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1

Gerontology & Policies for Not Treating Terminally Ill Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposals have been developed to clarify physician responsibility in withholding treatment to terminally ill patients. These proposals seek to provide a legal shield against malpractice proceedings and to reduce confusion over how to resolve high medical costs through standardizing procedures for withholding treatment. When first published,…

Jarrett, William H.

2

Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.  

PubMed

This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547

Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

2002-07-01

3

Analgesia for terminally ill adult patients. Preserve quality of life.  

PubMed

Adequate pain management is crucial in maintaining the best possible quality of life for terminally ill patients. This article examines pain management in the palliative care setting, based on a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Accurate pain evaluation, preferably by the patient, is essential for guiding treatment decisions. Some causes of pain are amenable to specific treatments. The expected benefits and harms of the various treatment options and procedures must be weighed on a case by case basis. Quality of life should always be the first priority. The World Health Organization has developed a "three-step analgesic ladder", based on the use of increasingly potent analgesics: step I analgesics include paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); codeine is the standard step II analgesic; and morphine is the standard step III analgesic. Fentanyl is an alternative to morphine. The daily morphine dose must be determined for each patient. Morphine titration starts with oral doses given every 4 hours, but additional doses can be taken every hour if necessary. Total consumption is then used to calculate the dose required the following day. A sustained-release product can be used to reduce the number of doses required when a consistently effective daily dose has been established. When patients are unable to take morphine orally, it can be given by subcutaneous injection, and by subcutaneous or intravenous infusion. Pumps allow the patient to self-administer morphine on demand. Fentanyl transdermal patches are another option for stable pain. Immediate-release oral forms and injections are useful for preventing or treating breakthrough pain. If morphine requirements increase during treatment, the most likely explanations are exacerbations of pain or an excessively long interval between doses. Pharmacological tolerance and psychological dependence are rare during palliative care. In case of renal failure, the morphine dose should be reduced, sustained-release morphine should be replaced by immediate-release morphine, or morphine should be replaced by fentanyl, as fentanyl metabolism is only slightly affected by renal function. The main adverse effects of morphine are constipation, nausea and vomiting. Drowsiness is frequent at initiation of treatment. Respiratory depression is rare when morphine is introduced gradually. Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have acceptable harm-benefit balances in patients with neuropathic pain. Cannabinoids are another option but have not been adequately assessed. Localised refractory pain may respond to local anaesthesia, chemical neurolysis or surgical ablation. In practice, it is best to allow patients to control their own analgesic consumption, within limits set by their physician to prevent dosing errors. PMID:22066317

2011-11-01

4

Family Support, Age, and Emotional States of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored emotional states of dying patients, age, and family support. Findings from 26 terminally ill female cancer patients revealed that younger patients expressed more bargaining and complaints than older patients who revealed more depression and acceptance. Patients with immediate family support expressed less depression and more fears than…

Wu, Kitty K. Y.

1991-01-01

5

Islamic views on artificial nutrition and hydration in terminally ill patients.  

PubMed

Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from terminally ill patients poses many ethical challenges. The literature provides little information about the Islamic beliefs, attitudes, and laws related to these challenges. Artificial nutrition and hydration may be futile and reduce quality of life. They can also harm the terminally ill patient because of complications such as aspiration pneumonia, dyspnea, nausea, diarrhea, and hypervolemia. From the perspective of Islam, rules governing the care of terminally ill patients are derived from the principle that injury and harm should be prevented or avoided. The hastening of death by the withdrawal of food and drink is forbidden, but Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile, death-delaying treatment, including life support. Nutritional support is considered basic care and not medical treatment, and there is an obligation to provide nutrition and hydration for the dying person unless it shortens life, causes more harm than benefit, or is contrary to an advance directive that is consistent with Islamic law. The decision about withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from the terminally ill Muslim patient is made with informed consent, considering the clinical context of minimizing harm to the patient, with input from the patient, family members, health care providers, and religious scholars. PMID:22845721

Alsolamy, Sami

2014-02-01

6

[A study of 31 terminally ill cancer patients who received pure oxycodone injections at home].  

PubMed

Since the launch of pure oxycodone injections in May 2012, it has been possible to use oxycodone without opioid rotation. Although an extremely important step showing progress, very few studies regarding the use of pure oxycodone injections have been performed. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of pure oxycodone injections in 31 terminally ill cancer patients receiving home care. The difficulty in oral oxycodone intake was the main reason for changing to pure oxycodone injections. The mean administered period of subcutaneous pure oxycodone was 5.6 ± 6.7 days. One out of 5 patients receiving pure oxycodone injections complained of worsening sleepiness. However, other symptoms improved. In addition, in cases wherein pure oxycodone injection was the initiating opioid, 1 out of 6 patients showed no improvement of respiratory discomfort, while other symptoms improved. It was difficult to evaluate more patients because of the short period for administration. Although 5 patients experienced skin problems, they were successfully managed by changing the injection site. Of these 5 patients, 2 patients had sensitive skin, with a previous history of alcohol rash. In conclusion, our study suggests that pure oxycodone injections are beneficial over oral oxycodone treatment for terminally ill cancer patients. However, further evaluation of skin problems associated with pure oxycodone injections is required by performing larger studies. PMID:25434442

Sasaki, Tsubasa; Kawagoe, Izumi

2014-11-01

7

Towards a classification model to identify hospice candidates in terminally ill patients.  

PubMed

This paper presents a Rough Set Theory (RST) based classification model to identify hospice candidates within a group of terminally ill patients. Hospice care considerations are particularly valuable for terminally ill patients since they enable patients and their families to initiate end-of-life discussions and choose the most desired management strategy for the remainder of their lives. Unlike traditional data mining methodologies, our approach seeks to identify subgroups of patients possessing common characteristics that distinguish them from other subgroups in the dataset. Thus, heterogeneity in the data set is captured before the classification model is built. Object related reducts are used to obtain the minimum set of attributes that describe each subgroup existing in the dataset. As a result, a collection of decision rules is derived for classifying new patients based on the subgroup to which they belong. Results show improvements in the classification accuracy compared to a traditional RST methodology, in which patient diversity is not considered. We envision our work as a part of a comprehensive decision support system designed to facilitate end-of-life care decisions. Retrospective data from 9105 patients is used to demonstrate the design and implementation details of the classification model. PMID:23366132

Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Yalcin, Ali; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura E; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

2012-01-01

8

Stress levels of volunteer personnel working with terminally or critically ill patients in hospice, hospital, or nursing home settings  

E-print Network

STRESS LEVELS OF VOLUNTEER PERSONNEL WORKING WITH TERMINALLY OR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS IN HOSPICE, HOSPITAL, OR NURSING HOME SETTINGS A Thesis by CHERYL LYNN AIKEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfiM University in partial... fulfillment for the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Clinical Psychology STRESS LEVELS OF VOLUNTEER PERSONNEL WORKING WITH TERMINALLY OR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS IN HOSPICE, HOSPITAL, OR NURSING HOME SETTINGS A...

Aiken, Cheryl Lynn

1984-01-01

9

Artificial hydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients: a nurse-education intervention.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Palliative Medicine has developed a clinical guideline to minimize the large variation in clinical practice of artificial hydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients. The primary aim of this preliminary study was to explore the effects of a five-hour interactive workshop based on the guideline of nurses' knowledge, confidence, self-reported practice, and nurse-perceived usefulness. The study was designed as a pre-post anonymous questionnaire survey. The nurses attended a five-hour interactive workshop based on the guideline and were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the workshop. The outcome measures were: nurses' knowledge (13 items; the total number of correct answers was defined as the Knowledge score), confidence in caring for terminally ill cancer patients with reduced oral intake (a single Likert-type scale from 1="not confident at all" to 7="very confident"), and self-reported practice (nine items assessing the degree to which nurses think they would perform more frequently recommended practices described in the guideline after the workshop). Of the 81 nurses who participated in this workshop, we obtained consent from 76 to complete the questionnaire. The Knowledge score significantly increased after the intervention from 7.7+/-2.3 to 11+/-1.4 (P<0.001), and the Confidence score significantly increased from 3.1+/-1.2 to 3.8+/-1.1 (P<0.001). More than 80% of the nurses reported they would perform six of nine recommended practices after the workshop. The percentages of nurses who evaluated this workshop as "useful" or "very useful" were: 84% (to know the medical indications of artificial hydration therapy), 89% (to know the effects of artificial hydration therapy on patient quality of life and survival), 71% (to know the physiology of appetite loss and cancer cachexia), 83% (to know how to provide nursing care), and 91% (to know ethical principles). Based on these results, it is possible that a five-hour interactive workshop on artificial hydration therapy, based on the clinical guideline of the Japanese Society of Palliative Medicine, improves nurses' knowledge, confidence, and self-reported practices. The workshop was generally perceived as useful for nurses. Nationwide dissemination of the guideline with interactive workshop education for nurses, in combination with physicians, is a promising method for improving the clinical practice of artificial hydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients. PMID:19735900

Yamagishi, Akemi; Tanaka, Fukuko; Morita, Tatsuya

2009-09-01

10

Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

Pledger, Carolyn Brastow

1985-01-01

11

Recruiting terminally ill patients into non-therapeutic oncology studies: views of health professionals. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Several themes emerged when interviews were conducted with clinician-researchers regarding their attitudes and concerns when recruiting terminally ill cancer patients into non-therapeutic research. The prominent themes were ethical considerations, patient-centered issues, and health professional issues. Promoting communication and autonomy and fostering familial support are important elements for overcoming patient-centered issues. Facilitating the doctor-patient relationship, using teamwork, and implementing educational programs were seen as key factors for dealing with health professional issues.

12

From Albania to Zambia: Travel Back to Country of Origin as a Goal of Care for Terminally Ill Patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: With unprecedented levels of international migration, physicians in the United States may care for terminally ill patients who have strong connections to their country of origin and such patients may desire to return in the final stages of life. Objective: In this study, we analyzed how often terminally ill patients cited travel to country of origin as a goal of care, how often travel occurred, and factors associated with successful travel. Design: A retrospective chart review from January 1, 2005 through May 1, 2007. Setting/Subjects: All foreign-born patients seen by a palliative care consultation service, including inpatient and outpatient consultations, in an urban safety-net health system in the United States. Measurements: We determined whether patients expressed a desire to travel to their country of origin and the factors, including demographics and functional status associated with travel. Results: Of 336 foreign-born patients, 129 (38%) expressed a desire to travel to their country of origin; 60 (47%) successfully returned to 24 unique countries. Countries to which the largest number of patients returned were Mexico (n=14), Poland (n=11), and the Philippines (n=7). Although patients with the best functional status were most likely to travel successfully, 16 (31%) who wanted to travel despite having the worst functional status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] score indicating confinement to bed or chair) traveled successfully. There were no deaths en route or flight diversions due to medical crisis; all trips were made on regularly scheduled commercial airline flights. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients in our cohort expressed a desire to return to their country of origin. We facilitated successful travel for nearly half of these patients. Our findings identify the need to include travel back to country of origin in the framework of planning care for terminally ill patients. PMID:25469906

Deamant, Catherine D; Liu, Elaine; Hinami, Keiki; Weinstein, Robert A; Trick, William E

2014-12-01

13

Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

Rokach, Ami

2007-01-01

14

Burden to Others and the Terminally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of patients who are terminally ill consistently identify strong associations between “sense of burden to others” and marked end-of-life distress. However, little research has addressed the issue of burden to others among patients nearing death. The aim of this study was to carefully examine “burden to others” and clarify its relationship with various psychosocial, physical, and existential issues arising

Harvey Max Chochinov; Linda J. Kristjanson; Thomas F. Hack; Thomas Hassard; Susan McClement; Mike Harlos

2007-01-01

15

Longitudinal Changes and Predictors of Caregiving Burden While Providing End-of-Life Care for Terminally Ill Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The effect of caring for a dying cancer patient on caregiving burden has been explored primarily in Western-based studies with small samples or in studies that did not follow up until the patient's death, but has not yet been investigated in Taiwan. Objective The study's goals were (1) to identify the trajectory of caregiving burden for family caregivers (FCs) of terminally ill cancer patients in Taiwan, and (2) to investigate the determinants of caregiving burden in a large sample and with longitudinal follow-ups, until the patient's death. Method A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted among 193 FCs. The trajectory and determinants of caregiving burden were identified by a generalized estimation equation approach. Results Caregiving burden did not change as the patient's death approached. FCs experienced heavy caregiving burden when their relative suffered from greater symptom distress or if they were spousal caregivers; provided high intensity of assistance to the patient while spending fewer hours providing care; reported financial insufficiency; or had lower social support, fewer psychological resources, or less confidence in caregiving. Conclusions Taiwanese family caregivers' carrry moderate caregiving burden which did not change significantly as the patients' death approached. The effects of caregiving burden while providing EOL care to terminally ill cancer patients may be tempered substantially by enhancing family caregivers caregiving confidence, social support, and psychological resources. PMID:23556989

Lee, Kwo C.; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chou, Wen-Chi; Su, Po-Jung; Hsieh, Chia-hsun; Chen, Jen-Shi

2013-01-01

16

Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

1982-01-01

17

Bioplastique medialization therapy improves the quality of life in terminally ill patients with vocal cord palsy.  

PubMed

Unilateral vocal cord palsy can result in a weak breathy voice and an inability to communicate effectively. This study was designed to assess prospectively the efficacy of polymethylsiloxane elastomer (Bioplastique) medialization injection therapy in patients with vocal cord palsy and terminal disease with particular regard to quality of life issues. Patients with unilateral vocal cord palsy secondary to malignant disease were offered Bioplastique injection. A digital voice recording was taken preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Maximum phonation time (MPT) was recorded at the same intervals, and patients completed two questionnaires: the voice handicap index (VHI) and SF 36 general health questionnaire. Sixteen patients were entered into the study. There was a significant improvement in voice score, MPT, VHI and in three subgroups of the SF 36 at 1 month postoperatively, and the improvement was maintained in the small number who survived to 3 and 6 months. Bioplastique injection for unilateral vocal cord palsy produces a significant improvement in quality of life in addition to measured voice quality in patients with terminal disease. It should be recommended in patients even when the life expectancy is short. PMID:12383303

Alves, C B; Loughran, S; MacGregor, F B; Dey, J I R; Bowie, L J

2002-10-01

18

Beethoven's terminal illness and death.  

PubMed

There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death; alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed. In this article all primary source documents related to Beethoven's terminal illness and death are reviewed. The documents include his letters, the report of his physician Andreas Wawruch, his Conversation Books, the autopsy report, and a new toxicological report of his hair. His terminal illness was characterised by jaundice, ascites, ankle oedema and abdominal pain. The autopsy data indicate that Beethoven had cirrhosis of the liver, and probably also renal papillary necrosis, pancreatitis and possibly diabetes mellitus. His lifestyle for at least the final decade of his life indicated that he overindulged in alcohol in the form of wine. Alcohol was by far the most common cause of cirrhosis at that period. Toxicological analysis of his hair showed that the level of lead was elevated. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, lead was added illegally to inexpensive wines to sweeten and refresh them. These findings strongly suggest that liver failure secondary to alcoholic cirrhosis, associated with terminal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, was the cause of death. This was complicated in the end stages by renal failure. If the presence of endogenous lead was verified by analysis of Beethoven's skeletal remains, it would suggest that the lead was derived from wine that he drank. Lead poisoning may account for some of his end-of-life symptoms. There is little clinical or autopsy evidence that Beethoven suffered from syphilis. PMID:17214130

Mai, F M M

2006-10-01

19

Prognostic value of circulating amino-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine molecule which is mainly synthesized in the vasculature. High levels have been reported in sepsis, and CNP has been proposed as a biomarker predicting sepsis in traumatized patients. We aimed at evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of N-terminal pro-CNP (NT-proCNP) for predicting sepsis, disease severity and mortality in critically ill medical patients. Methods 273 critically ill patients (197 patients with sepsis or septic shock, 76 without evidence of sepsis) and 43 healthy controls were consecutively included in a prospective clinical single-center non-interventional study at the Medical Intensive Care Unit, RWTH-University Aachen, Germany. Patients' outcome was followed for about 1 year. NT-proCNP serum concentrations were determined upon ICU admission, as well as in the mornings of day 3 and day 7 after admission. Intensive care treatment measures as well as routine and experimental laboratory parameters were recorded and analyzed. Results NT-proCNP serum concentrations upon admission to the ICU were elevated in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. Patients with sepsis had significantly higher NT-proCNP levels than non-sepsis patients. NT-proCNP was strongly associated with inflammatory parameters (i.e. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and TNF-?), biomarkers of organ dysfunction and clinical composite scores (APACHE-II, SOFA, SAPS2). NT-proCNP levels at admission and day 3 were found to be a strong predictive marker for ICU- and overall survival. Moreover, a decline of serum NT-proCNP after admission to the ICU was associated with reduced mortality. The predictive power of serum NT-proCNP was similar to 'conventional' prognostic tools such as clinical scores. Conclusions NT-proCNP is significantly elevated in critically ill patients, with highest levels in sepsis. Inflammation as well as organ function are strongly associated with NT-proCNP serum concentrations. Low initial NT-proCNP levels and a decline during initial treatment indicate a favourable ICU- and long-term outcome. PMID:21281508

2011-01-01

20

Dana-Farber study finds terminally ill cancer patients who discuss end-of-life care early can avoid needlessly aggressive treatment later on  

Cancer.gov

Terminally ill cancer patients who have an early talk with their physician about care at the end-of-life are less likely to receive aggressive therapy – and more likely to enter hospice care – than patients who delay such discussions until the days and weeks before death, a new study by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers suggests.

21

Development of Wernicke encephalopathy in a terminally ill cancer patient consuming an adequate diet: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Malignancy-associated primary thiamine deficiency has been documented in several experimental tumors, clinical case reports, and in patients with fast growing malignancies. We report a terminally ill cancer patient who developed delirium. Close examination of the patient demonstrated that delirium was caused by thiamine deficiency, although she had been consuming an average of 990 cal/day for the past 3 weeks. Malabsorption or consumption by the tumor was considered the mechanism of thiamine deficiency. Early recognition and subsequent treatment resulted in successful palliation of delirium. In terminally ill cancer patients, clinicians must remain aware of the possibility of Wernicke's encephalopathy, when the patients develop unexplained delirium, even if the patient has been consuming adequate amounts of food. Early intervention may correct the symptoms and prevent irreversible brain damage, and the quality of life for the patient may improve. PMID:17039989

Yae, Suzu; Okuno, Shigeko; Onishi, Hideki; Kawanishi, Chiaki

2005-12-01

22

Exploring preferences for place of death with terminally ill patients: qualitative study of experiences of general practitioners and community nurses in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the experiences and perceptions of general practitioners and community nurses in discussing preferences for place of death with terminally ill patients.Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 17 general practitioners and 19 nurses (16 district nurses, three clinical nurse specialists).Setting 15 general practices participating in the Gold Standards Framework for palliative care from three

Daniel Munday; Mila Petrova; Jeremy Dale

2009-01-01

23

Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients Toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In jurisdictions that permit euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, patients with cancer com- prise the largest group to die by these methods. We in- vestigated the personal attitudes toward these practices of patients receiving palliative care for advanced cancer. Methods: Seventy patients (32 men and 38 women; median survival, 44.5 days) took part in a survey using in-depth semistructured interviews.

Keith G. Wilson; John F. Scott; Ian D. Graham; Jean F. Kozak; Susan Chater; Raymond A. Viola; Barbara J. de Faye; Lynda A. Weaver; Dorothyann Curran

24

The Family physician and the Terminally Ill Elderly  

PubMed Central

Palliative care rests on the three pillars of symptom control, communication, and family support. As our patient population ages, we family doctors will be increasingly involved in the care of the terminally ill elderly at home. Terminal illnesses are much more common in the elderly, and often death can be predicted. Family doctors have a most important role in co-ordinating the home-support services, in providing comfort care, and in supporting the family members who are caring for the terminally ill elderly at home. PMID:21248995

Eaton, Bill

1989-01-01

25

Dana-Farber study finds most terminally ill cancer patients discuss end-of-life care with physicians, but often late in their illness  

Cancer.gov

The vast majority of patients with incurable lung or colorectal cancer talk with a physician about their options for care at the end of life, but often not until late in the course of their illness, according to a new study by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators published in the Feb. 7 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

26

Conceptualizing Alzheimer's disease as a terminal medical illness.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is a common illness of the elderly population, with an estimated prevalence of 4.5 million people in the United States and 24.3 million worldwide. Despite current pharmaceutic advances in delaying disease progression, there is no cure. This article reviews the evidence for conceptualizing Alzheimer's disease as a terminal medical illness. Discussed are principles of palliative care as applied to the patient with Alzheimer's disease and the patient's family. PMID:17347512

Wolf-Klein, Gisele; Pekmezaris, Renee; Chin, Lisa; Weiner, Joseph

2007-01-01

27

The chronically ill patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatry's renewed interest in its identity as a medical specialty and its increased therapeutic armamentarium make its involvement with chronically medically ill patients more feasible than ever before. These patients face problems which include economic ones, conflicts between independency and dependency, those connected with self-image, intra-family stresses including sexual ones, social isolation and the threat of death. Patients respond to

Norman B. Levy

1979-01-01

28

Intentions in wishes to die: analysis and a typology – A report of 30 qualitative case studies of terminally ill cancer patients in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the variations in and intentions of wishes to die (WTD) of palliative care cancer patients. Methods Thirty terminally ill cancer patients, their caregivers and relatives in a hospice, an oncology palliative care ward of a general hospital, and an outpatient palliative care service. 116 semistructured qualitative interviews analyzed by a combined approach using Grounded Theory and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Results A WTD is dynamic and interactive. Its subjective phenomenology can be described by three aspects: intentions, motivations, and interactions. In this article, we present a typology of the possible intentions. We identified nine different (ideal) types of intentions that WTD statements might have, other than wishing to live and accepting death. Many WTD statements do not imply a desire to hasten death. The intentions of statements differ according to whether a WTD is related to as imaginary or as an action. Often WTD statements contain several partial wishes, which can be in tension with each other and form a dynamic, sometimes unstable equilibrium. Conclusions Terminally ill persons' WTD statements differ in their intention, and deeper knowledge about these differences is ethically relevant. PMID:24706488

Ohnsorge, K; Gudat, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

2014-01-01

29

Cautious Application of Pleural N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure Pleural Effusions among Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Several studies on diagnostic accuracy of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for effusions from congestive heart failure (CHF) conclude that pleural NT-pro-BNP is a useful biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing CHF effusions. However, its applicability in critical care settings remains uncertain and requires further investigations. Methods NT-proBNP was measured in pleural fluid samples of a prospective cohort of intensive care unit patients with pleural effusions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy of pleural NT-proBNP for prediction of CHF effusions. Results One hundred forty-seven critically ill patients were evaluated, 38 (26%) with CHF effusions and 109 (74%) with non-CHF effusions of various causes. Pleural NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with CHF effusions. Pleural NT-pro-BNP demonstrated the area under the curve of 0.87 for diagnosing effusions due to CHF. With a cutoff of 2200 pg/mL, pleural NT-proBNP displayed high sensitivity (89%) but moderate specificity (73%). Notably, 29 (27%) of 109 patients with non-CHF effusions had pleural NT-proBNP levels >2200 pg/mL and these patients were more likely to experience septic shock (18/29 vs. 10/80, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (19/29 vs. 9/80, P<0.001). Conclusions Among critically ill patients, pleural NT-proBNP measurements remain a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of pleural effusions. However, patients with non-CHF effusions may exhibit high pleural NT-proBNP concentrations if they suffer from septic shock or acute kidney injury. Accordingly, it is suggested that clinical context should be taken into account when interpreting pleural NT-proBNP values in critical care settings. PMID:25502236

Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Chun-Ta; Liu, Chia-Hsiung; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Chien, Ying-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Ku, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen

2014-01-01

30

How accurate are physicians' clinical predictions of survival and the available prognostic tools in estimating survival times in terminally ill cancer patients? A systematic review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to examine the accuracy of physicians' clinical predictions of survival and the available prognostic tools in estimating survival times in terminally ill cancer patients. A MEDLINE search for English language articles published between 1966 and March 2000 was performed using the following keywords: forecasting/clinical prediction, prognosis/prognostic factors, survival and neoplasm metastasis. Searches in CancerLit, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and reference sections of articles were performed. Studies were included if they concerned adult patients with various cancer histological diagnoses and employed clinical prediction and the readily available clinical parameters. Biochemical and molecular markers were excluded. Grading of the evidence and recommendations was performed. Twelve articles on clinical prediction and 19 on prognostic factors met the inclusion criteria. Clinical prediction tends to be incorrect in the optimistic direction but improves with repeated measurements. Performance status has been found to be most strongly correlated with the duration of survival, followed by the 'terminal syndrome', which includes anorexia, weight loss and dysphagia. Cognitive failure and confusion have also been associated with a shorter life span. Performance status combined with clinical symptoms and the clinician's estimate helps to guide an accurate prediction, as reviewed in an Italian series. There is fair evidence to support using performance status, and clinical and biochemical parameters, in addition to clinicians' judgement to aid survival prediction. However, there is weak evidence to support that clinicians' estimates alone could be specifically employed for survival prediction. PMID:11527298

Chow, E; Harth, T; Hruby, G; Finkelstein, J; Wu, J; Danjoux, C

2001-01-01

31

Conceptualizing Alzheimer's Disease as a Terminal Medical Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is a common illness of the elderly population, with an estimated prevalence of 4.5 million people in the United States and 24.3 million worldwide. Despite current pharmaceutic advances in delaying disease progression, there is no cure. This article reviews the evidence for conceptualizing Alzheimer's disease as a terminal medical illness. Discussed are principles of palliative care as applied

Gisele Wolf-Klein; Renee Pekmezaris; Lisa Chin; Joseph Weiner

2007-01-01

32

Death anxiety and care of the terminally-ill: A review of the clinical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on death anxiety as it relates to psychosocial care of the terminally ill. The literature strongly supports the need for caregivers to understand their own fears and feelings in order to deal with terminal patients. The negative potential consequences of misunderstood feelings about death are discussed as well as several major correlates (sex, socioeconomic status, occupation, general

Gary A. Shady

1976-01-01

33

Occult hypoadrenalism in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

No clear criteria exist to rule out hypoadrenal shock by cosyntropin (alpha 1-24-corticotropin, a synthetic subunit of adrenocorticotropic hormone) testing in persons who have critical nonadrenal illness. Four patients in the surgical intensive care unit with critical multisystem disease and refractory high cardiac output, low vascular resistance shock had significantly diminished or terminated vasopressor requirements after institution of hydrocortisone sodium succinate infusion in doses simulating physiologic stress response (100 to 300 mg of hydrocortisone per day). In each case, cosyntropin testing revealed serum cortisol levels higher than those usually associated with hypoadrenal shock. Positive response was defined as maintenance of blood pressure with a decrease to less than 25% of baseline pressor requirements within 48 hours of treatment. We hypothesize a syndrome of functional hypoadrenalism in patients with multisystem critical illness and refractory shock responsive to glucocorticoid administration in doses simulating physiologic stress response despite cosyntropin stimulation test results that would rule out hypoadrenalism in a normal person. PMID:8503772

Baldwin, W A; Allo, M

1993-06-01

34

Corticosteroid Insufficiency in Acutely Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

n increase in tissue corticosteroid levels during acute ill- ness is an important protective response. Many diseases and their treatments interfere with the normal corticosteroid response to illness and thus induce tissue corticosteroid insufficiency. In this article, we review the physiology of the cor- ticosteroid response to acute illness, describe the clinical features of hypoadrenalism in patients with acute illness,

Mark S. Cooper; Paul M. Stewart

2010-01-01

35

Economic Impact of Terminal Illness and the Willingness to Change It  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To gather pilot data on the economic impact of terminal illness on families and on the feasibility of training caregivers as a method of stemming illness-related poverty. Design Exploratory, descriptive study involving semistructured interviews with patient and caregiver dyads. Setting Pallium India Palliative Care Clinic in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Participants Eleven patient–caregiver dyads (22 individual participants) visiting Pallium India in 2008. Methods Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews consisting of 114 questions with the patient and caregiver separately. Questions covered topics of economic impact of illness on household, family, and individual. Questions included if the illness had so impacted families that they needed to sell assets or significantly reduce work and/or schooling. Results All families reported that patients were obliged to give up work as a result of illness. In seven families, the caregiver also had to change work habits. All respondents stated illness had forced them to sell assets. Ten households reported that their children were obliged to miss school due to the illness. All respondents indicated they would use trained caregivers to help with the care burden if available. Nine respondents thought that use of trained caregivers would have reduced or prevented some of the household's illness-related change. Nine caregivers said they would be interested in becoming a trained caregiver. Conclusion These data indicate that a definitive study would be feasible and would reveal how much assistance caregiver training could lend to household socio-economic resilience. PMID:20712463

Emanuel, Natalia; Simon, Melissa Andrea; Burt, Michael; Joseph, Aneeja; Sreekumar, Nirmala; Kundu, Tapas; Khemka, Vivek; Biswas, Basudeb; Rajagopal, M.R.

