Koh, Won-Jung; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2009-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) in Korean critically-ill patients. All patients who were admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of Samsung Medical Center between January 1, 2006 and April 30, 2007 were prospectively evaluated using a short corticotropin stimulation test on the day of admission. RAI was defined as an increase in the serum cortisol level of <9 microg/dL from the baseline after administration of 250 microg of corticotropin. In all, 123 patients were recruited and overall the incidence of RAI was 44% (54/123). The presence of septic shock (P=0.001), the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (P=0.003), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (P=0.001), the mean heart rate (P=0.040), lactate levels (P=0.001), arterial pH (P=0.047), treatment with vasopressors at ICU admission (P=0.004), and the 28-day mortality (P=0.041) were significantly different between patients with and without RAI. The multivariate analysis showed that the SOFA score was an independent predictor of RAI in critically-ill patients (odd ratio=1.235, P=0.032). Our data suggest that RAI is frequently found in Korean critically-ill patients and that a high SOFA score is an independent predictor of RAI in these patients. PMID:19654950

  4. Epidemiology of critically ill patients in intensive care units: a population-based observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic assessment of critically ill people in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) is needed to ensure the health care system can meet current and future needs. However, few such studies have been published. Methods Population-based analysis of all adult ICU care in the Canadian province of Manitoba, 1999 to 2007, using administrative data. We calculated age-adjusted rates and trends of ICU care, overall and subdivided by age, sex and income. Results In 2007, Manitoba had a population of 1.2 million, 118 ICU beds in 21 ICUs, for 9.8 beds per 100,000 population. Approximately 0.72% of men and 0.47% of women were admitted to ICUs yearly. The age-adjusted, male:female rate ratio was 1.75 (95% CI 1.64 to 1.88). Mean age was 64.5 ± 16.4 years. Rates rose rapidly after age 40, peaked at age 75 to 80, and declined for the oldest age groups. Rates were higher among residents of lower income areas, for example declining from 7.9 to 4.4 per 100,000 population from the poorest to the wealthiest income quintiles (p <0.0001). Rates of ICU admission slowly declined over time, while cumulative yearly ICU bed-days slowly rose; changes were age-dependent, with faster declines in admission rates with older age. There was a high rate of recidivism; 16% of ICU patients had received ICU care previously. Conclusions These temporal trends in ICU admission rates and cumulative bed-days used have significant implications for health system planning. The differences by age, sex and socioeconomic status, and the high rate of recidivism require further research to clarify their causes, and to devise strategies for reducing critical illness in high-risk groups. PMID:24079640

  5. Development and psychometric properties of a questionnaire to assess barriers to feeding critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To successfully implement the recommendations of critical care nutrition guidelines, one potential approach is to identify barriers to providing optimal enteral nutrition (EN) in the intensive care unit (ICU), and then address these barriers systematically. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess barriers to enterally feeding critically ill patients and to conduct preliminary validity testing of the new instrument. Methods The content of the questionnaire was guided by a published conceptual framework, literature review, and consultation with experts. The questionnaire was pre-tested on a convenience sample of 32 critical care practitioners, and then field tested with 186 critical care providers working at 5 hospitals in North America. The revised questionnaire was pilot tested at another ICU (n?=?43). Finally, the questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of ICU nurses twice, two weeks apart, to determine test retest reliability (n?=?17). Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlations (ICC), and kappa coefficients were conducted to assess validity and reliability. Results We developed a questionnaire with 26 potential barriers to delivery of EN asking respondents to rate their importance as barriers in their ICU. Face and content validity of the questionnaire was established through literature review and expert input. The factor analysis indicated a five-factor solution and accounted for 72% of the variance in barriers: guideline recommendations and implementation strategies, delivery of EN to the patient, critical care provider attitudes and behavior, dietitian support, and ICU resources. Overall, the indices of internal reliability for the derived factor subscales and the overall instrument were acceptable (subscale Cronbach alphas range 0.84 – 0.89). However, the test retest reliability was variable and below acceptable thresholds for the majority of items (ICC’s range ?0.13 to 0.70). The within group agreement, an indices reflecting the reliability of aggregating individual responses to the ICU level was also variable (ICC’s range 0.0 to 0.82). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire to identify barriers to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Additional studies are planned to further revise and evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. PMID:24305039

  6. Alcohol withdrawal as an underrated cause of agitated delirium and terminal restlessness in patients with advanced malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Murray; Alexander Bilinski; Boris Chern; Bruce Stafford

    2005-01-01

    A significant number of patients with terminal cancer experience terminal restlessness or an agitated delirium in the final days of life. Multifactorial etiologies may contribute to agitation and restlessness for any one patient; alcohol withdrawal may be underrated as a contributing factor. The symptoms and signs of alcohol withdrawal—autonomic dysfunction, tremor, anxiety, sleep disturbances, insomnia, and abnormal vital signs—may continue

  7. Prediction scores do not correlate with clinically adjudicated categories of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Katsios, CM; Donadini, M; Meade, M; Mehta, S; Hall, R; Granton, J; Kutsiogiannis, J; Dodek, P; Heels-Ansdell, D; McIntyre, L; Vlahakis, N; Muscedere, J; Friedrich, J; Fowler, R; Skrobik, Y; Albert, M; Cox, M; Klinger, J; Nates, J; Bersten, A; Doig, C; Zytaruk, N; Crowther, M; Cook, DJ

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prediction scores for pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) validated in outpatient settings are occasionally used in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of Geneva and Wells scores with adjudicated categories of PE in ICU patients. METHODS: In a randomized trial of thromboprophylaxis, patients with suspected PE were adjudicated as possible, probable or definite PE. Data were then retrospectively abstracted for the Geneva Diagnostic PE score, Wells, Modified Wells and Simplified Wells Diagnostic scores. The chance-corrected agreement between adjudicated categories and each score was calculated. ANOVA was used to compare values across the three adjudicated PE categories. RESULTS: Among 70 patients with suspected PE, agreement was poor between adjudicated categories and Geneva pretest probabilities (kappa 0.01 [95% CI ?0.0643 to 0.0941]) or Wells pretest probabilities (kappa ?0.03 [95% CI ?0.1462 to 0.0914]). Among four possible, 16 probable and 50 definite PEs, there were no significant differences in Geneva scores (possible = 4.0, probable = 4.7, definite = 4.5; P=0.90), Wells scores (possible = 2.8, probable = 4.9, definite = 4.1; P=0.37), Modified Wells (possible = 2.0, probable = 3.4, definite = 2.9; P=0.34) or Simplified Wells (possible = 1.8, probable = 2.8, definite = 2.4; P=0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Pretest probability scores developed outside the ICU do not correlate with adjudicated PE categories in critically ill patients. Research is needed to develop prediction scores for this population. PMID:24083302

  8. The experience of communication difficulties in critically ill patients in and beyond intensive care: Findings from a larger phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Agness C; Higgins, Isabel; Parker, Vicki

    2015-06-01

    Communication difficulties in intensive care units (ICU) with critically ill patients have been well documented for more than three decades. However, there is only a paucity of literature that has explored communication difficulties beyond the ICU environment. This paper discusses the experience of communication difficulties in critically ill patients in ICU and beyond as part of findings from a larger study that explored the lived experiences of critically ill patients in ICU in the context of daily sedation interruption (DSI). The aim of the study was to describe the lived experience of people who experienced critical illness in ICU using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach in the DSI context. Twelve participants aged between 20 and 76 years with an ICU stay ranging from 3 to 36 days were recruited from a 16 bed ICU in a large regional referral hospital in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Participants were intubated, mechanically ventilated and subjected to (DSI) during their critical illness in ICU. In-depth face to face interviews with participants were conducted at two weeks after discharge from ICU and at six to eleven months later. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Thematic analysis using van Manen's (1990) method was completed. The overarching theme; 'Being in limbo' and subthemes 'Being disrupted'; 'Being imprisoned' and 'Being trapped' depict the main elements of the experience. This paper discusses communication difficulties in critically ill patients as one of the main findings relating to the theme 'Being trapped'. Participants' reports of communication difficulties in ICU are similar to those reported by patients in other studies where DSI was not used. However, not many studies have reported ongoing communication difficulties after ICU hospitalisation. Recommendations are made for new models of care and support to mitigate critically ill patients' communication concerns in ICU and for further research into the causes and treatment to benefit this group of patients. Most importantly, extra care is recommended not to damage vocal cords during intubation and cuff inflation in the course of mechanical ventilation. PMID:25486970

  9. Crisis occurrence and resolution in patients with severe and persistent mental illness: the contribution of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel; Ball, Jeffrey S; Barr, Aiala; Rourke, Sean

    2005-01-01

    Assertive community treatment appears to have limited impact on the risk of suicide in persons with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). This exploratory prospective study attempts to understand this observation by studying the contribution of suicidality to the occurrence of crisis events in patients with SPMI. Specifically, an observer-rated measure of the need for hospitalization, the Crisis Triage Rating Scale, was completed at baseline, crisis occurrence, and resolution to determine how much the level of suicidality contributed to the deemed level of crisis. Second, observer-ratings of suicidal ideation, the Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation, and psychopathology and suicidality, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, were measured at baseline, crisis occurrence, and resolution. A self-report measure of distress, the Symptom Distress Scale, was completed at baseline, crisis occurrence, and resolution. Finally, the patients' crisis experiences were recorded qualitatively to compare with quantitative measures of suicidality. Almost 40% of the subjects experienced crisis events and more than a quarter of these events were judged to be severe enough to warrant the need for hospitalization. Our findings suggest that elevation of psychiatric symptoms is a major contributor to the crisis occurrences of individuals with SPMI; although the risk of suicide may have to be conceived as somewhat separate from crisis occurrence. PMID:16485841

  10. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation for glycemic control in diabetic and critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Kondepati, Venkata Radhakrishna; Heise, H Michael

    2007-06-01

    Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients. For this reason, many different analytical, mainly electrochemical and optical sensor approaches for glucose measurements have been developed. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been recognised as being an indispensable tool for intensive diabetes therapy. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation, allowing submicroliter samples of blood, alternative site testing, reduced test time, autocalibration, and improved precision, is comprehensively described in this review. Continuous blood glucose monitoring techniques and insulin infusion strategies, developmental steps towards the realization of the dream of an artificial pancreas under closed loop control, are presented. Progress in glucose sensing and glycemic control for both patient groups is discussed by assessing recent published literature (up to 2006). The state-of-the-art and trends in analytical techniques (either episodic, intermittent or continuous, minimal-invasive, or noninvasive) detailed in this review will provide researchers, health professionals and the diabetic community with a comprehensive overview of the potential of next-generation instrumentation suited to either short- and long-term implantation or ex vivo measurement in combination with appropriate body interfaces such as microdialysis catheters. PMID:17431594

  11. Applying pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles in critically ill patients: optimizing efficacy and reducing resistance development.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Lipman, Jeffrey; Mouton, Johan W; Hope, William W; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-02-01

    The recent surge in multidrug-resistant pathogens combined with the diminishing antibiotic pipeline has created a growing need to optimize the use of our existing antibiotic armamentarium, particularly in the management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Optimal and timely pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment has been associated with an increased likelihood of clinical and microbiological success in critically ill patients. Emerging data, mostly from in vitro and in vivo studies, suggest that optimization of antibiotic therapy should not only aim to maximize clinical outcomes but also to include the suppression of resistance. The development of antibiotic dosing regimens that adheres to the PK/PD principles may prolong the clinical lifespan of our existing antibiotics by minimizing the emergence of resistance. This article summarizes the relevance of PK/PD characteristics of different antibiotic classes on the development of antibiotic resistance. On the basis of the available data, we propose dosing recommendations that can be adopted in the clinical setting, to maximize therapeutic success and limit the emergence of resistance in the ICU. PMID:25643277

  12. [Prevention and nursing care of central line-associated bloodstream infections in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ji-Han; Shang, Wan-Ming; Chou, Shin-Shang

    2012-08-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections are associated with significantly increased morbidity, mortality, and expenditures. Such infections are a serious threat to patient safety in the intensive care unit. This review describes the latest protocols related to preventing and treating central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in critically ill patients. According to 2011 Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines and central line care bundles by the institute for healthcare improvement (IHI), prevention measures for catheter-related bloodstream infections include the following: hand hygiene, maximal barrier precautions insertion, chlorhexidine skin antisepsis, optimal catheter site selection, proper catheter maintenance, insertion site care, and daily review of line necessity, with prompt removal of unnecessary lines. These are important and effective infection prevention measures. Guidelines and care bundles also recommend organizing care modules based on unit characteristics; integrating resources and empirical measures; education and training to promote comprehensive implementation; and auditing and monitoring to ensure staff continue to follow procedures. Effectively preventing central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections can enhance care quality and move healthcare closer to achieving the goal of zero tolerance. PMID:22851388

  13. Responding to Intractable Terminal Suffering: The Role of Terminal Sedation and Voluntary Refusal of Food and Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Quill; Ira R. Byock

    2000-01-01

    When provided by a skilled, multidisciplinary team, pallia- tive care is highly effective at addressing the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs of dying patients and their families. However, some patients who have wit- nessed harsh death want reassurance that they can escape if their suffering becomes intolerable. In addition, a small percentage of terminally ill patients receiving comprehen- sive

  14. The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: attitudes of the urban population and patients’ views

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Barke; Seth Nyarko; Dorothee Klecha

    Purpose  Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the\\u000a stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the

  15. Systemic illness.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2008-01-01

    Systemic illnesses are associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral hormone axes, which represent part of the adaptive response to stressful events and may be influenced by type and severity of illness and/or pharmacological therapy. The pituitary gland responds to an acute stressful event with two secretory patterns: adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels increase, while luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels may either decrease or remain unchanged, associated with a decreased activity of their target organ. In protracted critical illness, there is a uniformly reduced pulsatile secretion of ACTH, TSH, LH, PRL and GH, causing a reduction in serum levels of the respective target-hormones. These adaptations are initially protective; however, if inadequate or excessive they may be dangerous and may contribute to the high morbidity and mortality risk of these patients. There is no consensus regarding the type of approach, as well as the criteria to use to define pituitary axis function in critically ill patients. We here provide a critical approach to pituitary axis evaluation during systemic illness. PMID:18404385

  16. The Use of Information and Communication Technology to Meet Chronically Ill Patients’ Needs when Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe influences, benefits, and limitations in using information and communication technology to meet chronically ill patients’ needs when living at home. The study is a descriptive, exploratory designed pilot study and the intervention was performed using an electronic communication program enabling communication between ill persons and the district nurse in real time by web cam pictures and sound. The participant used the programme once or twice a week from February to August 2008. Data were collected by means of repeated interviews and logbook notes, and were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The results showed that all participants appreciated being able to communicate regardless of time and place and their experiences of using information and communication technology revealed that it created feelings of safety and security. The information and communication technology became a tool in their communication and improved nursing care among seriously chronically ill persons living at home. PMID:22114659

  17. [Home parenteral nutrition for terminal cancer patients--when should we tell the truth about their disease and return them to their home with HPN].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y; Tokunaga, A; Taguchi, K; Morisawa, M; Harasaki, N; Kawai, N; Kozakura, E; Komoda, H; Soh, H; Hoki, M

    1995-12-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a significant way to enable terminally ill cancer patients to live with high quality of life at home. However, the most important condition to perform HPN is the patients' desire to return to their home. For this purpose, we should consider in informing them of the truth of their disease. We had three terminal cancer patients who returned to their home with HPN. Cas 1: 52-year-old woman, recurrent stomach cancer. She did not know her cancer. She stayed at home for 45 days with HPN. Case 2: 46-year-old woman, recurrent stomach cancer. She did not know her recurrence of cancer. She stayed at home for only 15 days with HPN. Case 3: 45-year-old woman, recurrent pancreatic head cancer. She knew her disease and her life expectancy. She had 6-year-old daughter and desired to return home. She stayed at home with HPN for 8 months. As we told Case 3 truth of her disease when she was diagnosed as recurrence of cancer, she lived at home with HPN for 8 months. From the experience of three cases, we may concluded that, the sooner the patients are informed the truth about their disease, the longer they can stay at home with HPN and spend their limited time with high QOL. PMID:8849280