2010-01-01

36

On withholding nutrition and hydration in the terminally ill: has palliative medicine gone too far?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores ethical issues relating to the management of patients who are terminally ill and unable to maintain their own nutrition and hydration. A policy of sedation without hydration or nutrition is used in palliative medicine under certain circumstances. The author argues that this policy is dangerous, medically, ethically and legally, and can be disturbing for relatives. The role

G M Craig

1994-01-01

37

Responding to the needs of the terminally ill through laughter and play.  

PubMed

Care for the terminally ill has greatly expanded. Humor and play, however, remain largely unexplored, surrendered to the cultural expectation of dignity and respect for the dying. This paper suggests several uses of humor and play with the dying, and the benefits of these interventions with patients, families, and care givers. PMID:2713108

Graham, L L; Cates, J A

1989-01-01

38

Probiotics in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Severe sepsis with associated multisystem organ dysfunction is a leading cause of death in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multisystem organ dysfunction owing to a breakdown of intestinal barrier function and increased translocation of bacteria and bacterial components into the systemic circulation. During critical illness, alterations occur in gut microflora owing to several factors, including changes in circulating stress hormones, gut ischemia, immunosuppression, the use of antibiotics, and lack of nutrients. The importance of endogenous strains of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in maintaining intestinal barrier function and also in modulating mucosal and systemic immune responses is becoming evident from numerous studies. Bacteria in synbiotic (prebiotic and probiotic combinations) and probiotic (mutistrain combinations) preparations are being used experimentally in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, liver transplantation, and in trauma patients. Recent studies have shown treatment of patients with multiple trauma or acute pancreatitis with synbiotic preparations resulted in reduced rates of infection, sepsis, and mortality in patients. Enterally fed patients in the intensive care unit treated with a probiotic compound demonstrated enhanced immune function and decreased incidence of diarrhea. Results from these clinical trials are encouraging, and warrant further investigation to clarify which probiotic bacterial strains are of most benefit to this population. PMID:18806700

Madsen, Karen

2008-09-01

39

End-of-Life Care for Children With Terminal Illness (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

End-of-Life Care for Children With Terminal Illness KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Caring for a Seriously or Chronically Ill Child > End-of- ... families cope with terminal illness. What Is Hospice Care? Hospice care, sometimes called end-of-life palliative ...

40

A review on how meditation could be used to comfort the terminally ill.  

PubMed

Objective: Our objective was to review how meditation could comfort the terminally ill. Method: Our methodology was a literature search, which included books, journals, papers in collections, and online databases. The main search engines employed were Google Scholar and the Durham University Library. The main databases consulted were the Christian Meditation Centre, Project Meditation, and Stress-Related Facts and Well-Being at Monash. We were specifically interested in data acquired from clinical and nonclinical trials. The arguments needed to be based on qualitative and quantitative scientific data. Papers were published between 1985 and 2014. We then subdivided the review into three subcategories: physical, emotional, and self-awareness. When reviewing each category, we put our results into tabular form. In each table, we noted the percentage of terminally ill patients (TIPs) and non-terminally ill patients (NTIPs), and whether meditation had comforted them. Results: Our review demonstrated that there are many areas that have yet to be researched. First, very little work has been done on how meditation affects the physical health of TIPs, including such variables as blood pressure, chronic pain, and sleeping patterns. However, no research has been done on heart disease, hypertension, depression, among others. Second, virtually no research has been conducted on how meditation affects the mental health of TIPs. Notably neglected areas include anxiety, compliance, depression, and stress. Third, no research has been done on whether meditation increases self-awareness in TIPs. In each of these cases, most NTIPs reacted positively; however, no research has been done on why TIPs reacted differently. Significance of Results: Our results demonstrate the need for further research on how meditation affects terminally ill patients. In turn, this would enrich the debate on whether meditation should be prescribed for the dying. PMID:25354470

Ball, Michael Stephen; Vernon, Bryan

2014-10-30

41

Nutritional requirements of the critically ill patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence or development of malnutrition during critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people. Recognition that malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients emphasizes the need to properly address the nutritional requirements of hospitalized dogs and cats. Because of a lack in veterinary studies evaluating the nutritional requirements of critically ill small animals, current recommendations

Daniel L Chan

2004-01-01

42

Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.

2007-01-01

43

A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Dextromethorphan Plus SlowRelease Morphine for Chronic Cancer Pain Relief in Terminally Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multicenter trial examined the efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan (DM) as an enhancer of analgesia and modulator of opioid tolerance in cancer patients with pain. Eligible patients were randomized to slow-release morphine plus DM or slow-release morphine plus placebo. The initial DM dose was 60mg four times daily for seven days, with an increase to 120mg four times daily,

Deborah J. Dudgeon; Eduardo Bruera; Bruno Gagnon; Sharon M. Watanabe; Sharon J. Allan; David G. Warr; Susan M. MacDonald; Colleen Savage; Dongsheng Tu; Joseph L. Pater

2007-01-01

44

Insulin therapy in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycemia frequently occurs with acute medical illness, especially among patients with cardiovascular disease, and has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Even patients who are normoglycemic can develop hyperglycemia in response to acute metabolic stress. An expanding body of literature describes the benefits of normalizing hyperglycemia with insulin therapy in hospitalized patients. As a result, both the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Endocrinology have developed guidelines for optimal control of hyperglycemia, specifically targeting critically ill, hospitalized patients. Conventional blood glucose values of 140–180 mg/dL are considered desirable and safely achievable in most patients. More aggressive control to <110 mg/dL remains controversial, but has shown benefits in certain patients, such as those in surgical intensive care. Intravenous infusion is often used for initial insulin administration, which can then be transitioned to subcutaneous insulin therapy in those patients who require continued insulin maintenance. This article reviews the data establishing the link between hyperglycemia and its risks of morbidity and mortality, and describes strategies that have proven effective in maintaining glycemic control in high-risk hospitalized patients. PMID:21191429

Ellahham, Samer

2010-01-01

45

Monitoring the microcirculation in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Alterations in microvascular perfusion have been identified in critically ill patients, especially in sepsis but also in cardiogenic shock, after cardiac arrest, and in high-risk surgery patients. These alterations seem to be implicated in the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with outcome. Even though microvascular perfusion can sometimes be homogenously decreased as in acute hemorrhage or in non-resuscitated cardiogenic shock, heterogeneity of perfusion is observed in sepsis and in resuscitated hemorrhagic/cardiogenic shock. Heterogeneity of perfusion has major implications for monitoring, as many techniques cannot detect microcirculatory alterations when heterogeneity of flow is present in significant amount. Indeed, devices such as laser Doppler or O2 electrodes and near-infrared spectroscopy have a relatively large sampling volume and measurements are affected by the highest values in the field. Using these techniques during a vascular occlusion test may help to characterize microvascular reactivity; however, microvascular reactivity sometimes fails to represent actual microvascular perfusion. Videomicroscopic techniques can nowadays be applied at bedside but are still restricted to some selected patients (quiet or sedated patients). Tissue PCO2 is an elegant alternative but is not yet broadly used. In this manuscript, we discuss the main advantages and limitations of the techniques available for bedside evaluation of the microcirculation in critically ill patients. PMID:25480773

De Backer, Daniel; Durand, Arthur

2014-12-01

46

Nutrition support in the critically ill patient.  

PubMed

Despite an absence of well-controlled studies demonstrating a clear mortality benefit, providing nutrition support in the critically ill patient has become routine in most ICU settings. Unless clearly contraindicated, patients should be fed enterally, using conventional isotonic feedings employing gastric or postpyloric access. When to begin nutrition support varies, depending on baseline nutritional status, anticipated time until oral feedings are resumed, and the degree of stress. Energy and protein requirements should be assessed routinely with minimum goals of avoiding overfeeding and minimizing any net negative nitrogen balance. All patients receiving feedings require close surveillance to identify predictable complications and to tailor therapy to achieve nutritional goals. Adjunctive therapies should be employed as needed to help achieve nutritional goals, eg, insulin infusions to control serum glucose and prokinetic agents to improve gastric emptying. When feasible and safe, parenterally fed patients should be transitioned to enteral or oral feedings when appropriate. PMID:11852967

Case, K O; Cuddy, P G; Dooling McGurk, E P

2000-02-01

47

Tobacco use treatment in primary care patients with psychiatric illness  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of smoking is higher in patients with psychiatric illness compared to the general population. Smoking causes chronic illnesses which lead to premature mortality in those with psychiatric illness, is associated with greater burden of psychiatric symptoms, and contributes to the social isolation experienced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Most patients with psychiatric illness present initially to primary care rather than specialty care settings, and some patients receive care exclusively in the primary care setting. Therefore, family physicians and other primary care clinicians have an important role in the recognition and treatment of tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illnesses. In this article we review common myths associated with smoking and psychiatric illness, techniques in implementing evidence-based tobacco use treatments, the evidence base for tobacco use treatment for patients with specific psychiatric diagnoses, and factors to consider in treating tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:24808119

Cerimele, Joseph M.; Halperin, Abigail C.; Saxon, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

48

Moral problems experienced by nurses when caring for terminally ill people: a literature review.  

PubMed

This article is a review of the literature on the subject of how nurses who provide palliative care are affected by ethical issues. Few publications focus directly on the moral experience of palliative care nurses, so the review was expanded to include the moral problems experienced by nurses in the care of the terminally ill patients. The concepts are first defined, and then the moral attitudes of nurses, the threats to their moral integrity, the moral problems that are perceived by nurses, and the emotional consequences of these moral problems are considered in turn. The results show that the moral behaviour of nurses, which is theoretically grounded in commitment to care and to the patient, appears to be shaped by specific processes that lead to engagement or to mental and behavioural disengagement in morally difficult situations. Nurses often appear to fail to recognize the moral dimensions of the problems they experience and also to lack the skills they need to resolve moral problems adequately. Although the findings show that several elements that are beyond the control of nurses, owing to their lack of autonomy and authority, influence their moral experience, intrinsic factors such as feelings of insecurity and powerlessness have a profound effect on nurses' perceptions and attitudes in the face of moral problems. The moral problems perceived by these nurses are related to end-of-life issues, communication with patients, the suffering of patients, and the appropriateness of the medical treatment. PMID:11944206

Georges, Jean-Jacques; Grypdonck, Mieke

2002-03-01

49

Monitoring the critically ill surgical patient.  

PubMed Central

Critically ill surgical patients account for approximately half the patients in an active multidisciplinary critical care unit. Hypovolemia and sepsis are common in such patients and affect a number of organ systems. Monitoring these systems provides therapeutically relevant information that may decrease morbidity and improve patient survival. Circulatory hemodynamics may be assessed by direct measurement of the arterial blood pressure, central venous and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and cardiac output determination; the data thus obtained are valuable in guiding fluid replacement in the hypovolemic individual. The respiratory status may be assessed by bedside spirometry and measurement of arterial blood gas tensions to gauge pulmonary function and the need for assisted ventilation. Renal dysfunction is common in such patients; careful analysis of both urine and blood may identify prerenal as opposed to renal and postrenal factors. Monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract, especially for hemorrhage, is important. Finally, careful attention to nutritional status and provision of adequate protein and energy intake by mouth or by vein is a vital component of the optimal care of these patients. PMID:115566

Holliday, R L; Doris, P J

1979-01-01

50

The use of narcotic analgesics in terminal illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To answer some of the questions surrounding the medicinal use of narcotic analgesics in advanced cancer, a group of 500 patients admitted to St Christopher's Hospice was reviewed. To achieve and maintain pain relief many of the patients received diamorphine (heroin) regularly every four hours. Almost all the patients received a phenothiazine concurrently; other drugs were prescribed when indicated. It

Robert G Twycross

1975-01-01

51

Dignity in the terminally ill: a developing empirical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite use of the term dignity in arguments for and against a patient's self-governance in matters pertaining to death, there is little empirical research on how this term has been used by patients who are nearing death. The objective of this study was to determine how dying patients understand and define the term dignity, in order to develop a model

Harvey Max Chochinov; Thomas Hack; Susan McClement; Linda Kristjanson; Mike Harlos

2002-01-01

52

Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis.  

PubMed

Terminal changes in frogs infected with the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) include epidermal degeneration leading to inhibited epidermal electrolyte transport, systemic electrolyte disturbances, and asystolic cardiac arrest. There are few reports of successful treatment of chytridiomycosis and none that include curing amphibians with severe disease. Three terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient temperature to 28 degrees C for 14 days. All terminally ill frogs recovered rapidly to normal activity levels and appetite within 5 days of commencing treatment. In contrast, five untreated terminally ill L. caerulea with heavy Bd infections died within 24-48 hr of becoming moribund. Subclinical infections in 15 experimentally infected L. caerulea were cured within 28 days by continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution without adverse effects. This is the first known report of a clinical treatment protocol for curing terminally ill Bd-infected frogs. PMID:22779237

Young, Sam; Speare, Rick; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

2012-06-01

53

42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM...cannot contain check boxes or standard language used for all patients. (c) Sources...record. [55 FR 50834, Dec. 11, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 36017, Aug....

2010-10-01

54

42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM...cannot contain check boxes or standard language used for all patients. (v) The...record. [55 FR 50834, Dec. 11, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 36017, Aug....

2013-10-01

55

42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.  

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM...cannot contain check boxes or standard language used for all patients. (v) The...record. [55 FR 50834, Dec. 11, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 36017, Aug....

2014-10-01

56

42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM...cannot contain check boxes or standard language used for all patients. (v) The...record. [55 FR 50834, Dec. 11, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 36017, Aug....

2011-10-01

57

42 CFR 418.22 - Certification of terminal illness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM...cannot contain check boxes or standard language used for all patients. (v) The...record. [55 FR 50834, Dec. 11, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 36017, Aug....

2012-10-01

58

Opioid prescription for terminally ill outpatients in a district of northern Italy: a retrospective survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective survey of the opioid prescriptions issued for cancer outpatients (2125) of the Treviso district (Veneto Region, northern Italy) during the time period 1993–2000 was carried out with the specific aims to establish the rate of opioid prescription and verify whether terminally ill outpatients (1697) who had died by the end of December 2000 received adequate opioid prescription, as

Chiara Salvato; Gianfranco Aretini; Donatella Serraglia; Gianni Terrazzani; Patrizia Debetto; Pietro Giusti; Alessandro Chinellato

2003-01-01

59

Ethical Guidelines for Counselors when Working with Clients with Terminal Illness Requesting Physician Aid in Dying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).

Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.

2012-01-01

60

Can an illness perception intervention reduce illness anxiety in spouses of myocardial infarction patients? A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate whether a brief in-hospital illness perception intervention for myocardial infarction (MI) patients and their spouses could change spouses' illness perceptions and reduce spouses' anxiety about the illness.

Elizabeth Broadbent; Chris J. Ellis; Janine Thomas; Greg Gamble; Keith J. Petrie

2009-01-01

61

Unsolicited written narratives as a methodological genre in terminal illness: challenges and limitations.  

PubMed

Stories about illness have proven invaluable in helping health professionals understand illness experiences. Such narratives have traditionally been solicited by researchers through interviews and the collection of personal writings, including diaries. These approaches are, however, researcher driven; the impetus for the creation of the story comes from the researcher and not the narrator. In recent years there has been exponential growth in illness narratives created by individuals, of their own volition, and made available for others to read in print or as Internet accounts. We sought to determine whether it was possible to identify such material for use as research data to explore the subject of living with the terminal illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease--the contention being that these accounts are narrator driven and therefore focus on issues of greatest importance to the affected person. We encountered and sought to overcome a number of methodological and ethical challenges, which is our focus here. PMID:21876209

O'Brien, Mary R; Clark, David

2012-02-01

62

Critical illness neuropathy in pediatric intensive care patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical illness neuropathy is an axonal polyneuropathy recognized more frequently in adult intensive care patients with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. In children the diagnosis is rarely made. Within 1 year the authors observed two children with critical illness neuropathy. Both patients, a male 6 years, 6 months of age with a brain contusion and a male 2 years, 6

Birgit Petersen; Christiane Schneider; Hans-Michael Strassburg; Lothar Schrod

1999-01-01

63

Multiple Organ System Failure in Critically Ill Cirrhotic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The prognosis for critically ill cirrhotic patients depends on the extent of hepatic and extrahepatic organ dysfunction\\/failure. We hypothesize that a graded multiple organ dysfunction score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), would provide more descriptive and discriminative power for predicting the hospital mortality for critically ill cirrhotic patients than the classical organ system failure (OSF) score, which defines organ

Ming-Hung Tsai; Yun-Shing Peng; Jau-Min Lien; Hsu-Huei Weng; Yu-Pin Ho; Chun Yang; Yin-Yi Chu; Yung-Chang Chen; Ji-Tseng Fang; Cheng-Tang Chiu; Pang-Chi Chen

2004-01-01

64

Crafting medical history: revisiting the "definitive" account of Franklin D. Roosevelt's terminal illness.  

PubMed

While revisionist historians have challenged many standard interpretations of events in the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, one account has remained virtually unscathed: an article about Roosevelt's terminal illness and death written by one of his physicians, Howard G. Bruenn. Yet this article, like all historical documents, was not "objective" but rather a reflection of social and political forces--both from the 1940s, when Roosevelt became ill, and from 1970, when Bruenn's piece was published. This essay argues that Bruenn, the Roosevelt family, and the historian James MacGregor Burns worked together to craft a document that told the story of Roosevelt's decline with a predictable trajectory. PMID:17844721

Lerner, Barron H

2007-01-01

65

Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality communication, fear of death, and…

Bachner, Yaacov G.; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

2011-01-01

66

Care of the terminal patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work of health professions there have always been those who believed that the important thing was to treat all the patients until the final consequences, but there are also those who have considered that the important thing was to treat the patient and when this was not possible, to care for him until the end. Amongst the latter

R. Buisán; J. C. Delgado

67

The Symptom Burden of Seriously Ill Hospitalized Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied symptom burden and associated factors in a cohort of 1582 seriously ill patients admitted at five tertiary care academic centers in the U.S. between June 1989 and June 1991 in the SUPPORT Study. Logistic regression was used to test the independent association of symptoms with demographic, psychological, chronic, and acute illness measures. Pain, dyspnea, anxiety, and depression caused

Norman A. Desbiens; Nancy Mueller-Rizner; Alfred F. Connors; Neil S. Wenger; Joanne Lynn

1999-01-01

68

[Terminal illness, death... in the words of professionals. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with health professionals].  

PubMed

The authors of this study are interested in listening to the experiences professional doctors and nurses who work face to face with patients in terminal phase of their illnesses have. For this reason, the authors carried out a series of in-depth interviews with these professionals in order to know the real difficulties and obstacles which these professionals experience in real cases, as well as the procedure methods followed with these patients. The authors publish the results obtained in eight of these interviews, four with doctors and four with nurses; given the length of these interviews, the authors have decided to publish them in two consecutive articles which form one complete study This study is qualitative and the analysis of data obtained has been structured around the proposed research questions, keeping the diversity and variability how to deal with patients, plus the experiences shown by those interviewed, by citing their words textually. PMID:18564789

Caro, García M P; Rio-Valle, Schmidt J; Quintana, Cruz F; Peña, Prados D; Vinuesa, Muñoz A; Pappous, Athanasios

2008-04-01

69

Thrombo-prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Thrombo-prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality in surgical patients. The purpose of this review is to find out the evidence-based clinical practice criteria of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients. English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the critically ill and medically ill population. For the same, we searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. In acutely ill medical patients on the basis of meta-analysis by Lederle et al. (40 trials) and LIFENOX study, heparin prophylaxis had no significant effect on mortality. The prophylaxis may have reduced PE in acutely ill medical patients, but led to more bleeding events, thus resulting in no net benefit. In critically ill patients, results of meta-analysis by Alhazzani et al. and PROTECT Trial indicate that any heparin prophylaxis compared with placebo reduces the rate of DVT and PE, but not symptomatic DVT. Major bleeding risk and mortality rates were similar. On the basis of MAGELLAN trial and EINSTEIN program, rivaroxaban offers a single-drug approach to the short-term and continued treatment of venous thrombosis. Aspirin has been used as antiplatelet agent, but when the data from two trials the ASPIRE and WARFASA study were pooled, there was a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thrombo-embolism and a 34% reduction in the rate of major vascular events. PMID:24987238

Saigal, Saurabh; Sharma, Jai Prakash; Joshi, Rajnish; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2014-01-01

70

The pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers addressing the pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient. Chapter topics include: Radiation injury; Red cell substitutes: a current appraisal; and Psychopharmacology in the ICU.

Chernow, B. (Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US))

1988-01-01

71

Management of the critically ill obstetric patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United Kingdom only one-third of cases ending in maternal deaths are admitted to intensive care facilities. This situation can be improved by better interdisciplinary communication, faster referral and more staffed beds. Standardized mortality ratios are lower than expected based on illness severity scores. The most common conditions requiring intensive care support are haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, sepsis and

David A Male; Martin Stockwell; Stas Jankowski

2002-01-01

72

Gentamicin volume of distribution in critically ill septic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gentamicin intrapatient pharmacokinetics variations were studied in 40 critically ill medical patients, suffering gram-negative sepsis. These patients were studied in two phases throughout gentamicin treatment: firstly, on the second day of treatment, when aggressive fluid therapy was required, and secondly, five days later, when patients had achieved a more stable clinical condition. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using least squares linear

C. Triginer; I. Izquierdo; R. Fernfindez; J. Rello; J. Torrent; S. Benito; A. Net

1990-01-01

73

Connecting with chronically ill patients to improve treatment adherence.  

PubMed

This study presents an integrative review of the literature assessing the relationships among a patient's style in coping with a long-term health condition, the patient-practitioner therapeutic alliance, and treatment adherence among chronically ill adults. Evidence-based recommendations to improve nurse practitioner-patient therapeutic alliance and treatment adherence are suggested. PMID:25140851

Silva, Giovana G; Swartz, Martha K; Molony, Sheila L

2014-09-18

74

Responding to the needs of the terminally ill through laughter and play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carefor the term inally ill has greatly expanded. Humor and play, however, remain largely unexplored, surrendered to the cultural expectation of dignity and respect for the dying. This paper suggests several uses of humor and play with the dying, and the benefits of these interventions with patients, families, and care givers.

Linda L. Graham; Jim A. Cates

1989-01-01

75

[Illness specificity and coping with illness--an empirical comparison of dialysis and heart infarct patients].  

PubMed

In a multicenter study 118 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 106 after myocardial infarction (MI) were investigated on their coping with diagnosis and onset of severe illness. A newly developed clinical coping questionnaire was applied, covering a wide range of cognitive, emotional and actional ways of coping with illness. The results indicate that more common than illness specific modes of coping were applied: Both groups primarily reported placing trust in the doctors, compliance-strategies and fighting spirit. The most helpful coping modes in ESRD- and MI-patients accordingly were information seeking, fighting spirit, active problem solving and self-encouraging in this retrospective self-report. Some illness specific differences remained, even after partializing out effects of age and education: Patients with ESRD showed more depressive coping, distraction and dissimulation. MI-patients more markedly applied internal attributions, carpe diem attitudes, and distrust in the doctors. Finally, consequences of the findings for psychosocial care for patients with chronic diseases are discussed, needs for future research are concluded. PMID:3213275

Muthny, F A

1988-01-01

76

Assessment and treatment of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient. PMID:24770692

Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando

2014-01-01

77

The strategy of antibiotic use in critically ill neutropenic patients.  

PubMed

Suspicion of sepsis in neutropenic patients requires immediate antimicrobial treatment. The initial regimen in critically ill patients should cover both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the risk of selecting multidrug-resistant pathogens should be considered when using broad-spectrum antibiotics for a prolonged period of time. The choice of the first-line empirical drugs should take into account the underlying malignancy, local bacterial ecology, clinical presentation and severity of acute illness. This review provides an up-to-date guide that will assist physicians in choosing the best strategy regarding the use of antibiotics in neutropenic patients, with a special focus on critically ill patients, based on the above-mentioned considerations and on the most recent international guidelines and literature. PMID:21906359

Legrand, Matthieu; Max, Adeline; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie; Gachot, Bertrand

2011-01-01

78

Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

2001-01-01

79

Clinical Correlates of Insomnia in Patients With Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with chronic insomnia are more likely to develop affective disorders, cardiac morbidity, and other adverse health outcomes, yet many clinicians tend to trivialize the complaint of insomnia or to at- tribute it only to psychiatric causes. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and longitudi- nal course of insomnia in patients with documented chronic medical illness and\\/or depression and to

David A. Katz; Colleen A. McHorney

1998-01-01

80

Positioning critically ill patients in hospital.  

PubMed

Although moving and handling is an important aspect of nurse training, the emphasis is often more on the health and safety of the nurse than on the importance of the correct therapeutic positioning of patients. This article outlines optimum patient positioning in different critical care settings and for different medical conditions. PMID:16013206

Griffiths, H; Gallimore, D

81

Fear of Progression in Partners of Chronically Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear of progression (FoP) is one of the most prevalent symptoms in cancer patients. This chronic disease does not only have a profound impact on patients, but also on their spouses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a spouse FoP questionnaire (FoP-Q-SF\\/P) in 227 partners of chronically ill patients (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and

Tanja Zimmermann; Peter Herschbach; Martina Wessarges; Nina Heinrichs

2011-01-01

82

Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines conceptions of trust among three groups of respondents diagnosed with either breast cancer, Lyme disease or mental illness. Interviews were carried out using an open-ended interview guide to explore how patients made assessments of trust in their doctors and health care plans. The guide followed a conceptual approach that asked questions about competence, agency\\/fiduciary responsibility, control, disclosure

David Mechanic; Sharon Meyer

2000-01-01

83

Sepsis associated with central vein catheters in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 440 critically ill patients, the association between different central vein catheter insertion sites, the duration of catheter insertion and catheter-associated sepsis was examined. Of 780 catheter tips studied, 19% were colonized by microorganisms. The incidence of colonization varied with the different insertion sites. The lowest percentage of colonized catheters occurred with catheters inserted via the subclavian vein (15%) and

P. Collignon; N. Soni; I. Pearson; T. Sorrell; P. Woods

1988-01-01

84

Inflammation biomarkers and delirium in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Delirium is a common occurrence in critically ill patients and is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Septic patients with delirium may differ from a general critically ill population. The aim of this investigation was to study the relationship between systemic inflammation and the development of delirium in septic and non-septic critically ill patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study in a 20-bed mixed intensive care unit (ICU) including 78 (delirium?=?31; non-delirium?=?47) consecutive patients admitted for more than 24 hours. At enrollment, patients were allocated to septic or non-septic groups according to internationally agreed criteria. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) during the first 72 hours of ICU admission. Blood samples were collected within 12 hours of enrollment for determination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, soluble TNF Receptor (STNFR)-1 and -2, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and adiponectin. Results Out of all analyzed biomarkers, only STNFR1 (P?=?0.003), STNFR2 (P?=?0.005), adiponectin (P?=?0.005) and IL-1? (P?patients. Adjusting for sepsis and sedation, these biomarkers were also independently associated with delirium occurrence. However, none of them were significant influenced by sepsis. Conclusions STNFR1, STNFR2, adiponectin and IL-1? were associated with delirium. Sepsis did not modify the relationship between the biomarkers and delirium occurrence. PMID:24886875

2014-01-01

85

Low triiodothyronine predicts mortality in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Alteration in thyroid hormones are seen in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units. Our objective was to study the thyroid hormone profile, prolactin and, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at admission and analyze their correlation with mortality. Materials and Methods: In this single centre, prospective, observational study, 100 consecutive patients (52M; 48F) admitted to medical ICU irrespective of diagnosis were included. Patients with previous thyroid disorders and drugs affecting thyroid function were excluded. All participants underwent complete physical examination and a single fasting blood sample obtained at admission was analyzed for total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), HbA1c, and prolactin. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 – survivors (discharged from the hospital) and Group 2 – nonsurvivors (patients succumbed to their illness inside the hospital). The data were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods and a P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 16.9 years and the mean duration of ICU stay was 3.3 ± 3.1 days. A total of 64 patients survived, whereas remaining 36 succumbed to their illness. The baseline demographic profile was comparable between survivors and nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors had low T3 when compared with survivors (49.1 ± 32.7 vs. 66.2 ± 30.1, P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference observed between survivors and nonsurvivors with respect to T4, TSH, HbA1c, and prolactin. Conclusion: Our study showed that low T3 is an important marker of mortality in critically ill patients. Admission HbA1c, prolactin, T4, and TSH did not vary between survivors and nonsurvivors. PMID:23776904

Kumar, K. V. S. Hari; Kapoor, Umesh; Kalia, Richa; Chandra, N. S. Ajai; Singh, Parikshit; Nangia, R.

2013-01-01

86

[Dialysis dose quantification in critically ill patients].  

PubMed

Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD. PMID:20672235

Casino, Francesco Gaetano

2010-01-01

87

Psychiatric complications in the critically ill cardiac patient.  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric consultation to the critically ill cardiac patient focuses on several common problems: anxiety, delirium, depression, personality reactions, and behavioral disturbances. A review of the causes and treatment of anxiety in the coronary care unit is followed by a discussion of delirium in the critically ill cardiac patient. A description of delirium associated with the use of the intraaortic balloon pump and its treatment with high doses of intravenous haloperidol is also included. After the initial crisis has been stabilized in the critical care unit, the premorbid personality traits of the patient may emerge as behavioral disturbances--particularly as the duration of stay increases. The use of psychiatric consultation completes the discussion. PMID:8219821

Sanders, K M; Cassem, E H

1993-01-01

88

Acinetobacter infections: a growing threat for critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY There has been increasing concern regarding the rise of Acinetobacter infections in critically ill patients. We extracted information regarding the relative frequency of Acinetobacter pneumonia and bacteraemia in intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients and the antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter isolates from studies identified in electronic databases. Acinetobacter infections most frequently involve the respiratory tract of intubated patients and Acinetobacter pneumonia has been more common in critically ill patients in Asian (range 4–44%) and European (0–35%) hospitals than in United States hospitals (6–11%). There is also a gradient in Europe regarding the proportion of ICU-acquired pneumonias caused by Acinetobacter with low numbers in Scandinavia, and gradually rising in Central and Southern Europe. A higher proportion of Acinetobacter isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and piperacillin/tazobactam in Asian and European countries than in the United States. The data suggest that Acinetobacter infections are a growing threat affecting a considerable proportion of critically ill patients, especially in Asia and Europe. PMID:17892629

FALAGAS, M. E.; KARVELI, E. A.; SIEMPOS, I. I.; VARDAKAS, K. Z.

2008-01-01

89

Limited-sampling strategies for anidulafungin in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Determination of the anidulafungin AUC along with MIC values can therefore be useful. Since obtaining a full concentration-time curve to determine an AUC is not always feasible or appropriate, limited-sampling strategies may be useful in adequately estimating exposure. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict the individual anidulafungin exposure in critically ill patients using limited-sampling strategies. Pharmacokinetic data were derived from 20 critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis treated with anidulafungin. These data were used to develop a two-compartment model in MW\\Pharm using an iterative 2-stage Bayesian procedure. Limited-sampling strategies were subsequently investigated using two methods, a Bayesian analysis and a linear regression analysis. The best possible strategies for these two methods were evaluated by a Bland-Altman analysis for correlation of the predicted and observed AUC from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) values. Anidulafungin exposure can be adequately estimated with the concentration from a single sample drawn 12 h after the start of the infusion either by linear regression (R(2) = 0.99; bias, 0.05%; root mean square error [RMSE], 3%) or using a population pharmacokinetic model (R(2) = 0.89; bias, -0.1%; RMSE, 9%) in critically ill patients and also in less severely ill patients, as reflected by healthy volunteers. Limited sampling can be advantageous for future studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anidulafungin and for therapeutic drug monitoring in selected patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01047267.). PMID:25487797

van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J P; Proost, Johannes H; Rodgers, Michael G G; Zijlstra, Jan G; Uges, Donald R A; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

2015-02-01

90

Venous thromboembolism in medical critically ill patients: prevalence and incidence.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of venous thromboembolism among critically ill medical surgical patients. In this cross sectional and retrospective study, we observed 243 patients who were first admitted at the intensive care unit. Patients who were diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis or embolism either by clinical or paraclinical methods were enrolled. Among 243 patients of ICU ward 12 cases of them were confirmed to have thromboembolism (prevalence of 9.4%).But the incidence of venous thromboembolism after 48 hour of ICU admission was 5.2%(6 cases). Among 6 VTE cases 3 of them didn't receive any anticoagulant prophylaxis, 2 patients received LDUH 5000 unit twice a day and one patient received LMWH 60 mg daily but all developed VTE although receiving prophylaxis. We found that the prevalence of proximal lower limb DVT among medical-surgical critically ill patients remaining in the ICU for ?3 days is about 9.4% and the incidence of that is about 5.2%. Further studies should be performed in order to assess the benefits and risks of venous thromboprophylaxis in Iranian patients. PMID:23605601

Adimi Naghan, Parisa; Malekmohammad, Majid; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Sharifkashani, Babak; Najafi, Arvin; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

2013-01-01

91

Critically Ill Cancer Patients are not Consistently Hypercoagulable after Craniotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recent reports using thrombelastography have suggested that neurosurgical patients develop a hypercoagulable state in the\\u000a postoperative period. Since venous thromboembolism is a potentially life threatening complication in these patients, we studied\\u000a a similar population in our institution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective pilot study to evaluate postoperative coagulation changes in critically ill cancer patients after\\u000a craniotomy. Data collected included demographics, diagnoses,

Joseph L. Nates; Natarajan Aravindan; Cheryl Hirsch-Ginsberg; Kurt C. Sizer; Spencer Kee; Anh T. Nguyen; Karen Chen; Andrew D. Shaw; Kristen J. Price

2007-01-01

92

Illness perception differences between Russian- and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients.  

PubMed

Illness perception influences health and illness behaviors. This study was designed to estimate illness perception differences between Russian-speaking and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients. Changes in illness perception associated with time spent in Israel among Russian-speaking patients were also evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated differences in illness perception of patients exposed to Chernobyl's consequences. A total of 144 oncology patients (77 Hebrew-speaking, 67 Russian-speaking) completed personal data questionnaires and The illness perception questionnaire revised, translated into Russian for this study. Significantly more Russian-speaking oncology patients perceived their illness as chronic and having negative consequences on life (p < .01). Russian-speaking oncology patients tend to have a more negative perception of cancer compared to Hebrew-speaking patients. Time spent in Israel may create more positive perceptions of cancer among these patients. No illness perception differences were found concerning Chernobyl consequences. PMID:24492913

Popov, Nadia; Heruti, Irit; Levy, Sigal; Lulav-Grinwald, Doron; Bar-Sela, Gil

2014-03-01

93

Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in ICU patients and is associated with a two- to fivefold increase in mortality. This paper provides a reappraisal of the management of AF with a special focus on critically ill patients with haemodynamic instability. AF can cause hypotension and heart failure with subsequent organ dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms are the loss of atrial contraction and the high ventricular rate. In unstable patients, sinus rhythm must be rapidly restored by synchronised electrical cardioversion (ECV). If pharmacological treatment is indicated, clinicians can choose between the rate control and the rhythm control strategy. The optimal substance should be selected depending on its potential adverse effects. A beta-1 antagonist with a very short half-life (e.g., esmolol) is an advantage for ICU patients because the effect of beta-blockade on cardiovascular stability is unpredictable in those patients. Amiodarone is commonly used in the ICU setting but has potentially severe cardiac and noncardiac side effects. Digoxin controls the ventricular response at rest, but its benefit decreases in the presence of adrenergic stress. Vernakalant converts new-onset AF to sinus rhythm in approximately 50% of patients, but data on its efficacy and safety in critically ill patients are lacking. PMID:24527212

Arrigo, Mattia

2014-01-01

94

Improving Primary Care for Patients With Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic care model is a guide to higher-quality chronic illness manage- ment within primary care. The model predicts that improvement in its 6 in- terrelated components—self-management support, clinical information sys- tems, delivery system redesign, decision support, health care organization, and community resources—can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. Case stud- ies

Thomas Bodenheimer; Edward H. Wagner; Kevin Grumbach

2002-01-01

95

[Recommendations for artificial nutritional support in critically ill patients].  

PubMed

The development of artificial nutritional support has been increased in the last years. Access routes and composition of formulas have been improved. Critic patients is a group of great controversy in this topic area. Enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, acute pancreatitis, burn and septic with a A level of evidence. Enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel disease, chronic hepatopathy, surgery ot digestive tract in patients with cancer disease, patients with HIV infection and patients with politraumatism. Parenteral nutrition is better than enteral nutrition in patients with haematopoyetic transplantation with a B level of evidence. Some nutrients have been shown a beneficial effect in artificial nutritional support such as (diets low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates) (level A), diets with inmunonutrients in patients with surgery of digestive tract cancer (level B), diet enhanced with w3 fatty acids in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (level C), and patients with HIV infection (level B), diets enriched with glutamin in patients with politraumatism and haematopoyetic transplantation (level B). Specific diets have not been shown beneficial effects in some pathologies (short bowel syndrome, acute pancreatitis, renal insufficiency treated with dialysis, and respiratory insufficiency). Diets with arginine are contraindicated in septic critically ill patients (level A). In conclusion, artificial nutritional support in critic patients is a controversy topic area with a high level of change in knowledgments with new improvements in access route, diets and designs of interventional trials. PMID:16938246

de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocío; Culebras, Jesús

2006-07-01

96

Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness.  

PubMed

This paper examines conceptions of trust among three groups of respondents diagnosed with either breast cancer, Lyme disease or mental illness. Interviews were carried out using an open-ended interview guide to explore how patients made assessments of trust in their doctors and health care plans. The guide followed a conceptual approach that asked questions about competence, agency/fiduciary responsibility, control, disclosure and confidentiality. Respondents were given ample opportunity to raise other areas of concern. The data were organized using the NUDIST software package for the analysis of non-numerical and unstructured qualitative data. Patients viewed trust as an iterative process and commonly tested their physicians against their knowledge and expectations. Interpersonal competence, involving caring, concern and compassion, was the most common aspect of trust reported, with listening as a central focus. Most patient comments referred to learnable skills and not simply to personality characteristics. Technical competence also received high priority but was often assessed by reputation or interpersonal cues. Patients were much concerned that doctors be their agents and fight for their interests with health care plans. Disclosure and confidentiality were less common concerns; most patients anticipated that doctors would be honest with them and respect their confidences. Patients' responses also appeared to vary by their disease, their socio-demographic characteristics, their involvement with self-help groups, and how their illness conditions unfolded. PMID:10975226

Mechanic, D; Meyer, S

2000-09-01

97

Pharmacokinetics of midazolam in critically ill pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Midazolam is frequently used to produce sedation in critically ill pediatric patients. We studied the pharmacokinetics of\\u000a midazolam in 22 patients (age 8 days to 16 years). The intravenous infusion rate to produce sedation ranged from 49–385 mcg\\/kg\\/hr.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The blood samples were obtained at steady-state and midazolam was measured by gas chromatography with electron capture. The\\u000a steady — state plasma

Milap C. Nahara; Julie McMorrow; Paul R. Jones; David Anglin; Robert Rosenberg

2000-01-01

98

Management of terminal illness: a medical school-hospice partnership model to teach medical students about end-of-life care.  

PubMed

Physicians are not only called upon to deal with biological, but also with psychosocial issues and concerns in the treatment of the terminally ill. Their training, however, usually does not prepare them to value palliative care, or help them cope with personal feelings about death and possible grief over a patient's loss. The authors describe what one medical school is doing regarding the challenge of preparing medical students to deal more competently and confidently with end-of-life scenarios they will encounter as primary care practitioners in underserved areas of a rural state. PMID:12824147

Cowell, Daniel D; Farrell, Charlene; Campbell, Nichole A; Canady, Brittany E

2002-01-01

99

Evidence to Support Tooth Brushing in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Tooth brushing in critically ill patients has been advocated by many as a standard of care despite the limited evidence to support this practice. Attention has been focused on oral care as the evidence accumulates to support an association between the bacteria in the oral microbiome and those respiratory pathogens that cause pneumonia. It is plausible to assume that respiratory pathogens originating in the oral cavity are aspirated into the lungs, causing infection. A recent study of the effects of a powered toothbrush on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was stopped early because of a lack of effect in the treatment group. This review summarizes the evidence that supports the effectiveness of tooth brushing in critically ill adults and children receiving mechanical ventilation. Possible reasons for the lack of benefit of tooth brushing demonstrated in clinical trials are discussed. Recommendations for future trials in critically ill patients are suggested. With increased emphasis being placed on oral care, the evidence that supports this intervention must be evaluated carefully. PMID:21532045

Ames, Nancy J.

2012-01-01

100

Jail hospitalization of prearraignment patient arrestees with mental illness.  

PubMed

A growing number of individuals with mental illness are receiving psychiatric treatment in the criminal justice system. However, mental health problems facing individuals immediately after arrest and before arraignment have not been adequately studied. In New York City, prearraignment arrestees who require psychiatric hospitalization are temporarily transferred from police custody to correctional custody and admitted to the Bellevue Jail Psychiatry Service (BJPS) for treatment. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of this jail hospitalization on the legal disposition of this vulnerable population. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 204 consecutively admitted male patient-arrestees on the BJPS. Results showed that admission to the BJPS delayed arraignment by an average of 8.03 days, with longer delays for individuals arrested outside of Manhattan. Although these delays are considered acceptable under legal precedent, concerns arise about the therapeutic impact of this practice on newly arrested individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:24618522

Gray, Susan M; Racine, Christopher W; Smith, Christopher W; Ford, Elizabeth B

2014-01-01

101

IGF-I concentration and changes in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) is an anabolic growth factor that affects nitrogen balance and its changing trend is not clearly understood in critically ill patients. This study was carried out to evaluate the association between serum IGF-I levels and its changing trend in critically ill patients. METHODS: In this nested case-control study, all consecutive patients admitted to the medical ICU of Rasoul-e-Akram and Firuzgar hospital (Tehran, Iran) from January through October 2008 were included. IGF1 concentration was measured within the first 24h of ICU admission and the fourth, seventh and tenth day since admission. Patients were followed until discharge from ICU or expiration. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 90 patients (mean age: 58.01 ± 22.56), 31 (34.4%) of who died and 59 (65.6%) were discharged. On admission, 43 patients (47.7%) had low IGF-I levels, whereas 47 (52.3%) had normal or high levels. The concentration of IGF-I was not significantly different in every 4 measurements between expired and discharged patients. Significant decrease was seen between first to fourth day IGF-I concentration (p = 0.005). Changing trend was not statistically different in two groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no relation between low IGF-I concentration on admission day and increased adverse outcome, but overall these patients had lower IGF1. No clear association was found between changing trend of IGF1 and mortality. Stress on admission time may cause decreasing pattern of IGF-I in the first 4 days of admission. PMID:22091227

Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Khamseh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Gholami, Saeid; Kerman, Scott Reza Jafarian; Gohardehi, Golnar; Moghadam, Negar Seifi; Sabet, Azade Shafiee; Moradi, Masoud; Mollahoseini, Reza; Najafi, Mehri; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

102

Assessing Patients' Palliative Care Needs in the Final Stages of Illness During Hospitalization.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the palliative care needs of inpatients in the final stages of illness and to analyze the factors that influence them. The survey comprised 349 inpatients in the terminal stage of disease. Needs were assessed with the Patient Needs Assessment in Palliative Care (PNAP) questionnaire; mental status was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The importance of needs varied with respect to patients' diagnosis, age, gender, religion, and their levels of anxiety and depression. Most frequently, predictors of needs importance were lower age, poorer functional status, higher anxiety, and lower depression scores. Unmet needs were more likely to be indicated by nonreligious patients with better functional status and higher anxiety and depression scores. PMID:25361612

Buzgova, Radka; Sikorova, Lucie; Jarosova, Darja

2014-10-30

103

Low but sufficient anidulafungin exposure in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease severity or plasma protein levels were explored. Concentration-time curves were therefore obtained at steady state. Anidulafungin concentrations were measured with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The MIC values of the Candida species were determined with the Etest. The target AUC/MIC ratio was based on European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) data. Twenty patients were included. The patients received a maintenance dose of 100 mg once daily after a loading dose of 200 mg on the first day. The mean (±standard deviation) AUC, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax), and minimum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmin) were 69.8 ± 24.1 mg · h/liter, 4.7 ± 1.4 mg/liter, and 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. The MIC values of all cultured Candida species were below the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. The exposure to anidulafungin in relation to the MIC that was determined appeared sufficient in all patients. The anidulafungin exposure was low in our critically ill patients. However, combined with the low MICs of the isolated Candida strains, the lower exposure observed in comparison to the exposure in the general patient population resulted in favorable AUC/MIC ratios, based on EUCAST data. No correlation was observed between anidulafungin exposure and disease severity or plasma protein concentrations. In patients with less-susceptible Candida albicans or glabrata strains, we recommend considering determining the anidulafungin exposure to ensure adequate exposure. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01047267.). PMID:24165173

van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J P; Rodgers, Michael G G; Uges, Donald R A; Arends, Jan P; Zijlstra, Jan G; van der Werf, Tjip S; Kosterink, Jos G W; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

2014-01-01

104

Low but Sufficient Anidulafungin Exposure in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease severity or plasma protein levels were explored. Concentration-time curves were therefore obtained at steady state. Anidulafungin concentrations were measured with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The MIC values of the Candida species were determined with the Etest. The target AUC/MIC ratio was based on European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) data. Twenty patients were included. The patients received a maintenance dose of 100 mg once daily after a loading dose of 200 mg on the first day. The mean (±standard deviation) AUC, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax), and minimum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmin) were 69.8 ± 24.1 mg · h/liter, 4.7 ± 1.4 mg/liter, and 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. The MIC values of all cultured Candida species were below the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. The exposure to anidulafungin in relation to the MIC that was determined appeared sufficient in all patients. The anidulafungin exposure was low in our critically ill patients. However, combined with the low MICs of the isolated Candida strains, the lower exposure observed in comparison to the exposure in the general patient population resulted in favorable AUC/MIC ratios, based on EUCAST data. No correlation was observed between anidulafungin exposure and disease severity or plasma protein concentrations. In patients with less-susceptible Candida albicans or glabrata strains, we recommend considering determining the anidulafungin exposure to ensure adequate exposure. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01047267.) PMID:24165173

van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Arends, Jan P.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.

2014-01-01

105

Plasma pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Prompt optimal antimicrobial treatment in critically ill patients is mandatory and must be achieved not only in terms of spectrum of activity, but also in terms of exposure at the infection site. Plasma profile of antimicrobial agents may represent a valid surrogate marker of drug exposure and allow to identify the correct dosage for a given drug. However, in the critically ill patients the pharmacokinetic behavior of antimicrobials may be altered by some very peculiar pathophysiological conditions, so that dosages significantly different from those used in clinically stable patients or from those originally studied in healthy volunteers for regulatory purposes may often be needed in order to ensure optimal plasma drug exposure in such population. This is especially true for hydrophilic antimicrobials (aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, glycopeptides, lipopeptides, echinocandins, fluconazole, acyclovir, ganciclovir) whose volume of distribution and clearance may be significantly altered by these conditions. These aspects are particularly relevant in patients with severe sepsis or with septic shock for whom the time for being considered as a special population to be studied apart from the general population has probably come. From the healthcare system perspective, this means that individualization of antimicrobial therapy by means of a real time therapeutic drug monitoring coupled with clinical pharmacological advice should be considered an invaluable tool for optimizing antimicrobial therapy and for the containment of microbial resistance in this setting. PMID:22946868

Pea, Federico

2013-02-01

106

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-11-01

107

Energy estimation and measurement in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

The estimation of caloric needs of critically ill patients is usually based on energy expenditure (EE), while current recommendations for caloric intake most often rely on a fixed amount of calories. In fact, during the early phase of critical illness, caloric needs are probably lower than EE, as a substantial proportion of EE is covered by the non-inhibitable endogenous glucose production. Hence, the risk of overfeeding is higher during the early phase than the late phase, while the risk of underfeeding is higher during the late phase of critical illness. Therefore, an accurate measurement of EE can be helpful to prevent early overfeeding and late underfeeding. Available techniques to assess EE include predictive equations, calorimetry, and doubly labeled water, the reference method. The available predictive equations are often inaccurate, while indirect calorimetry is difficult to perform for several reasons, including a shortage of reliable devices and technical limitations. In this review, the authors intend to discuss the different techniques and the influence of the method used on the interpretation of the results of clinical studies. PMID:24113283

Fraipont, Vincent; Preiser, Jean-Charles

2013-11-01

108

Acupuncture in Critically Ill Patients Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying: A Randomized  

E-print Network

Acupuncture in Critically Ill Patients Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying: A Randomized Controlled complicated by delayed gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux. Acupuncture has been successfully used acupuncture can improve gastric emptying in comparison with standard promotility drugs in critically ill

Napadow, Vitaly

109

[Nursing staff's knowledge about oral care in critically ill patients].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of nursing professionals who perform or supervise the oral hygiene care in critically ill patients and secondarily, to verify their opinion about the care provided. This is an exploratory study with a quantitative approach, using an instrument developed by the authors applied to the nurses and technicians working in a mid-sized Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Porto Alegre. The results show that 50% of nurses and 72.8% of technicians agree that oral hygiene is important in critically ill patients, but there is no relation to ventilator-associated pneumonia (YAP). Fromthe sample, 16.6% of nurses and 66.6% of nursing technicians agree that the routine of the institution is adequate, and 66.6% of nurses and 30.7% of technicians indicate new practices. This suggests that oral hygiene in hospitalized patients has not been an evident concern, regarding health education practices and care. PMID:23405806

Orlandini, Gabrielli Mottes; Lazzari, Carmen Maria

2012-09-01

110

Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Monitoring in the Critically Ill Patient  

PubMed Central

Echocardiography has shown to be an essential diagnostic tool in the critically ill patient's assessment. In this scenario the initial fluid therapy, such as it is recommended in the actual clinical guidelines, not always provides the desired results and maintains a considerable incidence of cardiorrespiratory insufficiency. Echocardiography can council us on these patients' clinical handling, not only the initial fluid therapy but also on the best-suited election of the vasoactive/inotropic treatment and the early detection of complications. It contributes as well to improving the etiological diagnosis, allowing one to know the heart performance with more precision. The objective of this manuscript is to review the more important parameters that can assist the intensivist in theragnosis of hemodynamically unstable patients. PMID:22758613

Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Guerrero-De-Mier, Manuel; López-Álvaro, Julián

2011-01-01

111

[Gut barrier in the critically ill patient: facts and trends].  

PubMed

The disturbances of gut barrier in critically ill patients may influence their outcome and prognosis. Experiments in animals show that fasting and stress collaborate to produce intestinal atrophy and translocation of microorganisms and toxins. This fact is one of the main arguments to promote the use of early enteral feeding in critically ill patients. However, the intestinal barrier behaves differently in humans than in animals. The human enteral cells have a good tolerance to fasting and stress, mucosal atrophy is mild and it is not always associated with changes in intestinal permeability. Moreover, the relationship between intestinal permeability with sepsis and bacterial translocation is controversial. This last phenomenon also happens in normal subjects and may be a mechanism to build immunological memory. One of the most important factors that influence bacterial translocation is the microorganism, that under stress conditions can adhere to the intestinal cell and penetrate the intestinal barrier. Splanchnic ischemia and reperfusion is one of the main pathogenic factors in the failure of intestinal barrier. Finally, the fact that the small bowel is an inflammatory target of extra intestinal injuries, explains several clinical situations. The pathophysiology of the intestinal barrier definitely requires more research. PMID:17130993

Velasco, Nicolás

2006-08-01

112

Protein for the critically ill patient--what and when?  

PubMed

Critical illness is characterised by catabolism of the skeletal muscle that releases amino acids for protein synthesis to support tissue repair, immune defence and inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Protein requirements for these patients have generally been based on levels that result in the lowest catabolic rates or most favourable nitrogen balance. The definition of these levels, in particular, in relation to indexing to a measure of patient weight or lean body mass, is controversial. Furthermore, optimal nitrogen balance may not necessarily equate to best clinical outcome. There is some evidence that administration of specific amino acids may be advantageous at least during the early or most catabolic phases of illness, in order to support the specific amino acid requirements of the metabolic pathways activated by the injury or infection. Current widely used guidelines differ in the protein prescription they recommend and in the timing of administration in relation to intensive care admission. A pressing need exists for well-designed randomised trials that compare differing levels of protein or amino acid provision, and the timing of this provision, for their effects on clinical endpoints. PMID:23403870

Plank, L D

2013-05-01

113

Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients is a complication that seems to be frequent, but it has not been assessed previously in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of incidence in 40 intensive care units. Different liver dysfunction patterns were defined: (a) cholestasis: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l, gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, or bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl; (b) liver necrosis: aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l, plus bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl or international normalized ratio of more than 1.4; and (c) mixed pattern: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l or gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, plus aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l. Results Seven hundred and twenty-five of 3,409 patients received artificial nutrition: 303 received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and 422 received enteral nutrition (EN). Twenty-three percent of patients developed liver dysfunction: 30% in the TPN group and 18% in the EN group. The univariate analysis showed an association between liver dysfunction and TPN (p < 0.001), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score on admission (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.001), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and malnutrition (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, liver dysfunction was associated with TPN (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.02), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and calculated energy requirements of more than 25 kcal/kg per day (p < 0.05). Conclusion TPN, sepsis, and excessive calculated energy requirements appear as risk factors for developing liver dysfunction. Septic critically ill patients should not be fed with excessive caloric amounts, particularly when TPN is employed. Administering artificial nutrition in the first 24 hours after admission seems to have a protective effect. PMID:17254321

Grau, Teodoro; Bonet, Alfonso; Rubio, Mercedes; Mateo, Dolores; Farré, Mercé; Acosta, José Antonio; Blesa, Antonio; Montejo, Juan Carlos; de Lorenzo, Abelardo García; Mesejo, Alfonso

2007-01-01

114

Hyperglycemia Has a Stronger Relation with Outcome in Trauma Patients than in Other Critically Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background Acute hyperglycemia,is associated with adverse outcome,in critically ill patients. Glucose control with insulin improves,outcome,in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients, but the effect in trauma patients is unknown. We investigated,hyperglycemia,and outcome,in SICU patients with and,without trauma. Methods A 12-year retrospective,study was,performed,at a 12-bed SICU. We col-

Mathijs Vogelzang; Johanna M. M. Nijboer; Felix Zijlstra; Henk Jan ten Duis; Maarten W. N. Nijsten

2006-01-01

115

Personality Change Pre- to Post- Loss in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Terminal Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Personality is relatively stable in adulthood but could change in response to life transitions, such as caring for a spouse with a terminal illness. Using a case-control design, spousal caregivers (n=31) of patients with terminal lung cancer completed the NEO-FFI twice, 1.5 years apart, before and after the patient’s death. A demographically-matched sample of community controls (n=93) completed the NEO-FFI on a similar timeframe. Based on research and theory, we hypothesized that bereaved caregivers would experience greater changes than controls in interpersonal facets of extraversion (sociability), agreeableness (prosocial, nonantagonistic), and conscientiousness (dependability). Consistent with hypotheses, bereaved caregivers experienced an increase in interpersonal orientation, becoming more sociable, prosocial, and dependable (Cohen’s d = .48?.67), though there were no changes in nonantagonism. Changes were not observed in controls (ds ? .11). These initial findings underscore the need for more research on the effect of life transitions on personality.

Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Fagerlin, Angela; Mohile, Supriya G.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

2015-01-01

116

Neuropsychiatric illness in systemic lupus erythematosus: insights from a patient with erotomania and Geschwind's Syndrome.  