  18. Mixing t?rttam and tablets. A healing proposal for mentally ill patients in Gunaseelam (South India).

    PubMed

    Saglio-Yatzimirsky, Marie Caroline; Sébastia, Brigitte

    2014-10-30

    Well known for its powerful deity who heals the mentally ill, the village of Gunaseelam illustrates an interesting example of mental healthcare combining rituals (t?rttam) and medication (tablets). After the Ervadi tragedy, the government forbade the confinement and chaining of the mentally ill in unlicensed places such as in religious institutions as contrary to human rights, so a clinic was established to treat patients. How is the intrusion of psychiatry into the temple and its association with the rituals perceived by priests and psychiatrists, and by patients and caregivers? What are the implications that this therapeutic combination has for the quality of life of patients and caregivers and for the life of the village and the temple? This article attempts to explore these questions through the particular case of Gunaseelam and offers some ways to develop mental healthcare practices that are more acceptable to the people, notably those people from lower social backgrounds. PMID:25355285

  19. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    PubMed

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  20. Mental Illness, Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, Multiple Disabilities...Whose Patient, Whose Treatment Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper reviews issues in the provision of services to individuals who are mentally ill chemical abusers and addicted (MICAA). Introductory material defines this population and notes that these people are frequently ineligible for services aimed at either mental illness or chemical abuse alone. Service provisions within the psychiatric/mental…

  1. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells inversely correlate with plasma arginine and overall survival in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Gey, A; Tadie, J-M; Caumont-Prim, A; Hauw-Berlemont, C; Cynober, L; Fagon, J-Y; Terme, M; Diehl, J-L; Delclaux, C; Tartour, E

    2015-05-01

    Critically ill patients display a state of immunosuppression that has been attributed in part to decreased plasma arginine concentrations. However, we and other authors have failed to demonstrate a clinical benefit of L-arginine supplementation. We hypothesize that, in these critically ill patients, these low plasma arginine levels may be secondary to the presence of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (gMDSC), which express arginase known to convert arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline. Indeed, in a series of 28 non-surgical critically ill patients, we showed a dramatic increase in gMDSC compared to healthy subjects (P?=?0·0002). A significant inverse correlation was observed between arginine levels and gMDSC (P?=?0·01). As expected, gMDSC expressed arginase preferentially in these patients. Patients with high gMDSC levels on admission to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) presented an increased risk of death at day 7 after admission (P?=?0·02). In contrast, neither plasma arginine levels, monocytic MDSC levels nor neutrophil levels were associated with overall survival at day 7. No relationship was found between body mass index (BMI) or simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score or gMDSC levels, eliminating a possible bias concerning the direct prognostic role of these cells. As gMDSC exert their immunosuppressive activity via multiple mechanisms [production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), interleukin (IL)-10, arginase, etc.], it may be more relevant to target these cells, rather than simply supplementing with L-arginine to improve immunosuppression and its clinical consequences observed in critically ill patients. PMID:25476957

  2. Critical Care Nurses Inadequately Assess SAPS II Scores of Very Ill Patients in Real Life.

    PubMed

    Perren, Andreas; Previsdomini, Marco; Perren, Ilaria; Merlani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reliable ICU severity scores have been achieved by various healthcare workers but nothing is known regarding the accuracy in real life of severity scores registered by untrained nurses. Methods. In this retrospective multicentre audit, three reviewers independently reassessed 120 SAPS II scores. Correlation and agreement of the sum-scores/variables among reviewers and between nurses and the reviewers' gold standard were assessed globally and for tertiles. Bland and Altman (gold standard-nurses) of sum scores and regression of the difference were determined. A logistic regression model identifying risk factors for erroneous assessments was calculated. Results. Correlation for sum scores among reviewers was almost perfect (mean ICC = 0.985). The mean (±SD) nurse-registered SAPS II sum score was 40.3 ± 20.2 versus 44.2 ± 24.9 of the gold standard (P < 0.002 for difference) with a lower ICC (0.81). Bland and Altman assay was +3.8 ± 27.0 with a significant regression between the difference and the gold standard, indicating overall an overestimation (underestimation) of lower (higher; >32 points) scores. The lowest agreement was found in high SAPS II tertiles for haemodynamics (k = 0.45-0.51). Conclusions. In real life, nurse-registered SAPS II scores of very ill patients are inaccurate. Accuracy of scores was not associated with nurses' characteristics. PMID:22548157

  3. Total Phenytoin concentration is not well correlated with active free drug in critically-ill head trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Kourosh; Hadi, Farin; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Farhudi, Shirin; Hendoui, Narjes; Najafi, Atabak; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Phenytoin is an antiepileptic drug used widely for prophylaxis and treatment of seizure after neurotrauma. Phenytoin has a complex pharmacokinetics and monitoring of its serum concentrations is recommended during treatment. Total phenytoin concentration is routinely measured for monitoring of therapy. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between phenytoin total and free concentrations in neurotrauma critically-ill patients to determine whether the phenytoin total concentration is a reliable predictor of free drug, which is responsible for the therapeutic effects. Methods: A total of 40 adult head trauma patients evaluated for free (unbound) and total serum phenytoin concentrations. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A consists of 20 unconscious patients with severe head injury under mechanical ventilation and Group B consists of 20 conscious self-ventilated patients. Correlation and agreement between total and free phenytoin plasma concentrations were analyzed. Findings: Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman test showed weak to moderate correlation (r = 0.528) and poor agreement between free and total phenytoin concentrations in patients with severe trauma and higher Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (Group A) and good correlation (r = 0.817) and moderate agreement in patients with mild to moderate trauma and lower APACHE II scores (Group B). Conclusion: Our results indicated that total phenytoin serum concentration is not a reliable therapeutic goal for drug monitoring in severely-ill head trauma patients even in the absence of hypoalbuminemia, renal and hepatic failure. It seems justifiable to measure free phenytoin concentration in all severely ill neurotrauma patients. PMID:24991615

  4. Evaluation of near patient testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in a pregnancy termination service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Hopwood; Harry Mallinson; Toni Gleave

    2001-01-01

    AimTo identify and evaluate advantages and disadvantages of a near patient test (NPT) for Chlamydia trachomatis, using Clearview Chlamydia MF (Unipath Ltd) in a British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) clinic.MethodThe improved Clearview Chlamydia MF test was used to test endocervical swabs from 400 women attending BPAS clinic for termination of pregnancy. The results were compared with Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR),

  5. A Review of Mobile Terminal-Based Applications for Self-Management of Patients with Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoe Tatara; Eirik Årsand; Heidi Nilsen; Gunnar Hartvigsen

    2009-01-01

    Peer-reviewed studies of mobile terminal-based applications for self-management of patients with diabetes were reviewed. Databases of medical and engineering studies were searched for relevant publications, and 39 publications describing 28 studies were identified as examining feasibility, acceptability or effectiveness using empirical methods, preferably involving prospective users. Research methods, application design, and findings were summarized. The current status is that the

  6. Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis in critically ill patients with pulmonary infections: clinical and microbiological analysis in an intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia García; Estibaliz Ugalde; Idoia Monteagudo; Ana Saez; Jesús Agüero; Luis Martinez-Martinez; Eduardo Miñambres

    2007-01-01

    Objective  \\u000a Mycoplasma hominis is a well recognized extragenital pathogen. However, it is an uncommon cause of respiratory infections in critically ill\\u000a patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective clinical investigation in a 21-bed ICU in a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Seven patients requiring intensive care who developed a ICU-acquired pneumonia in which M. hominis was recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural fluid

  7. Comparison of invasive and noninvasive measurements of indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and stable hemodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir G. Sakka; Konrad Reinhart; Andreas Meier-Hellmann

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: We studied the correlation between invasive (aortic fiberoptic) and noninvasive (transcutaneous sensor) measurements of indocyanine green (ICG) plasma disappearance rate (PDR) in critically ill patients. Design and setting: Prospective clinical study in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients: 16 critically ill patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (n=8), sepsis\\/septic shock (n=6), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=1), or

  8. Adrenal function in non-septic long-stay critically ill patients: evaluation with the low-dose (1 µg) corticotropin stimulation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Dimopoulou; Ioannis Ilias; Paraskevi Roussou; Alexandra Gavala; Adigoni Malefaki; Ema Milou; Marinos Pitaridis; Charis Roussos

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the adrenal function in non-septic, long-stay critically ill patients. Design. Prospective, consecutive study. Setting. General intensive care unit in a university hospital. Patients. Forty-three non-septic patients with protracted critical illness. Interventions. A morning blood sample was first obtained to measure baseline plasma cortisol. Subsequently, 1 µg of corticotropin (ACTH, Synacthene) was injected intravenously and 30 min later

  9. Association of an oxygen-sensitive lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme, LDk, with LD-6 in serum of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Onorato, V A; Manly, K F; Vladutiu, A O

    1984-10-01

    We measured a highly unusual, oxygen-sensitive lactate dehydrogenase, LDk, in the serum of six patients whose serum showed a band for LD-6 on routine agarose gel electrophoresis for LD isoenzymes. All these patients showed very high serum LDk activity, greatly exceeding the high values previously described in serum of patients with various malignant tumors. In two of the patients, LDk activity was low both before LD-6 was found in and after it disappeared from the serum, evidencing a correlation with LD-6. All of the six patients, five of whom died in the hospital, had severe hypotension. We suggest that hypoxia is responsible for the appearance of LD-6 in serum and that LD-6 is found in association with high LDk activity in serum of critically ill patients. PMID:6478590

  10. Gastrointestinal Failure score in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Reintam, Annika; Parm, Pille; Kitus, Reet; Starkopf, Joel; Kern, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Introduction There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for gastrointestinal failure in critically ill patients. In the present study we tested whether the occurrence of food intolerance (FI) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), combined in a 5-grade scoring system for assessment of gastrointestinal function (the Gastrointestinal Failure [GIF] score), predicts mortality. The prognostic value of the GIF score alone and in combination with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is evaluated, and the incidence and outcome of gastrointestinal failure is described relative to the GIF score. Methods A total of 264 subsequently hospitalized patients, who were mechanically ventilated on admission and stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for longer than 24 hours, were prospectively studied. GIF score was documented daily as follows: 0 = normal gastrointestinal function; 1 = enteral feeding with under 50% of calculated needs or no feeding 3 days after abdominal surgery; 2 = FI or IAH; 3 = FI and IAH; and 4 = abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Admission parameters and mean GIF and SOFA scores for the first 3 days were used to predict ICU outcome. Results FI developed in 58.3%, IAH in 27.3%, and both together in 22.7% of patients. The mean GIF score for the first 3 days in the ICU was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio = 3.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.63 to 5.59; P < 0.001). The GIF score integrated into the SOFA score allowed better prediction of ICU mortality than did the SOFA score alone, and was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 1.74; P < 0.001). The development of gastrointestinal failure (FI plus IAH) was associated with significantly higher ICU and 90-day mortality. Conclusion The GIF score is useful for classifying information on the gastrointestinal system. The mean GIF score during the first 3 days in the ICU had high prognostic value for ICU mortality. Development of gastrointestinal failure is associated with significantly impaired outcome. PMID:18625051

  11. [Nursing care in terminality: compliance with principles of bioethics ].

    PubMed

    Felix, Zirleide Carlos; Batista, Patricia Serpa de Souza; da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emília Limeira; de Oliveira, Regina Célia; Abrão, Fátima Maria da Silva

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the principles of bioethics reported by nurses when caring for terminally ill patients. Exploratory research with qualitative approach, developed with fifteen nurses from an intensive care unit of a university hospital, in northeastern Brazil. Data collection was conducted between March and July 2013, through a form. Data were analyzed using the technique of content analysis, emerging the following thematic category: respect to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice to take care of the terminally ill patients. The participating nurses valued these principles when caring for terminally ill patients, which reflect the ethical commitment of these professionals in the practice of nursing care. It is noteworthy that bioethical principles should guide the nursing care of human beings throughout their life cycle. PMID:25474847

  12. Household costs of illness during different phases of tuberculosis treatment in Central Asia: a patient survey in Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Illness-related costs incurred by patients constitute a severe economic burden for households especially in low-income countries. High household costs of illness lead to impoverishment; they impair affordability and equitable access to health care and consequently hamper tuberculosis (TB) control. So far, no study has investigated patient costs of TB in the former Soviet Union. Methods All adult new pulmonary TB cases enrolled into the DOTS program in 12 study districts during the study period were enrolled. Medical and non-medical expenditure as well as loss of income were quantified in two interviews covering separate time periods. Costs of different items were summed up to calculate total costs. For missing values, multiple imputation was applied. Results A cohort of 204 patients under DOTS, 114 men and 90 women, participated in the questionnaire survey. Total illness costs of a TB episode averaged $1053 (c. $4900 purchasing power parity, PPP), of which $292, $338 and $422 were encountered before the start of treatment, during intensive phase and in continuation phase, respectively. Costs per month were highest before the start of treatment ($145) and during intensive phase ($153) and lower during continuation phase ($95). These differences were highly significant (paired t-test, p < 0.0005 for both comparisons). Conclusions The illness-related costs of an episode of TB exceed the per capita GDP of $1600 PPP about two-and-a-half times. Hence, these costs are catastrophic for concerned households and suggest a high risk for impoverishment. Costs are not equally spread over time, but peak in early stages of treatment, exacerbating the problem of affordability. Mitigation strategies are needed in order to control TB in Tajikistan and may include social support to the patients as well as changes in the management of TB cases. These mitigation strategies should be timed early in treatment when the cost burden is highest. PMID:20078897

  13. Peripheral arterial blood pressure monitoring adequately tracks central arterial blood pressure in critically ill patients: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariano Alejandro Mignini; Enrique Piacentini; Arnaldo Dubin

    2006-01-01

    Introduction  Invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring is a common practice in intensive care units (ICUs). Accuracy of invasive blood\\u000a pressure monitoring is crucial in evaluating the cardiocirculatory system and adjusting drug therapy for hemodynamic support.\\u000a However, the best site for catheter insertion is controversial. Lack of definitive information in critically ill patients\\u000a makes it difficult to establish guidelines for daily practice

  14. Illness perceptions, coping and functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Scharloo; A. A Kaptein; J Weinman; J. M Hazes; L. N. A Willems; W Bergman; H. G. M Rooijmans

    1998-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study analyzed the extent to which illness perceptions and coping strategies (as measured by the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List, respectively) are associated with levels of daily functioning, as indicated by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-20, and disease-specific measures in 244 adults: 84 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 80 with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD);

  15. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Minas; Ruzanna Zamzam; Marhani Midin; Alex Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Background  The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings\\u000a by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose\\u000a of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent

  16. The Association of Health Literacy with Illness and Medication Beliefs among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Minal S.; Federman, Alex D.; Krauskopf, Katherine; Wolf, Michael; O’Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD. Methods We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen’s d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs. Results We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001), not be married (p = 0.006), and to have lower income (p<0.001) or education (p<0.001). In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen’s d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05–1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82–1.04). Conclusions In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was prevalent, and associated with illness beliefs that predict decreased adherence. Our results suggest that targeted strategies to address low health literacy and related illness and medications beliefs might improve COPD medication adherence and other self-management behaviors. PMID:25915420

  17. 42 CFR 418.52 - Condition of participation: Patient's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (c) Standard: Rights of the patient. The patient has a right to the following: (1) Receive effective pain management and symptom control from the hospice for conditions related to the terminal illness; (2) Be involved in...

  18. 42 CFR 418.52 - Condition of participation: Patient's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (c) Standard: Rights of the patient. The patient has a right to the following: (1) Receive effective pain management and symptom control from the hospice for conditions related to the terminal illness; (2) Be involved in...

  19. 42 CFR 418.52 - Condition of participation: Patient's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c) Standard: Rights of the patient. The patient has a right to the following: (1) Receive effective pain management and symptom control from the hospice for conditions related to the terminal illness; (2) Be involved in...

  20. Usefulness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a multicenter prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) as a prognostic factor in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is not yet fully established. We aimed to determine whether NT-pro-BNP is predictive of ICU mortality in a multicenter cohort of critically ill patients. Methods A total of 1440 patients admitted to 22 ICUs (medical, 14; surgical, six; multidisciplinary, two) in 15 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals between July 2010 and January 2011 were assessed. Patient data, including NT-pro-BNP levels and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 scores, were recorded prospectively in a web-based database. Results The median age was 64 years (range, 53–73 years), and 906 (62.9%) patients were male. The median NT-pro-BNP level was 341 pg/mL (104–1,637 pg/mL), and the median SAPS 3 score was 57 (range, 47–69). The ICU mortality rate was 18.9%, and hospital mortality was 24.5%. Hospital survivors showed significantly lower NT-pro-BNP values than nonsurvivors (245 pg/mL [range, 82–1,053 pg/mL] vs. 875 pg/mL [241–5,000 pg/mL], respectively; p?ill patients. However, there was little additional prognostic power when adding NT-pro-BNP to SAPS 3 score. PMID:24612820

  1. Legal myths about terminating life support.

    PubMed

    Meisel, A

    1991-08-01

    There are a number of myths about what the law permits concerning the termination of life support, some of which spring from a fundamental misconception of what law is. A serious misunderstanding of the law can lead to tragic results for physicians, health care institutions, patients, and families. These misunderstandings are (1) anything that is not specifically permitted by law is prohibited; (2) termination of life support is murder or suicide; (3) a patient must be terminally ill for life support to be stopped; (4) it is permissible to terminate extraordinary treatments, but not ordinary ones; (5) it is permissible to withhold treatment, but once started, it must be continued; (6) stopping tube feeding is legally different from stopping other treatments; (7) termination of life support requires going to court; and (8) living wills are not legal. PMID:1908215

  2. [The perception by nurses of the significance of palliative care in patients with terminal cancer].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Andréa; Evangelista, Carla Braz; Platel, Indiara Carvalho dos Santos; Agra, Glenda; Lopes, Marineide de Souza; Rodrigues, Francileide de Araújo

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to assess the perception of nurses with respect to cancer patients under palliative care. It is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach conducted with nurses from a hospital attending cancer patients under palliative care located in the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba. The study included nine nurses who worked in the hospital. The empirical material was collected using the technique of semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis technique. The interpretative analysis of the interviews led to the definition of three categories: Improving the quality of life through the alleviation of pain and suffering; Palliative Care: a multi-professional study of terminal patients and their families in the grieving process; Communication: a source of dignity in the terminal care process. The conclusion reached is that the study revealed that the nurses involved acknowledge the importance of the multidisciplinary team. It enables the nurses to reflect on the use of communication as an essential element of care for patient and family under palliative care. It is hoped that the data obtained may foster further research on the topic. PMID:23989565

  3. Very Early Passive Cycling Exercise in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: Physiological and Safety Aspects - A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Camargo Pires-Neto, Ruy; Fogaça Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria; Sayuri Hirota, Adriana; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice; Caruso, Pedro; Park, Marcelo; Ribeiro Carvalho, Carlos Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early mobilization can be performed in critically ill patients and improves outcomes. A daily cycling exercise started from day 5 after ICU admission is feasible and can enhance functional capacity after hospital discharge. In the present study we verified the physiological changes and safety of an earlier cycling intervention (< 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation) in critical ill patients. Methods Nineteen hemodynamically stable and deeply sedated patients within the first 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a single 20 minute passive leg cycling exercise using an electric cycle ergometer. A minute-by-minute evaluation of hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic variables was undertaken before, during and after the exercise. Analyzed variables included the following: cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central venous blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and tidal volume, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and blood lactate levels. Results We enrolled 19 patients (42% male, age 55±17 years, SOFA = 6 ± 3, SAPS3 score = 58 ± 13, PaO2/FIO2 = 223±75). The median time of mechanical ventilation was 1 day (02), and 68% (n=13) of our patients required norepinephrine (maximum concentration = 0.47 µg.kg-1.min-1). There were no clinically relevant changes in any of the analyzed variables during the exercise, and two minor adverse events unrelated to hemodynamic instability were observed. Conclusions In our study, this very early passive cycling exercise in sedated, critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients was considered safe and was not associated with significant alterations in hemodynamic, respiratory or metabolic variables even in those requiring vasoactive agents. PMID:24040200

  4. Interpersonal caring: a theory for improved self-esteem in patients with long-term serious mental illness - I.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susie; Kim, Sue

    2007-06-01

    This article describes a process of theory development in nursing care. The Interpersonal Caring theory empirically arose from a problematic nursing situation of caring for patients with long-term serious mental illness, to guide practical applications of interpersonal caring behaviors. The authors describe the phases of theory development with patient statements that illustrate how to conceptualize the phenomenon, and present theoretical and statistical analyses that validate the 10 domains of interpersonal caring: noticing, participating, sharing, active listening, companioning, complimenting, comforting, hoping, forgiving, and accepting. PMID:25030540

  5. Multiple-center evaluation of mortality associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a competing risks analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Clec’h; Frédéric Gonzalez; Alexandre Lautrette; Molière Nguile-Makao; Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas; Samir Jamali; Dany Golgran-Toledano; Adrien Descorps-Declere; Frank Chemouni; Rebecca Hamidfar-Roy; Elie Azoulay; Jean-François Timsit

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  In this study, we aimed to assess the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in critically ill patients\\u000a using an original competing risks approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Unselected patients admitted between 1997 and 2009 to 13 French medical or surgical intensive care units were included in\\u000a this observational cohort study. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE criteria. The following data

  6. Predictors of an increased in vitro thrombotic and bleeding tendency in critically ill trauma and non-trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, K M; Duff, O C

    2015-05-01

    Trauma patients are at a high risk of both bleeding and thromboembolism. This study assessed whether conventional coagulation blood tests were reliable predictors of an increased in vitro thrombotic and bleeding tendency of trauma and non-trauma patients. Conventional coagulation blood tests and thromboelastographs of 63 trauma and 63 randomly selected, critically ill non-trauma patients were compared. Increased in vitro thrombotic and bleeding tendencies were defined by a maximum amplitude>72 mm or an angle>74° on the thromboelastograph and a maximum amplitude<54 mm or an angle<47°, respectively. In vitro thrombotic tendency was more common than bleeding tendency and this was not different between the critically ill trauma and non-trauma patients (59% versus 67% with thrombotic tendency, P=0.461; 11% versus 10% with bleeding tendency, respectively, P=0.999). Thrombocytopenia (<150x10(9)/l) and low fibrinogen concentrations (<2 g/l) were the only two factors associated with an increased in vitro bleeding tendency (both P=0.001) and thrombocytopenia was the only factor associated with a lower risk of in vitro thrombotic tendency (21% versus 75%, P=0.001). Platelet counts (Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]: 0.59, P=0.001) and fibrinogen concentrations (r 0.61, P=0.001) both had a relatively linear association with maximum amplitude of the thromboelastograph. Prolonged International Normalized Ratio (>1.5) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (>40 seconds) were, however, not significantly associated with an increased in vitro thrombotic or bleeding tendency. In conclusion, in vitro thrombotic tendency was more common than bleeding tendency in critically ill trauma and non-trauma patients. Platelet counts and fibrinogen concentrations were better predictors of increased in vitro thrombotic and bleeding risks than International Normalized Ratio or activated Partial Thromboplastin Time. PMID:25943604

  7. Depression and Comorbid Illness in Elderly Primary Care Patients: Impact on Multiple Domains of Health Status and Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Williams, John W.; Unützer, Jürgen; Worchel, Jason; Lee, Shuko; Cornell, John; Katon, Wayne; Harpole, Linda H.; Hunkeler, Enid

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE Our objective was to examine the relative association of depression severity and chronicity, other comorbid psychiatric conditions, and coexisting medical illnesses with multiple domains of health status among primary care patients with clinical depression. METHODS We collected cross-sectional data as part of a treatment effectiveness trial that was conducted in 8 diverse health care organizations. Patients aged 60 years and older (N = 1,801) who met diagnostic criteria for major depression or dysthymia participated in a baseline survey. A survey instrument included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, depression severity and chronicity, neuroticism, and the presence of 11 common chronic medical illnesses, as well as questions screening for panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Measures of 4 general health indicators (physical and mental component scales of the SF-12, Sheehan Disability Index, and global quality of life) were included. We conducted separate mixed-effect regression linear models predicting each of the 4 general health indicators. RESULTS Depression severity was significantly associated with all 4 indicators of general health after controlling for sociodemographic differences, other psychological dysfunction, and the presence of 11 chronic medical conditions. Although study participants had an average of 3.8 chronic medical illnesses, depression severity made larger independent contributions to 3 of the 4 general health indicators (mental functional status, disability, and quality of life) than the medical comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS Recognition and treatment of depression has the potential to improve functioning and quality of life in spite of the presence of other medical comorbidities. PMID:15576541

  8. “Because Somebody Cared about Me. That's How It Changed Things”: Homeless, Chronically Ill Patients’ Perspectives on Case Management

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth; Tamayo, Aracely; Fernandez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background Case management programs for chronically ill, homeless people improve health and resource utilization by linking patients with case managers focused on improving management of medical and psychosocial problems. Little is known about participants’ perspectives on case management interventions. Methods This qualitative study used in-depth, one-on-one interviews to understand the impact of a case management program from the perspective of participants. A standardized interview guide with open-ended questions explored experiences with the case management program and feelings about readiness to leave the program. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: (1) Participants described profound social isolation prior to case management program enrollment; (2) Participants perceived that caring personal relationships with case managers were key to the program; (3) Participants valued assistance with navigating medical and social systems; and (4) Participants perceived that their health improved through both the interpersonal and the practical aspects of case management. Conclusions Chronically ill, homeless people enrolled in a case management program perceived that social support from case managers resulted in improved health. Programs for this population should consider explicitly including comprehensive social support interventions. Further research on case management should explore the impact of different types of social support on outcomes for homeless chronically ill patients. PMID:23029350

  9. Health related quality of life in Critically ill Patients A study of health related quality of life in critically ill patients admitted on the Intensive Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. M. Hofhuis

    2008-01-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is a relevant outcome measure for patients admitted to the\\u000aintensive care unit (ICU). Long term outcome for physical and psychological factors, functional\\u000astatus and social interactions are becoming more and more important both for doctors and nurses\\u000aas well as for patients and their relatives (1;2). Therefore doctors and nurses want to know

  10. Different Conceptions of Mental Illness: Consequences for the Association with Patients

    PubMed Central

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2013-01-01

    Whenever partial knowledge is considered absolute and turned into ideological and dogmatic conceptions, the risk increases that the conditions for the people involved might become dangerous. This will be illustrated by casuistic examples of consequences of one-sided psychiatric conceptions such as social, biological, and psychological ideas about the treatment and care of the mentally ill. Present perspectives of an integrative model, i.e., an advanced bio-psycho-social conception about evidence-based characteristics on the social, psychological, and molecular-genetic level, require that all of these dimensions should be considered in order to personalize and thereby improve the care and treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:23720646

  11. Uncertainty about the safety of supplemental glutamine: an editorial on “A randomized trial of glutamine and antioxidants in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Diana Wells

    2015-01-01

    Previously small randomized clinical trials and several meta-analyses have suggested improved patient outcomes from parenteral glutamine supplementation. A recent large multi-center randomized trial conducted in critically ill patients with documented multiple organ failure at enrollment demonstrated an increase in mortality among those receiving supplemental glutamine. This article discusses the discrepancies in trial outcomes and the risks associated with glutamine administration during critical illness. PMID:25713807

  12. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    PubMed Central

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H+ is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and conventional methods. Although the introduction of the Stewart approach was a new insight into acid-base physiology, the method has not significantly improved our ability to understand, diagnose, and treat acid-base alterations in critically ill patients. PMID:25685724

  13. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H(+) is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and conventional methods. Although the introduction of the Stewart approach was a new insight into acid-base physiology, the method has not significantly improved our ability to understand, diagnose, and treat acid-base alterations in critically ill patients. PMID:25685724

  14. Understanding the problems developing a healthy living programme in patients with serious mental illness: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with serious mental illness are at an increased risk of physical ill health. Mortality rates are around twice those of the general population with higher levels of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, diabetes, and respiratory illness. Although genetics may have a role in the physical health problems of these patients, lifestyle and environmental factors such as smoking, obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity play a prominent part. Methods A qualitative grounded theory approach was used to understand the problems experienced by these individuals when asked to attend a healthy living programme. Three main areas were explored: the influence of potential barriers, health problems, and general attitudes towards healthy living. Results Thirteen patients were interviewed during the study. Many did not recall receiving an initial invitation letter to the programme. Several believed that there was no necessity to attend as they had already had recent routine health checks by their general practitioner. The patients’ current level of mental and physical health was important with symptoms such as depression, anxiety or arthritis affecting interest in the programme. Patients described that they found smoking enjoyable or calming in its effect. Dietary intake was determined by taste or gaining pleasure in eating certain types of food. Several lessons were learnt during this research that may aid future research and practice. Participation seemed to be better if the approach was first made by the patient’s own community keyworker. This contact may have provided a greater opportunity to explain the purpose and importance of the programme. Alternative appointments should be considered when certain patients are in better physical and mental health. Healthy living programmes need to be flexible and adaptive to individual patient needs. Assistance from their community worker may help engagement. Simple measures may improve participation and reduce potential barriers. Conclusion These findings highlighted some of the problems encountered by patients when attempting to participate in a healthy living programme. These results may be useful when implementing future healthy living interventions for patients with serious mental disorders. PMID:24524248

  15. Impact of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy on Mortality Risk for Critically Ill Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Bass, Stephanie N; Bauer, Seth R; Neuner, Elizabeth A; Lam, Simon W

    2015-07-01

    There are limited treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. Currently, there are suggestions in the literature that combination therapy should be used, which frequently includes antibiotics to which the causative pathogen demonstrates in vitro resistance. This case-control study evaluated risk factors associated with all-cause mortality rates for critically ill patients with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. Adult patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit with sepsis and a blood culture positive for Gram-negative bacteria resistant to a carbapenem were included. Patients with polymicrobial, recurrent, or breakthrough infections were excluded. Included patients were classified as survivors (controls) or nonsurvivors (cases) at 30 days after the positive blood culture. Of 302 patients screened, 168 patients were included, of whom 90 patients died (53.6% [cases]) and 78 survived (46.4% [controls]) at 30 days. More survivors received appropriate antibiotics (antibiotics with in vitro activity) than did nonsurvivors (93.6% versus 53.3%; P < 0.01). Combination therapy, defined as multiple appropriate agents given for 48 h or more, was more common among survivors than nonsurvivors (32.1% versus 7.8%; P < 0.01); however, there was no difference in multiple-agent use when in vitro activity was not considered (including combinations with carbapenems) (87.2% versus 80%; P = 0.21). After adjustment for baseline factors with multivariable logistic regression, combination therapy was independently associated with decreased risk of death (odds ratio, 0.19 [95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.56]; P < 0.01). These data suggest that combination therapy with multiple agents with in vitro activity is associated with improved survival rates for critically ill patients with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. However, that association is lost if in vitro activity is not considered. PMID:25845872

  16. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. Method This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the relationships between metabolic syndrome and socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors. Results A total of 139 patients with a diagnosis of severe mental illness participated in the study. The unadjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35%. The relative risk of metabolic syndrome in comparison with the general Hong Kong population was 2.008 (95% CI 1.59-2.53, p?patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong are similar to those observed in western countries. The results provide sufficient evidence to support the need for intervention studies in this setting and reinforce the requirement to conduct regular physical health checks for all patients with severe mental illness. PMID:23506322

  17. Reliable real-time calculation of heart-rate complexity in critically ill patients using multiple noisy waveform sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nehemiah T; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2014-04-01

    Heart-rate complexity (HRC) has been proposed as a new vital sign for critical care medicine. The purpose of this research was to develop a reliable method for determining HRC continuously in real time in critically ill patients using multiple waveform channels that also compensates for noisy and unreliable data. Using simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (Leads I, II, V) and arterial blood pressure waveforms sampled at 360 Hz from 250 patients (over 375 h of patient data), we evaluated a new data fusion framework for computing HRC in real time. The framework employs two algorithms as well as signal quality indices. HRC was calculated (via the method of sample entropy), and equivalence tests were then performed. Bland-Altman plots and box plots of differences between mean HRC values were also obtained. Finally, HRC differences were analyzed by paired t tests. The gold standard for obtaining true means was manual verification of R waves and subsequent entropy calculations. Equivalence tests between mean HRC values derived from manually verified sequences and those derived from automatically detected peaks showed that the "Fusion" values were the least statistically different from the gold standard. Furthermore, the fusion of waveform sources produced better error density distributions than those derived from individual waveforms. The data fusion framework was shown to provide in real-time a reliable continuously streamed HRC value, derived from multiple waveforms in the presence of noise and artifacts. This approach will be validated and tested for assessment of HRC in critically ill patients. PMID:23990286