PubMed

Individuals suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can develop a number of psychiatric conditions, including psychosis. It is often unclear in SLE patients with psychiatric illness whether their illness is primary, due to SLE brain disease, and/or due to treatments for SLE. This article describes a patient with SLE who developed erotomania and personality changes. The differential diagnosis and possible pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses occurring in SLE patients are discussed. PMID:20439397

Wright, Mark T

2010-05-01

117

Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested for the treatment of many ailments due to its ability to modulate the immune system and to provide passive immunity to commonly circulating pathogens. Its use as primary and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of conditions affecting critically ill patients is an attractive option, especially when alternative therapy does not exist. The body of literature on the use of IVIG for the treatment of several serious conditions, including sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, acute myocarditis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and H1N1 influenza, were reviewed. Despite advances in treatment of these conditions since they were first described, there remains a paucity of well-designed studies on the use of IVIG for their treatment. Therefore, the use of IVIG for treatment of these conditions remains controversial. PMID:25388018

Donovan, Summer; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

2014-12-01

118

Sedation for Refractory Symptoms of Terminal Cancer Patients in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed sedation in terminal cancer patients in terms of three characteristics: frequency; relationship to intractable symptoms; and the extent to which medical staff, family, and patients found sedation to be ethically acceptable and efficacious. Two hundred seventy-six consecutive patients, who were admitted to the palliative care unit of National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan between August 1998 and

Tai-Yuan Chiu; Wen-Yu Hu; Bee-Horng Lue; Shao-Yi Cheng; Ching-Yu Chen

2001-01-01

119

Maternal outcomes in critically ill obstetrics patients: A unique challenge  

PubMed Central

Background: A pregnant woman is usually young and in good health until she suffers from some acute injury. Her prognosis will hopefully be better if she receives timely intensive care. Materials and Methods: The aims of this study were to study the indications of medical intensive care unit (MICU) transfers for critically ill pregnant and postpartum females, biochemical and hematological profile, organ failure, ICU interventions, outcome of mother/fetus, APACHE II score and its correlation with mortality. Study Design and Setting: It is a prospective observational study, carried out in the MICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 18 months. One hundred and twenty-two pregnant and postpartum females (up to 42 days after delivery) were studied. Results and Conclusion: Maternal age >30 years was associated with high mortality (68.2%). Majority of the females were admitted in the third trimester (50 patients) and postpartum period (41 patients), and mortality was highest in the postpartum period (39%). Increasing parity and gravida was associated with significantly high mortality (59.5%). Acute viral hepatitis E (45 patients) was most common indication for MICU transfer, followed by malaria and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The mortality rate was 30.3%. The most common cause of death was acute viral hepatitis E (24 patients), with hepatic failure (53 patients) being the most common organ failure. Majority of the females (88 patients) were ANC registered. Low Glasgow coma score and high APACHE II score on admission were associated with significantly high mortality (85.2%). Prompt treatment with oseltamivir in H1N1 infection was associated with good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:22557826

Bhadade, Rakesh; de’ Souza, Rosemarie; More, Anirudha; Harde, Minal

2012-01-01

120

Patient–Physician Role Relationships and Patient Activation among Individuals with Chronic Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether chronically ill patients’ perceptions of their role relationships with their physicians are associated with levels of patient activation. Data Sources Random digit dial survey of 8,140 chronically ill patients and the Area Resource File. Study Design Cross-sectional, multivariate analysis of the relationship between dimensions of patient–physician role relationships and level of patient activation. The study controlled for variables related to patient demographics, socioeconomic status, health status, and market and family context. Principal Findings Higher perceived quality of interpersonal exchange with physicians, greater fairness in the treatment process, and more out-of-office contact with physicians were associated with higher levels of patient activation. Treatment goal setting was not significantly associated with patient activation. Conclusion Patient–physician relationships are an important factor in patients taking a more active role in their health and health care. Efforts to increase activation that focus only on individual patients ignore the important fact that the nature of roles and relationships between provider and patient can shape the behaviors and attitudes of patients in ways that support or discourage patient activation. PMID:22098418

Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hearld, Larry R; Mittler, Jessica N; Harvey, Jillian

2012-01-01

121

Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

2008-01-01

122

Erythropoietin and renin as biological markers in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction During sepsis the endocrine, immune and nervous systems elaborate a multitude of biological responses. Little is known regarding the mechanisms responsible for the final circulating erythropoietin (EPO) and renin levels in septic shock. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of EPO and renin as biological markers in patients with septic shock. Methods A total of 44 critically ill patients with septic shock were evaluated. Results Nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum EPO levels than did survivors on admission (median [minimum–maximum]; 61 [10–602] versus 20 [5–369]). A negative relationship between serum EPO and blood haemoglobin concentrations was observed in the survivor group (r = -0.61; P < 0.001). In contrast, in the nonsurvivors the serum EPO concentration was independent of the blood haemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, we observed significant relationships between EPO concentration and lactate (r = 0.5; P < 0.001), arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen ratio (r = -0.41; P < 0.005), arterial pH (r = -0.58; P < 0.001) and renin concentration (r = 0.42; P < 0.005). With regard to renin concentration, significant correlations with lactate (r = 0.52; P < 0.001) and arterial pH (r = -0.33; P < 0.05) were observed. Conclusion Our findings show that EPO and renin concentrations increased in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with septic shock. Renin may be a significant mediator of EPO upregulation in patients with septic shock. Further studies regarding the regulation of EPO expression are clearly warranted. PMID:15469576

Tamion, Fabienne; Le Cam-Duchez, Véronique; Menard, Jean-François; Girault, Christophe; Coquerel, Antoine; Bonmarchand, Guy

2004-01-01

123

Body Consciousness, Illness-Related Impairment, and Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the joint effects of private body consciousness (PBC) and degree of illness-related physical impairment on treatment regimen adherence in a sample of 52 hemodialysis patients. Predicted the effect of PBC on adherence would vary as a function of patients' level of illness-related physical impairment. Results are discussed in terms of…

Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

1996-01-01

124

Endoscopic nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placement in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Historically, placement of small bowel nasoenteric feeding tubes in the critically ill patient has been difficult because of lack of bedside fluoroscopy, inadequately designed endoscopic tubes, or failure of the tube to spontaneously pass into the duodenum following placement. Methods: We followed-up 54 consecutive critically ill patients who had a combined nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placed at the bedside using

Paula G. Patrick; Shivaprasad Marulendra; Donald F. Kirby; Mark H. DeLegge

1997-01-01

125

STIGMA ARISING FROM FAMILY MEMBERS OF THE MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL TAIPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public stigma towards the mentally ill is a known challenge, stigma from within the family has not been widely studied. This study aimed to compare the experience of stigma between mentally ill patients and diabetic controls, particularly focusing on stigma arising from family members. This is a cross sectional case control study. The case group consisted of 63 patients

Nursyuhaida MN; Nik Siti; Fatimah M

126

Evaluation of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy for measurement of the extracellular water space in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) estimates of extracellular water volume (ECW) in critically ill patients with measurements by bromide dilution. Stable bromide dilution and BIS were performed in 37 critically ill patients as soon as haemodynamic stability was achieved (day 0) and again 10 days later. While BIS underestimated the dilution results on

L. D. Plank; D. N. Monk; G. A. Woollard; G. L. Hill

1998-01-01

127

Neuroventilatory efficiency and extubation readiness in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Based on the hypothesis that failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation is caused by respiratory demand exceeding the capacity of the respiratory muscles, we evaluated whether extubation failure could be characterized by increased respiratory drive and impaired efficiency to generate inspiratory pressure and ventilation. Methods Airway pressure, flow, volume, breathing frequency, and diaphragm electrical activity were measured in a heterogeneous group of patients deemed ready for a spontaneous breathing trial. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure was calculated as the ratio of negative airway pressure and diaphragm electrical activity during an inspiratory occlusion. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into volume was calculated as the ratio of the tidal volume to diaphragm electrical activity. All variables were obtained during a 30-minute spontaneous breathing trial on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 cm H2O and compared between patients for whom extubation succeeded with those for whom either the spontaneous breathing trial failed or for those who passed, but then the extubation failed. Results Of 52 patients enrolled in the study, 35 (67.3%) were successfully extubated, and 17 (32.7%) were not. Patients for whom it failed had higher diaphragm electrical activity (48%; P < 0.001) and a lower efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure and tidal volume (40% (P < 0.001) and 53% (P < 0.001)), respectively. Neuroventilatory efficiency demonstrated the greatest predictability for weaning success. Conclusions This study shows that a mixed group of critically ill patients for whom weaning fails have increased neural respiratory drive and impaired ability to convert neuromuscular activity into tidal ventilation, in part because of diaphragm weakness. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01065428. ©2012 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:22849707

2012-01-01

128

Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

2014-01-01

129

Characteristics associated with racial disparities in illness beliefs of patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

African Americans have greater misperceptions about heart failure (HF) than Caucasians. We examined socioeconomic and medical history factors to determine if they explain differences in accuracy of HF illness beliefs by race. 519 patients completed an illness beliefs and socioeconomic status survey. After establishing univariate associations by race, linear regression with backward selection was used to identify factors associated with HF illness beliefs accuracy. HF illness beliefs were less accurate among African Americans (p < .01). In multivariate models, race remained a predictor of HF illness beliefs accuracy, as did education level and living status (all ps < or = .01). Illness beliefs of African Americans were inaccurate and independently associated with social support and education level. Health care providers must consider patient education processes as a possible cause of differences and focus on what and how they teach, literacy level, materials used, and family engagement and education. PMID:19933058

Albert, Nancy M; Trochelman, Kathleen; Meyer, Kathryn H; Nutter, Benjamin

2010-01-01

130

Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development  

PubMed Central

The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability. PMID:20572095

Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

2011-01-01

131

Patients' illness schemata of hypertension: the role of beliefs for the choice of treatment.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to investigate what are the illness perceptions of hypertensive patients and their relationship with beliefs about specific medicines, and (2) to identify different illness schemata and how they relate to the choice of medication. This was a cross-sectional study in which 191 Portuguese patients (59% females), with a hypertension diagnosis, aged over 18 years old, were recruited from a hospital clinic in the Lisbon Metropolitan area. The questionnaire included measures of choice of medication, beliefs about specific medicines (BMQ-Specific), illness perception (Brief-IPQ), and socio-demographic information. The results indicated that the components of the illness perceptions were associated with patients' beliefs about necessity and concerns about medication. Patients seem to differ in their choice of medication (generic or brand names) according to the three illness schemata identified. Patients with more negative illness schemata were more likely to choose a brand medicine, whereas patients with a more positive perception of hypertension were more likely to choose a generic medicine. Our findings support the argument that illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines play a role in influencing patients' preferences of medicines for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:20204931

Figueiras, Maria; Marcelino, Dalia Silva; Claudino, Adelaide; Cortes, Maria Armanda; Maroco, Joao; Weinman, John

2010-04-01

132

Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time  

PubMed Central

Background The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS]), and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. Results The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (??=?0.66; ICC?=?0.52, and r?=?0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS). Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. Conclusion The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness. PMID:24887440

Chang, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Yin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Chung-Ying

2014-01-01

133

Guideline implementation results in a decrease of pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe the short-term and long-term effects of a hospital-wide pressure ulcer prevention and treatment guideline on both the incidence and the time to the onset of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Adult intensive care department of a university medical center. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients (n = 399). INTERVENTIONS: A guideline for pressure

Erik H. de Laat; Peter Pickkers; Lisette Schoonhoven; Ton Feuth; Theo van Achterberg

2007-01-01

134

Risk Assessment and Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely and\\/or Critically Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both undetected and clinically evident venous thrombosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) can seriously impact the prognosis of acutely and\\/or critically ill patients. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is harder to diagnose in the acutely and\\/or critically ill, many of whom also have developed respiratory failure for other reasons. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the upper and lower extremities can subsequently complicate insertion

Bruce L. Davidson

2000-01-01

135

Patients understanding of depression associated with chronic physical illness: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of depression can be difficult in primary care, particularly when associated with chronic illness. Patient beliefs may affect detection and subsequent engagement with management. We explored patient beliefs about the nature of depression associated with physical illness. Methods A qualitative interview study of patients registered with general practices in Leeds, UK. We invited patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes from primary care to participate in semi-structured interviews exploring their beliefs and experiences. We analysed transcripts using a thematic approach, extended to consider narratives as important contextual elements. Results We interviewed 26 patients, including 17 with personal experience of depression. We developed six themes: recognising a problem, complex causality, the role of the primary care, responsibility, resilience, and the role of their life story. Participants did not consistently talk about depression as an illness-like disorder. They described a change in their sense of self against the background of their life stories. Participants were unsure about seeking help from general practitioners (GPs) and felt a personal responsibility to overcome depression themselves. Chronic illness, as opposed to other life pressures, was seen as a justifiable cause of depression. Conclusions People with chronic illness do not necessarily regard depression as an easily defined illness, especially outside of the context of their life stories. Efforts to engage patients with chronic illness in the detection and management of depression may need further tailoring to accommodate beliefs about how people view themselves, responsibility and negative views of treatment. PMID:24555886

2014-01-01

136

High-dose selenium reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia and illness severity in critically ill patients with systemic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To confirm the pharmacodynamics and evaluate the efficacy of high-dose selenium (Se) administered by continuous infusion,\\u000a following an initial loading bolus of selenite, on clinical outcome in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory\\u000a response syndrome (SIRS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blinded phase II study in a multidisciplinary university hospital intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU). Two groups of patients with SIRS, age >18 years, and

William Manzanares; Alberto Biestro; María H. Torre; Federico Galusso; Gianella Facchin; Gil Hardy

137

[Work disability in long-term illness--Part 2: Termination of employment].  

PubMed

If the employment has terminated and the performance capacity of the employee is no longer up to demands made by his last job, the second consideration in respect of his disablement concerns the following points: similar work to be performed within the narrow framework of his former in case of compensation payment because of unemployment: activities within the framework of jobs he can be judged to perform, as laid down by German labour legislation in respect of compensation payments to the unemployed. The compulsory sickness body will have to clarify by expertising which activities can be considered as yardsticks from a medical point of view. PMID:8268702

Hennies, G

1993-10-01

138

Heat-related illness in Jinshan District of Shanghai: A retrospective analysis of 70 patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with heat-related illness, and guide the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heat-related illness. METHODS: From June 2013 to August 2013, seventy patients with heat-related illness were treated at Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, and their epidemiological characteristics, laboratory results, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In the 70 patients, 18 patients suffered from heat stroke and 52 patients from non-heat stroke. When the environmnent temperature was above 35 °C, the body temperature of the patients began to increase markedly. The patients with heat stroke were significantly older than those with non-heat stroke (P<0.05). The body temperature, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase in the patients with heat stroke were higher than those in the patients with non-heat stroke (P<0.05). Blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase were positively correlated with body temperature (r=0.801). CONCLUSION: When the environmental temperature goes above 35 °C, heat-related illness should be prevented, especially in the elderly. The body temperature, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase in patients with heat stroke are higher than those in patients with non-heat stroke. Blood lactate dehydrogenase and blood creatine kinase are positively correlated with body temperature, but their relationship with heat-related illness awaits further study.

Mo, Wei-chun; Gao, Xia; Liu, Guo-ping; Wang, Wei; Shen, Jun-mei; Xu, Ming-jia; Shen, Jie

2014-01-01

139

Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?  

PubMed

Early enteral nutrition (EN) is consistently recommended as first-line nutrition therapy in critically ill patients since it favorably alters outcome, providing both nutrition and nonnutrition benefits. However, critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk for regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, and eventually ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). EN may increase these risks when gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is present. Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered a surrogate parameter of GI dysfunction during the progression of enteral feeding in the early phase of critical illness and beyond. By monitoring GRV, clinicians may detect patients with delayed gastric emptying earlier and intervene with strategies that minimize or prevent VAP as one of the major risks of EN. The value of periodic GRV measurements with regard to risk reduction of VAP incidence has frequently been questioned in the past years. Increasing the GRV threshold before interrupting gastric feeding results in marginal increases in EN delivery. More recently, a large randomized clinical trial revealed that abandoning GRV monitoring did not negatively affect clinical outcomes (including VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The results have revived the discussion on the role of GRV monitoring in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients receiving early EN. This review summarizes the most recent clinical evidence on the use of GRV monitoring in critically ill patients. Based on the clinical evidence, it discusses the pros and cons and further addresses whether GRV is a dead marker or still alive for the nutrition management of critically ill patients. PMID:25524884

Elke, Gunnar; Felbinger, Thomas W; Heyland, Daren K

2015-02-01

140

Comorbidity Profile and Health Care Utilization in Elderly Patients with Serious Mental Illnesses  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet there remain few studies that focus on health care utilization and its relationship to comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Design Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities and health care utilization were taken from an electronic medical record system. Setting Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Participants Patients age 65 years and over-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 non-demented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Results Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency room visits (p=0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p<0.0001) than did the primary care control group. The frequency of medical comorbidities such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thyroid disease, and cancer were not significantly different between the groups. Hypertension was lower in the mentally ill group (p<0.0001). Reported falls (p<0.0001), diagnoses of substance abuse (p=0.02), and alcoholism (p=0.0016) were higher in the seriously mentally ill. The differences in health care utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Conclusions Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest the elderly seriously mentally ill remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of health care. PMID:24206938

Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hay, Don; Lane, Kathleen A.; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A.; Callahan, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

141

Senescent birds redouble reproductive effort when ill: confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis  

PubMed Central

This study reports an experimental confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis, a longstanding theoretical idea that animals should increase their reproductive effort as they age and their prospects for survival and reproduction decline. Previous correlational and experimental attempts to test this hypothesis have yielded contradictory results. In the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived bird, after initial increase, male reproductive success declines progressively with age. Before laying, males of two age classes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide to elicit an immune response, which induced symptoms of declining survival prospects. Reproductive success of immune-challenged mature males fell, while that of immune-challenged old males showed a 98% increase. These results demonstrate that senescent males with poor reproductive prospects increase their effort when those prospects are threatened, whereas younger males with good reproductive prospects do not. PMID:16777735

Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

2006-01-01

142

Treatment of substance abuse in severely mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is the most common comorbid complication of severe mental illness. Current clinical research converges on several emerging principles of treatment that address the scope, pace, intensity, and structure of dual-diagnosis programs. They include a) assertive outreach to facilitate engagement and participation in substance abuse treatment, b) close monitoring to provide structure and social reinforcement, c) integrating substance abuse

Robert E. Drake; Stephen J. Bartels; Gregory B. Teague; Douglas L. Noordsy; Robin E. Clark

1993-01-01

143

Feigning terminal illness to get narcotics: a cautionary tale for hospices.  

PubMed

We present the case of a woman who enrolled in the hospice benefit in order to obtain narcotics. We believe this is a cautionary tale for hospices because of our propensity to enroll patients with minimal corroborating information, in order not to delay symptom management. Also we are philosophically predisposed to believe a patient's self-report of pain and other distressing symptoms. PMID:21868431

Gonzalez, Faustino; Galante, Mirta

2012-08-01

144

National Respite Guidelines: Respite Services for Families of Children with Disabilities, Chronic and Terminal Illnesses, and Children at Risk of Abuse or Neglect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are intended to assist states and local communities in developing quality respite services that meet the diverse needs of families and children with disabilities, with chronic and terminal illnesses, or at risk of abuse or neglect. The guidelines support the philosophy that all families can benefit from temporary intervals of rest…

Edgar, Maggie; Uhl, Monica

145

Assessment of pain and other symptoms in mexican patients with advanced illness.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial, and spiritual. During this stage, several symptoms appear and contribute to a decrement in the quality of life. We performed a retrospective study evaluating medical records of terminally ill patients who attended a specialized pain and palliative medicine service. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was used to document symptoms intensity. Data analysis was carried out at two times: the initial assessment and the last visit before death. We analyzed thirty-eight cases of which 58% were women (22 cases) and the mean age of the sample was 60.7 years (SD: 15.6). All cases had an oncologic disease classified as end-stage cancer and were considered as palliative patients. Symptom intensity was documented by the ESAS in two different moments: pain 3.7 (SD: 3.2) vs. 4.1 (SD: 3.4), nausea 1.4 (SD: 3.2) vs. 1.8 (SD: 3.3), depression 3.4 (SD: 3.4) vs. 4.3 (SD: 3.7), anxiety 3 (SD: 3.5) vs. 2.4 (SD: 3.6), weakness 4.8 (SD: 3.5) vs. 6.2 (SD: 3.6), dyspnea 1.1 (SD: 2.7) vs. 2.8 (SD: 3.4), anorexia 3.5 (SD: 3.7) vs. 4.7 (SD: 3.8), and somnolence 2.6 (SD: 3.5) vs. 4.9 (SD: 3.5). Statistical significance was found in weakness, dyspnea, and somnolence. We found the ESAS a useful tool for symptom assessment. In this study, we document the prevalence of symptoms at the end of life in a Spanish-speaking country. Physicians trained in pain and palliative medicine managed those symptoms, and we observed that symptoms maintained the same intensity. There is the possibility that the intervention made by those clinicians modified the symptomatic outcome in those patients. Evaluation of effective protocols for symptom management at the end of life is needed. PMID:25313923

Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; Hernández-Martínez, Eva E; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; López Collada-Estrada, Maria

2014-12-01

146

A comparison of adherence to hypoglycemic medications between Type 2 diabetes patients with and without serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate self-management of chronic medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes may play a role in the poor health status of individuals with serious mental illnesses. We compared adherence to hypoglycemic medications and blood glucose control between 44 diabetes patients with a serious mental illness and 30 patients without a psychiatric illness. The two groups did not differ in their ability

Julie Kreyenbuhl; Jaclyn Leith; Deborah R. Medoff; LiJuan Fang; Faith B. Dickerson; Clayton H. Brown; Richard W. Goldberg; Wendy Potts; Lisa B. Dixon

2011-01-01

147

Antibiotic dosing in critically ill adult patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is now commonly used as a means of support for critically ill patients with renal failure. No recent comprehensive guidelines exist that provide antibiotic dosing recommendations for adult patients receiving CRRT. Doses used in intermittent hemodialysis cannot be directly applied to these patients, and antibiotic pharmacokinetics are different than those in patients with normal renal function. We reviewed the literature for studies involving the following antibiotics frequently used to treat critically ill adult patients receiving CRRT: vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, nafcillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (deoxycholate and lipid formulations), and acyclovir. We used these data, as well as clinical experience, to make recommendations for antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving CRRT. PMID:16163635

Trotman, Robin L; Williamson, John C; Shoemaker, D Matthew; Salzer, William L

2005-10-15

148

Estimation of energy requirements for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients using nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is very little information on what is considered an adequate energy intake for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to determine this energy requirement by making use of patients' nutritional status. METHODS: The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Patients were hemodynamically stable

Mee-Nin Kan; Han-Hsin Chang; Woei-Fen Sheu; Chien-Hsiang Cheng; Bor-Jen Lee; Yi-Chia Huang

2003-01-01

149

Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with

Marian JT Oud; Jan Schuling; Cees J Slooff; Klaas H Groenier; Janny H Dekker; Betty Meyboom-de Jong

2009-01-01

150

Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma. PMID:25509229

Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

2014-11-01

151

Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and Improved Patient-centered Outcomes for Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) has potential for use as a patient-centered measure of the implementation of the Chronic Care Model (CCM), but there is little research on the relationship between the PACIC and important behavioral and quality measures for patients with chronic conditions. Objective To examine the relationship between PACIC scores and self-management behaviors, patient rating of their health care, and self-reported quality of life. Design Cross-sectional survey with a 61% response rate. Participants Included in the survey were 4,108 adults with diabetes, chronic pain, heart failure, asthma, or coronary artery disease in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care program across 7 regions nationally. Measurements The PACIC was the main independent variable. Dependent variables included use of self-management resources, self-management behaviors such as regular exercise, self-reported adherence to medications, patient rating of their health care, and quality of life. Results PACIC scores were significantly, positively associated with all measures (odds ratio [ORs] ranging from 1.20 to 2.36) with the exception of self-reported medication adherence. Conclusions Use of the PACIC, a practical, patient-level assessment of CCM implementation, could be an important tool for health systems and other stakeholders looking to improve the quality of chronic disease care. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11606-007-0452-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18030539

Mosen, David M.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Hibbard, Judith; Remmers, Carol; Bellows, Jim

2007-01-01

152

Do Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Drugs Reduce the Mortality in Critically Ill Patients?  

PubMed Central

Platelet activation has been implicated in microvascular thrombosis and organ failure in critically ill patients. In the first part the present paper summarises important data on the role of platelets in systemic inflammation and sepsis as well as on the beneficial effects of antiplatelet drugs in animal models of sepsis. In the second part the data of retrospective and prospective observational clinical studies on the effect of aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs in critically ill patients are reviewed. All of these studies have shown that aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs may reduce organ failure and mortality in these patients, even in case of high bleeding risk. From the data reviewed here interventional prospective trials are needed to test whether aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs might offer a novel therapeutic option to prevent organ failure in critically ill patients. PMID:22110915

Lösche, Wolfgang; Boettel, Janina; Kabisch, Björn; Winning, Johannes; Claus, Ralf A.; Bauer, Michael

2012-01-01

153

Acceptance of illness and satisfaction with life among malaria patients in rivers state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Health condition is one of the basic factors affecting satisfaction with life, and the level of illness acceptance. The purpose of the study was to analyse the level of illness acceptance, the level of satisfaction with life among malaria patients, and the level of trust placed in the physician and the nurse. Methods The study employs the method of diagnostic survey based on standardised AIS and SWLS scales, as well as Anderson and Dedrick’s PPTS and PNTS scales. Results The average AIS level was 12 points, while the average level of SwL at the SWLS scale was 16.5 points. The average level of trust in the physician and the nurse amounted to 50.6 points and 51.4 points, respectively. The correlation between the level of illness acceptance and self-evaluated satisfaction with life was statistically significant, with R?=?0.56. The marital status influenced the level of illness acceptance with p?illness acceptance with p?patients did not accept their illness, while the level of satisfaction with life was low. The majority of respondents trusted their physician and nurse. There is a statistically significant correlation between the level of illness acceptance and the self-evaluated satisfaction with life. The marital status had a statistically significant effect on the acceptance of illness and the satisfaction with life. The individuals who had a job demonstrated higher levels of quality of life and illness acceptance. PMID:24885562

2014-01-01

154

Outcome predictors and new score of critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. End-stage liver disease is often complicated byrenalfunctiondisturbances.Cirrhoticpatientswithacute renal failure admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) have high mortality rates. This work seeks to identify specific predictors of hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute renal failure. Methods. A total of 111 patients with cirrhosis and acute renal failure were admitted to ICU from March 2003 to February

Ji-Tseng Fang; Ming-Hung Tsai; Ya-Chung Tian; Chang-Chyi Jenq; Chan-Yu Lin; Yung-Chang Chen; Jau-Min Lien; Pan-Chi Chen; Chih-Wei Yang

2008-01-01

155

Biomarkers in Hepatic Disease: A Review Focused on Critically Ill Patients.  