  18. Anticoagulation Strategies in Venovenous Hemodialysis in Critically Ill Patients: A Five-Year Evaluation in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Björn; Wurm, Karin; Ebert, Katharina; Bauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Renal failure is a common complication among critically ill patients. Timing, dosage, and mode of renal replacement (RRT) are under debate, but also anticoagulation strategies and vascular access interfere with dialysis success. We present a retrospective, five-year evaluation of patients requiring RRT on a multidisciplinary 50-bed surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital with special regard to anticoagulation strategies and vascular access. Anticoagulation was preferably performed with unfractionated heparin or regional citrate application (RAC). Bleeding and suspected HIT-II were most common causes for RAC. In CVVHD mode filter life span was significantly longer under RAC compared to heparin or other anticoagulation strategies (P = 0.001). Femoral vascular access was associated with reduced filter life span (P = 0.012), especially under heparin anticoagulation (P = 0.015). Patients on RAC had higher rates of metabolic alkalosis (P = 0.001), required more transfusions (P = 0.045), and showed higher illness severity measured by SOFA scores (P = 0.001). RRT with unfractionated heparin represented the most common anticoagulation strategy in this study population. However, patients with bleeding risk and severe organ dysfunction were more likely placed on RAC. Citrate provided longer filter life spans regardless of vascular access site. Attention has to be paid to metabolic disturbances. PMID:25548793

  19. Care of the family when the patient is dying.

    PubMed

    Bascom, P B; Tolle, S W

    1995-09-01

    Families shoulder many burdens during terminal illness. Their needs grow and change as their loved one's illness progresses. We describe specific physician behaviors that can assist families in coping with terminal illness. Early in serious illness, there are the emotional burdens of learning of the illness and coming to accept a terminal diagnosis, of giving up hope of cure. As terminal illness progresses, patients often need family members to help refocus hope despite the inevitability of death. Patients and families need support, guidance, and encouragement to begin planning for many decisions. Although emotional burdens are felt by most family members, families who choose to have their loved one die at home take on enormous direct caregiving burdens as well. They need information and supplies, including specific teaching of caregiving skills and logistic support. After the death of the loved one, family members have bereavement needs that require ongoing support. PMID:7571594

  20. A Minimal Psychological Intervention in Chronically Ill Elderly Patients with Depression: A Randomized Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Femke Lamers; Catharina C. M. Jonkers; Hans Bosma; Gertrudis I. J. M. Kempen; Jaap A. M. J. Meijer; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; J. André Knottnerus; Jacques T. M. van Eijk

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among older persons with chronic somatic diseases, depression often remains unrecognized and untreated in primary care. The Depression in Elderly with Long-Term Afflictions (DELTA) study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led minimal psychological intervention (MPI) in chronically ill elderly persons with depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing the MPI with usual care in 361

  1. Patients' Perceptions of Their Bipolar Illness in a Public Hospital Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda E. Pollack; Miriam Aponte

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the perceptions of illness of people in a public hospital setting for treatment of bipolar disorder. Fifteen inpatients (5 African Americans, 5 Hispanics, and 5 European Americans) participated in audio-recorded, structured interviews. The interviews were designed to identify recurring themes and patterns in their perceptions of bipolar disorder and to assess their cognitive representations of the

  2. Critically Ill Patients and End-of-Life Decision-Making: The Senior Medical Resident Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Stephane P.; Doyle, Tina K.; Marquis, Francois; Lesk, Corey; Skrobik, Yoanna

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of educational needs among residents caring for the critically ill, narrative accounts of 19 senior physician trainees participating in level of care decision-making were analyzed. In this multicentre qualitative study involving 9 university centers in Canada, in-depth interviews were conducted in either…

  3. Acute Kidney Injury Enhances Outcome Prediction Ability of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission. Results One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4%) patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%). Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032) was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001) for SOFA score ?10 vs. ?11 in these ICU patients with AKI. Conclusions For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ? “11” on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome. PMID:25279844

  4. [Salivary glands secretory activity in patients with terminal chronic renal insufficiency on programmed dialysis].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, V V; Vavilova, T P; Osokin, M V; Pushkina, A V

    2006-01-01

    Saliva secretion speed and some biochemical mixed saliva characteristics were studied in patients with a terminal stage of chronic renal insufficiency. There was reduction of salivary function by more than 2 times and an increase of urea and creatinine concentrations in mixed saliva before the dialysis start. In case of higher urea content in saliva the speed of salivation was the highest that could evidence for an adequate response of the salivary glands to toxic action of nitrogen metabolism end products. The function restoration after hemodialysis took place not in all the patients. Amino acid catabolism product concentration in mixed saliva fell after hemodialysis and correlated directly with the amount of urea and creatinine in blood plasma. It took place also in "urea ricochet" when its content in blood increased sharply 1 hour after hemodialysis due to urea washout from the tissues. PMID:17159840

  5. Effects of Qigong Exercise on Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessie S. M.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Wang, Chong-wen; Yuen, Lai Ping; Sham, Jonathan S. T.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxiety/depressive symptoms are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness. Qigong as a modality of complementary and alternative therapy has been increasingly applied by patients with chronic illnesses, but little is known about the effect of Qigong on anxiety/depressive symptoms of the patients with CFS-like illness. Purpose. To investigate the effects of Qigong on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in patients with CFS-illness. Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CFS-like illness were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a waitlist control group. Participants in the intervention group received 10 sessions of Qigong training twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks, followed by home-based practice for 12 weeks. Fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Results. Total fatigue score [F(1,135) = 13.888, P < 0.001], physical fatigue score [F(1,135) = 20.852, P < 0.001] and depression score [F(1,135) = 9.918, P = 0.002] were significantly improved and mental fatigue score [F(1,135) = 3.902, P = 0.050] was marginally significantly improved in the Qigong group compared to controls. The anxiety score was not significantly improved in the Qigong group. Conclusion. Qigong may not only reduce the fatigue symptoms, but also has antidepressive effect for patients with CFS-like illness. Trial registration HKCTR-1200. PMID:23983785

  6. The effect of clozapine on the course of illness in chronic schizophrenia: focus on treatment outcome in out-patients.

    PubMed

    Joffe, G; Venäläinen, E; Tupala, J; Hiltunen, O; Wahlbeck, K; Gädeke, R; Rimon, R

    1996-12-01

    Forty-eight consecutive schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine (mean daily dose 436 mg) for at least 1 year (mean 7.6, range 2.2-14.8 years) were studied retrospectively. The most favourable changes in the course of illness were observed in 39 out-patients, whose duration of hospitalization per year continuously and significantly declined after the introduction of clozapine. The out-patients who continued with clozapine treatment for more than 10 years (n = 8) did not need hospitalization at all during the last year of the observation period. The improvement in social functioning in the out-patient group correlated positively with the duration of clozapine medication (r = 0.384, p = 0.016) and with the duration of hospitalization (r = 0.372, p = 0.020) after introduction of clozapine. Out-patients with disorganized schizophrenia (later called hebephrenic according to the Finish version of DSM-III) showed more noticeable clinical (U = 226, p = 0.032) and social (U = 233, p = 0.024) improvements than non-hebephrenic patients. There appears to be a subgroup of hebephrenic patients who benefit from clozapine more than patients with other types of schizophrenia. PMID:9031993

  7. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus conventional glucose monitoring in critically ill patients: a systematic review study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weidong; Jiang, Libing; Jiang, Shouyin; Ma, Yuefeng; Zhang, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress-induced hyperglycaemia, which has been shown to be associated with an unfavourable prognosis, is common among critically ill patients. Additionally, it has been reported that hypoglycaemia and high glucose variabilities are also associated with adverse outcomes. Thus, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may be the optimal method to detect severe hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and decrease glucose excursion. However, the overall accuracy and reliability of CGM systems and the effects of CGM systems on glucose control and prognosis in critically ill patients remain inconclusive. Therefore, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the associations between CGM systems and clinical outcome. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014. Studies comparing CGM systems with any other glucose monitoring methods in critically ill patients will be eligible for our meta-analysis. The primary endpoints include the incidence of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, mean glucose level, and percentage of time within the target range. The second endpoints include intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and the Pearson correlation coefficient and the results of error grid analysis. In addition, we will record all complications (eg, acquired infections) in control and intervention groups and local adverse events in intervention groups (eg, bleeding or infections). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. Trial registration number PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014013488. PMID:25616512

  8. Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism syndrome, plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and outcome in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien du Cheyron; Bruno Bouchet; Brigitte Cauquelin; Damien Guillotin; Michel Ramakers; Cédric Daubin; Jean-Jacques Ballet; Pierre Charbonneau

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the relation between the adrenal production of gluco- and mineralocorticoids, the inflammatory status and the\\u000a outcome in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective descriptive study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Fifty consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  A corticotropin stimulation test within 12?h following ICU admission. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured before and\\u000a after the test.

  9. Does monitoring need for care in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness impact on Psychiatric Service Use? Comparison of monitored patients with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of services for patients diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) may improve when treatment plans are needs based. A regional Cumulative Needs for Care Monitor (CNCM) introduced diagnostic and evaluative tools, allowing clinicians to explicitly assess patients' needs and negotiate treatment with the patient. We hypothesized that this would change care consumption patterns. Methods Psychiatric Case Registers (PCR) register all in-patient and out-patient care in the region. We matched patients in the South-Limburg PCR, where CNCM was in place, with patients from the PCR in the North of the Netherlands (NN), where no CNCM was available. Matching was accomplished using propensity scoring including, amongst others, total care consumption and out-patient care consumption. Date of the CNCM assessment was copied to the matched controls as a hypothetical index date had the CNCM been in place in NN. The difference in care consumption after and before this date (after minus before) was analysed. Results Compared with the control region, out-patient care consumption in the CNCM region was significantly higher after the CNCM index date regardless of treatment status at baseline (new, new episode, persistent), whereas a decrease in in-patient care consumption could not be shown. Conclusions Monitoring patients may result in different patterns of care by flexibly adjusting level of out-patient care in response to early signs of clinical deterioration. PMID:21418623

  10. A retrospective quasi-experimental study of a transitional housing program for patients with severe and persistent mental illness.

    PubMed

    Siskind, Dan; Harris, Meredith; Kisely, Steve; Siskind, Victor; Brogan, James; Pirkis, Jane; Crompton, David; Whiteford, Harvey

    2014-07-01

    Transitional housing programs aim to improve living skills and housing stability for tenuously housed patients with mental illness. 113 consecutive Transitional Housing Team (THT) patients were matched to 139 controls on diagnosis, time of presentation, gender and prior psychiatric hospitalisation and compared using a difference-in-difference analysis for illness acuity and service use outcomes measured 1 year before and after THT entry/exit. There was a statistically significant difference-in-difference favouring THT participants for bed days (mean difference in difference -20.76 days, SE 9.59, p = 0.031) and living conditions (HoNOS Q11 mean difference in difference -0.93, SE 0.23, p < 0.001). THT cost less per participant (I$14,024) than the bed-days averted (I$17,348). The findings of reductions in bed days and improved living conditions suggest that transitional housing programs can have a significant positive impact for tenuously housed patients with high inpatient service usage, as well as saving costs for mental health services. PMID:24150440

  11. Polymorphic variants in exon 8 at the 3' UTR of the HLA-G gene are associated with septic shock in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients are characterized as individuals hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and can evolve to sepsis, septic shock or even death. Among others, genetic factors can influence the outcome of critically ill patients. HLA-G is a non-classical class Ib molecule that has limited protein variability, presenting seven isoforms generated by alternative splicing, and presents immunomodulatory properties. Polymorphisms at the 3'UTR are thought to influence HLA-G gene expression. It was previously observed that increased sHLA-G5 levels were predictive of survival among septic shock patients. We assessed the frequencies of 7 polymorphisms in exon 8 at the 3' UTR of HLA-G and associated these variants with different clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Methods Exon 8 at the 3' UTR of the HLA-G gene from 638 critically ill subjects was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Genotypes were identified using FinchTV software v.1.4.0 and the most probable haplotype constitution of each sample was determined by PHASE software v.2.1. Haplotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium, heterozygosity test and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium were estimated using ARLEQUIN software v.3.5. Results Among all critically ill patients, an association between carriers of the +2960IN_+3142 G_+3187A haplotype and septic shock (P = 0.047) was observed. Septic patients who carried the +2960IN_+3142G_+3187A haplotype presented an increased risk for septic shock (P = 0.031). Conclusions The present study showed, for the first time, an association between polymorphisms in exon 8 at the 3 'UTR of HLA-G gene and outcomes of critically ill patients. These results may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in evolution to septic shock in critically ill patients. PMID:23107167

  12. Discipline and children with chronic illnesses: strategies to promote positive patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R C

    1997-02-01

    Children with end stage renal disease (ESRD) often present psychosocial problems that include noncompliance to treatment. Caregivers can, by understanding the various models of discipline, select proactive and reactive strategies to encourage cooperation. These strategies are grounded in discipline models that include biophysical, behavioral, humanistic, psychodynamic, ecological, psychoeducational, and cognitive models. This article describes various discipline procedures for children with chronic illness. It emphasizes discipline with dignity while empowering and involving children in their behavior management. PMID:9146122

  13. Mortality communication as a predictor of psychological distress among family caregivers of home hospice and hospital inpatients with terminal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaacov G. Bachner; Norm ORourke; Eldad Davidov; Sara Carmel

    2009-01-01

    Terminally ill cancer patients and their caregivers experience significant difficulties discussing illness and impending death (herein defined as mortality communication). The current study compares response levels as well as patterns of association between mortality communication and psychological distress among caregivers of home hospice and hospital inpatients. For this study, 231 family caregivers were recruited within a year of bereavement from

  14. Elevation of BUN is predictive of long-term mortality in critically ill patients independent of 'normal' creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Kevin; Eppanapally, Sabitha; Bazick, Heidi S.; Chang, Domingo; Mahadevappa, Karthik; Gibbons, Fiona K.; Christopher, Kenneth B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that elevated BUN can be associated with all cause mortality independent of creatinine in a heterogeneous critically ill population. Design Multicenter observational study of patients treated in medical and surgical intensive care units. Setting 20 intensive care units in two teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts Patients 26,288 patients, age ? 18 years, hospitalized between 1997 and 2007 with creatinine 0.80–1.30 mg/dl. Measurements BUN at ICU admission was categorized as 10–20, 20–40 and >40 mg/dl. Logistic regression examined death at days 30, 90 and 365 post-ICU admission as well as in hospital mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Interventions None Key Results BUN at ICU admission is predictive for short term and long term mortality independent of creatinine. 30 days following ICU admission, patients with BUN >40 mg/dl have an Odds Ratio for mortality of 5.12 (95% CI, 4.30–6.09; P<.0001) relative to patients with BUN 10–20 mg/dl. BUN remains a significant predictor of mortality at 30 days following ICU admission following multivariable adjustment for confounders, patients with BUN >40 mg/dl have an Odds Ratio for mortality of 2.78 (95% CI, 2.27–3.39; P<.0001) relative to patients with BUN 10–20 mg/dl. 30 days following ICU admission, patients with BUN 20–40 mg/dl have an OR of 2.15 (95% CI, 1.98–2.33; <.0001) and a multivariable OR of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.40–1.68; P<.0001) relative to patients with BUN 10–20 mg/dl. Results were similar at 90 and 365 days following ICU admission as well as in-hospital mortality. A subanalysis of patients with blood cultures (n= 7,482), demonstrated that BUN at ICU admission was associated with the risk of blood culture positivity. Conclusion Among critically ill patients with Cr 0.8–1.3 mg/dl, an elevated BUN is associated with increased mortality, independent of serum creatinine. PMID:21099426

  15. Double-blind evaluation of the effects of mazindol on pain, depression, anxiety, appetite, and activity in terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bruera, E; Carraro, S; Roca, E; Barugel, M; Chacon, R

    1986-02-01

    In a double-blind, crossover study, mazindol (1 mg) at breakfast, lunch, and 4:00 PM was compared with a placebo to determine its efficacy for symptom control in 30 terminal cancer patients. In 26 evaluable patients, intensity of pain and analgesic consumption were significantly improved after mazindol, while anxiety, appetite, and food consumption were significantly worse. Activity and depression were not modified by mazindol. After the completion of the trial, mazindol was chosen as a more effective drug by the patients in ten cases (38%) and by the investigators in nine (35%); placebo was chosen by the patients in seven cases (27%) and by the investigators in 11 (42%). Two patients (7%) developed delirium that required discontinuation of treatment. At the present time, there are no clearcut indications for mazindol in terminal cancer patients. PMID:3512080