PubMed

The ability to make a diagnosis early and appropriately is paramount for the survival of the critically ill ICU patient. Along with the myriad physical examination and imaging modalities available, biomarkers provide a window on the disease process. Herein we review hepatic biomarkers in the context of the critical care patient. PMID:25324195

Kubilay, Nejla Zeynep; Sengel, Buket Erturk; Wood, Kenneth E; Layon, A Joseph

2014-10-15

156

Causes of death and determinants of outcome in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Whereas most studies focus on laboratory and clinical research, little is known about the causes of death and risk factors for death in critically ill patients. METHODS: Three thousand seven hundred patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively evaluated. Study endpoints were to evaluate causes of death and risk factors for death in the ICU,

Viktoria D Mayr; Martin W Dünser; Veronika Greil; Stefan Jochberger; Günter Luckner; Hanno Ulmer; Barbara E Friesenecker; Jukka Takala; Walter R Hasibeder; NA Halpern; SM Pastores; RJ Greenstein; E Azoulay; C Adrie; A De Lassence; F Pochard; D Moreau; G Thiery; C Cheval; P Moine; M Garrouste-Orgeas; C Alberti; WA Knaus; DP Wagner; JE Zimmerman; EA Draper; DD Benoit; KH Vandewoude; JM Decruyenaere; EA Hoste; FA Colardyn; B Afessa; IJ Morales; PD Scanlon; SG Peters; Y Arabi; QA Ahmed; S Haddad; A Aljumah; A Al-Shimemeri; B Bernieh; M Al Hakim; Y Boobes; E Siemkovics; H El Jack; E Estenssoro; A Dubin; E Laffaire; H Canales; G Saenz; M Moseinco; M Pozo; A Gomez; N Baredes; G Jannello; H Khouli; A Afrasiabi; M Shibli; R Hajal; CR Barrett; P Homel; L Chang; CF Horng; YC Huang; YY Hsieh; DJ Bentrem; JJ Yeh; MF Brennan; R Kiran; DP Jaques; Y Fong; RN Pugh; IM Murray-Lyon; JL Dawson; MC Pietroni; R Williams; A de Rijk; W Schaufeli; JR Le Gall; S Lemeshow; F Saulnier; GR Bramer; KM Flegal; CL Ogden; CL Johnson; JT Crosson; MM Levy; MP Fink; JC Marshall; E Abraham; D Angus; D Cook; J Cohen; SM Opal; JL Vincent; G Ramsay; JE Nelson; DE Meier; A Litke; DA Natale; RE Siegel; RS Morrison; F Konrad; T Marx; H Wiedeck; J Kilian; G Rocher; P Sjokvist; P Dodek; L Griffith; A Freitag; J Varon; C Bradley; G Van den Berghe; P Wouters; F Weekers; C Verwaest; F Bruyninckx; M Schetz; D Vlasselaers; P Ferdinande; P Lauwers; R Bouillon; CM Martin; AD Hill; K Burns; LM Chen; SP Keenan; KD Busche; L McCarthy; KJ Inman; WJ Sibbald; RJ Hall; GM Rocker; E Rivers; B Nguyen; S Havstad; J Ressler; A Muzzin; B Knoblich; E Peterson; M Tomlanovich; D De Backer; M Varpula; M Tallgren; K Saukkonen; LM Voipio-Pulkki; V Pettila; G Bernardin; C Pardier; F Tiger; P Deloffre; M Mattei; PGH Metnitz; CG Krenn; H Steltzer; T Lang; J Ploder; K Lenz; W Druml; S Uchino; JA Kellum; R Bellomo; GS Doig; H Morimatsu; S Morgera; I Tan; C Bouman; E Macedo; Goldhill; A Sumner; J Latour; V Lopez-Camps; M Rodriguez-Serra; JS Giner; A Nolasco; C Alvarez-Dardet; M Trivedi; SA Ridley; MM Treggiari; JA Romand; CB Wallis; HT Dvaies; AJ Shearer; EE Alvarez-Leon; R Elosua; A Zamora; E Aldasoro; J Galcera; H Vanaclocha; A Segura; M Fiol; J Turumbay; G Perez; SH Wanzer; DD Federman; SJ Adelstein; CK Cassel; EH Cassem; RE Cranford; EW Hook; B Lo; CG Moertel; P Safar; J Purdie; J Trofe; TM Beebe; JF Buell; MJ Hanaway; RR Alloway; TG Gross; ES Woodle; F Fieux; B Jordan; R Moreno; AL Rosenberg; C Watts; HJ Freyberger; M Albus; A De Maio; MB Torres; RH Reeves; RJA Goris; TPA te Boekhorst; JKS Nuytinck; JS Gimbrere

1985-01-01

157

Somatisation: illness perspectives of asylum seeker and refugee patients from the former country of Yugoslavia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Somatisation is particularly challenging in multicultural contexts where patients and physicians often differ in terms of their illness-related beliefs and practices and health care expectations. This paper reports on a exploratory study aimed at better understanding how asylum seeker and refugee patients from the former country of Yugoslavia who were identified by their physicians as somatising make sense of

Noelle Junod Perron; Patricia Hudelson

2006-01-01

158

Management of Critically Ill Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is frequently complicated with acute respiratory failure. In this article, we aim to focus on the management of the subgroup of SARS patients who are critically ill. Most SARS patients would require high flow oxygen supplementation, 20-30% required intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency care, and 13-26% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In

Pamela Youde

159

Physician-elderly patient interactions: The co-construction of illness narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trend in medical history-taking calls for physicians to encourage patients to tell the story of their illness in narrative form This dissertation examines the structure and function of the narratives that emerge out of medical interviews of physicians and elderly patients. Two assumptions underlie this research: first, there is a strong human tendency to make sense of the

Susan Schottenfels Eggly

1999-01-01

160

A Case of Mixed Infections in a Patient Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in the Tropics  

PubMed Central

Concurrent infections with more than one etiological agent can result in an illness with overlapping symptoms, resulting in a situation where the diagnosis and management of such a patient could be challenging. We report a case of vivax malaria in a patient who was also serologically positive for leptospirosis and dengue. PMID:23533853

Yong, L. S.; Koh, K. C.

2013-01-01

161

Physicians' Nonverbal Rapport Building and Patients' Talk About the Subjective Component of Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how physicians' nonverbal communication is sometimes associated with patients' affective satisfaction. Examines the relationship between physicians' nonverbal rapport building and patients' disclosure of information related to the subjective component of illness. Considers implications for understanding the role of physicians' nonverbal…

Duggan, Ashley P.; Parrott, Roxanne L.

2001-01-01

162

Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced

Ram M Spira; Aviran Nissan; Oded Zamir; Tzeela Cohen; Scott I Fields; Herbert R Freund

2002-01-01

163

Invasive Aspergillosis in Critically Ill Patients without Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using criteria designed for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with cancer, we aimed to determine the impact of IA in patients without malignancy in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). In this retrospective study, 127 patients out of 1,850 admissions (6.9%) hospitalized between 2000 and 2003 had microbiological or histo- pathologic evidence of Aspergillus during their ICU stay. There were

Wouter Meersseman; Stefaan J. Vandecasteele; Alexander Wilmer; Eric Verbeken; Willy E. Peetermans; Eric Van Wijngaerden

2004-01-01

164

Illness acceptance degree versus intensity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis have undoubtedly a negative impact on the patients’ quality of life. Many of them may face various limitations in their psychosocial lives because of symptoms indicating the presence of psychopathological phenomena. Mental disorders in patients with skin diseases occur much more frequently than in the general population. Studies show that a considerable percentage (30-60%) of dermatological patients suffers from mental disorders (depressive and anxiety disorders being the most common). A person's attitude towards illness, its acceptance, and also the recognition of its limitations may be of a great importance in the process of the disease control. Aim To evaluate of the relationship between the illness acceptance degree, and the presence and intensity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods The research was conducted on a group of 54 people (23 men and 31 women), who were treated for psoriasis in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Lodz and in the Department of Dermatology, Pediatric Dermatology and Oncology, Medical University of Lodz. The following research methods were used: a questionnaire prepared for the purpose of the research, Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). Results It was found that there was a relationship between the skin illness acceptance degree and intensity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with psoriasis (negative correlations). Conclusions The higher the degree of illness acceptance is, the better mental condition of patients with psoriasis is. The intensity of psychopathological symptoms is also affected by the duration of illness, other people's attitude to the skin disease, age and education level of the patients examined. PMID:24278064

Taba?a, Klaudia; Kocur, Józef

2013-01-01

165

Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic\\u000a critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations\\u000a were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However,\\u000a the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy

R. Gosselink; J. Bott; M. Johnson; E. Dean; S. Nava; M. Norrenberg; B. Schönhofer; K. Stiller; H. van de Leur; J. L. Vincent

2008-01-01

166

Prolonged nasogastric tube feeding in critically ill and surgical patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients with varying diagnoses were fed via nasogastric tubes for between 7 and 41 days using a feed consisting of Caloreen (a glucose polymer) and Albumaid (a beef serum hydrolysate) with vitamin and mineral supplements. The feed proved nutritionally adequate and relatively free of complications. Diarrhoea was seen only in those patients receiving antibiotics by the nasogastric route. Codeine

A. M. Woolfson; J. N. Saour; C. R. Ricketts; B. J. Pollard; S. M. Hardy; S. P. Allison

1976-01-01

167

Development of disaster pamphlets based on health needs of patients with chronic illnesses.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of factors indicating the worsening of the illness and methods of coping with stress; (3) for chronic respiratory disease, prevention of respiratory infections and management of supplemental oxygen; and (4) for patients requiring dialysis, conditions of dialysis (such as dry weight, dialyzer, number of dialysis treatments, and dialysis hours) and what to do if a disaster occurs during dialysis. It is expected that these pamphlets will be useful to patients with chronic illnesses, and will be used to prepare for disasters, thereby helping the patients cope with the unusual situation that during a disaster and recover as soon as possible. PMID:20845325

Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro

2010-01-01

168

Diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies indicate that mechanically ventilated patients develop significant diaphragm muscle weakness, but the etiology of weakness and its clinical impact remain incompletely understood. We assessed diaphragm strength in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients, correlated the development of diaphragm weakness with multiple clinical parameters, and examined the relationship between the level of diaphragm weakness and patient outcomes. Methods Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (PdiTw) in response to bilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves was measured. Diaphragm weakness was correlated with the presence of infection, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, and glucose levels. The relationship of diaphragm strength to patient outcomes, including mortality and the duration of mechanical ventilation for successfully weaned patients, was also assessed. Results We found that infection is a major risk factor for diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients. Outcomes for patients with severe diaphragm weakness (PdiTw <10 cmH2O) were poor, with a markedly increased mortality (49%) compared to patients with PdiTw ?10 cmH2O (7% mortality, P = 0.022). In addition, survivors with PdiTw <10 cmH2O required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.3 ± 1.7 days) than those with PdiTw ?10 cmH2O (5.5 ± 2.0 days, P = 0.016). Conclusions Infection is a major cause of severe diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, diaphragm weakness is an important determinant of poor outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23786764

2013-01-01

169

The Attributable Morbidity and Mortality of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Critically Ill Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the attributable morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in in- tensive care unit (ICU) patients, we conducted a prospective, matched cohort study. Patients ex- pected to be ventilated for . 48 h were prospectively followed for the development of VAP. To de- termine the excess ICU stay and mortality attributable to VAP, we matched patients with VAP

DAREN K. HEYLAND; DEBORAH J. COOK; LAUREN GRIFFITH; SEAN P. KEENAN

1999-01-01

170

The influence of illness severity on health satisfaction in patients with cardiovascular disease: the mediating role of illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs.  

PubMed

The importance of psychological factors in improving conditions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients is stressed by the guidelines for their prevention and rehabilitation, but little is known about the impact of illness severity on patients' well-being, and on the psychosocial variables that may mediate this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs on the relationship between illness severity and health satisfaction in 75 CVD patients undergoing rehabilitation (80% men; mean age = 65.44) at the St. Luca Hospital, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy. Illness severity was measured in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction; psychological factors were assessed at the beginning and end of rehabilitation. Results from path analyses showed that the relationships among CVD severity and health satisfaction were mediated by illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs. Findings underscored the importance of considering illness representations and self-efficacy beliefs to improve well-being in CVD patients. PMID:24965513

Greco, Andrea; Steca, Patrizia; Pozzi, Roberta; Monzani, Dario; Malfatto, Gabriella; Parati, Gianfranco

2015-01-01

171

Assessment of changes in body water by bioimpedance in acutely ill surgical patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between changes in body bioelectrical impedance (BI) at 0.5, 50 and kHz and the changes in body weight, as an index of total body water changes, in acutely ill surgical patients during the rapid infusion of isotonic saline solution.Design: Prospective clinical study.Setting: Multidisciplinary surgical ICU in a university hospital.Patients: Twelve male patients treated for acute

R. L. Chioléro; L. J. Gay; J. Cotting; C. Gurtner; Y. Schutz

1992-01-01

172

The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members, donations from neighbors and the community, and additional benefits from employers. However, insured households overall had positive perceptions of insurance. PMID:25308817

Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

2014-01-01

173

Congregate living for the mentally ill: patients as tenants.  

PubMed

The authors describe an apartment-living project for chronic mental patients released from the Hillside Division of the Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Center. The apartments, which are rented by the hospital and sublet to the patients, are located in modern, well-maintained high-rise buildings within commuting distance from the hospital. To avoid creating a psychiatric ghetto, the project rents no more than two apartments in buildings of a hundred or more units. The hospital was able to rent the apartments by assuring the landlords that the hospital would be a financially responsible tenant and that staff would be in continuing contact with the patients, would be available to the landlords if problems arose, and would remove troublesome tenants. Some of the problems encountered by the patients in the program are described, as are guidelines for selecting those who have a reasonable chance of benefiting from such a program. PMID:208956

Burger, A S; Kimelman, L; Lurie, A; Rabiner, C J

1978-09-01

174

Ketamine and Propofol Combination (“Ketofol”) for Endotracheal Intubations in Critically Ill Patients: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Case series Patient: Male, 77 • Male, 25 • Male, 63 • Male, 70 • Male, 70 • Female, 61 Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: Hypotension • respiratory failure Medication: Ketamine • Propofol • Etomidate Clinical Procedure: Endotracheal intubation Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis) Background: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure performed for critically ill patients that can have immediate life-threatening complications. Induction medications are routinely given to facilitate the procedure, but most of these medications are associated with hypotension. While etomidate is known for its neutral hemodynamic profile, it has been linked with increased mortality in septic patients and increased morbidity in trauma patients. Ketamine and propofol are effective anesthetics with counteracting cardiovascular profiles. No data are available about the use of this combination in critically ill patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. Case Series: We describe 6 cases in which the combination of ketamine and propofol (“ketofol”) was used as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients with a focus on hemodynamic outcomes. All patients received a neuromuscular blocker and fentanyl, while 5 patients received midazolam. We recorded mean arterial pressure (MAP) 1 minute before induction and 15 minutes after intubation with the combination. Of the 6 patients, 5 maintained a MAP ?65 mmHg 15 minutes after intubation. One patient was on norepinephrine infusion with a MAP of 64 mmHg, and did not require an increase in the dose of the vasopressor 15 minutes after intubation. No hemodynamic complications were reported after any of the intubations. Conclusions: This case series describes the use of the “ketofol” combination as an induction agent for intubation in critically ill patients when hemodynamic stability is desired. Further research is needed to establish the safety of this combination and how it compares to other induction medications. PMID:25676819

de Moraes, Alice Gallo; Racedo Africano, Carlos J.; Hoskote, Sumedh S.; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S.; Tedja, Rudy; Thakur, Lokendra; Pannu, Jasleen K.; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Smischney, Nathan J.

2015-01-01

175

High-quality chronic care delivery improves experiences of chronically ill patients receiving care  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate whether high-quality chronic care delivery improved the experiences of patients. Design This study had a longitudinal design. Setting and Participants We surveyed professionals and patients in 17 disease management programs targeting patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, stroke, comorbidity and eating disorders. Main Outcome Measures Patients completed questionnaires including the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) [T1 (2010), 2637/4576 (58%); T2 (2011), 2314/4330 (53%)]. Professionals' Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) scores [T1, 150/274 (55%); T2, 225/325 (68%)] were used as a context variable for care delivery. We used two-tailed, paired t-tests to investigate improvements in chronic illness care quality and patients' experiences with chronic care delivery. We employed multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of chronic care delivery quality in improving patients' experiences with care delivery. Results Overall, care quality and patients' experiences with chronic illness care delivery significantly improved. PACIC scores improved significantly from 2.89 at T1 to 2.96 at T2 and ACIC-S scores improved significantly from 6.83 at T1 to 7.18 at T2. After adjusting for patients' experiences with care delivery at T1, age, educational level, marital status, gender and mental and physical quality of life, analyses showed that the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 (P < 0.001) and changes in care delivery quality (P < 0.001) predicted patients' experiences with chronic care delivery at T2. Conclusion This research showed that care quality and changes therein predict more positive experiences of patients with various chronic conditions over time. PMID:24123243

Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

2013-01-01

176

Building trustworthy relationships with critically ill patients and families.  

PubMed

A difficult case study involving repeated health crises and irreversible organ dysfunction illustrates the challenges critical care professionals face in caring for patients and their families. In such cases, trust is especially fragile, and coexists with its counterpart, betrayal. The Reina Trust & Betrayal Model defines 3 types of Transactional Trust. The first, Competence Trust, or the Trust of Capability, requires that clinicians practice humility, engage in inquiry, honor the patient's choices, and express compassion. The second, Contractual Trust, or the Trust of Character, demands that clinicians keep agreements, manage expectations, establish boundaries, and encourage mutually serving expectations. The third, Communication Trust, or the Trust of Disclosure, must be rooted in respect and based on truth-telling. Particularly in life-and-death situations, communication requires honesty and clarity. Each type of trust involves specific behaviors that build trust and can guide critical care professionals as they interact with patients and their families. PMID:17284945

Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Reina, Michelle L; Reina, Dennis S

2007-01-01

177

Needs of persons with serious mental illness following discharge from inpatient treatment: patient and family views.  

PubMed

Patients with serious mental illnesses often struggle with persistent symptoms that interfere with daily functioning in the community. The first days and weeks following inpatient treatment for an acute episode may be a critical time for patients to connect with the recommended community follow-up. Residual symptoms may interfere with their ability to access and benefit from these services to meet their needs. A descriptive study was conducted to explore perceptions of patients and families of patients' needs, functioning, coping and social support in the first 4 weeks after inpatient treatment. Results suggested that these patients had residual symptoms after discharge that interfered with functioning despite the availability of follow-up services. Patients identified unmet needs related to their illness. Family members identified concerns related to the lack of improvement in their ill relatives over time. Patients expressed satisfaction with care and felt supported by their families. Both patients and families seemed to lack a thorough understanding of goals for follow-up care. PMID:22835746

Gerson, Linda D; Rose, Linda E

2012-08-01

178

Caregivers' difficulties in activating long-term mental illness patients with low self-esteem.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to describe psychiatric caregivers' perceptions of self-esteem and activities for patients with long-term mental illness. The study design used a qualitative approach, based on an open lifeworld perspective. A total of 13 caregivers at four psychiatric hospital units in a large Swedish city were interviewed about their views on patients' physical activity and/or other pastimes, as well as their self-esteem and its bearing on the patients' well-being. According to the caregivers, it is up to the patients themselves to decide what they wish to occupy themselves with. In the same time the caregivers' opinions are that patients have difficulties to occupy themselves. The caregivers believe that patients' disability is based in a lack of self-esteem, commitment and capacity to realize their wishes. The caregivers in this study argue that activities are valuable for self-esteem and physical health of people with long-term mental illness. The caregivers consider that it is the patient's responsibility to initiate their needs of activities. This means that the caregivers do not use their knowledge about the importance of activities for the patient's health. Search terms: activity, caregivers, mental illness. PMID:22070619

Erdner, A; Magnusson, A

2012-03-01

179

Variability of linezolid concentrations after standard dosing in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Severe infections in intensive care patients show high morbidity and mortality rates. Linezolid is an antimicrobial drug frequently used in critically ill patients. Recent data indicates that there might be high variability of linezolid serum concentrations in intensive care patients receiving standard doses. This study was aimed to evaluate whether standard dosing of linezolid leads to therapeutic serum concentrations in critically ill patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, 30 critically ill adult patients with suspected infections received standard dosing of 600 mg linezolid intravenously twice a day. Over 4 days, multiple serum samples were obtained from each patient, in order to determine the linezolid concentrations by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A high variability of serum linezolid concentrations was observed (range of area under the linezolid concentration time curve over 24 hours (AUC24) 50.1 to 453.9 mg/L, median 143.3 mg*h/L; range of trough concentrations (Cmin)?patients, respectively. Finally, potentially toxic levels (defined as AUC24?>?400 mg*h/L and Cmin?>?10 mg/L) were observed for 7 of the patients. Conclusions A high variability of linezolid serum concentrations with a substantial percentage of potentially subtherapeutic levels was observed in intensive care patients. The findings suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid might be helpful for adequate dosing of linezolid in critically ill patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01793012. Registered 24 January 2013. PMID:25011656

2014-01-01

180

A Patient With Bipolar Illness and Her Neuropsychological Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a case study in which neuropsychological assessment was carried out on a 30-year-old, previously diagnosed, bipolar female to determine existence of specific deficits in cognitive function. The patient, whose mood cycles were 12 hours to 24 hours, was subsequently evaluated 8 hours per day for 5 consecutive days (a complete work week of neuropsychological assessment). Neuropsychological results

Albert J. Scott; Michael J. Cleary

2007-01-01

181

Biomarker circadian rhythm profiles in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the natural trajectory of core body temperature (CBT) and cortisol (CORT) circadian rhythms in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (MV ICU) patients. ^ Design: Prospective, observational, time-series pilot study. ^ Setting: Medical-surgical and pulmonary ICUs in a tertiary care hospital. ^ Sample: Nine (F = 3, M = 6) adults who were mechanically ventilated within 12 hrs

Mary Anne Vincent

2011-01-01

182

DEVELOPMENT OF A CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL  

E-print Network

) and output (i.e., glycemia). - Administration of drugs (e.g., glucocorticoids) can disturb blood glucose mg/dl = nor- moglycemia) through a rigorous administration of insulin results in an important study of 1548 patients (Van den Berghe et al., 2001). Currently, the administration of insulin in inten

183

Individualization of piperacillin dosing for critically ill patients: dosing software to optimize antimicrobial therapy.  

PubMed

Piperacillin-tazobactam is frequently used for empirical and targeted therapy of infections in critically ill patients. Considerable pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is observed in critically ill patients. By estimating an individual's PK, dosage optimization Bayesian estimation techniques can be used to calculate the appropriate piperacillin regimen to achieve desired drug exposure targets. The aim of this study was to establish a population PK model for piperacillin in critically ill patients and then analyze the performance of the model in the dose optimization software program BestDose. Linear, with estimated creatinine clearance and weight as covariates, Michaelis-Menten (MM) and parallel linear/MM structural models were fitted to the data from 146 critically ill patients with nosocomial infection. Piperacillin concentrations measured in the first dosing interval, from each of 8 additional individuals, combined with the population model were embedded into the dose optimization software. The impact of the number of observations was assessed. Precision was assessed by (i) the predicted piperacillin dosage and by (ii) linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations from the second 24 h of treatment. We found that a linear clearance model with creatinine clearance and weight as covariates for drug clearance and volume of distribution, respectively, best described the observed data. When there were at least two observed piperacillin concentrations, the dose optimization software predicted a mean piperacillin dosage of 4.02 g in the 8 patients administered piperacillin doses of 4.00 g. Linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations for 8 individuals after 24 h of piperacillin dosing demonstrated an r(2) of >0.89. In conclusion, for most critically ill patients, individualized piperacillin regimens delivering a target serum piperacillin concentration is achievable. Further validation of the dosage optimization software in a clinical trial is required. PMID:24798288

Felton, T W; Roberts, J A; Lodise, T P; Van Guilder, M; Boselli, E; Neely, M N; Hope, W W

2014-07-01

184

Individualization of Piperacillin Dosing for Critically Ill Patients: Dosing Software To Optimize Antimicrobial Therapy  

PubMed Central

Piperacillin-tazobactam is frequently used for empirical and targeted therapy of infections in critically ill patients. Considerable pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is observed in critically ill patients. By estimating an individual's PK, dosage optimization Bayesian estimation techniques can be used to calculate the appropriate piperacillin regimen to achieve desired drug exposure targets. The aim of this study was to establish a population PK model for piperacillin in critically ill patients and then analyze the performance of the model in the dose optimization software program BestDose. Linear, with estimated creatinine clearance and weight as covariates, Michaelis-Menten (MM) and parallel linear/MM structural models were fitted to the data from 146 critically ill patients with nosocomial infection. Piperacillin concentrations measured in the first dosing interval, from each of 8 additional individuals, combined with the population model were embedded into the dose optimization software. The impact of the number of observations was assessed. Precision was assessed by (i) the predicted piperacillin dosage and by (ii) linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations from the second 24 h of treatment. We found that a linear clearance model with creatinine clearance and weight as covariates for drug clearance and volume of distribution, respectively, best described the observed data. When there were at least two observed piperacillin concentrations, the dose optimization software predicted a mean piperacillin dosage of 4.02 g in the 8 patients administered piperacillin doses of 4.00 g. Linear regression of the observed-versus-predicted piperacillin concentrations for 8 individuals after 24 h of piperacillin dosing demonstrated an r2 of >0.89. In conclusion, for most critically ill patients, individualized piperacillin regimens delivering a target serum piperacillin concentration is achievable. Further validation of the dosage optimization software in a clinical trial is required. PMID:24798288

Felton, T. W.; Roberts, J. A.; Lodise, T. P.; Van Guilder, M.; Boselli, E.; Neely, M. N.

2014-01-01

185

Family functioning in families of first-episode psychosis patients as compared to chronic mentally ill patients and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate possible differences in family environment among patients experiencing their First Episode of Psychosis (FEP), chronic patients and controls. Family cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV) and psychological distress (GHQ-28) were evaluated in families of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients, as well as 50 controls, whereas expressed emotion (FQ) and family burden (FBS) were assessed in families of FEP and chronic patients. Multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated impaired cohesion and flexibility for families of FEP patients compared to controls, and lower scores for families of chronic patients compared to those of FEP patients. Caregivers of chronic patients scored significantly higher in criticism, and reported higher burden and psychological distress than those of FEP patients. Our findings suggest that unbalanced levels of cohesion and flexibility, high criticism and burden appeared to be the outcome of psychosis and not risk factors triggering the onset of the illness. Furthermore, emotional over-involvement both in terms of positive (i.e. concern) and negative behaviors (i.e. overprotection) is prevalent in Greek families. Psychoeducational interventions from the early stages of the illness should be considered to promote caregivers' awareness regarding the patients' illness, which in turn, may ameliorate dysfunctional family interactions. PMID:25024058

Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

2014-11-30

186

Adults Living with Limited Literacy and Chronic Illness: Patient Education Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…

King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.

2010-01-01

187

[Management of critically ill patients in the resuscitation room. Different than for trauma?].  

PubMed

The general approach to the initial resuscitation of non-trauma patients does not differ from the ABCDE approach used to evaluate severely injured patients. After initial stabilization of vital functions patients are evaluated based on the symptoms and critical care interventions are initiated as and when necessary. Adequate structural logistics and personnel organization are crucial for the treatment of non-trauma critically ill patients although there is currently a lack of clearly defined requirements. For severely injured patients there are recommendations in the S3 guidelines on treatment of multiple trauma and severely injured patients and these can be modeled according to the white paper of the German Society of Trauma Surgery (DGU). However, structured training programs similar to the advanced trauma life support (ATLS®)/European resuscitation course (ETC®) that go beyond the current scope of advanced cardiac life support training are needed. The development of an advanced critically ill life support (ACILS®) concept for non-trauma critically ill patients in the resuscitation room should be supported. PMID:24270938

Bernhard, M; Ramshorn-Zimmer, A; Hartwig, T; Mende, L; Helm, M; Pega, J; Gries, A

2014-02-01

188

Individualised antibiotic dosing for patients who are critically ill: challenges and potential solutions.  

PubMed

Infections in critically ill patients are associated with persistently poor clinical outcomes. These patients have severely altered and variable antibiotic pharmacokinetics and are infected by less susceptible pathogens. Antibiotic dosing that does not account for these features is likely to result in suboptimum outcomes. In this Review, we explore the challenges related to patients and pathogens that contribute to inadequate antibiotic dosing and discuss how to implement a process for individualised antibiotic therapy that increases the accuracy of dosing and optimises care for critically ill patients. To improve antibiotic dosing, any physiological changes in patients that could alter antibiotic concentrations should first be established; such changes include altered fluid status, changes in serum albumin concentrations and renal and hepatic function, and microvascular failure. Second, antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens should be confirmed with microbiological techniques. Data for bacterial susceptibility could then be combined with measured data for antibiotic concentrations (when available) in clinical dosing software, which uses pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic derived models from critically ill patients to predict accurately the dosing needs for individual patients. Individualisation of dosing could optimise antibiotic exposure and maximise effectiveness. PMID:24768475

Roberts, Jason A; Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Lipman, Jeffrey; Mouton, Johan W; Vinks, Alexander A; Felton, Timothy W; Hope, William W; Farkas, Andras; Neely, Michael N; Schentag, Jerome J; Drusano, George; Frey, Otto R; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Kuti, Joseph L

2014-06-01

189

Current concepts in combination antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Widespread emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is a problem of global dimension. MDR infections are difficult to treat and frequently associated with high mortality. More than one antibiotic is commonly used to treat such infections, but scientific evidence does not favor use of combination therapy in most cases. However, there are certain subgroups where combination therapy may be beneficial, e.g. sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and patients with multiple organ failure. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to clearly define the role of combination therapy in these subgroups. PMID:24914260

Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

2014-01-01

190

Pro/con debate: Is etomidate safe in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients?  