  16. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in critically ill patients and its associations with other clinical markers and 28-day mortality

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanzi; Zhong, Jiwen; Xiang, Yang; Zeng, Fan; Cai, Dehong; Zhao, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the possible associations between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and specific clinical markers and prognosis in critically ill patients diagnosed with stress hyperglycemia. Patients and methods A total of 70 critically ill patients and 25 normal controls were recruited for this study. Serum levels of sRAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional data on other clinical markers were obtained from patient records in the intensive care unit. Comparisons of sRAGE and AGEs levels between groups were assessed by t-test. The relationships between sRAGE and other clinical markers were assessed by Pearson’s correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses. Risk factors for prognosis, such as 28-day mortality were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results Serum sRAGE and AGEs levels were significantly higher in critically ill patients, compared to normal controls (P<0.05). The increase in serum sRAGE levels was significantly correlated with AGEs levels, interleukin-6 levels, and the sequential organ failure assessment score (P<0.01). Using multiple linear regression analysis, the association between AGEs and sRAGE remained significant after adjustment of other clinical factors. However, there were no significant correlations between sRAGE levels and patient outcome in these critically ill patients. Conclusion Serum sRAGE levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients and positively correlated with higher AGEs levels, but sRAGE levels were not associated with increased mortality, suggesting sRAGE levels are not a predictor of prognosis in critically ill patients. PMID:25429209

  17. Psychological support based on positive suggestions in the treatment of a critically ill ICU patient – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zsófia; Fritúz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the way psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) was added to the traditional somatic treatment of an acute pancreatitis 36-year-old male patient. Psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) is a new adjunct therapeutic tool focused on applying suggestive techniques in medical settings. The suggestive techniques usually applied with critically ill patients are based on a number of pre-prepared scripts like future orientation, reframing, positivity, supporting autonomy, etc., and other, very unique and personalized interventions, which are exemplified with verbatim quotations. We describe the way several problems during treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) patients were solved using suggestive methods: uncooperativeness, difficulties of weaning, building up enteral nutrition, supporting recovery motivation, and so on, which permanently facilitated the patient’s medical state: the elimination of gastrointestinal bleeding, recovery of the skin on the abdomen, etc. Medical effects follow-up data at 10 months show that the patient recovered and soon returned to his original work following discharge. PMID:24381733

  18. A multiplex nested PCR for the detection and identification of Candida species in blood samples of critically ill paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nosocomial candidaemia is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill paediatric patients; thus, the early detection and identification of the infectious agent is crucial for successful medical intervention. The PCR-based techniques have significantly increased the detection of Candida species in bloodstream infections. In this study, a multiplex nested PCR approach was developed for candidaemia detection in neonatal and paediatric intensive care patients. Methods DNA samples from the blood of 54 neonates and children hospitalised in intensive care units with suspected candidaemia were evaluated by multiplex nested PCR with specific primers designed to identify seven Candida species, and the results were compared with those obtained from blood cultures. Results The multiplex nested PCR had a detection limit of four Candida genomes/mL of blood for all Candida species. Blood cultures were positive in 14.8% of patients, whereas the multiplex nested PCR was positive in 24.0% of patients, including all culture-positive patients. The results obtained with the molecular technique were available within 24 hours, and the assay was able to identify Candida species with 100% of concordance with blood cultures. Additionally, the multiplex nested PCR detected dual candidaemia in three patients. Conclusions Our proposed PCR method may represent an effective tool for the detection and identification of Candida species in the context of candidaemia diagnosis in children, showing highly sensitive detection and the ability to identify the major species involved in this infection. PMID:25047415

  19. [Nursing care in terminality: compliance with principles of bioethics ].

    PubMed

    Felix, Zirleide Carlos; Batista, Patricia Serpa De Souza; Da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emília Limeira; De Oliveira, Regina Célia; Abrão, Fátima Maria Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the principles of bioethics reported by nurses when caring forterminally ill patients. Exploratory research with qualitative approach, developed with fifteen nurses from an intensive care unit of a university hospital, in northeastern Brazil. Data collection was conducted between March and July 2013, through a form. Data were analyzed using the technique of content analysis, emerging the following thematic category: respect to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice to take care of the terminally ill patients. The participating nurses valued these principles when caring for terminally ill patients, which reflect the ethical commitment of these professionals in the practice of nursing care. It is noteworthy that bioethical principles should guide the nursing care of human beings throughout their life cycle. PMID:25508626

  20. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-23

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  1. The diagnosis of right heart thrombus by focused cardiac ultrasound in a critically ill patient in compensated shock.

    PubMed

    Jammal, Mansour; Milano, Peter; Cardenas, Renzo; Mailhot, Thomas; Mandavia, Diku; Perera, Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Right heart thrombus (RHT) is a life-threatening diagnosis that is rarely made in the emergency department (ED), but with the increasing use of focused cardiac ultrasound (FocUS), more of these cases may be identified in a timely fashion. We present a case of an ill-appearing patient who had an immediate change in management due to the visualization of RHT soon after arrival to the ED. The diagnosis was confirmed after a cardiology-performed ultrasound (US). This case illustrates the value of the recognition of RHT on FocUS and how US protocols designed for the evaluation of shock and shortness of breath may potentially be expanded to patients in a 'compensated' or 'pre-shock' state to expedite the correct diagnosis and to facilitate more timely management. PMID:25995832

  2. Acceptability of offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Julia; Burton, Alexandra; Marougka, Stamatina; Larsen, John; Firn, Mike; Ashcroft, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background Offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness is controversial. Aims To explore the views of different stakeholders on the ethical acceptability of the practice. Method Focus group study consisting of 25 groups with different stakeholders. Results Eleven themes dominated the discussions and fell into four categories: (1) ‘wider concerns’, including the value of medication, source of funding, how patients would use the money, and a presumed government agenda behind the idea; (2) ‘problems requiring clear policies’, comprising of practicalities and assurance that incentives are only one part of a tool kit; (3) ‘challenges for research and experience’, including effectiveness, the possibility of perverse incentives, and impact on the therapeutic relationship; (4) ‘inherent dilemmas’ around fairness and potential coercion. Conclusions The use of financial incentives is likely to raise similar concerns in most stakeholders, only some of which can be addressed by empirical research and clear policies. PMID:20581423

  3. Challenges to skin-to-skin kangaroo care: cesarean delivery and critically ill NICU patients.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Shelora; Mosher, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Although SSC following birth is known to be beneficial for both the mother and the baby, barriers continue to exist following cesarean delivery as well as for critically ill neonates. Neonates are sometimes deprived of this important benefit due to staff anxiety or inexperience. A collaborative approach between perinatal and neonatal team members can effectively introduce the practice as routine in the OB OR and the Level III NICU. Parents are valuable advocates for this essential best practice. Mothers and their offspring benefit both in the short term, as well as long term, when we address the barriers and overcome this clinical challenge. PMID:22763254

  4. The effectiveness of assertive community treatment for elderly patients with severe mental illness: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to fragmented mental, somatic, and social healthcare services, it can be hard to engage into care older patients with severe mental illness (SMI). In adult mental health care, assertive community treatment (ACT) is an organizational model of care for treating patients with SMI who are difficult to engage. So far all outcome studies of assertive community treatment have been conducted in adults. Methods In a randomized controlled trial design we compared the effectiveness of ACT for elderly patients with that of treatment as usual (TAU). Sixty-two outpatients (60 years and older) with SMI who were difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group (32 to ACT for elderly patients and 30 to TAU). Primary outcomes included number of patients who had a first treatment contact within 3 months, the number of dropouts (i.e. those discharged from care due to refusing care or those who unintentionally lost contact with the service over a period of at least 3 months); and patients’ psychosocial functioning (HoNOS65+ scores) during 18 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the number of unmet needs and mental health care use. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. Results Of the 62 patients who were randomized, 26 were lost to follow-up (10 patients in ACT for elderly patients and 16 in TAU). Relative to patients with TAU, more patients allocated to ACT had a first contact within three months (96.9 versus 66.7%; X2 (df?=?1)?=?9.68, p?=?0.002). ACT for elderly patients also had fewer dropouts from treatment (18.8% of assertive community treatment for elderly patients versus 50% of TAU patients; X2 (df?=?1)?=?6.75, p?=?0.009). There were no differences in the other primary and secondary outcome variables. Conclusions These findings suggest that ACT for elderly patients with SMI engaged patients in treatment more successfully. Trial registration NTR1620 PMID:24528604

  5. Patients enrolled in randomised clinical trials are not representative of critically ill patients in clinical practice: observational study focus on tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Johannes B; Horscht, Julia J; Weigand, Markus A; Bruckner, Thomas; Martin, Eike O; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten; Swoboda, Stefanie

    2013-11-01

    It is being increasingly recognised by clinicians and scientists that participants in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antibiotics of last resort do not represent the patients who will later be treated with these drugs. Data on this subject are limited and have not been investigated systematically. This observational study aimed to examine this hypothesis quantitatively, using the example of tigecycline. To evaluate the influence of recruitment, patients eligible for clinical trials were retrospectively compared with ineligible patients regarding baseline and clinical characteristics as well as outcome parameters, e.g. length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, ventilation and mortality. The clinical characteristics of 187 patients illustrated differences in the nature and severity of disease, co-morbidities and outcome. Eligible and ineligible patients differed in a number of parameters, e.g. median APACHE II score (15.5 vs. 28.0), number of liver transplantations (5% vs. 18%; P=0.048), septic shock (21% vs. 49%; P=0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (30% vs. 79%; P<0.001), mean length of ICU stay (19.3 days vs. 40.7 days) and death (19% vs. 46%; P=0.001). Critically ill patients were under-represented in clinical trials. Moreover, only a minority of patients in clinical practice (13%) were potentially eligible for a pivotal RCT. The disparities likely result from strict exclusion criteria in RCTs and recruitment bias. These data emphasise the importance of including critically ill patients in RCTs of antibiotics against multiresistant bacteria in order to account for those who will later be treated. PMID:24055255

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Unbound Linezolid in Plasma and Tissue Interstitium of Critically Ill Patients after Multiple Dosing Using Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, Cornelia; Plock, Nele; Dehghanyar, Pejman; Joukhadar, Christian; Kloft, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial agent linezolid is approved for the treatment of severe infections caused by, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. In order to evaluate the penetration of linezolid into the interstitial space fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of the target population, a microdialysis study was performed with 12 patients with sepsis or septic shock after multiple intravenous infusions. Unbound linezolid concentrations were determined for plasma and microdialysates by use of a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Individual compartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using WinNonlin. In vivo microdialysis was found to be feasible for the determination of unbound linezolid concentrations at steady state in the ISF of critically ill patients. On average, linezolid showed good distribution into ISF but with high interindividual variability. A two-compartment model was fitted to unbound concentrations in plasma with a geometric mean distribution volume of 62.9 liters and a mean clearance of 9.18 liters/h at steady state. However, disposition characteristics changed intraindividually within the time course. In addition, an integrated model for simultaneous prediction of concentrations in all matrices was developed and revealed similar results. Based on the model-predicted unbound concentrations in ISF, a scheme of more-frequent daily dosing of linezolid for some critically ill patients might be taken into consideration to avoid subinhibitory unbound concentrations in the infected tissue. The developed integrated model will be a valuable basis for further PK data analysis to explore refined dosing guidelines that achieve effective antimicrobial therapy in all patients by use of the population PK approach. PMID:16801426

  7. Standard dosing of amikacin and gentamicin in critically ill patients results in variable and subtherapeutic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roger, Claire; Nucci, Bastian; Molinari, Nicolas; Bastide, Sophie; Saissi, Gilbert; Pradel, Gael; Barbar, Saber; Aubert, Clément; Lloret, Sophie; Elotmani, Loubna; Polge, Anne; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Roberts, Jason A; Muller, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Low peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of amikacin and gentamicin are reported in intensive care unit (ICU) patients after administration of the first dose. The present study aimed to describe the proportion of ICU patients in whom an adequate Cmax was achieved throughout the course of therapy. Septic ICU patients with an indication for intravenous amikacin or gentamicin were eligible for inclusion in this single-centre observational study. The first and subsequent doses and the corresponding Cmax values were recorded. The target Cmax was ?60mg/L for amikacin and ?30mg/L for gentamicin. Amikacin and gentamicin plasma concentrations were available in 66 and 24 patients, respectively (59±17 years; 79±19kg; height 169±12cm; SAPS II score 46±19). Pulmonary, abdominal and urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 64 patients. Culture-positive infection was confirmed in 65 patients (72%). A target first Cmax was achieved in 17/90 patients (19%). For amikacin, the target Cmax was achieved in 16/66 patients (24%) after the initial dose. In the 50 remaining patients, a change in dosing was performed in 14 patients, leading adequate peak plasma level in 2 patients. For gentamicin, the targeted Cmax was achieved in only 1/24 patient (4%) after the initial dose and was never achieved after the third dose. In conclusion, standard dosing of amikacin or gentamicin led to adequate Cmax in only 19% of patients. Subtherapeutic Cmax were not significantly corrected after subsequent doses. PMID:25857948

  8. Single-drug therapy or selective decontamination of the digestive tract as antifungal prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JW Olivier van Till; Oddeke van Ruler; Bas Lamme; Roy JP Weber; Johannes B Reitsma; Marja A Boermeester

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the effectiveness of different prophylactic antifungal therapies in critically ill patients on the incidence of yeast colonisation, infection, candidemia, and hospital mortality. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of prospective trials including adult non-neutropenic patients, comparing single-drug antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) or selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) with

  9. Bedside adherence to clinical practice guidelines for enteral nutrition in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a prospective, multi-centre, observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Quenot; Gaetan Plantefeve; Jean-Luc Baudel; Isabelle Camilatto; Emmanuelle Bertholet; Romain Cailliod; Jean Reignier; Jean-Philippe Rigaud

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The primary aim was to measure the amount of nutrients required, prescribed and actually administered in critically ill patients. Secondary aims were to assess adherence to clinical practice guidelines, and investigate factors leading to non-adherence. METHODS: Observational, multicenter, prospective study, including 203 patients in a total of 19 intensive care units in France. The prescribed calorie supply was

  10. Does enteral nutrition compared to parenteral nutrition result in better outcomes in critically ill adult patients? A systematic review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Gramlich; Krikor Kichian; Jaime Pinilla; Nadia J. Rodych; Rupinder Dhaliwal; Daren K. Heyland

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveNutritional support is part of the standard of care for the critically ill adult patient. In the average patient in the intensive care unit who has no contraindications to enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN), the choice of route for nutritional support may be influenced by several factors. Because EN and PN are associated with risks and benefits, we

  11. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or intermittent hemodialysis (IHD)--what is the procedure of choice in critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Gasparovi?, Vladimir; Filipovi?-Grci?, Ina; Merkler, Marijan; Pisl, Zoran

    2003-09-01

    Although at present there is no prospective randomized study which could show significantly better survival of patients on continuous procedures, the majority of intensivists advocate this technique of renal function replacement due to generally accepted opinion that it has less effect on circulation of already hemodynamically unstable patients. In our prospective randomized study with 104 patients, we also did not observe any difference in 28 days survival, in total survival, as well as in circulatory instability between two treatment modalities. Even in subgroup of 80 patients with sepsis and septic shock there were no difference in survival. Sepsis was the underlying disorder in 52 and septic shock in 28 patients out of 104 patients analyzed in this study. Our prospective randomized study did not show a statistically significant difference between the two methods of renal replacement therapy. Survival rates were not affected and neither was the occurrence of hemodynamic instability. We believe that both methods are complementary; IHD for faster elimination of electrolytes and waste products elimination, CRRT for regulation of higher calories requirements and for hemodynamically unstable patients. The expectations that one method is superior to the other in the term of better survival have not been corroborated by the current data available in the literature. The choice of the method should be individualized. ARF, which is an integral part of MOF, is a problem frequently encountered in critically ill patient treated in the ICU, but outcome of these patients depends closely on the control of basic event. Evaluation of each of the supportive procedures is therefore hindered by the fact that the underlying disease has the crucial effect on survival and the type of supportive procedure less so. PMID:14575293

  12. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Furimsky; Amy H. Cheung; Carolyn S. Dewa; Robert B. Zipursky

    2008-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with

  13. [The KEP-1 enteral feeding system for tube hyperalimentation of seriously ill patients].

    PubMed

    Bresler, P I; Elfimova, E V; Lioznov, V Ia; Mordkovich, M R; Na?nik, V M

    1987-01-01

    The KEP-1 system is designed for tube hyperalimentation of patients, including burn patients. It consists of a four-channel peristaltic pump and a liquid food mixer tank. The results of clinical testing are given. PMID:3112506

  14. Serum activin A and B, and follistatin in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and severe respiratory failure are complications of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which in experimental studies increases after activin A release, is known to be related to the severity of H1N1 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 and their association with the severity of respiratory failure in critically ill H1N1 patients. Methods A substudy of a prospective, observational cohort of H1N1 patients in Finnish intensive care units (ICU). Clinical information was recorded during ICU treatment, and serum activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at admission to ICU and on days 2 and 7. Results Blood samples from 29 patients were analysed. At the time of admission to intensive care unit, elevated serum levels above the normal range for respective age group and sex were observed in 44% for activin A, 57% for activin B, and 39% for FS. In 13 of the 29 patients, serial samples at all time points were available and in these the highest activin A, activin B and FS were above the normal range in 85%, 100% and 46% of the patients, respectively. No difference in baseline or highest activin A or activin B was found in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS (P?>?0.05 for all). Peak levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in ALI/ARDS patients. Peak activin A and activin A/FS were associated with ventilatory support free-days, severity of acute illness and length of ICU stay (P?patients with H1N1 infection but we found no association with the severity of their respiratory failure. PMID:24885241

  15. Plasma concentration and urinary excretion of N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptides in patients with kidney diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Franz; Wolfgang Woloszczuk; Walter H. Horl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma concentration and urinary excretion of N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptides in patients with kidney diseases.BackgroundBiologically active N-terminal fragments such as proANP(1-30), proANP(31-67), and proANP(1-98) derive from the prohormone of ?-human atrial natriuretic peptide [proANP(99-126) or ?-ANP]. No systematic data are available for patients with different kidney diseases.MethodsSpecific immunoassays were developed to determine plasma and urine concentrations of these fragments in

  16. Effects of dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on bacterial colonization and nosocomial infections in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Fourrier; E. Cau-Pottier; H. Boutigny; M. Roussel-Delvallez; M. Jourdain; C. Chopin

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To document in intensive care unit (ICU) patients the effect of dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on the occurrence of plaque colonization by aerobic nosocomial pathogens and nosocomial infections. Design: Single-blind randomized comparative study. Setting: A 16-bed adult intensive care unit in a university hospital. Patients: Patients consecutively admitted in the ICU with a medical condition suggesting an ICU stay

  17. Concepts related to Chinese patients' perceptions of health, illness and person: issues of conceptual clarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F.-J. Shih

    1996-01-01

    Since most health professionals who care for Chinese patients are trained using Western medical educational systems, they are often unaware of the complex Chinese culture that influences their patients' responses to care. Discrepancies often exist between health professionals' and Chinese patients' perceptions of health and evaluations of the quality of care.In order to provide culturally sensitive care for this population,

  18. How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when associations between WebChoice use and each user characteristic were analyzed separately. High use of all components was associated with low levels of social support among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. High use of e-messages, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of depression among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. For men with prostate cancer (but not women with breast cancer), high use of symptom assessments, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of symptom distress. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be attributed to differences related to diagnosis, gender, or both. Conclusions This study provides evidence that different user characteristics are associated with different use patterns. Such information is crucial to target Web-based support systems to different patient groups. LCA is a useful technique to identify subgroups of users. In our study, e-messages and self-management advice were highly used components for patients who had low levels of social support and high illness burden, suggesting that patients with these characteristics may find such tools particularly useful. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00710658; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00710658 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6EmEWZiwz) PMID:23454601

  19. Comparative study on the prognosis of critical ill patients transferred from another island compared to those patients transferred from emergency department to intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Cabrera, Luciano; Sánchez-Palacios, Manuel; Escot, Cristina Rodríguez; Rodríguez, Alina Uriarte; Zborovszky, Erika; Pérez, Juan Ocampo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare outcomes of critically ill patients transferred from another island compared to those patients with direct admission from Emergency Department to intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data during 8 years. The population studied was all critical adult patients transferred from another island to our hospital and those directly admitted from the Emergency Department. Variables were age, sex, clinical diagnosis (coronary, medical, surgical, or trauma), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score at admission, ICU days of stay, days of mechanical ventilation and ICU mortality. Results: During the period of study, 3,115 patients coming from Emergency Department (Group 1) were admitted to our ICU and 138 were transferred from another island (Group 2). No significant statistically differences were found between both groups neither age, sex, APACHE II, ICU days, days of mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate (17.5% versus 20.3%, P = 0.43). The multivariate analysis showed that age, APACHE II score, ICU days of stay, type of patient, and days of mechanical ventilation were independent variables associated with mortality. Conclusions: No differences were found in the global prognosis of the admitted patients transferred from another island compared to those who were admitted directly from the Emergency Department. There is no impact on mortality in transferring a patient in our study population.

  20. Association between prehospital vitamin D status and incident acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thickett, David R; Moromizato, Takuhiro; Litonjua, Augusto A; Amrein, Karin; Quraishi, Sadeq A; Lee-Sarwar, Kathleen A; Mogensen, Kris M; Purtle, Steven W; Gibbons, Fiona K; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesise that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels before hospitalisation are associated with increased risk of acute respiratory failure. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Medical and Surgical Intensive care units of two Boston teaching hospitals. Patients 1985 critically ill adults admitted between 1998 and 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and main results The exposure of interest was prehospital serum 25(OH)D categorised as ?10?ng/mL, 11–19.9?ng/mL, 20–29.9?ng/mL and ?30?ng/mL. The primary outcome was acute respiratory failure excluding congestive heart failure determined by International Classification of Diseases Ninth Edition (ICD-9) coding and validated against the Berlin Definition of acute respiratory sistress syndrome. Association between 25(OH)D and acute respiratory failure was assessed using logistic regression, while adjusting for age, race, sex, Deyo-Charlson Index and patient type (medical vs surgical). In the cohort, the mean age was 63?years, 45% were male and 80% were white; 25(OH)D was ?10?ng/mL in 8% of patients, 11–19.9?ng/mL in 24%, 20–29.9?ng/mL in 24% and ?30?ng/mL in 44% of patients. Eighteen per cent (n=351) were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure. Compared to patients with 25(OH)D ?30?ng/mL, patients with lower 25(OH)D levels had significantly higher adjusted odds of acute respiratory failure (?10?ng/mL, OR=1.84 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.77); 11–19.9?ng/mL, OR=1.60 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.15); 20–29.9?ng/mL, OR=1.37 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.86)). Conclusions Prehospital 25(OH)D was associated with the risk of acute respiratory failure in our critically ill patient cohort.

  1. Multiple-center evaluation of mortality associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a competing risks analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in critically ill patients using an original competing risks approach. Methods Unselected patients admitted between 1997 and 2009 to 13 French medical or surgical intensive care units were included in this observational cohort study. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE criteria. The following data were recorded: baseline characteristics, daily serum creatinine level, daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, vital status at hospital discharge and length of hospital stay. Patients were classified according to the maximum RIFLE class reached during their ICU stay. The association of AKI with hospital mortality with "discharge alive" considered as a competing event was assessed according to the Fine and Gray model. Results Of the 8,639 study patients, 32.9% had AKI, of whom 19.1% received renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had higher crude mortality rates and longer lengths of hospital stay than patients without AKI. In the Fine and Gray model, independent risk factors for hospital mortality were the RIFLE classes Risk (sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32 to 1.88; P < 0.0001), Injury (SHR 3.99 and 95% CI 3.43 to 4.65; P < 0.0001) and Failure (SHR 4.12 and 95% CI 3.55 to 4.79; P < 0.0001); nonrenal SOFA score (SHR 1.19 per point and 95% CI 1.18 to 1.21; P < 0.0001); McCabe class 3 (SHR 2.71 and 95% CI 2.34 to 3.15; P < 0.0001); and respiratory failure (SHR 3.08 and 95% CI 1.36 to 7.01; P < 0.01). Conclusions By using a competing risks approach, we confirm in this study that AKI affecting critically ill patients is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. PMID:21586153

  2. Adrenocortical function: An indicator of severity of disease and survival in chronic critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. R. Span; A. R. M. M. Hermus; A. K. M. Bartelink; A. J. Hoitsma; J. S. F. Gimbrère; A. G. H. Smals; P. W. C. Kloppenborg

    1992-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels and modified Apache II (Apache IIm-stay) severity of disease scores were determined at weekly intervals in 159 patients who were treated for at least 7 days at the Critical Care Unit of our hospital. The mean (±SD) plasma cortisol level (0.60±0.28 µmol\\/l) was clearly elevated in these patients. The highest plasma cortisol levels were measured in patients

  3. The impact of mental illness on patient satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard; Torleif Ruud; Svein Friis

    2007-01-01

    Background  The relationship between patients and their clinicians is an essential factor in psychiatric treatment. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to analyze the influence of psychopathology on patient satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from 969 patients from 40 different treatment teams collected from eight Norwegian community mental health centres were\\u000a analyzed. Patient satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship was assessed

  4. [Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for long-term artificial enteral nutrition of seriously ill and trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Strukov, E Iu; Belevich, V L; Shchegolev, A V; Kurygin, Al A

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed on 55 patients of anaesthesiology resuscitation clinic of Military Medical Academy during the last 5 years. A surgery duration was about 13.7 ± 0.5 minutes. The following complications were observed: postoperative wound infections (3 cases), uncontrolled removals of the feeding tube (2 cases), bleeding was noted in 1 patient. The authors recommend the method of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for widespread adoption in patient care institutions according to their experience. The enteral feeding could be used when patients would have the swallowing malfunction during more than 3 weeks. PMID:25552102

  5. Effect of sedation on short-term and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with acute respiratory insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xue-zhong; Gao, Yong; Wang, Hai-jun; Qu, Shi-ning; Huang, Chu-lin; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Qing-ling; Sun, Ke-lin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the short-term and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with acute respiratory insufficiency who had received sedation or no sedation. METHODS: The data of 91 patients who had received mechanical ventilation in the first 24 hours between November 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups: a sedation group (n=28) and a non-sedation group (n=63). The patients were also grouped in two groups: deep sedation group and daily interruption and /or light sedation group. RESULTS: Overall, the 91 patients who had received ventilation ?48 hours were analyzed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated two independent risk factors for in-hospital death: sequential organ failure assessment score (P=0.019, RR 1.355, 95%CI 1.051–1.747, B=0.304, SE=0.130, Wald=50483) and sedation (P=0.041, RR 5.015, 95%CI 1.072–23.459, B=1.612, SE=0.787, Wald=4.195). Compared with the patients who had received no sedation, those who had received sedation had a longer duration of ventilation, a longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital, and an increased in-hospital mortality rate. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that patients who had received sedation had a lower 60-month survival rate than those who had received no sedation (76.7% vs. 88.9%, Log-rank test=3.630, P=0.057). Compared with the patients who had received deep sedation, those who had received daily interruption or light sedation showed a decreased in-hospital mortality rate (57.1% vs. 9.5%, P=0.008). The 60-month survival of the patients who had received deep sedation was significantly lower than that of those who had daily interruption or light sedation (38.1% vs. 90.5%, Log-rank test=6.783, P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Sedation was associated with in-hospital death. The patients who had received sedation had a longer duration of ventilation, a longer stay in intensive care unit and in hospital, and an increased in-hospital mortality rate compared with the patients who did not receive sedation. Compared with daily interruption or light sedation, deep sedation increased the in-hospital mortality and decreased the 60-month survival for patients who had received sedation.

  6. When Patients Lack Capacity: The Roles That Patients with Terminal Diagnoses Would Choose for Their Physicians and Loved Ones in Making Medical Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie T. Nolan; Mark Hughes; Derek Paul Narendra; Johanna R. Sood; Peter B. Terry; Alan B. Astrow; Joan Kub; Richard E. Thompson; Daniel P. Sulmasy

    2005-01-01

    Current approaches to end-of-life decision making are widely considered inadequate. We explored these complexities by examining how patients with terminal diagnoses would choose to involve their physicians and loved ones in making medical decisions, assuming they were able and unable to participate. Cross-sectional interviews of 130 patients recently diagnosed with fatal conditions were conducted. Patients were recruited from two academic

  7. Severe Measles Infection: The Spectrum of Disease in 36 Critically Ill Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dreyfuss, Didier; Gaudry, Stéphane

    2013-08-26

    France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases of measles were confirmed by serologic testing and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.The cohort consisted of 21 male and 15 female patients, with a median age of 29.2 years (25th-75th interquartile range [IQR], 27.2-34.2 yr) and a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) of 13 (IQR, 9-18). Among the 26 patients whose measles vaccination status was documented, none had received 2 injections. One patient had developed measles during childhood. Underlying comorbid conditions included chronic respiratory disease in 9 patients, immunosuppression in 7 patients, and obesity in 3 patients, while measles affected 5 pregnant women.Respiratory complications induced by measles infection led to ICU admission in 32 cases, and measles-related neurologic complications led to ICU admission in 2 cases. Two patients were admitted due to concurrent respiratory and neurologic complications.Bacterial superinfection of measles-related airway infection was suspected in 28 patients and was documented in 8. Four cases of community-acquired pneumonia, 6 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia, 1 case of tracheobronchitis, and 2 cases of sinusitis were microbiologically substantiated.Of 11 patients who required mechanical ventilation, 9 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among the patients with ARDS, extraalveolar air leak complications occurred in 4 cases. Five patients died, all of whom were severely immunocompromised.On follow-up, 1 patient had severe chronic respiratory failure related to lung fibrosis, and 2 patients had mild lower limb paraparesis along with bladder dysfunction, both of which were ascribable to measles-induced encephalitis and myelitis. Among the 5 pregnant patients, the course of measles infection was uneventful, albeit 1 patient underwent emergent cesarean delivery because of fetal growth restriction.Measles is a disease with protean and potentially deceptive clinical manifestations, especially in the immunocompromised patient. Measles-associated pneumonitis and its complications, and less commonly postinfectious encephalomyelitis, are the main source of morbidity and mortality. In contrast with the usually benign course of the disease in immunocompetent patients, measles occurring in immunocompromised patients gives rise to lethal complications including ARDS, with or without bacterial superinfection. Other patients potentially at high risk for severe measles are young adults and pregnant women. Measles pneumonitis may predispose to air leak disease in patients using mechanical ventilation. To date, vaccination remains the most potent tool to control measles infection. PMID:23982057

  8. Unilateral mydriasis secondary to ipratropium bromide in a critically ill patient

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Cabrera, Luciano; Fernández-Tagarro, Ernesto José; del Amo-Nolasco, Beatriz; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Cáceres-Agra, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral dilated pupil in a critical patient under sedation is an important clinical sign that requires prompt evaluation. An exhaustive assessment must be performed, including neurological examination and imaging tests, and pharmacological causes must be ruled out. We describe a case of unilateral fixed dilated pupil secondary to the administration of a nebulized cholinergic antagonist, ipratropium bromide, in an unconscious patient. PMID:22787356

  9. Oral nystatin prophylaxis of Candida spp. colonization in ventilated critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Normand; Bruno François; Marie-Laure Dardé; Bernard Bouteille; Michel Bonnivard; Pierre-Marie Preux; Hervé Gastinne; Philippe Vignon

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Colonization of multiple body sites is a leading risk factor for Candida spp. infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We evaluated whether oral nystatin pro- phylaxis reduces Candida spp. colo- nization in ventilated ICU patients. Design and setting: Prospective, randomized, open-label study with blinded assessment of the objective primary evaluation criterion in the medical-surgical ICU of a teaching

  10. Anemia and red blood cell transfusion in critically ill cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anemia and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion occur frequently in hospitalized patients with cardiac disease. In this narrative review, we report the epidemiology of anemia and RBC transfusion in hospitalized adults and children (excluding premature neonates) with cardiac disease, and on the outcome of anemic and transfused cardiac patients. Both anemia and RBC transfusion are common in cardiac patients, and both are associated with mortality. RBC transfusion is the only way to rapidly treat severe anemia, but is not completely safe. In addition to hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, the determinant(s) that should drive a practitioner to prescribe a RBC transfusion to cardiac patients are currently unclear. In stable acyanotic cardiac patients, Hb level above 70 g/L in children and above 70 to 80 g/L in adults appears safe. In cyanotic children, Hb level above 90 g/L appears safe. The appropriate threshold Hb level for unstable cardiac patients and for children younger than 28 days is unknown. The optimal transfusion strategy in cardiac patients is not well characterized. The threshold at which the risk of anemia outweighs the risk of transfusion is not known. More studies are needed to determine when RBC transfusion is indicated in hospitalized patients with cardiac disease. PMID:25024880