PubMed Central

Etomidate is an induction agent known for its smooth intubating conditions and cardiovascular stability. Studies, however, have shown that a single dose of etomidate can result in a prolonged adrenal insufficiency. The impact of this in patients with sepsis has been a matter for debate. This review presents a pro/con case for using etomidate in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients and provides guidance for alternative induction techniques and when the use of etomidate might be justified despite these concerns. PMID:22809235

2012-01-01

191

Reinstitutionalization Following Psychiatric Discharge among VA Patients with Serious Mental Illness: A National Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI)\\u000a vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings\\u000a for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health\\u000a care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized.

Cheryl Irmiter; John F. McCarthy; Kristen L. Barry; Soheil Soliman; Frederic C. Blow

2007-01-01

192

Prevalence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients: a multicentre epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) can cause dysfunction of several organs and raise mortality, little information is available on the incidence and risk factors for IAH in critically ill patients. This study assessed the prevalence of IAH and its risk factors in a mixed population of intensive care patients.DesignA multicentre, prospective 1-day point-prevalence epidemiological study conducted in 13 ICUs of six

Manu L. N. G. Malbrain; Davide Chiumello; Paolo Pelosi; Alexander Wilmer; Nicola Brienza; Vincenzo Malcangi; David Bihari; Richard Innes; Jonathan Cohen; Pierre Singer; Andre Japiassu; Elizabeth Kurtop; Bart L. De Keulenaer; Ronny Daelemans; Monica Del Turco; P. Cosimini; Marco Ranieri; Luc Jacquet; Pierre-François Laterre; Luciano Gattinoni

2004-01-01

193

Vitamin B6 supplementation increases immune responses in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate whether vitamin B6 supplementation has a beneficial effect on immune responses in critically ill patients.Design:A single-blind intervention study.Setting:The study was performed at the Taichung Veterans General Hospital, the central part of Taiwan.Subjects:Fifty-one subjects who stayed over 14 days in the intensive care unit completed the study. Subjects were not treated with any vitamin supplement before the intervention.Interventions:Patients were

C-H Cheng; S-J Chang; B-J Lee; K-L Lin; Y-C Huang

2006-01-01

194

Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 ?g/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 ?g/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 ?g/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 ?g/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

2013-01-01

195

Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1?gm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 ?g/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 ?g/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 ?g ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 ?g ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

2012-01-01

196

Identifying illness perception schemata and their association with depression and quality of life in cardiac patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of cardiac patients who share similar perceptions about their illness and to examine the relationships between these schemata and psychosocial outcomes such as quality of life and depression. A total of 190 cardiac patients with diagnoses of myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris or chronic heart failure, completed a battery of psychosocial questionnaires within four weeks of their admission to hospital. These included the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) and The MacNew Health-related Quality of Life instrument (MacNew). BIPQ items were subjected to latent class analysis (LCA) and the resulting groups were compared according to their BDI II and MacNew scores. LCA identified a five-class model of illness perception which comprised the following: (1) Consequence focused and mild emotional impact, n = 55, 29%; (2) Low illness perceptions and low emotional impact, n = 45, 24%; (3) Control focused and mild emotional impact, n = 10, 5%; (4) Consequence focused and high emotional impact, n = 60, 32%; and (5) Consequence focused and severe emotional impact, n = 20, 10%. Gender and diagnosis did not appear to reflect class membership except that class 2 had a significantly higher proportion of AMI patients than did class 5. There were numerous significant differences between classes in regards to depression and health-related quality of life. Notably, classes 4 and 5 are distinguished by relatively high BDI II scores and low MacNew scores. Identifying classes of cardiac patients based on their illness perception schemata, in hospital or shortly afterwards, may identify those at risk of developing depressive symptoms and poor quality of life. PMID:22416847

Le Grande, Michael R; Elliott, Peter C; Worcester, Marian U C; Murphy, Barbara M; Goble, Alan J; Kugathasan, Vanessa; Sinha, Karan

2012-01-01

197

Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. METHODS: Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily

Yuko Maeda; Akihito Hagihara; Eiko Kobori; Takeo Nakayama

2006-01-01

198

Management of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients: contemporary role for cholecystostomy and subsequent cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients carries a high mortality rate. Although decompression and drainage of the gallbladder through a cholecystostomy tube may be used as a temporary treatment of acute cholecystitis in this population, there is still some debate about the management of the tube and the subsequent need for a cholecystectomy. This series evaluates the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients who underwent the insertion of cholecystostomy tubes for the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis. This is a retrospective review of critically ill patients admitted to the hospital intensive care unit who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and underwent a cholecystostomy tube as a temporary treatment for the disease. Patients were identified through the Greenville Hospital System electronic medical records coding database. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, diagnoses, imaging, complications, and outcomes. From January 2002 through June 2008, 50 patients were identified for the study. The mean age was 72 +/- 11 years, and the majority (66%) were men. The following comorbidities were found: severe cardiovascular disease (40 patients), respiratory failure (30 patients), and multisystem organ dysfunction (30 patients). The mean intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) was 16 +/- 9 days, and the mean hospital LOS was 28 +/- 27 days. At 30 days, the morbidity associated with the cholecystostomy tube itself was 4 per cent, but overall in-hospital morbidity and mortality rates were 62 and 50 per cent, respectively. Of the 25 patients who survived longer than 30 days, 12 retained their cholecystostomy tubes until they underwent cholecystectomy (four open, seven laparoscopic). All of the remaining 13 patients had their cholecystostomy tubes removed, and eight developed recurrent cholecystitis. Of these patients with recurrent of cholecystitis, five had cholecystectomy or repeat cholecystostomy, but the remaining three patients died. Although this is a small patient population, these data suggest that, in critically ill patients, cholecystostomy tubes should remain in place until the patient is deemed medically suitable to undergo cholecystectomy. Removal of the cholecystostomy tube without subsequent cholecystectomy is associated with a high incidence of recurrent cholecystitis and devastating consequences. PMID:20698375

Morse, Bryan C; Smith, J Brandon; Lawdahl, Richard B; Roettger, Richard H

2010-07-01

199

Point-of-Care Testing in Critically Ill Patients.  

PubMed

Point-of-care (POC) testing in hemostasis has experienced a significant increase in the spectrum of available tests and the number of tests performed. Short turn-around time and observation of rapid changes in test results are facilitated. The quality control process in POC testing must encompass a preanalytic (collection), analytic (measurement), and postanalytic (clinical response) phase. Erroneous interpretation of findings and difficult quality controls can outweigh the advantages of POC testing.Only a limited number of hemostatic POC tests have proven useful so far: prothrombin time POC-monitoring of oral vitamin K antagonists; activated clotting time POC-monitoring of high-dose heparin therapy; platelet function analyzer (PFA; Siemens, Marburg, Germany) closure time (CT)-detection of von Willebrand disease and severe platelet function defects; whole blood aggregometry (WBA) Multiplate (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and the VerifyNow system (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA)-detection of platelet dysfunction due to antiplatelet drugs; thromboelastography-continuous observation of clot formation and fibrinolysis. The use of various agonists in WBA and thromboelastography (TEG) requires some expertise. In experienced hands the PFA CT and WBA and TEG are recommended combinations.Application of POC testing depends strictly on whether it improves medical care and patient outcome. More POC test systems are in the research pipeline, but only a few will resist the ravages of time. PMID:25611850

Fries, Dietmar; Streif, Werner

2015-02-01

200

Yeast central nervous system infection in a critically ill patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Invasive fungal infections are alarmingly common in intensive care unit patients; invasive fungal infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors are the increased use of indwelling central venous catheters, the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, renal replacement therapy and immunosuppression. Diagnosis of these infections might be complicated, requiring tissue cultures. In addition, therapy of invasive fungal infections might be difficult, given the rising resistance of fungi to antifungal agents. Case presentation We describe the case of a 28-year-old Greek man with yeast central nervous system infection. Conclusions Difficult-to-treat fungal infections may complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients and render their prognosis unfavorable. This report presents a case that was rare and difficult to treat, along with a thorough review of the investigation and treatment of these kinds of fungal infections in critically ill patients. PMID:25026870

2014-01-01

201

Nutritional support in the critically ill patient: if, when, how, and what.  

PubMed

Nutritional support in the critically ill patient should be instituted as soon as it is clear that the patient will not eat within a week, whether the patient is at that particular time malnourished or not. The preceding discussion demonstrates that it is more a question of clinical judgment than of sophisticated nutritional assessment techniques, as most of these prove unreliable in the critically ill. However, muscle function testing seems to be promising in that regard, but more studies are required in the injured and septic patient. Enteral feeding is the favored route, although parenteral nutrition should be used without hesitation whenever the gastrointestinal tract is not functional. We recommend the use of 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg IBW/day of a balanced amino acid preparation. The use of BCAA-enriched solutions should await confirmation of the efficacy of these solutions in randomized prospective trials. Finally, it is our belief that critically ill patients should not receive more than 1.3 times their Harris-Benedict energy expenditure, and that this energy should be provided in the form of a glucose-fat mixture (50-50 system). PMID:3145112

Baker, J P; Lemoyne, M

1987-01-01

202

Assessment of pharmacokinetic changes of meropenem during therapy in septic critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic commonly used in critically ill patients to treat severe infections. The available pharmacokinetic (PK) data has been mostly obtained from healthy volunteers as well as from clinical studies addressing selected populations, often excluding the elderly and also patients with renal failure. Our aim was to study PK of meropenem in a broader population of septic critically ill patients. Methods We characterized the PK of meropenem in 15 critically ill patients during the first 36 hrs of therapy. Aditionally, whenever possible, we collected a second set of late plasma samples after 5 days of therapy to evaluate PK intra-patient variability and its correlation with clinical course. Patients received meropenem (1 g every 8 hrs IV). Drug plasma profiles were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The PK of meropenem was characterized and compared with clinical parameters. Results Fifteen septic critically ill patients (8 male, median age 73 yrs) were included. The geometric mean of the volume of distribution at the steady state (Vss)/weight was 0.20 (0.15-0.27) L/kg. No correlation of Vss/weight with severity or comorbidity scores was found. However the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score correlated with the Vss/weight of the peripheral compartment (r2?=?0.55, p?=?0.021). The median meropenem clearance (Cl) was 73.3 (45–120) mL/min correlated with the creatinine (Cr) Cl (r2?=?0.35, p?=?0.033). After 5 days (N?=?7) although Vss remained stable, a decrease in the proportion of the peripheral compartment (Vss2) was found, from 61.3 (42.5-88.5)% to 51.7 (36.6-73.1)%. No drug accumulation was noted. Conclusions In this cohort of septic, unselected, critically ill patients, large meropenem PK heterogeneity was noted, although neither underdosing nor accumulation was found. However, Cr Cl correlated to meropenem Cl and the Vss2 decreased with patient’s improvement. PMID:24731745

2014-01-01

203

The significance of tubular and glomerular proteinuria in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently need acute renal replacement therapy (aRRT). We evaluated an inexpensive, rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria on the course of AKI patients requiring aRRT in intensive care. Method: This was a prospective, observational study of critically ill patients with severe established AKI or Acute on Chronic Kidney Injury (AoCKI) requiring aRRT. Urine samples were analyzed using Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulphate-Polyacryamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results: A total of 30 critically ill patients were studied. Those who died have higher APACHE II (29 ± 6 vs. 20 ± 5, p<0.001), multi-organ failure (0.7 ± 0.5 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.02) and Tubular/Glomerular ratio (114 ± 60 vs. 75± 37, p < 0.05).The renal non-recoverers have higher baseline creatinine (415 ± 328 vs. 125± 19 umol/l, p < 0.01), urinary Dipstick value (1.8±0.8 vs. 0.5±0, p <0.05) and Glomerular score (3.0 ± 1.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.02).Heavy tubular proteinuria also predicts a longer duration of interim dialysis support and mortality whereas glomerular proteinuria correlates with development of chronicity and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Conclusions: The dominant presence of tubular proteinuria is associated with poor survival in patients who have high APACHE II score and multi-organ failure. It also correlates with a longer duration of dialysis support in survivals. Renal Non-recoverers had heavy dominant presence of glomerular proteinuria. SDS-PAGE proteinuria analysis offers a reliable and inexpensive method to prognosticate proteinuria in this group of critically ill patients.

Lim, Christopher Thiam Seong; Tan, Han Khim; Lau, Yeow Kok

2014-01-01

204

Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Severe Mental Illness Undergoing Psychiatric Rehabilitation Receiving High Dose Antipsychotic Medication  

PubMed Central

Background: To review evidence of chronic antipsychotic medication and the association with metabolic syndrome in mentally ill patients. This evidence was used to analyse a cohort of patients with severe mental illness and to deduce a correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and their dose regimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male patients undergoing Psychiatric rehabilitation underwent a review of current medication and assessment of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Assessment criteria was based upon National Cholesterol Education Programme expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (NCEP ATP III) criteria, incorporating waist circumference, raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein, raised blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. PubMed, Nature and Science Direct databases have been used to compile the medical and scientific background on metabolic syndrome and antipsychotic medication and the effect on patients particularly on high dose. Results: Out of 24 patients, 10 patients (41.7%) were receiving high dose antipsychotics (HDA) and four were on maximum dosage limits of 100%. 8.3% (2/24) patients were receiving only one first generation antipsychotics (FGA), 37.5% (9/24) patients were receiving only one second generation antipsychotic (SGA), 45.8% patients (11/24) were receiving two or more SGA only, and only one patient was receiving two or more FGA. One patient was receiving a combination of FGA and SGA. PRN (“as needed”) therapy was not included in this study as their usage was limited. Clozapine was mostly prescribed in these patients (10/24, 41.6%). Four out of the 24 patients refused blood tests therefore were excluded from the following results. In the patients evaluated, 55% (11/20) had confirmed metabolic syndrome. In these patients with metabolic syndrome, 45.4% (5/11) were on HDA and 27.3% (3/11) were on maximum British National Formulary (BNF) limits of 100% of dosage. Four out of the nine remaining patients not diagnosed with metabolic syndrome were on HDA. Conclusions: Evidence supports the association between antipsychotic medication and metabolic syndrome. The data extrapolated from this cohort of mentally ill patients demonstrates that there is an increase in risk factors for metabolic syndrome and weight gain in the majority of patients on antipsychotic medication. The data however does not support any further predisposition to metabolic syndrome in these patients taking HDA. It also cannot be assumed antipsychotic medication is independently associated with the prevalence of these abnormalities. PMID:23439746

Ravindranath, Bapu V.

2012-01-01

205

Intensity of Renal Support in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The optimal intensity of renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury is controversial. METHODS We randomly assigned critically ill patients with acute kidney injury and failure of at least one nonrenal organ or sepsis to receive intensive or less intensive renal-replacement therapy. The primary end point was death from any cause by day 60. In both study groups, hemodynamically stable patients underwent intermittent hemodialysis, and hemodynamically unstable patients underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration or sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Patients receiving the intensive treatment strategy underwent intermittent hemodialysis and sustained low-efficiency dialysis six times per week and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 35 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour; for patients receiving the less-intensive treatment strategy, the corresponding treatments were provided thrice weekly and at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. RESULTS Baseline characteristics of the 1124 patients in the two groups were similar. The rate of death from any cause by day 60 was 53.6% with intensive therapy and 51.5% with less-intensive therapy (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.40; P = 0.47). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the duration of renalreplacement therapy or the rate of recovery of kidney function or nonrenal organ failure. Hypotension during intermittent dialysis occurred in more patients randomly assigned to receive intensive therapy, although the frequency of hemodialysis sessions complicated by hypotension was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Intensive renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury did not decrease mortality, improve recovery of kidney function, or reduce the rate of nonrenal organ failure as compared with less-intensive therapy involving a defined dose of intermittent hemodialysis three times per week and continuous renal-replacement therapy at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00076219.) PMID:18492867

2008-01-01

206

Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized controlled trial evidence supports a restrictive strategy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, but significant variation in clinical transfusion practice persists. Patient characteristics other than hemoglobin levels may influence the decision to transfuse RBCs and explain some of this variation. Our objective was to evaluate the role of patient comorbidities and severity of illness in predicting inpatient red blood cell transfusion events. Methods We developed a predictive model of inpatient RBC transfusion using comprehensive electronic medical record (EMR) data from 21 hospitals over a four year period (2008-2011). Using a retrospective cohort study design, we modeled predictors of transfusion events within 24 hours of hospital admission and throughout the entire hospitalization. Model predictors included administrative data (age, sex, comorbid conditions, admission type, and admission diagnosis), admission hemoglobin, severity of illness, prior inpatient RBC transfusion, admission ward, and hospital. Results The study cohort included 275,874 patients who experienced 444,969 hospitalizations. The 24 hour and overall inpatient RBC transfusion rates were 7.2% and 13.9%, respectively. A predictive model for transfusion within 24 hours of hospital admission had a C-statistic of 0.928 and pseudo-R2 of 0.542; corresponding values for the model examining transfusion through the entire hospitalization were 0.872 and 0.437. Inclusion of the admission hemoglobin resulted in the greatest improvement in model performance relative to patient comorbidities and severity of illness. Conclusions Data from electronic medical records at the time of admission predicts with very high likelihood the incidence of red blood transfusion events in the first 24 hours and throughout hospitalization. Patient comorbidities and severity of illness on admission play a small role in predicting the likelihood of RBC transfusion relative to the admission hemoglobin. PMID:24884605

2014-01-01

207

Procalcitonin Clearance for Early Prediction of Survival in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosed sepsis in critically ill patients; however, its prediction for survival is not well established. We evaluated the prognostic value of dynamic changes of PCT in sepsis patients. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in adult ICU. Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were recruited. Daily PCT were measured for 3 days. 48 h PCT clearance (PCTc-48) was defined as percentage of baseline PCT minus 48 h PCT over baseline PCT. Results. 95 SIRS patients were enrolled (67 sepsis and 28 noninfectious SIRS). 40% patients in the sepsis group died in hospital. Day 1-PCT was associated with diagnosis of sepsis (AUC 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76)) but was not predictive of mortality. In sepsis patients, PCTc-48 was associated with prediction of survival (AUC 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.84)). Patients with PCTc-48 > 30% were independently associated with survival (HR 2.90 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.90)). Conclusions. PCTc-48 is associated with prediction of survival in critically ill patients with sepsis. This could assist clinicians in risk stratification; however, the small sample size, and a single-centre study, may limit the generalisability of the finding. This would benefit from replication in future multicentre study. PMID:24719759

Mat Nor, Mohd Basri; Md Ralib, Azrina

2014-01-01

208

Cytomegalovirus reactivation and associated outcome of critically ill patients with severe sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Sepsis has been identified as a risk factor for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill patients. However,\\u000a the contribution of CMV reactivation on morbidity and mortality is still controversial. Therefore, we analyzed the incidence\\u000a and impact of CMV reactivation on outcome in patients with severe sepsis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a prospective longitudinal double-blinded observational study, 97 adult nonimmunosuppressed CMV-seropositive patients with

Alexandra Heininger; Helene Haeberle; Imma Fischer; Robert Beck; Reimer Riessen; Frank Rohde; Christoph Meisner; Gerhard Jahn; Alfred Koenigsrainer; Klaus Unertl; Klaus Hamprecht

2011-01-01

209

Biliary Cast Formation with Sclerosing Cholangitis in Critically Ill Patient: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SC-CIP) is a rare condition that is not familiar to many radiologists. In addition, the associated imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature. We report a case of biliary cast formation with SC-CIP and describe the radiological findings of CT, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). A diagnosis of SC-CIP should be considered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with persistent cholestasis during or after a primary illness. The typical CT, MRCP and ERC findings include new biliary casts in the intrahepatic duct with multiple irregular strictures, dilatations, and relative sparing of the common bile duct. PMID:22563276

Kwon, O-nyoung; Park, Chang Keun; Mun, Sung Hee

2012-01-01

210

Assisted suicide in the care of mentally ill patients: the Lucio Magri's case.  

PubMed

A year after Mario Monicelli's suicide, the death of another famous person in Italy, Lucio Magri, reawakened the Italian debate on social, ethical and juridical issues in end-of-life decisions. Unlike Monicelli, Lucio Magri decided to end his own life in Switzerland with the help of a physician because his mental illness rendered his life unbearable. Both Monicelli and Magri suffered from a severe depression. The authors analyze the ethical issues regarding the right to die for mentally ill patients and neurological disabled patients, discussing the decision-making autonomy in persons suffering from severe depression. The role of the psychiatry in the management of end-of-life decision requests is considered along with pros and cons of suicide prevention and rationale suicide. PMID:24365684

Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Mancarella, Paola; Cecchi, Rossana; Ferracuti, Stefano

2014-01-01

211

Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin administered through a nasogastric tube with continuous enteral feeding to critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin in 12 critically ill patients receiving\\u000a continuous enteral feeding. Design: a prospective, cross-over study. Setting: 12-bed surgical intensive care unit in a University Hospital. Patients: 12 stable critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and receiving continuous enteral feeding (Normoral fibres)\\u000a without diarrhea or excessive residual gastric contents ( < 200

O. Mimoz; V. Binter; A. Jacolot; A. Edouard; M. Tod; O. Petitjean; K. Samii

1998-01-01

212

Evaluation of a risk score for interhospital transport of critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Interhospital transfer imposes essential risk for critically ill patients. The Risk Score for Transport Patients (RSTP) scale can be used as a triage tool for patient severity. Methods In total, 128 transfers of critically ill patients were classified in two groups of severity according to the RSTP. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and goodness of fit statistics. Results In total, 66 patients (51.5%) were classified as group I and 62 (48.4%) as group II. Major en route complications were more common in group II patients (19.3% v 3%, p<0.001). Haemodynamic instability was the most common complication. There were significant differences in the mean risk scores between group I and II patients (mean (SD) 4.48 (1.01) v 11.04 (3.47), p<0.001). Discrimination power of RSTP was acceptable (area under the ROC curve 0.743; cutoff value ?8). Goodness of fit was adequate (p?=?0.390). Conclusion The RSTP had acceptable discrimination and adequate goodness of fit and could be considered as a triage tool. Haemodynamic instability is the most common problem encountered during transfer. PMID:16549583

Markakis, C; Dalezios, M; Chatzicostas, C; Chalkiadaki, A; Politi, K; Agouridakis, P J

2006-01-01

213

EQ-5D versus SF6D in an Older, Chronically Ill Patient Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing between preference-based instruments of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in particular situations is an important area for research. Even where instruments can be assumed to be measuring the same thing, they may not be interchangeable. The study presented investigates the extent to which EQ-5D and SF-6D instruments are interchangeable in an older, chronically ill patient group undergoing haemodialysis. Head-to-head

Karen Gerard; Tricia Nicholson; Mark Mullee; Raj Mehta; Paul Roderick

2004-01-01

214

Patients’ Perspectives on Stigma of Mental Illness (an Egyptian Study in a Private Hospital)  

PubMed Central

The present study is concerned with the stigma of mental illness. It examines the subjective element of the experience of stigma among a sample of in-patients with different mental disorders. The sample was taken from consecutive admissions of in-patients meeting International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria for mental disorders who had capacity to decide on participation in the study and were willing to respond to the structured interview. The study was undertaken in an Egyptian private psychiatric hospital. The structured clinical interview included aspects of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of having a psychiatric diagnosis on in-patients with various diagnostic labels in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. It also studied whether this effect changes with specific disorders, total duration of illness, or sociodemographic variables as gender, age, or educational level. The study illustrated the core items of stigmatization attached to the diagnosis of mental illness (1), which more than half of the participants responded affirmatively. The study aimed to explore the most prevailing aspects of stigma or social disadvantage; hoping that this may offer a preliminary guide for clinicians to address these issues in their practice. PMID:25505426

Sidhom, Emad; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Carter, Julie M.; El-Dosoky, Ahmed; El-Islam, Mohamed Fakhr

2014-01-01

215

Recommendations for the intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study was conducted to provide Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments with a set of practical procedures (check-lists) for managing critically-ill adult patients in order to avoid complications during intra-hospital transport (IHT). Methods Digital research was carried out via the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and HEALTHSTAR databases using the following key words: transferring, transport, intrahospital or intra-hospital, and critically ill patient. The reference bibliographies of each of the selected articles between 1998 and 2009 were also studied. Results This review focuses on the analysis and overcoming of IHT-related risks, the associated adverse events, and their nature and incidence. The suggested preventive measures are also reviewed. A check-list for quick execution of IHT is then put forward and justified. Conclusions Despite improvements in IHT practices, significant risks are still involved. Basic training, good clinical sense and a risk-benefit analysis are currently the only deciding factors. A critically ill patient, prepared and accompanied by an inexperienced team, is a risky combination. The development of adapted equipment and the widespread use of check-lists and proper training programmes would increase the safety of IHT and reduce the risks in the long-term. Further investigation is required in order to evaluate the protective role of such preventive measures. PMID:20470381

2010-01-01

216

Optimal care and design of the tracheal cuff in the critically ill patient  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing use of non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal-oxygen therapy, intubation is still performed in a large proportion of critically ill patients. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss recent data on long-term intubation-related complications, such as microaspiration, and tracheal ischemic lesions. These complications are common in critically ill patients, and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest beneficial effects of tapered cuffed tracheal tubes in reducing aspiration. However, clinical data are needed in critically ill patients to confirm this hypothesis. Polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes and continuous control of cuff pressure could be beneficial in preventing microaspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, large multicenter studies are needed before recommending their routine use. Cuff pressure should be maintained between 20 and 30 cmH2O to prevent intubation-related complications. Tracheal ischemia could be prevented by manual or continuous control of cuff pressure. PMID:24572178

2014-01-01

217

Patients' Perspectives on Stigma of Mental Illness (an Egyptian Study in a Private Hospital).  

PubMed

The present study is concerned with the stigma of mental illness. It examines the subjective element of the experience of stigma among a sample of in-patients with different mental disorders. The sample was taken from consecutive admissions of in-patients meeting International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria for mental disorders who had capacity to decide on participation in the study and were willing to respond to the structured interview. The study was undertaken in an Egyptian private psychiatric hospital. The structured clinical interview included aspects of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of having a psychiatric diagnosis on in-patients with various diagnostic labels in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. It also studied whether this effect changes with specific disorders, total duration of illness, or sociodemographic variables as gender, age, or educational level. The study illustrated the core items of stigmatization attached to the diagnosis of mental illness (1), which more than half of the participants responded affirmatively. The study aimed to explore the most prevailing aspects of stigma or social disadvantage; hoping that this may offer a preliminary guide for clinicians to address these issues in their practice. PMID:25505426

Sidhom, Emad; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Carter, Julie M; El-Dosoky, Ahmed; El-Islam, Mohamed Fakhr

2014-01-01

218

The correlation between quality of life, acceptance of illness and health behaviors of advanced age patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze correlations between quality of life (QoL), acceptance of illness (AI), and health behaviors (HB) demonstrated by chronically ill patients of advanced age. The study was comprised of 1974 chronically ill primary care patients (mean age 71.60±7.98 years) recruited from 131 primary care practices. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Short Form. The patients' AI with the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) measured four categories of HB: healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA) and health practices (HP). The Spearman rank correlation test was used to check correlations between the variables and analysis of multiple regression was used in order to examine the impact of explanatory variables on the response variable. The highest scores were obtained in the Social Relationship Domain of QoL (M=13.68±2.75) and the lowest in the Psychological Domain of QoL (M=12.38±2.66) of the patients. The low AI was noted in 65.68% (1221). Lower level of QoL and AI were observed in patients with a larger number of chronic diseases and higher health care utilization. The lowest HB scores were obtained in the category of PMA (M=3.61±0.73) and HEH (M=3.36±0.84). The AI level correlated strongest with: Physical Domain of QoL (r(S)=0.49, p<0.0001) and PMA (r(S)=0.23, p<0.0001). HB correlated strongest with Psychological Domain of QoL (r(S)=0.33, p<0.0001). Health behavior programs for chronically ill patients of advanced age should stimulate health behavior categories such as PMA and HEH, and raise the AI level. This would result in a higher QoL and, consequently, a lower health care utilization. PMID:23332827

Kurpas, D; Mroczek, B; Bielska, D

2013-01-01

219

Use of an Electronic Patient Portal Among the Chronically Ill: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic patient portals may enhance effective interaction between the patient and the health care provider. To grasp the full potential of patient portals, health care providers need more knowledge on which patient groups prefer electronic services and how patients should be served through this channel. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how chronically ill patients’ state of health, comorbidities, and previous care are associated with their adoption and use of a patient portal. Methods A total of 222 chronically ill patients, who were offered access to a patient portal with their health records and secure messaging with care professionals, were included in the study. Differences in the characteristics of non-users, viewers, and interactive users of the patient portal were analyzed before access to the portal. Patients’ age, gender, diagnoses, levels of the relevant physiological measurements, health care contacts, and received physiological measurements were collected from the care provider’s electronic health record. In addition, patient-reported health and patient activation were assessed by a survey. Results Despite the broad range of measures used to indicate the patients’ state of health, the portal user groups differed only in their recorded diagnosis for hypertension, which was most common in the non-user group. However, there were significant differences in the amount of care received during the year before access to the portal. The non-user group had more nurse visits and more measurements of relevant physiological outcomes than viewers and interactive users. They also had fewer referrals to specialized care during the year before access to the portal than the two other groups. The viewers and the interactive users differed from each other significantly in the number of nurse calls received, the interactive users having more calls than the viewers. No significant differences in age, gender, or patient activation were detected between the user groups. Conclusions Previous care received by the patient is an important predictor for the use of a patient portal. In a group of patients with a similar disease burden, demand for different types of health services and preferences related to the service channel seem to contribute to the choice to use the patient portal. Further research on patient portal functionalities and their potential to meet patient needs by complementing or substituting for traditional health care services is suggested. PMID:25488754

Linna, Miika; Rönkkö, Ilona; Kröger, Virpi

2014-01-01

220

[Representations on patient illness and cure at the Chemical Dependency Center of the Central Navy Hospital].  