  11. From patient to therapatient: social work students coping with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Miriam; Hadas-Lidor, Noami; Karnieli-Miller, Orit

    2015-07-01

    We explored the experiences of social work students with psychiatric difficulties and focused on their challenges as they went through the different stages of development as health care professionals. We interviewed 12 social work students with psychiatric difficulties and analyzed the data using the immersion/crystallization method. The findings reveal the developmental process they underwent from being patients to being "therapatients" (therapists who are also patients; here, therapists coping with psychiatric difficulties). This process included four stages: an initial exploration of the health care world; questioning the possibility of a patient being a therapist and feeling incompetent; identifying their ability to be professionals; and integrating between their patient and therapist parts to become a therapatient. Understanding this process and finding ways to help students through it is crucial to allowing the patient and therapist parts to "live" together and enrich each other, and to allowing integration of professional knowledge and personal experience. PMID:25288409

  12. Improvement of care for the physical health of patients with severe mental illness: a qualitative study assessing the view of patients and families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience more physical comorbidity than the general population. Multiple factors, including inadequate seeking of healthcare and health care related factors such as lack of collaboration, underlie this undesirable situation. To improve this situation, the logistics of physical health care for patients with SMI need to be changed. We asked both patients and their families about their views on the current organization of care, and how this care could be improved. Methods Group and individual interviews were conducted with patients and family of patients to explore their needs and preferences concerning the care for the physical health of patients with SMI, and to explore the shortcomings they had experienced. Using thematic analysis, responses were firstly divided into common topics, after which these topics were grouped into themes. Results Three major themes for the improvement of the physical care of patients with SMI were found. Firstly, the reduced ability of patients with SMI to survey their own physical health interests requires health care that is tailored to these needs. Secondly, the lack of collaboration amongst mental health care professionals and general practitioners (GPs) hinders optimal care. Thirdly, concerns were expressed regarding the implementation of monitoring and supporting a healthy lifestyle. Patients with SMI welcome this implementation, but the logistics of providing this care can be improved. Conclusions An optimal approach for caring for the physical health of patients with SMI requires a professional approach, which is different to the routine care provided to the general public. This approach can and should be accomplished within the usual organizational structure. However, this requires tailoring of the health care to the needs of patients with SMI, as well as structural collaboration between mental health care professionals and GPs. PMID:24144438

  13. Clinical Illness and Outcomes in Patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Schieffelin, J.S.; Shaffer, J.G.; Goba, A.; Gbakie, M.; Gire, S.K.; Colubri, A.; Sealfon, R.S.G.; Kanneh, L.; Moigboi, A.; Momoh, M.; Fullah, M.; Moses, L.M.; Brown, B.L.; Andersen, K.G.; Winnicki, S.; Schaffner, S.F.; Park, D.J.; Yozwiak, N.L.; Jiang, P.-P.; Kargbo, D.; Jalloh, S.; Fonnie, M.; Sinnah, V.; French, I.; Kovoma, A.; Kamara, F.K.; Tucker, V.; Konuwa, E.; Sellu, J.; Mustapha, I.; Foday, M.; Yillah, M.; Kanneh, F.; Saffa, S.; Massally, J.L.B.; Boisen, M.L.; Branco, L.M.; Vandi, M.A.; Grant, D.S.; Happi, C.; Gevao, S.M.; Fletcher, T.E.; Fowler, R.A.; Bausch, D.G.; Sabeti, P.C.; Khan, S.H.; Garry, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. METHODS We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P = 0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P = 0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:25353969

  14. The burden of illness in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Yazdi, M Reza; Kelly, Suzanne M; Lam, Sy S; Marin, Mihaela; Barbeau, Martin; Walker, Valery

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No recent Canadian studies with physician- and spirometry-confirmed diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that assessed the burden of COPD have been published. OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs associated with maintenance therapy and treatment for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) over a one-year period. METHODS: Respirologists, internists and family practitioners from across Canada enrolled patients with an established diagnosis of moderate to severe COPD (Global initiative for chonic Obstructive Lung Disease stages 2 and 3) confirmed by postbronchodilator spirometry. Patient information and health care resources related to COPD maintenance and physician-documented AECOPD over the previous year were obtained by chart review and patient survey. RESULTS: A total of 285 patients (59.3% male; mean age 70.4 years; mean pack years smoked 45.6; mean duration of COPD 8.2 years; mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s 58.0% predicted) were enrolled at 23 sites across Canada. The average annual COPD-related cost per patient was $4,147. Across all 285 patients, maintenance costs were $2,475 per patient, of which medications accounted for 71%. AECOPD treatment costs were $1,673 per patient, of which hospitalizations accounted for 82%. Ninety-eight patients (34%) experienced a total of 157 AECOPD. Treatment of these AECOPD included medications and outpatient care, 19 emergency room visits and 40 hospitalizations (mean length of stay 8.9 days). The mean cost per AECOPD was $3,036. DISCUSSION: The current costs associated with moderate and severe COPD are considerable and will increase in the future. Appropriate use of medications and strategies to prevent hospitalizations for AECOPD may reduce COPD-related costs because these were the major cost drivers. PMID:23061077

  15. Stress levels of volunteer personnel working with terminally or critically ill patients in hospice, hospital, or nursing home settings 

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Cheryl Lynn

    1984-01-01

    across all settings were 6. 03 per week. Instruments State-Trait Anxiety. To assess the amount of anxiety related to environmental stress as compared to a more stable personality characteristic of stress, each participant completed a State... is related to death anxiety, Templar's (1973) Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) was included in this study. When developing this scale, Templar, on a rationally based decision chose 40 emotionally descriptive words, 31 of which were retained on the basis of four...

  16. Stress levels of volunteer personnel working with terminally or critically ill patients in hospice, hospital, or nursing home settings

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Cheryl Lynn

    1984-01-01

    . Richard Lazarus focuses on the cognit1ve aspect of stress. He states that stress is not purely external; people have to perceive a situation as stressful, and whether be detrimental depends upon the availablility of the individual's coping resources... has given me an excellant example to follow. I also wish to thank my parents for their love, support and encouragement throughout my college career and throughout my life. Their belief in me has enabled me to get this far. Additionally, I owe a...

  17. Along the Cancer Continuum: Integrating Therapeutic Support and Bereavement Groups for Children and Teens of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M.

    2009-01-01

    Family life is altered irrevocably when a young parent is diagnosed with or dies from cancer. This article tracks the genesis and transformation of a comprehensive psychoeducational support and bereavement program for children, adolescents, and parents affected by cancer. From the inception of the program, families with parents in active treatment…

  18. New type of center focuses on caring for the most critically ill patients, decompressing ED that serves patients at the upper end of the acuity spectrum.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) in Ann Arbor has opened a new unit within its ED to focus on caring for the most critically ill patients Who present to the ED. Dubbed the Massey Emergency Critical Care Center, or EC3, the model is the first of its kind in the country, with its own ICU and a lower nurse-patient ratio than the main ED to facilitate closer monitoring. Developers hope.the new unit will decompress the ED, shorten wait times, and potentially reduce the demand for ICU care on the upper floors. The adult ED at UMHS receives patients on the higher end of the acuity spectrum, with high-acuity patients making up 90% of the patient volume. Staffing of the EC3 includes emergency nurses and physicians who have had extra training in critical care. The EC3 will serve as a new research center for emergency critical care patients, and a training ground for physicians and nurses looking to enhance their skills in critical care. PMID:25844433

  19. Use of insulin in the noncritically ill-hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Childers, Becky; Levesque, Celia M

    2013-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is common and often unrecognized among hospitalized patients, and it increases the risk of poor outcome, increased length of stay, and increased cost. Hyperglycemia can complicate features of underlying disease and some therapies. This article discusses physiology and types of diabetes, glycemic targets in the noncritical care setting, factors that contribute to hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in the hospitalized patient, insulin types, common insulin regimens used in the hospital setting, and implications for the nurse. PMID:23410646

  20. Long-Term Outcome of Critically Ill Adult Patients with Acute Epiglottitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernu, Romain; Baudry, Thomas; Bohé, Julien; Piriou, Vincent; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Disant, François; Argaud, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute epiglottitis is a potentially life threatening disease, with a growing incidence in the adult population. Its long-term outcome after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) hospitalization has rarely been studied. Methodology and Principal Findings Thirty-four adult patients admitted for acute epiglottitis were included in this retrospective multicentric study. The mean age was 44±12 years (sex ratio: 5.8). Sixteen patients (47%) had a history of smoking while 8 (24%) had no previous medical history. The average time of disease progression before ICU was 2.6±3.6 days. The main reasons for hospitalization were continuous monitoring (17 cases, 50%) and acute respiratory distress (10 cases, 29%). Microbiological documentation could be made in 9 cases (26%), with Streptococcus spp. present in 7 cases (21%). Organ failure at ICU admission occurred in 8 cases (24%). Thirteen patients (38%) required respiratory assistance during ICU stay; 9 (26%) required surgery. Two patients (6%) died following hypoxemic cardiac arrest. Five patients (15%) had sequelae at 1 year. Patients requiring respiratory assistance had a longer duration of symptoms and more frequent anti inflammatory use before ICU admission and sequelae at 1 year (p<0.05 versus non-ventilated patients). After logistic regression analysis, only exposure to anti-inflammatory drugs before admission was independently associated with airway intervention (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.06-23.16). Conclusions and Significance The profile of the cases consisted of young smoking men with little comorbidity. Streptococcus spp. infection represented the main etiology. Outcome was favorable if early respiratory tract protection could be performed in good conditions. Morbidity and sequelae were greater in patients requiring airway intervention. PMID:25945804

  1. Prevention of nosocomial infection in critically ill patients by selective decontamination of the digestive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Rocha; M. J. Martín; S. Pita; J. Paz; C. Seco; L. Margusino; R. Villanueva; M. T. Durán

    1992-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a method of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract (SDD) on colonization, nosocomial infection (NI), bacterial resistance, mortality and economic costs.Design: Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.Setting: Polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital with 27 beds.Patients: 101 patients with >3 days of mechanical ventilation and >5 days of stay, without

  2. Skin only or silo closure in the critically ill patient with an open abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine N Tremblay; David V Feliciano; Julie Schmidt; Raymond A Cava; Kathryn M Tchorz; Walter L Ingram; Jeffrey P Salomone; Jeffrey M Nicholas; Grace S Rozycki

    2001-01-01

    Background: The morbidity and mortality of various open abdominal techniques remains unclear.Methods: A retrospective review was made of all trauma or general surgery patients who underwent an open abdominal closure from January 1997 to December 2000, at a large urban acute care hospital. Data are mean ± SD.Results: From 1997 to 2000, 181 patients (aged 39.8 ± 16.5 years) had

  3. Cultural implications of managing chronic illness: treating elderly Chinese patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ru-Shang; Wu, Shu-Mei; Che, Hui-Lian; Yeh, Mei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns are associated with morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Volume overload was the most common cause for re-hospitalization for heart failure patients. However, recommended preventive strategies of restricting excessive dietary sodium and fluid intake were found to be in vain. This study looks at the preventive dietary instructions from a cultural context, and examined the effects of sodium and fluid restriction on twelve elderly Chinese patients hospitalized with heart failure through a qualitative design. Four themes emerged from the data: medicine-food homology, salt and sodium as synonymous, activity intolerance but still wanting social connections, and barriers to asking questions. Results suggested that living with heart failure is a complex and changeable process for both patients and caregivers. Many patients reported low levels of understanding concerning their symptoms and heart function deterioration. The findings found that good communication requires cultural sensitivity, objective listening to the patient's narrative, and helping patients find meaning between their experiences and symptom control. PMID:23473648

  4. Infections in critically ill patients: experience in MICU at a major teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Dahmash, N S; Arora, S C; Fayed, D F; Chowdhury, M N

    1994-01-01

    During a one-year period 105 patients suffering a total of 134 infectious episodes were studied prospectively in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). These patients included 54 male and 51 female patients, age ranging from 14 to 100 years (median = 54 years). The overall incidence of infection was 46.7%. Infections acquired in medical wards accounted for 47.8% of the total, followed by community-acquired infections in 27.0%, and MICU-acquired infections in 25.2% of the cases. The most frequent infections were pneumonia and septicaemia accounting for 88% of the total, whereas urinary tract (4.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.0%), skin and wound infections (2.5%) constituted only 11.5%. The pathogens mainly involved were gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, in community-acquired pneumonia, the major pathogens were gram-negative rods. In addition, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was an important cause of pneumonia in these patients. The majority of patients had a monoinfection; multiple pathogens were isolated in 11.9% of the episodes. The overall mortality was 46.7%. Several factors that influenced the mortality in these patients were analyzed. Early recognition of these factors may reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:8002086

  5. Live donor liver transplantation: a valid alternative for critically ill patients suffering from acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Goldaracena, N; Spetzler, V N; Marquez, M; Selzner, N; Cattral, M S; Greig, P D; Lilly, L; McGilvray, I D; Levy, G A; Ghanekar, A; Renner, E L; Grant, D R; Selzner, M

    2015-06-01

    We report the outcome of live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients suffering from acute liver failure (ALF). From 2006 to 2013, all patients with ALF who received a LDLT (n?=?7) at our institution were compared to all ALF patients receiving a deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT?=?26). Groups were comparable regarding pretransplant ICU stay (DDLT: 1 [0-7] vs. LDLT: 1 days [0-10]; p?=?0.38), mechanical ventilation support (DDLT: 69% vs. LDLT: 57%; p?=?0.66), inotropic drug requirement (DDLT: 27% vs. LDLT: 43%; p?=?0.64) and dialysis (DDLT: 2 vs. LDLT: 0 patients; p?=?1). Median evaluation time for live donors was 24?h (18-72?h). LDLT versus DDLT had similar incidence of overall postoperative complications (31% vs. 43%; p?=?0.66). No difference was detected between LDLT and DDLT patients regarding 1- (DDLT: 92% vs. LDLT: 86%), 3- (DDLT: 92% vs. LDLT: 86%), and 5- (DDLT: 92% vs. LDLT: 86%) year graft and patient survival (p?=?0.63). No severe donor complication (Dindo-Clavien ?3?b) occurred after live liver donation. ALF is a severe disease with high mortality on liver transplant waiting lists worldwide. Therefore, LDLT is an attractive option since live donor work-up can be expedited and liver transplantation can be performed within 24?h with excellent short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:25799890

  6. Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis: An Interaction with Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Chen, Lin; Ni, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis remains undetermined. The present study aimed to investigate the role of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis by using a large clinical database. Methods The multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC- II) database was employed for the study. Adult patients with sepsis were included for analysis. Antipyretic therapy included antipyretic medication and external cooling. Multivariable model with interaction terms were employed to explore the association of antipyretic therapy and mortality risk. Main Results A total of 15,268 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. In multivariable model by treating temperature as a continuous variable, there was significant interaction between antipyretic therapy and the maximum temperature (Tmax). While antipyretic therapy had no significant effect on mortality in low temperature quintiles, antipyretic therapy was associated with increased risk of death in the quintile with body temperature >39°C (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.61). Conclusion Our study shows that there is no beneficial effect on reducing mortality risk with the use of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis. External cooling may even be harmful in patients with sepsis. PMID:25822614

  7. Person-centered psychopathology of schizophrenia: building on Karl Jaspers' understanding of patient's attitude toward his illness.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Bolton, Derek; Fulford, William K M

    2013-03-01

    In this article, building on and extending Jaspers' concept of the "patient's attitude toward his illness" we draw attention to the active role that the person, as a self-interpreting agent engaged in a world shared with other persons, has in interacting with his/her basic disorder and in the shaping of psychopathological syndromes. This person-centered approach helps us to see patients as meaning-making entities rather than passive individuals and their attempt at self-understanding as not necessarily pathological and potentially adaptive. We describe 3 contemporary resources for a person-centered psychopathology: dialectical psychopathology, contemporary approaches to the meanings-causes debate, and value-based practice. Each of these provides a theoretical framework and practical resources for understanding the diversity of schizophrenic phenotypes, including symptom presentation, course, and outcome as a consequence of the different ways people with schizophrenia seek to make sense of the basic changes in self and world experiences. A person-centered approach, in building on patients' individual values and experiences as key aspects of their self-understanding of their psychosis, supports recovery and development of self-management skills. PMID:23314193

  8. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  9. Long-Term Survival in Older Critically Ill Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jinn-Ing; Smith, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare survival in older patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with those not requiring ICU care and to assess the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) and percutaneous gastrostomy tubes (PEG) on long-term mortality. Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services covering 93 metropolitan counties primarily in the Eastern half of the United States. Patients 31,301 patients discharged with acute ischemic stroke in 2000. Interventions None Measurements Mortality from the time of index hospitalization up to the end of the follow-up period of 12 months. Information was also gathered on use of mechanical ventilation, percutaneous gastrostomy, sociodemographic variables and a host of comorbid conditions. Main Results 26% of all patients with acute ischemic stroke required ICU admission. The crude death rate for ICU stroke patients was 21% at 30 days and 40% at 1-year follow-up. At 30 days, after adjustment of sociodemographic variables and comorbidities, ICU patients had a 29% higher mortality hazard compared to non-ICU patients. Mechanical ventilation was associated with a five-fold higher mortality hazard (hazard ratio 5.59, confidence interval 4.93–6.34). The use of PEG was not associated with mortality at 30 days. By contrast, at 1-year follow up in 30-day survivors, ICU admission was not associated with mortality hazard (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.09). Mechanical ventilation still had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.57–2.25), and PEG patients had a 2.59 fold greater mortality hazard (95% confidence interval 2.38–2.82). Conclusions Both short-term and long-term mortality in older patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to ICUs is lower than previously reported. The need for MV and PEG are markers for poor long-term outcome. Future research should focus on the identification of clinical factors that lead to increased mortality in long-term survivors and efforts to reduce those risks. PMID:19661805

  10. Serum visfatin concentration in acutely ill and weight-recovered patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Maria; King, Joseph A; Ritschel, Franziska; Döpmann, Johanna; Bühren, Katharina; Seitz, Jochen; Roessner, Veit; Westphal, Sabine; Egberts, Karin; Burghardt, Roland; Wewetzer, Christoph; Fleischhaker, Christian; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Visfatin is a recently described protein that is thought to regulate the process of adipocyte differentiation. Findings suggest that visfatin may be actively involved in the control of weight regulatory networks. However, to what extent and which role it plays in eating disorders is still poorly understood, as mixed results have been reported. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum visfatin concentrations on a cross sectional sample between acute anorexia nervosa patients (n=44), weight recovered patients (n=13) and healthy controls (n=46) and a longitudinal sample of acute patients (n=57) during weight recovery at three different time-points. Results did not show significant differences in visfatin between the three groups; however, acute patients showed a higher visfatin/BMI-SDS ratio than controls and recovered patients. Longitudinal results revealed an increase of visfatin levels during therapy. Our results suggest that high ratios of visfatin/BMI-SDS could be a state marker in acute anorexia nervosa, displaying a compensatory mechanism of the individual to maintain normal visfatin levels under malnourished conditions. PMID:25617618

  11. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in 41 adults: the illness, the patients, and problems of management

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, David R; Gornowicz, Blake; Adams, Kathleen; Burch, Richard; Feldman, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Background Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent, stereotypic episodes of incapacitating nausea, vomiting and other symptoms, separated by intervals of comparative wellness. This report describes the clinical features, co-morbidities and problems encountered in management of 41 adult patients who met the diagnostic criteria for CVS. Methods This is a retrospective study of adults with CVS seen between 1994 and 2003. Follow-up data were obtained by mailed questionnaires. Results Age of onset ranged from 2 to 49 years. The duration of CVS at the time of consultation ranged from less than 1 year to 49 years. CVS episodes were stereotypic in respect of their hours of onset, symptomatology and length. Ninety-three percent of patients had recognizable prodromes. Half of the patients experienced a constellation of symptoms consisting of CVS episodes, migraine diathesis, inter-episodic dyspeptic nausea and a history of panic attacks. Deterioration in the course of CVS is indicated by coalescence of episodes in time. The prognosis of CVS is favorable in the majority of patients. Conclusion CVS is a disabling disorder affecting adults as well as children. Because its occurrence in adults is little known, patients experience delayed or mis-diagnosis and ineffectual, sometimes inappropriately invasive management. PMID:16368014

  12. Process of Care and Outcome after Acute Myocardial Infarction for Patients with Mental Illness in the VA Health Care System: Are There Disparities?

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Laura A; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Druss, Benjamin G; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare process of care and outcome after acute myocardial infarction, for patients with and without mental illness, cared for in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) health care system. Data Sources/Setting Primary clinical data from 81 VA hospitals. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of 4,340 veterans discharged with clinically confirmed acute myocardial infarction. Of these, 859 (19.8 percent) met the definition of mental illness. Measures were age-adjusted in-hospital and 90-day cardiac procedure use; age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of use of thrombolytic therapy, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or aspirin at discharge; risk-adjusted 30-day and one-year mortality. Results Patients with mental illness were marginally less likely than those without mental illness to undergo in-hospital angiography (age-adjusted RR 0.90 [95 percent confidence interval: 0.83, 0.98]), but there was no significant difference in the age-adjusted RR of coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the 90 days after admission (0.85 [0.69,1.05]), or in the receipt of medications of known benefit. For example, ideal candidates with and without mental illness were equally likely to receive beta-blockers at the time of discharge (age-adjusted RR 0.92 [0.82, 1.02]). The risk-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for death in patients with mental illness versus those without mental illness within 30 days was 1.00 (0.75,1.32), and for death within one year was 1.25 (1.00,1.53). Conclusions Veterans Health Administration patients with mental illness were marginally less likely than those without mental illness to receive diagnostic angiography, and no less likely to receive revascularization or medications of known benefit after acute myocardial infarction. Mortality at one year may have been higher, although this finding did not reach statistical significance. These findings are consistent with other studies showing reduced health care disparities in the VA for other vulnerable groups, and suggest that an integrated health care system with few financial barriers to health care access may attenuate some health care disparities. Further work should address how health care organizational features might narrow disparities in health care for vulnerable groups. PMID:12650380

  13. A system of evidenced-based techniques and collaborative clinical interventions with a chronically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Patricia; Wisniewski, Lucene

    2013-07-01

    Although evidence-based treatments (EBTs) exist for both bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, there is far less evidence underpinning the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Furthermore, there is no clearly defined standardized approach to patients who have not responded to treatment over an extended period of time. Chronic eating disorder patients in particular might need long-term engagement with treatment providers offering a wide range of interventions. This case study highlights how an experienced private practitioner systematically employed a variety of EBT techniques for a patient with a severe, long-term eating disorder and its comorbidities, within a model of attachment and collaboration. The practice of utilizing a wide variety of EBT techniques in a systematic manner guided by clinical expertise and supported by a therapy relationship of collaboration and attachment may prove to be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:23658100

  14. Accuracy of Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) Exam for Diagnosis of Shock in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Gharib, Mohammad Hadi; Ebrahimi, Ali; Samimi, Kaveh; Rezaee, Maryam; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) is the most recent emergency ultrasound protocol, designed to help clinicians better recognize distinctive shock etiologies in a shorter time frame. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the RUSH protocol, performed by an emergency physician or radiologist, in predicting the type of shock in critical patients. Patients and Methods: An emergency physician or radiologist performed the RUSH protocol for all patients with shock status at the emergency department. All patients were closely followed to determine their final clinical diagnosis. The agreement between the initial impression provided by RUSH and the final diagnosis was investigated by calculating the Kappa index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of RUSH for diagnosis of each case. Results: We performed RUSH on 77 patients. Kappa index was 0.71 (P Value = 0.000), reflecting acceptable general agreement between initial impression and final diagnosis. For hypovolemic, cardiogenic and obstructive shock, the protocol had an NPV above 97% yet it had a lower PPV. For shock with distributive or mixed etiology, RUSH showed a PPV of 100% but it had low sensitivity. Subgroup analysis showed a similar Kappa index for the emergency physician and radiologist (0.70 and 0.73, respectively) in performing rush. Conclusions: This study highlights the role of the RUSH exam performed by an emergency physician, to make a rapid and reliable diagnosis of shock etiology, especially in order to rule out obstructive, cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock types in initial exam of shock patients. PMID:25825696

  15. Anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis in selected critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, M; Paiva, J A; Meersseman, W; Pachl, J; Grigoras, I; Sganga, G; Menichetti, F; Montravers, P; Auzinger, G; Dimopoulos, G; Borges Sá, M; Miller, P J; Mar?ek, T; Kantecki, M

    2012-01-01

    A prospective, multicentre, phase IIIb study with an exploratory, open-label design was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) in specific ICU patient populations. Adult ICU patients with confirmed C/IC meeting ?1 of the following criteria were enrolled: post-abdominal surgery, solid tumour, renal/hepatic insufficiency, solid organ transplant, neutropaenia, and age ?65 years. Patients received anidulafungin (200 mg on day 1, 100 mg/day thereafter) for 10–42 days, optionally followed by oral voriconazole/fluconazole. The primary efficacy endpoint was global (clinical and microbiological) response at the end of all therapy (EOT). Secondary endpoints included global response at the end of intravenous therapy (EOIVT) and at 2 and 6 weeks post-EOT, survival at day 90, and incidence of adverse events (AEs). The primary efficacy analysis was performed in the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population, excluding unknown/missing responses. The safety and MITT populations consisted of 216 and 170 patients, respectively. The most common pathogens were Candida albicans (55.9%), C. glabrata (14.7%) and C. parapsilosis (10.0%). Global success was 69.5% (107/154; 95% CI, 61.6–76.6) at EOT, 70.7% (111/157) at EOIVT, 60.2% (77/128) at 2 weeks post-EOT, and 50.5% (55/109) at 6 weeks post-EOT. When unknown/missing responses were included as failures, the respective success rates were 62.9%, 65.3%, 45.3% and 32.4%. Survival at day 90 was 53.8%. Treatment-related AEs occurred in 33/216 (15.3%) patients, four (1.9%) of whom had serious AEs. Anidulafungin was effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of C/IC in selected groups of ICU patients. PMID:22404732

  16. Impact of Hypoalbuminemia on Voriconazole Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Joost; Vercammen, Ine; de Loor, Henriette; Maertens, Johan; Lagrou, Katrien; Annaert, Pieter; Spriet, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Setting the adequate dose for voriconazole is challenging due to its variable pharmacokinetics. We investigated the impact of hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/liter) on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated with voriconazole (20 samples in 13 patients) as well as in plasma samples from ICU patients that had been spiked with voriconazole at concentrations of 1.5 mg/liter, 2.9 mg/liter, and 9.0 mg/liter (66 samples from 22 patients). Plasma albumin concentrations ranged from 13.8 to 38.7 g/liter. Total voriconazole concentrations in adult ICU patients treated with voriconazole ranged from 0.5 to 8.7 mg/liter. Unbound and bound voriconazole concentrations were separated using high-throughput equilibrium dialysis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive relationship between voriconazole plasma protein binding and plasma albumin concentrations (P < 0.001), indicating higher unbound voriconazole concentrations with decreasing albumin concentrations. The correlation is more pronounced in the presence of elevated bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.05). We therefore propose to adjust the measured total voriconazole concentrations in patients with abnormal plasma albumin and total serum bilirubin plasma concentrations who show adverse events potentially related to voriconazole via a formula that we developed. Assuming 50% protein binding on average and an upper limit of 5.5 mg/liter for total voriconazole concentrations, the upper limit for unbound voriconazole concentrations is 2.75 mg/liter. Alterations in voriconazole unbound concentrations caused by hypoalbuminemia and/or elevated bilirubin plasma concentrations cannot be countered immediately, due to the adult saturated hepatic metabolism. Consequently, increased unbound voriconazole concentrations can possibly cause adverse events, even when total voriconazole concentrations are within the reference range. PMID:25182655

  17. Empirical use of fluoroquinolones improves the survival of critically ill patients with tuberculosis mimicking severe pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Empirical use of fluoroquinolones may delay the initiation of appropriate therapy for tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of empirical fluoroquinolone use on the survival of patients with pulmonary TB that mimicked severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring intensive care. Methods Patients aged >18 years with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who presented as severe CAP and were admitted to the ICU were divided into fluoroquinolone (FQ) and nonfluoroquinolone (non-FQ) groups based on the type of empirical antibiotics used. Those patients with previous anti-TB treatment or those who died within 3 days of hospitalization were excluded. The primary end point was 100-day survival. Results Of the 77 patients identified, 43 (56%) were in the FQ group and 34 (44%) were in the non-FQ group. The two groups had no statistically significant difference in co-morbidities (95% vs. 97%, P > 0.99) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores (21.2 ± 7.1 vs. 22.5 ± 7.5, P = 0.46) on ICU admission. Overall, 91% and 82% of patients in the FQ and non-FQ groups, respectively, had sputum examinations for TB within 1 week of admission (P = 0.46), and results were positive in 7% and 15% (P = 0.47), respectively. For both groups, 29% received appropriate anti-TB therapy within 2 weeks after ICU admission. The 100-day mortality rate was 40% and 68% for the FQ and non-FQ groups, respectively (P = 0.02). By Cox regression analysis, APACHE score <20, no bacteremia during the ICU stay, and empirical fluoroquinolone use were independently associated with survival. Conclusion Empirical use of fluoroquinolones may improve the survival of ICU patients admitted for pulmonary TB mimicking severe CAP. PMID:23098258

  18. Accuracy of bedside capillary blood glucose measurements in critically ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dana Critchell; Vincent Savarese; Amy Callahan; Christine Aboud; Serge Jabbour; Paul Marik

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To compare the accuracy of fingerstick with laboratory venous plasma glucose measurements (laboratory glucose) in medical\\u000a ICU patients and to determine the factors which interfere with the accuracy of fingerstick measurements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  The study included 80 consecutive patients aged 58?±?7 years, BMI 29.5?±?9.0, and APACHE II score 15?±?6 (277 simultaneous\\u000a paired measurements).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  This prospective observational study compared fingerstick measurements to simultaneously sampled laboratory

  19. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Intubated Patients in Jordan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayasrah, Shahnaz Mohammad; O’Neill, Teresa Mary; Abdalrahim, Maysoon Saleem; Sutary, Manal Mohammed; Kharabsheh, Muna Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe: (1) pain indicators used by nurses and physicians to assess pain, (2) pain management interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) used by nurses, and (3) indicators used by nurses to verify pain intervention effectiveness. Methodology A total of 301 medical records of currently admitted patients from six different ICUs in Jordan were reviewed using a data collection instrument developed by Gélinas et al. (2004) Pain-related indicators were classified into non-observable (patient’s self-reports of pain) and observable (physiological and behavioral) categories. Results Only 105 (35%) of a total 301 reviewed medical records contained pain assessment data. From these medical records, 15 pain episodes were collected altogether. Observable indicators documented 98% of the 115 pain episodes. Patients’ self-reports of pain were documented only 1.7% of the time. In 78% and 46% of the 115 pain episodes, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain management were documented, respectively. Only 37% of the pain episodes were reassessed with self- report (1%) and observable indicators (36%) to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Pain documentation for assessment, management, and reassessment was lacking and needs improvement. PMID:25505864

  20. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael G; Sanders, E J; Leake, J A D; Zaidel, O; Bragg, S L; Aye, T; Shutt, K A; Deseda, C C; Rigau-Perez, J G; Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Spiegel, R A; Ashford, D A

    2005-10-01

    Leptospirosis is difficult to distinguish from dengue fever without laboratory confirmation. Sporadic cases/clusters of leptospirosis occur in Puerto Rico, but surveillance is passive and laboratory confirmation is rare. We tested for leptospirosis using an IgM ELISA on sera testing negative for dengue virus IgM antibody and conducted a case-control study assessing risk factors for leptospirosis, comparing clinical/laboratory findings between leptospirosis (case-patients) and dengue patients (controls). Among 730 dengue-negative sera, 36 (5%) were positive for leptospirosis. We performed post mortem testing for leptospirosis on 12 available specimens from suspected dengue-related fatalities; 10 (83%) tested positive. Among these 10 fatal cases, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure were the most common causes of death. We enrolled 42 case-patients and 84 controls. Jaundice, elevated BUN, hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and leukocytosis were associated with leptospirosis (p < .01 for all). Male sex, walking in puddles, rural habitation, and owning horses were independently associated with leptospirosis. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory criteria may help distinguish leptospirosis from dengue and identify patients who would benefit from early antibiotic treatment. PMID:16083836