PubMed

This article presents one of the segments of ethnographic research which was conducted over a two-year period, by means of participant observation, at the Chemical Dependency Center of the Brazilian Navy. Patients of 2 treatment groups were observed during 24 sessions of group therapy. Among the 22 existing patients of the two groups, 13 patients were randomly selected for individual interviews. Their illness and healing representations related to mental and behavioral disorders caused by drugs were examined, and also the influence of the work environment on patient involvement with drugs was investigated. Results show that patients believe that they are responsible for their illness and for their alcoholic sobriety and they also believe they will never be cured. Furthermore, they do not usually accept the on-going medical discourse or the Alcoholics Anonymous belief that they are recovering alcoholics; they build their own views about their diagnoses, prognoses, and treatments. There are cultural traits particular to the naval life that indicate that the categories analyzed are mainly social, and that certain work-related conditions lead to the emergence of alcoholism in many patients, despite the fact that drugs are commonly tackled from the administrative perspective. PMID:22534861

Halpern, Elizabeth Espindola; Leite, Ligia Maria Costa

2012-04-01

221

Thrombosis and hemorrhage in the critically ill cirrhotic patients: five years retrospective prevalence study.  

PubMed

Background. Cirrhotic patients present a complex interaction between deficient synthetic liver function, hemodynamic abnormalities and superimposed conditions that alter coagulation system. This alters both coagulation and fibrinolytic processes,increasing bleeding and thrombosis risks. Particularly, critically ill cirrhotic patients represent a diagnostic challenge since they have multiple comorbidities making the thrombotic and bleeding risks unpredictable. The prevalence of bleeding and thrombosis in this subset of patients remains poorly described. The main aim of this article is to describe the prevalence of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications in cirrhotic patients admitted between 2007 and 2012 at Médica Sur Clinic and Foundation ICU. Material and methods. We performed a five years retrospective study including every cirrhotic patient admitted to ICU between January 2007 and December 2012. Results. The incidence of hemorrhage was 48.5%, the overall incidence of thrombotic complications was 13.66%. Variceal bleeding was the most prevalent hemorrhagic event and portal vein thrombosis the most common thrombotic event. Factors associated with presenting a bleeding episode included kidney injury, infection an thrombosis. Factors associated with increased thrombotic risk included ascitis,infection and bleeding. Conclusion. Critically ill cirrhotic patients have an high risk for both thrombotic and bleeding episodes. The association between the presence of bleeding and thrombotic events was statistically significant. PMID:25536646

Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael

2015-01-01

222

Psychosocial Correlates of Recurrent Childhood Pain: A Comparison of Pediatric Patients With Recurrent Abdominal Pain, Organic Illness, and Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) were compared with patients with peptic disease, patients with emotional disorders, and well children with regard to (a) emotional and somatic symptoms and (b) theoretically derived variables, including negative life events, competence, family functioning, and the modeling and encouragement of illness behavior. RAP patients had levels of emotional distress and somatic complaints higher

Lynn S. Walker; Judy Garber; John W. Greene

1993-01-01

223

[III Working Meeting SENPE-Baxter: complementary parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient].  

PubMed

In the setting of a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the available evidence as well as the experience from experts, the indications and management guidelines for Complementary Parenteral Nutrition (CPN) in the critically ill patient are established. The conclusion refers to the importance of its indication in all the cases where enteral nutrition (EN) is insufficient to cover at least 60% of the caloric-protein target. At least 80% of the patient's caloric requirements should be covered with EN and CPN, with the recommendation of targeting 100% of the demands. PMID:18560694

de Lorenzo, A García; Grau, T; Montejo, J C; Leyba, C Ortiz; Santana, S Ruiz

2008-01-01

224

Quality of life and illness perception in working and sick-listed chronic RSI patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study differences between working and sick-listed chronic repetitive strain injury (RSI) patients in the Netherlands with\\u000a respect to indices of quality of life and illness perception.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a cross-sectional design, one questionnaire was sent to all 3,250 members of the national RSI patient association. For\\u000a descriptive purposes, demographics, work status and complaint-related variables such as severity, type, duration, and

Judith K. Sluiter; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2008-01-01

225

Should we stop prescribing metoclopramide as a prokinetic drug in critically ill patients?  

PubMed

Regulatory agencies in North America and Europe recently re-evaluated the safety of metoclopramide. This re-evaluation resulted in recommendations and restrictions in order to minimise the risk of neurological and other adverse reactions associated with the use of metoclopramide. In the ICU, off-label prescription of metoclopramide is common. We have reviewed the evidence for safety, effectiveness and dosing of metoclopramide in critically ill patients. Furthermore, tachyphylaxis is addressed and alternatives are summarised. Finally, recommendations are presented not to abandon use of metoclopramide in ICU patients, because metoclopramide is considered effective in enhancing gastric emptying and facilitating early enteral nutrition. PMID:25672546

van der Meer, Y Gert; Venhuizen, Willem A; Heyland, Daren K; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

2014-01-01

226

Investigational tests and treatments performed in terminal stage cancer patients in two weeks before death: Turkish oncology group (TOG) study.  

PubMed

Although more palliative care is necessary for terminally ill cancer patients, excess investigational tests, invasive procedures, and treatments are given instead. Between November 2009 and December 2013, six hundred and twenty-four patients with end-stage cancer who were died at inpatient setting evaluated retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, sites of tumor and metastasis, tests and invasive procedures, treatments performed in the last 2 weeks before death were collected from the hospital files and analyzed. Median age of 624 patients was 58 (range 16-96) years. More than half of the patients (370, 59.3%) were men. The most frequent cancer sites were gastrointestinal (GI) system (32.2%), lung (24.0%), and breast (11.1%). Frequent metastatic sites were liver (34.8%), bone (31.5%), lung (23.3%), and/or brain (16.9%). Causes of death were respiratory failure, infections, and/or liver failure in 49.9, 23.9, and 19.4% of patients, respectively. Radiological tests performed in the last 2 weeks before death were ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan in 25.6, 16.3, 11.4, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Treatments received were intravenous (i.v) serum infusion, blood transfusion, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), human albumin infusion in 55.9, 44.1, 34.9, and 9.5% of patients, respectively. Invasive procedures such as invasive pain relief, terminal sedation, and chemotherapy performed in 12.6, 4.4, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Central venous catheter application, paracentesis, thoracentesis, and GI endoscopy were applied in 41.7, 9.8, 5.6, and 3.4% of the patients, respectively. Radiological tests, invasive procedures, TPN, and human albumin transfusion were used excessively in terminal stage cancer patients in our medical oncology inpatient clinics. Invasive pain relief and terminal sedation were still underused in our cancer clinics. There is an urgent need in developing national palliative care program to improve the understanding of end-of-life care in our medical oncology clinics. PMID:25412940

Türker, ?brahim; Kömürcü, ?eref; Ar?can, Ali; Doruk, Hatice; Özy?lkan, Özgür; Co?kun, Hasan ?enol; Colak, Dil?en; Üçgül Çavu?o?lu, Emel; Ata, Alper; Sezer, Ahmet; Ye?il Ç?nk?r, Havva; ?enler, Filiz Cay; Arpac?, Fikret

2014-12-01

227

Quality of life, depression, adherence to treatment and illness perception of patients on haemodialysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between quality of life, depression, perception of seriousness of illness and adherence to treatment among Jordanian patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. The study was carried out using a descriptive, correlation design. A convenience sample of 244 participants was recruited from four major dialysis units in Amman. A self-report questionnaire included demographic data, adherence to treatment and perception of seriousness of illness. Quality of Life Index and Beck Depression Inventory were used for data collection. There was a negative correlation between quality of life and depression (r?=?-0.05, P?=?0.000). Depression was higher among women than men, whereas both gender had low quality of life scores. Higher quality of life has been associated with perceived seriousness of illness and more adherence to treatment regimen. This study provides preliminary evidence to develop culturally sensitive nursing strategies to asses and manage depression, enhance quality of life and adherence to treatment of patients on haemodialysis. PMID:24124912

Nabolsi, Manar M; Wardam, Lina; Al-Halabi, Jehad O

2015-02-01

228

Physician reimbursement for critical care services integrating palliative care for patients who are critically ill.  

PubMed

Patients with advanced illness often spend time in an ICU, while nearly one-third of patients with advanced cancer who receive Medicare die in hospitals, often with failed ICU care. For most, death occurs following the withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining treatments. The integration of palliative care is essential for high-quality critical care. Although palliative care specialists are becoming increasingly available, intensivists and other physicians are also expected to provide basic palliative care, including symptom treatment and communication about goals of care. Patients who are critically ill are often unable to make decisions about their care. In these situations, physicians must meet with family members or other surrogates to determine appropriate medical treatments. These meetings require clinical expertise to ensure that patient values are explored for medical decision making about therapeutic options, including palliative care. Meetings with families take time. Issues related to the disease process, prognosis, and treatment plan are complex, and decisions about the use or limitation of intensive care therapies have life-or-death implications. Inadequate reimbursement for physician services may be a barrier to the optimal delivery of high-quality palliative care, including effective communication. Appropriate documentation of time spent integrating palliative and critical care for patients who are critically ill can be consistent with the Current Procedural Terminology codes (99291 and 99292) for critical care services. The purpose of this article is to help intensivists and other providers understand the circumstances in which integration of palliative and critical care meets the definition of critical care services for billing purposes. PMID:22396564

Lustbader, Dana R; Nelson, Judith E; Weissman, David E; Hays, Ross M; Mosenthal, Anne C; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret L; Cortez, Therese B; Curtis, J Randall

2012-03-01

229

The attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients with mental illness in an inpatient setting in Palestine.  

PubMed

Culture plays a vital role in shaping public and professional attitudes towards mental illness. In Arab cultures negative attitudes toward patients experiencing mental illnesses are common. There is a lack of studies that investigate the attitudes of professionals towards patients in inpatient mental health settings. This study aimed to assess the attitudes of professionals towards patients with mental illnesses in the only psychiatric hospital in Palestine. A survey was undertaken using the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS 33). The scale was distributed to a variety of professionals at the only psychiatric hospital in Bethlehem. Data was managed and analysed by using SPSS 15 (a statistical package for social sciences). The participants (mostly nurses) expressed both negative and positive attitudes toward patients, however, results revealed more negative than positive attitudes, particularly in relation to alcohol misuse, medication, patients' ability to control their emotions, and genetic predisposition to mental illness. This paper provides baseline data about the attitude of mental health professionals towards patients experiencing mental illnesses. Education and direct contact with patients with mental illness may not be enough to foster positive attitudes towards them. This may indicate the need to revise educational curriculum at the Palestinian universities and offer more training for mental health professionals in order to change their attitudes. PMID:20887610

Ahmead, Muna K; Rahhal, Ahmad A; Baker, John A

2010-10-01

230

[Legal discussion on euthanasia of severely ill patients from the medical viewpoint].  

PubMed

Demographic factors lead to rising numbers of old and very old people in our society. In connection with this development the numbers of the seriously ill and handicapped needing comprehensive care are growing. Society is not sufficiently prepared to meet these ethical and economical problems. In this situation consequentialistic utilitarism may contribute to the social acceptance of direct, active euthanasia. Three paradigmatic judicial cases are described. Medical aspects of recent discussions in the field of criminal law are given. The danger of the "bursting of the dam", i.e. the tolerance of killing incurably ill and old patients is stressed. Compassion, self-determination, and economical considerations can not be accepted as reasons for the killing of human beings. PMID:8367994

Heinrich, K

1993-01-01

231

Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

2011-04-01

232

Technology-based interventions for psychiatric illnesses: improving care, one patient at a time.  

PubMed

Worldwide, individuals with severe psychiatric illnesses struggle to receive evidence-based care. While science has made remarkably slow progress in the development and implementation of effective psychiatric treatments, we have witnessed enormous progress in the emergence and global penetration of personal computing technology. The present paper examines how digital resources that are already widespread (e.g., smartphones, laptop computers), can be leveraged to support psychiatric care. These instruments and implementation strategies can increase patient access to evidenced-based care, help individuals overcome the barriers associated with the stigma of mental illness, and facilitate new treatment paradigms that harness wireless communication, sensors and the Internet, to enhance treatment potency. Innovative digital treatment programmes that have been used successfully with a range of conditions (i.e., schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder) are presented in the paper to demonstrate the utility and potential impact of technology-based interventions in the years ahead. PMID:25046343

Ben-Zeev, D

2014-12-01

233

Extracorporeal circulatory systems in the interhospital transfer of critically ill patients: experience of a single institution  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure cannot be moved to other institutions unless stabilized by mechanical support systems. Extracorporeal heart and lung assist systems are increasingly used as a bridge to end-organ recovery or transplantation, and as an ultimate rescue tool in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From July 2001 to April 2008, we had 38 requests for extracorporeal support for interhospital transfer carried out by the air medical service. Respiratory failure was present in 29 patients, who were provided with pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (PECLA) or veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Cardiac failure dominated in 9 patients, who underwent implantation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Underlying diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 patients, pneumonia in 7, prior lung transplant status in 4, cardiogenic shock in 7, and septic shock in 4. RESULTS: All assist systems were connected via peripheral vessels by the Seldinger technique. Transport was uneventful in all cases with no technical failures. On arrival at the specialized care hospital, two patients had leg ischemia and underwent relocation of the arterial cannula. After a mean (SD) support of 5.1 (3.0) days for PECLA, 3.5 (2.9) days for ECLS, and 7.3 (5.8) days for ECMO, 60%, 66%, and 66% of patients, respectively, could be successfully weaned from the systems. Discharge rates were 45% for PECLA, 44% for ECLS, and 56% for ECMO. CONCLUSION: Our experience proves that minimized extracorporeal assist devices allow safe assistance of patients with isolated or combined heart and lung failure in need of interhospital transfer. Critically ill patients get a chance to reach a center of maximum medical care. PMID:19318758

Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Mueller, Thomas; Camboni, Daniele; Rupprecht, Leopold; Puehler, Thomas; Hirt, Stephan; Hilker, Michael; Kobuch, Reinhard; Schmid, Christof; Arlt, Matthias

2009-01-01

234

Inpatient Management Of Diabetes Mellitus Among Noncritically Ill Patients At The University Hospital Of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe the state of glycemic control in non-critically ill diabetic patients admitted to the PR University Hospital, and the adherence to current standard of care guidelines for the treatment of diabetes. METHODS This was a retrospective study of patients admitted to a General Medicine ward with Diabetes Mellitus as a secondary diagnosis. Clinical data was analyzed for the first 5 days and the last 24 hours of admission. RESULTS One hundred and forty-seven (147) non-critically ill diabetic patients were evaluated. The rate of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia was 56.7% and 2.8%, respectively. Nearly 60% of patients were hyperglycemic during the first 24 hrs of admission and 54.2% during the last 24 hrs. Mean last glucose value before discharge was 189.6 ± 73 mg/dL. Most patients were treated with subcutaneous insulin with basal insulin alone used as the most common regimen. The proportion of patients classified as uncontrolled receiving basal-bolus therapy increased from 54.3% on day 1 to 60.0% on day 5, with still 40.0% receiving only basal insulin. Most of the uncontrolled patients had their insulin dose increased (70.1%), however, a substantial portion had no change (23.7%) or even had a decrease (6.2%) in their insulin dose. CONCLUSIONS Even though there are areas of improvement in the management of hospitalized diabetic patients, it is still suboptimal, probably due to clinical inertia. A comprehensive educational diabetes management program, along with standardized insulin orders should be implemented to improve the care of these patients. PMID:24325996

Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee; González-Rosario, Rafael A.; González, Loida; Sánchez, Viviana; Vega, Mónica A.; Alvarado, Milliette; Ramón, Raul O.

2014-01-01

235

Do older patients and their family caregivers agree about the quality of chronic illness care?†  

PubMed Central

Objective Family caregivers often accompany patients to medical visits; however, it is unclear whether caregivers rate the quality of patients' care similarly to patients. This study aimed to (1) quantify the level of agreement between patients' and caregivers' reports on the quality of patients' care and (2) determine how the level of agreement varies by caregiver and patient characteristics. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Participants Multimorbid older (aged 65 and above) adults and their family caregivers (n = 247). Methods Quality of care was rated separately by patients and their caregivers using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) instrument. The level of agreement was examined using a weighted kappa statistic (Kw). Results Agreement of caregivers' and patients' PACIC scores was low (Kw = 0.15). Patients taking ten or more medications per day showed less agreement with their caregivers about the quality of care than patients taking five or fewer medications (Kw = 0.03 and 0.34, respectively, P < 0.05). Caregivers who reported greater difficulty assisting patients with health care tasks had less agreement with patients about the quality of care being provided when compared with caregivers who reported no difficulty (Kw = ?0.05 and 0.31, respectively, P < .05). Patient–caregiver dyads had greater agreement on objective questions than on subjective questions (Kw = 0.25 and 0.15, respectively, P > 0.05). Conclusion Patient–caregiver dyads following a more complex treatment plan (i.e. taking many medications) or having more difficulty following a treatment plan (i.e. having difficulty with health care tasks) had less agreement. Future qualitative research is needed to elucidate the underlying reasons patients and caregivers rate the quality of care differently. PMID:23980119

Giovannetti, Erin R.; Reider, Lisa; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Frick, Kevin D.; Boult, Chad; Steinwachs, Don; Boyd, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

236

Assessment of candidemia-attributable mortality in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Candidemia in critically ill patients is usually a severe and life-threatening condition with a high crude mortality. Very few studies have focused on the impact of candidemia on ICU patient outcome and attributable mortality still remains controversial. This study was carried out to determine the attributable mortality of ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted of all consecutive non-neutropenic adult patients admitted for at least seven days to 36 ICUs in Spain, France, and Argentina between April 2006 and June 2007. The probability of developing candidemia was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Each patient with ICU-acquired candidemia was matched with two control patients with the nearest available Mahalanobis metric matching within the calipers defined by the propensity score. Standardized differences tests (SDT) for each variable before and after matching were calculated. Attributable mortality was determined by a modified Poisson regression model adjusted by those variables that still presented certain misalignments defined as a SDT > 10%. Results Thirty-eight candidemias were diagnosed in 1,107 patients (34.3 episodes/1,000 ICU patients). Patients with and without candidemia had an ICU crude mortality of 52.6% versus 20.6% (P < 0.001) and a crude hospital mortality of 55.3% versus 29.6% (P = 0.01), respectively. In the propensity matched analysis, the corresponding figures were 51.4% versus 37.1% (P = 0.222) and 54.3% versus 50% (P = 0.680). After controlling residual confusion by the Poisson regression model, the relative risk (RR) of ICU- and hospital-attributable mortality from candidemia was RR 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.98) and RR 1.096 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.69), respectively. Conclusions ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients is not associated with an increase in either ICU or hospital mortality. PMID:22698004

2012-01-01

237

A Tool for Music Preference Assessment in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support  

PubMed Central

Music is an ideal intervention to reduce anxiety and promote relaxation in critically ill patients. This article reviews the research studies on music-listening interventions to manage distressful symptoms in this population, and describes the development and implementation of the Music Assessment Tool (MAT) to assist professionals in ascertaining patients’ music preferences in the challenging, dynamic clinical environment of the intensive care unit (ICU). The MAT is easy to use with these patients who experience profound communication challenges due to fatigue and inability to speak because of endotracheal tube placement. The music therapist and ICU nursing staff are encouraged to work collaboratively to implement music in a personalized manner to ensure the greatest benefit for mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:24489432

CHLAN, LINDA; HEIDERSCHEIT, ANNIE

2010-01-01

238

Reinstitutionalization following psychiatric discharge among VA patients with serious mental illness: a national longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized. Among these patients, 73% were initially reinstitutionalized to inpatient psychiatric settings. Homelessness, medical morbidity, and substance use were associated with increased risks for reinstitutionalization. Despite the VA's increased emphasis on outpatient services delivery, the vast majority of patients experienced reinstitutionalization in the follow-up period. Study findings may inform efforts to refine psychiatric and medical assessment for service delivery for this vulnerable population. PMID:17763982

Irmiter, Cheryl; McCarthy, John F; Barry, Kristen L; Soliman, Soheil; Blow, Frederic C

2007-12-01

239

Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.  

PubMed

Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 ?g/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 ?g/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 ?g/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injury severity score less than 25 had significantly higher cortisol levels than patients with an Injury Severity Score 25 or higher (35.3 ± 19.21 ?g/dL vs 25.7 ± 13.21 ?g/dL, P = 0.009). Patients with massive transfusion, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or solid organ injury did not have significantly different cortisol levels. The covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that cortisol level has a 77 per cent accuracy in differentiating survivors from nonsurvivors. Higher cortisol levels were predictive of mortality in critically ill trauma patients. Whether serum cortisol level is a marker that can be modified remains an area of interest for future study. PMID:25347501

Pandya, Urmil; Polite, Nathan; Wood, Teresa; Lieber, Michael

2014-11-01

240

The Pursuit of Preventive Care for Chronic Illness: Turning Healthy People into Chronic Patients  

PubMed Central

Preventive health care has become prominent in clinical medicine in the United States, emphasizing risk assessment and control, rather than addressing the signs and symptoms of pathology. Current clinical guidelines, reinforced by evidence-based decision aids and quality of care assessment, encourage clinicians to focus on maintaining rigid test thresholds which are based on population norms. While achieving these goals may benefit the total population, this may be of no benefit or even harmful to individual patients. In order to explore how this phenomenon is manifest in clinical care, and consider some factors that promote and sustain this trend, we analyze observations of over 100 clinical consultations, and open-ended interviews with 58 primary care clinicians and 70 of their patients. Both clinicians and patients equated at-risk states with illness, and viewed the associated interventions not as prevention, but as treatment. This conflation of risk and disease redefines clinical success such that reducing the threat of anticipated future illness requires acceptance of aggressive treatments and any associated adverse effects in the present. While the expanding emphasis on preventive medicine may improve the health profile of the total population, the implications of these innovations for the well-being of individual patients merits careful reconsideration. PMID:24372285

Kreiner, Meta J.; Hunt, Linda M.

2013-01-01

241

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in critically ill patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB) is considered as an unusual form of invasive aspergillosis and has a fatal outcome. There is little current information on several aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) complicated by ATB, the frequency of which is expected to increase in the coming years. In a prospective study of invasive bronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) in a critically ill COPD population, three proven cases of ATB were identified. The three new cases, combined with eight previously reported cases of COPD with ATB over a 30-year period (1983-2013), were analysed. Among 153 critically ill COPD patients admitted to the ICU, eight cases were complicated by ATB [23.5% of IBPA (8 of 34); and 5.2% of COPD (8 of 153)], and three cases were finally diagnosed as proven ATB by histopathological findings. Among the three new cases reported and the eight published cases, the overall mortality rate was 72.7% (8 of 11 cases), with a median of 11.5 days (range, 7-27 days) between admission to death. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) [100% (8 of 8 patients)] than in patients without parenchyma invasion [0% (0 of 3 patient), P = 0.006]. Seven patients (77.8%) received systemic corticosteroid therapy and three patients (33.3%) inhaled corticosteroids before diagnosis with ATB. Dyspnoea resistant to corticosteroids (77.8%) was the most frequent symptom. The radiological manifestations progressed rapidly in three patients (75%) who had normal chest X-rays (CXRs) at admission. Pseudomembranous lesions were the most frequent form (54.5%) observed by bronchoscopy. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated pathogen (40%). ATB is an uncommon cause of exacerbation in approximately 5% of critically ill COPD patients admitted to the ICU, and may progress rapidly to IPA with a high mortality rate. Dyspnoea resistant to corticosteroids and appropriate antibiotics with a negative CXR should raise the suspicion of ATB. Early diagnosis of ATB is based on bronchoscopic examination and proven diagnosis maybe safely established with a bronchial mucous biopsy. PMID:24673772

He, Hangyong; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Li; Sun, Bing; Li, Fang; Zhan, Qingyuan; Wang, Chen

2014-08-01

242

The relationship between gastric emptying, plasma cholecystokinin, and peptide YY in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) are released in response to intestinal nutrients and play an important physiological role in regulation of gastric emptying (GE). Plasma CCK and PYY concentrations are elevated in critically ill patients, particularly in those with a history of feed intolerance. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CCK and PYY concentrations and GE in critical illness. Methods GE of 100 mL of Ensure® meal (106 kcal, 21% fat) was measured using a 13C-octanoate breath test in 39 mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients (24 males; 55.8 ± 2.7 years old). Breath samples for 13CO2 levels were collected over the course of 4 hours, and the GE coefficient (GEC) (normal = 3.2 to 3.8) was calculated. Measurements of plasma CCK, PYY, and glucose concentrations were obtained immediately before and at 60 and 120 minutes after administration of Ensure. Results GE was delayed in 64% (25/39) of the patients. Baseline plasma CCK (8.5 ± 1.0 versus 6.1 ± 0.4 pmol/L; P = 0.045) and PYY (22.8 ± 2.2 versus 15.6 ± 1.3 pmol/L; P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in patients with delayed GE and were inversely correlated with GEC (CCK: r = -0.33, P = 0.04, and PYY: r = -0.36, P = 0.02). After gastric Ensure, while both plasma CCK (P = 0.03) and PYY (P = 0.02) concentrations were higher in patients with delayed GE, there was a direct relationship between the rise in plasma CCK (r = 0.40, P = 0.01) and PYY (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) from baseline at 60 minutes after the meal and the GEC. Conclusion In critical illness, there is a complex interaction between plasma CCK, PYY, and GE. Whilst plasma CCK and PYY correlated moderately with impaired GE, the pathogenetic role of these gut hormones in delayed GE requires further evaluation with specific antagonists. PMID:18154642

Nguyen, Nam Q; Fraser, Robert J; Bryant, Laura K; Chapman, Marianne J; Wishart, Judith; Holloway, Richard H; Butler, Ross; Horowitz, Michael

2007-01-01

243

The Process of Causal Attribution and Interpretation of the Mental Illness by the Patients' Family Members in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catastrophic event such as the onset of mental illness forces the patient's family members to make tremendous adjustment to the reality. Parents, siblings, and spouses of the mentally ill patients were interviewed in the United States and Japan with regard to how they perceived the cause of the illness of their loved ones. They struggle to make sense out

Yuko Kawanishi

2004-01-01

244

Acid–base status of critically ill patients with acute renal failure: analysis based on Stewart–Figge methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study is to understand the nature of acid–base disorders in critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) using the biophysical principles described by Stewart and Figge. A retrospective controlled study was carried out in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with ARF, 40 patients matched for

Jens Rocktaeschel; Hiroshi Morimatsu; Shigehiko Uchino; Donna Goldsmith; Stephanie Poustie; David Story; Geoffrey Gutteridge; Rinaldo Bellomo

2003-01-01

245

Antibiotic dosing in the 'at risk' critically ill patient: Linking pathophysiology with pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in sepsis and trauma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Critical illness, mediated by trauma or sepsis, can lead to physiological changes that alter the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics and may result in sub-therapeutic concentrations at the sites of infection. The first aim of this project is to identify the clinical characteristics of critically ill patients with significant trauma that have been recently admitted to ICU that may predict the dosing requirements for the antibiotic, cefazolin. The second aim of this is to identify the clinical characteristics of critically ill patients with sepsis that may predict the dosing requirements for the combination antibiotic, piperacillin-tazobactam. Methods/Design This is an observational pharmacokinetic study of patients with trauma (cefazolin) or with sepsis (piperacillin-tazobactam). Participants will have samples from blood and urine, collected at different intervals. Patients will also have a microdialysis catheter inserted into subcutaneous tissue to measure interstitial fluid penetration of the antibiotic. Participants will be administered sinistrin, indocyanine green and sodium bromide as well as have cardiac output monitoring performed and tetrapolar bioimpedance to determine physiological changes resulting from pathology. Analysis of samples will be performed using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis will be performed using non-linear mixed effects modeling to determine individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of antibiotics. Discussion The study will describe cefazolin and piperacillin-tazobactam concentrations in plasma and the interstitial fluid of tissues in trauma and sepsis patients respectively. The results of this study will guide clinicians to effectively dose these antibiotics in order to maximize the concentration of antibiotics in the interstitial fluid of tissues. PMID:21333028

2011-01-01

246

Utility of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy for critically ill pediatric patients: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic yield, therapeutic efficacy, and rate of adverse events related to flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) in critically ill children. METHODS: We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID, and EMBASE databases through July 2014 for English language publications studying FFB performed in the intensive care unit in children < 18 years old. We identified 666 studies, of which 89 full-text studies were screened for further review. Two reviewers independently determined that 27 of these studies met inclusion criteria and extracted data. We examined the diagnostic yield of FFB among upper and lower airway evaluations, as well as the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). RESULTS: We found that FFB led to a change in medical management in 28.9% (range 21.9%-69.2%) of critically ill children. The diagnostic yield of FFB was 82% (range 45.2%-100%). Infectious organisms were identified in 25.7% (17.6%-75%) of BALs performed, resulting in a change of antimicrobial management in 19.1% (range: 12.2%-75%). FFB successfully re-expanded atelectasis or removed mucus plugs in 60.3% (range: 23.8%-100%) of patients with atelectasis. Adverse events were reported in 12.9% (range: 0.5%-71.4%) of patients. The most common adverse effects of FFB were transient hypotension, hypoxia and/or bradycardia that resolved with minimal intervention, such as oxygen supplementation or removal of the bronchoscope. Serious adverse events were uncommon; 2.1% of adverse events required intervention such as bag-mask ventilation or intubation and atropine for hypoxia and bradycardia, normal saline boluses for hypotension, or lavage and suctioning for hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: FFB is safe and effective for diagnostic and therapeutic use in critically ill pediatric patients.

Field-Ridley, Aida; Sethi, Viyeka; Murthi, Shweta; Nandalike, Kiran; Li, Su-Ting T

2015-01-01

247

Insulin Requirements in Non-Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes and Steroid-Induced Hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Objective Steroid-induced hyperglycemia is common in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus. Guidelines for glucose management in this setting are lacking. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of non-critically ill patients with diabetes receiving steroids, hospitalized from January 2009 to October 2012. Fifty-eight patients were identified from 247 consults. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess median daily insulin requirements of normoglycemic patients compared with hyperglycemic patients. Results Of the 58 total patients included in our study, 20 achieved normoglycemia during admission (patient-day weighted mean blood glucose [PDWMBG] level = 154 ± 16 mg/dL) and 38 remained hyperglycemic (PDWMBG level= 243 ± 39 mg/dL; P < 0.001). There were no differences between the 2 patient groups in age, sex, race, body weight, renal function, HbA1c level, glucose-altering medications, diabetes type, or disease duration. Following multivariable adjustment, compared with hyperglycemic patients, normoglycemic patients required similar units of basal insulin (median [interquartile range])(23.6 [17.9, 31.2] vs 20.1 [16.5, 24.4]; P = 0.35); higher units of nutritional insulin (45.5 [34.2, 60.4] vs 20.1 [16.4, 24.5]; P < 0.001]; and lower units of correctional insulin (5.8 [4.1, 8.1] vs 13.0 [10.2, 16.5]; P < 0.001]). Patients achieving normoglycemia required a significantly lower percentage of correction insulin (total daily dose [TDD]: 7.4% vs 23.4%; P < 0.001) and a higher percentage of nutritional insulin (TDD: 58.1% vs 36.2%; P < 0.001) than hyperglycemic patients. There was no difference in the TDD per kilogram, TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose, or TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose per kilogram weight between the 2 groups. Conclusion The data suggest that non-critically ill patients with hyperglycemia receiving steroids require a higher percentage of TDD insulin therapy as nutritional insulin to achieve normoglycemia. PMID:24769781

Spanakis, Elias K.; Shah, Nina; Malhotra, Keya; Kemmerer, Terri; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Golden, Sherita Hill

2014-01-01

248

Physical Illness, Psychiatric Illness, and the Acceptability of Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed whether attitudes toward suicide vary as function of type of illness that precipitates suicide. College students (N=455) responded to scenarios of suicide victim. Evaluations of suicide were most favorable when it occurred in response to terminal physical illness; less favorable in response to chronic, non-terminal physical illness; and…

Deluty, Robert H.

1989-01-01

249

Accuracy of a novel noninvasive transdermal continuous glucose monitor in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Stress hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. Intermittent, random blood glucose (BG) measurements can miss episodes of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Symphony® continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Fifteen adult cardiac surgery patients were evaluated immediately postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Prelude® SkinPrep prepared the skin and a sensor was applied to 2 test sites on each subject to monitor interstitial fluid glucose. Reference BG was sampled at 30- to 60-minute intervals. The skin at the test sites was inspected for adverse effects. Accuracy of the retrospectively analyzed CGM data relative to reference BG values was determined using continuous glucose-error grid analysis (CG-EGA) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Using 570 Symphony CGM glucose readings paired with reference BG measurements, CG-EGA showed that 99.6% of the readings were within zones A and B. BG measurements ranged from 73 to 251 mg/dL. The MARD was 12.3%. No adverse device effects were reported. The Symphony CGM system is able to safely, continuously, and noninvasively monitor glucose in the transdermal interstitial fluid of cardiac surgery intensive care unit patients with accuracy similar to that reported with other CGM systems. Future versions of the system will need real-time data analysis, fast warm-up, and less frequent calibrations to be used in the clinical setting. PMID:24876448

Saur, Nicole M; England, Michael R; Menzie, Wayne; Melanson, Ann Marie; Trieu, My-Quyen; Berlin, Jason; Hurley, James; Krystyniak, Keith; Kongable, Gail L; Nasraway, Stanley A

2014-09-01

250

Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Venovenous Hemodialysis or Hemodiafiltration  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem, a carbapenem antibiotic, in critically ill adult subjects receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Eight critically ill patients with suspected/known Gram-negative infections receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and ertapenem were enrolled. One gram of ertapenem was infused over 30 min. Predialyzer blood samples were drawn with the first dose of ertapenem from the hemodialysis tubing at time zero, 30 min, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after the start of the ertapenem infusion. Effluent was collected at the same time points. Ertapenem total serum, unbound serum, and effluent concentrations from all eight subjects were used simultaneously to perform a population compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling procedure using NONMEM. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the ability of several ertapenem dosing regimens (500 mg once daily, 750 mg once daily, 500 mg twice daily, and 1,000 mg once daily) to obtain effective unbound serum concentrations above 0.5, 1, and 2 ?g/ml. For our simulated patients, all regimens produced unbound ertapenem concentrations above 2 ?g/ml for 40% of the dosing interval for at least 96% of simulated patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00877370.) PMID:24323468

Vilay, A. Mary; Nader, Ahmed M.; Heung, Michael; Pleva, Melissa; Sowinski, Kevin M.; DePestel, Daryl D.; Sörgel, Fritz; Kinzig, Martina; Mueller, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

251

First-dose pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in critically ill haematological malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (Cpeak) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24mg/L; amikacin 32-48mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n=34; amikacin, n=24). Median Vd was 0.38L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445mg (5.8mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200mg (13.8mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target Cpeak (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target Cpeak achievement (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal Cpeak in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848

Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J

2015-01-01

252

Polyclonal intravenous immune globulin for prevention and treatment of infections in critically ill patients.  

PubMed Central

Infections remain the leading cause of death among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Infections due to Gram-negative bacteria are both frequent and difficult to treat. The poor outcome of such infections has been attributed to the endotoxin. The high mortality rate related to Gram-negative sepsis has prompted the testing of new, adjunctive therapies to prevent and treat infections in critically ill patients. Immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis have long been investigated in this context. Passive immunotherapy consists of the administration of immune plasma or serum, or standard or hyperimmune purified immune globulins. Several clinical studies using such preparations to treat critically ill patients are reviewed in this article. While two studies using hyperimmune plasma or serum appeared to be successful, two studies using hyperimmune globulin failed to show a beneficial effect in the treatment or the prevention of Gram-negative septic shock. Regarding the infusion of standard intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) two studies have demonstrated a substantial benefit in the prevention of severe infections; the reduction of nosocomial pneumonia recorded in both trials and the shortness of stay in ICU may also afford savings in hospital costs. The cost effectiveness of such prophylactic administration of IVIG is worthy of further investigation. PMID:8033438

Cometta, A; Baumgartner, J D; Glauser, M P

1994-01-01

253

When the severely ill elderly patient refuses food. Ethical reasoning among nurses.  

PubMed

Forty registered nurses (RNs) regarded as "good and experienced" in either cancer or dementia care, were asked about their decision to feed or not feed a severely ill elderly woman (a hypothetical case). In order to compare ethical reasoning in the two groups of nurses and to illuminate what it means to RNs to face a situation where the patients can/cannot decide for themselves, a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used for the analysis. Both groups saw themselves as the advocate for their patients but in different ways. The RNs who talked about a mentally alert patient emphasized that they encouraged their patient to speak up for herself, while the RNs who talked about a severely demented patient emphasized that they tried very hard to interpret their patient's vague and unclear communicative cues and to act as her advocate, especially in relation to physicians. Transcending experiences of dying relatives and patients as well as role models helped them to achieve their ambition of putting themselves in the patient's shoes in order to respect and understand her or his wish and/or what was best for them. The majority of RNs strongly rejected active euthanasia. PMID:7730007

Jansson, L; Norberg, A; Sandman, P O; Aström, G

1995-02-01

254

Hypermagnesemia and hypocalcemia as predictors of high mortality in critically ill pediatric patients.  

PubMed

Ca and Mg are biologically important minerals that are involved in maintaining the stability of membranes, muscle contractions, and enzyme activity in nearly all cells. Derangements of Ca and Mg homeostasis can precipitate serious and life-threatening problems in the critically ill patients. We examined serum ionized Ca and Mg levels in pediatric patients consecutively admitted to a pediatric ICU. Abnormal Mg and ionized Ca levels on admission were found in 43.3% and 17% of the patients, respectively. Hypocalcemia and hyper-magnesemia were both associated with poor outcome as measured by either survival or length of ICU stay. In addition, ionized Ca levels could not be predicted from total Ca measurement either alone or in combination with serum albumin and pH. PMID:2394115

Broner, C W; Stidham, G L; Westenkirchner, D F; Tolley, E A

1990-09-01

255

Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical\\u000a trials.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study identification and selection  Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles,\\u000a and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition\\u000a and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia.

Deborah Cook; Bernard De Jonghe; Daren Heyland

1997-01-01

256

Variations in Patients' Assessment of Chronic Illness Care across Organizational Models of Primary Health Care: A Multilevel Cohort Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To measure patients' assessment of chronic illness care and its variation across primary healthcare (PHC) models. Methods: We recruited 776 patients with diabetes, heart failure, arthritis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from 33 PHC clinics. Face-to-face interviews, followed by a telephone interview at 12 months, were conducted using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multilevel regression was used in the analysis. Results: The mean PACIC score was low at 2.5 on a scale of 1 to 5. PACIC scores were highest among patients affiliated with family medicine groups (mean, 2.78) and lowest for contact models (mean, 2.35). Patients with arthritis and older persons generally reported a lower assessment of chronic care. Conclusion: Family medicine groups represent an integrated model of PHC associated with higher levels of achievement in chronic care. Variations across PHC organizations suggest that some models are more appropriate for improving management of chronic illness. PMID:23968619

Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Lemieux, Valérie; Tourigny, André; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Tousignant, Pierre

2012-01-01

257

Fluid therapy and perfusional considerations during resuscitation in critically ill patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.  

PubMed

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are consistently associated with morbidity and mortality among the critically ill or injured. Thus, avoiding or potentially treating these conditions may improve patient outcomes. With the aim of improving the outcomes for patients with IAH/ACS, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome recently updated its clinical practice guidelines. In this article, we review the association between a positive fluid balance and outcomes among patients with IAH/ACS and how optimisation of fluid administration and systemic/regional perfusion may potentially lead to improved outcomes among this patient population.Evidence consistently associates secondary IAH with a positive fluid balance. However, despite increased research in the area of non-surgical management of patients with IAH and ACS, evidence supporting this approach is limited. Some evidence exists to support implementing goal-directed resuscitation protocols and restrictive fluid therapy protocols in shocked and recovering critically ill patients with IAH. Data from animal experiments and clinical trials has shown that the early use of vasopressors and inotropic agents is likely to be safe and may help reduce excessive fluid administration, especially in patients with IAH. Studies using furosemide and/or renal replacement therapy to achieve a negative fluid balance in patients with IAH are encouraging. The type of fluid to be administered in patients with IAH remains far from resolved. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation endpoint in patients with IAH. However, it is important to recognise that IAH either abolishes or increases threshold values for pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness, while the presence of IAH may also result in a false negative passive leg raising test.Correct fluid therapy and perfusional support during resuscitation form the cornerstone of medical management in patients with abdominal hypertension. Controlled studies determining whether the above medical interventions may improve outcomes among those with IAH/ACS are urgently required. PMID:25421925

Regli, Adrian; De Keulenaer, Bart; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Malbrain, Manu L N G

2014-11-25

258

Outcome of Critically ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury using the AKIN Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5–7% of all hospitalized patients with a much higher incidence in the critically ill. The Acute Kidney Injury Network proposed a definition in which serum creatinine rises (>0.3mg/dl) and/or oliguria (<0.5/ml/kg/h) for a period of 6 hours are used to detect AKI. Accurate urine output measurements as well as serum creatinine values from our database were used to detect patients with AKI and calculate their corresponding mortality risk and length of stay. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 7 intensive care units at, a large, academic, tertiary medical center. Patients Adult patients without evidence of end stage renal disease, with more than 2 creatinine measurements and at least a 6 hours urine output recording, who were admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2007. Interventions Medical records of all the patients were reviewed. Demographic information, lab results, charted data, discharge diagnoses, physiological data and patient outcomes were extracted from the MIMIC-II database using a SQL query. Measurements and main results From 19,677 adult patient records, 14,524 patients met the inclusion criteria. 57% developed AKI during their ICU stay. In-hospital mortality rates were: 13.9%, 16.4%, 33.8% for AKI 1, 2 and 3 respectively compared to only 6.2% in patients without AKI (p<0.0001). After adjusting for multiple covariates AKI was associated with increased hospital mortality (OR 1.4 and 1.3 for AKI1 and AKI2 and 2.5 for AKI3; p<0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that in patients who developed AKI, urine output alone was a better mortality predictor than creatinine alone or the combination of both. Conclusions More than 50% of our critically ill patients developed some stage of AKI resulting in stage-wise increased mortality risk. However, the mortality risk associated with AKI stages 1 and 2 does not differ significantly. In light of these findings reevaluation of the AKIN staging criteria should be considered. PMID:21765352

Mandelbaum, Tal; Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger G.; Malhotra, Atul; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Howell, Michael D.; Talmor, Daniel

2011-01-01

259

Intravascular calcium deposits in a critically ill patient. Light- and electron-microscopic findings.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a 2-year-old girl with an unusual finding of amorphous hematoxyphilic substance in the pulmonary and myocardial vascular lumina. The patient had a prolonged history of intestinal obstruction necessitating extended periods of total parenteral nutrition. The patient terminally had hypercalcemia with levels reaching 4.63 mmol/L. The intravascular substance stains strongly positive for calcium, and weakly positive for fibrin. Electron microscopy shows that the substance has a distinctive configuration suggestive of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. PMID:8250700

Hamoudi, A C; Singley, C T; Teitelbaum, D H; Thornton, D J; Broner, C W

1993-12-01

260

Co-enrollment of critically ill patients into multiple studies: patterns, predictors and consequences  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research on co-enrollment practices and their impact are limited in the ICU setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe patterns and predictors of co-enrollment of patients in a thromboprophylaxis trial, and 2) to examine the consequences of co-enrollment on clinical and trial outcomes. Methods In an observational analysis of an international thromboprophylaxis trial in 67 ICUs, we examined the co-enrollment of critically ill medical-surgical patients into more than one study, and examined the clinical and trial outcomes among co-enrolled and non-co-enrolled patients. Results Among 3,746 patients enrolled in PROTECT (Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial), 713 (19.0%) were co-enrolled in at least one other study (53.6% in a randomized trial, 37.0% in an observational study and 9.4% in both). Six factors independently associated with co-enrollment (all P < 0.001) were illness severity (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 1.53 for each 10-point Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score increase), substitute decision-makers providing consent, rather than patients (OR 3.31, 2.03 to 5.41), experience of persons inviting consent (OR 2.67, 1.74 to 4.11 for persons with > 10 years' experience compared to persons with none), center size (all ORs > 10 for ICUs with > 15 beds), affiliation with trials groups (OR 5.59, 3.49 to 8.95), and main trial rather than pilot phase (all ORs > 8 for recruitment year beyond the pilot). Co-enrollment did not influence clinical or trial outcomes or risk of adverse events. Conclusions Co-enrollment was strongly associated with features of the patients, research personnel, setting and study. Co-enrollment had no impact on trial results, and appeared safe, acceptable and feasible. Transparent reporting, scholarly discourse, ethical analysis and further research are needed on the complex topic of co-enrollment during critical illness. PMID:23298553

2013-01-01

261

Clinical review: Practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of hypernatraemia/hypertonicity is critical, but should not exceed 12 mmol/l/day in order to reduce the risk of rebounding brain oedema. PMID:23672688

2013-01-01

262

Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients  

PubMed Central

Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive. PMID:22947496

2012-01-01

263

Alterations of mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations experiencing acute exacerbation of illness.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AHs), or hearing 'voices', are one of the hallmark symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. The primary objective of this study was to compare hallucinating schizophrenia patients with respect to differences in deviance detection, as indexed by the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN). Patients were recruited during an acute psychotic episode requiring hospitalization, during which time symptoms of psychosis, including auditory hallucinations, are likely to be at their most severe. MMNs to duration, frequency, gap, intensity and location deviants (as elicited by the 'optimal' multi-feature paradigm) were recorded in 12 acutely ill schizophrenia patients (SZ) with persistent AHs and 15 matched healthy controls (HC). Electrical activity was recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. MMN amplitudes and latencies for each deviant were compared between groups and were correlated with trait (PSYRATS) and state measures of AH severity and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings in SZs. There were significant group differences for duration, gap, intensity and location MMN amplitudes, such that SZs exhibited reduced MMNs compared to HCs. Additionally, gap MMN amplitudes were correlated with measures of hallucinatory state and frequency of AHs, while location MMN was correlated with perceived location of AHs. In summary, this study corroborates previous research reporting a robust duration MMN deficit in schizophrenia, as well as reporting gap, intensity and location MMN deficits in acutely ill schizophrenia patients with persistent AHs. Additionally, MMN amplitudes were correlated with state and trait measures of AHs. These findings offer further support to previous work suggesting that the presence of auditory hallucinations may make a significant contribution to the widely reported MMN deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:22727705

Fisher, Derek J; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner J

2012-08-01

264

Macrolide use in the treatment of critically ill patients with pneumonia: Incidence, correlates, timing and outcomes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Macrolide antibiotics are commonly used to treat pneumonia despite increasing antimicrobial resistance. Evidence suggests that macrolides may also decrease mortality in severe sepsis via immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, correlates, timing and mortality associated with macrolide-based treatment. METHODS: A population-based cohort of critically ill adults with pneumonia at five intensive care units in Edmonton, Alberta, was prospectively followed over two years. Data collected included disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score), pneumonia severity (Pneumonia Severity Index score), comorbidities, antibiotic treatments at presentation and time to effective antibiotic. The independent association between macrolide-based treatment and 30-day all-cause mortality was examined using multivariable Cox regression. A secondary exploratory analysis examined time to effective antimicrobial therapy. RESULTS: The cohort included 328 patients with a mean Pneumonia Severity Index score of 116 and a mean APACHE II score of 17; 84% required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ninety-one (28%) patients received macrolide-based treatments, with no significant correlates of treatment except nursing home residence (15% versus 30% for nonresidents [P=0.02]). Overall mortality was 54 of 328 (16%) at 30 days: 14 of 91 (15%) among patients treated with macrolides versus 40 of 237 (17%) for nonmacrolides (adjusted HR 0.93 [95% CI 0.50 to 1.74]; P=0.8). Patients who received effective antibiotics within 4 h of presentation were less likely to die than those whose treatment was delayed (14% versus 17%; adjusted HR 0.50 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.94]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide-based treatment was not associated with lower 30-day mortality among critically ill patients with pneumonia, although receipt of effective antibiotic within 4 h was strongly predictive of survival. Based on these results, timely effective treatment may be more important than choice of antibiotics. PMID:24489569

Sligl, Wendy I; Hoang, Holly; Eurich, Dean T; Malhotra, Atul; Marrie, Thomas J; Majumdar, Sumit R

2013-01-01

265

Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.  

PubMed

Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N = 166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was low, the average autonomy levels were only moderate, and the average self-esteem level was rather high. On the whole, positive illness and treatment perceptions were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem, but not with labour participation. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness and treatment perceptions explained 18 to 27% of the variance in autonomy and self-esteem. Perceptions of personal control, less impact of the illness and treatment, and less concern were important predictors. Our results indicate that dialysis patients' beliefs about their illness and treatment play an important role in their perceived autonomy and self-esteem. Stimulating positive (realistic) beliefs and altering maladaptive beliefs might contribute to a greater sense of autonomy and self-esteem, and to social participation in general. Interventions focusing on these beliefs may assist patients to adjust to ESRD. PMID:20204947

Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Heijmans, Monique; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W

2010-07-01

266

Childhood Sexual Abuse is Associated With Physical Illness Burden and Functioning in Psychiatric Patients 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) with cumulative illness burden, physical function, and bodily pain (BP) in a sample of male and female psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. Previous research on the health consequences of sexual abuse has focused on nonpsychiatric samples of younger-age adults, especially women. The health implications of abuse for mixed-gender samples of older psychiatric patients have not been explored. Methods Participants were 163 patients with primary mood disorders. Sexual abuse histories were collected via patient self-report, as was BP. The measure of medical illness burden was based on chart review. Clinical interviewers rated physical function, using the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales. Linear and logistic regressions examined the association between CSA and health outcomes. Results As hypothesized, severe childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher cumulative medical illness burden, worse physical function, and greater BP. Comparisons of regression coefficients revealed that severe CSA’s influence on illness burden is roughly comparable to the effects of adding 8 years of age. For ADL impairment and BP, the effects are comparable to adding 20 years of age. Conclusions Strong relationships exist between CSA and medical illness burden, function, and pain among psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. These relationships cannot be ascribed to shared method variance. Early detection of patients’ abuse histories could inform targeted interventions to prevent or decelerate the progression of morbidity in this high-risk group. PMID:19251869

Talbot, Nancy L.; Chapman, Ben; Conwell, Yeates; McCollumn, Kelly; Franus, Nathan; Cotescu, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul R.

2009-01-01

267

Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical trials. Study identification and selection Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles, and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia. Data abstraction In duplicate, independently, we abstracted key data on the design features, population, intervention and outcomes of the studies. Results We identified four trials of enteral vs total parenteral nutrition, one trial of early enteral nutrition vs delayed enteral nutrition, one trial of gastric vs jejunal tube feeding, one trial of intermittent vs continuous enteral feeding, and three trials evaluating different enteral feeding formulae. Sample sizes were small, pneumonia definitions were variable and blinded outcome assessment was infrequent. Randomized trial evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the relation between enteral nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia. Conclusions Nutritional interventions in critically ill patients appear to have a modest and inconsistent effect on nosocomial pneumonia. This body of evidence neither supports nor refutes the gastropulmonary route of infection. PMID:11094461

1997-01-01

268

PTSD in Latino Patients: Illness Beliefs, Treatment Preferences, and Implications for Care  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how Latinos with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) understand their illness and their preferences for mental health treatment. Objective To understand the illness beliefs and treatment preferences of Latino immigrants with PTSD. Design Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Participants Sixty foreign-born, Latino adults recruited from five primary care centers in New York and New Jersey and screened for PTSD. Approach Content analytic methods identified common themes, their range, and most frequent or typical responses. Results Participants identified their primary feelings as sadness, anxiety, nervousness, and fear. The most common feeling was “sad” (triste). Other words frequently volunteered were “angry” (enojada), “nervous” (nerviosa), and “scared” (miedo). Participants viewed their PTSD as impairing health and functioning. They ascribed their somatic symptoms and their general medical problems to the “stress” from the trauma and its consequences on their lives. The most common reason participants volunteered for their work and school functioning being impaired was their poor concentration, often due to intrusive thoughts. Most expressed their desire to receive mental health treatment, to receive it within their primary care center, and preferred psychotherapy over psychotropic medications. Among participants who did not report wanting treatment, most said it was because the trauma was “in the past.” Conclusions Clinicians may consider enquiring about PTSD in Latino patients who report feeling sad, anxious, nervous, or fearful. Our study suggests topics clinicians may include in the psychoeducation of patients with PTSD. PMID:18587619

Meredith, Lisa S.; Rhodes, Hilary; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.

2008-01-01

269

Enteral nutritional therapy in septic patients in the intensive care unit: compliance with nutritional guidelines for critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the compliance of septic patients' nutritional management with enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients. Methods Prospective cohort study with 92 septic patients, age ?18 years, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, under enteral nutrition, evaluated according to enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients, compliance with caloric and protein goals, and reasons for not starting enteral nutrition early or for discontinuing it. Prognostic scores, length of intensive care unit stay, clinical progression, and nutritional status were also analyzed. Results The patients had a mean age of 63.4±15.1 years, were predominantly male, were diagnosed predominantly with septic shock (56.5%), had a mean intensive care unit stay of 11 (7.2 to 18.0) days, had 8.2±4.2 SOFA and 24.1±9.6 APACHE II scores, and had 39.1% mortality. Enteral nutrition was initiated early in 63% of patients. Approximately 50% met the caloric and protein goals on the third day of intensive care unit stay, a percentage that decreased to 30% at day 7. Reasons for the late start of enteral nutrition included gastrointestinal tract complications (35.3%) and hemodynamic instability (32.3%). Clinical procedures were the most frequent reason to discontinue enteral nutrition (44.1%). There was no association between compliance with the guidelines and nutritional status, length of intensive care unit stay, severity, or progression. Conclusion Although the number of septic patients under early enteral nutrition was significant, caloric and protein goals at day 3 of intensive care unit stay were met by only half of them, a percentage that decreased at day 7. PMID:23887755

Pasinato, Valeska Fernandes; Berbigier, Marina Carvalho; Rubin, Bibiana de Almeida; Castro, Kamila; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert

2013-01-01

270

Antimicrobial treatment and outcomes of critically ill patients with OXA-48like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections.  

PubMed

We report on the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial therapy, and outcomes of 20 critically ill patients with severe OXA-48like infections. Carbapenem-based therapy demonstrated improved survival (odds ratio = 5.0) as compared with non-carbapenem therapy. Risk factors for mortality included Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score and length of stay, highlighting the significant influence of comorbidities and severity of underlying illness on outcomes. PMID:25497419

Lowman, Warren; Schleicher, Gunter

2015-02-01

271

A Comparison of Predictive Equations of Energy Expenditure and Measured Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Multiple equations exist for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE). The accuracy of these for estimating caloric requirements of critically ill patients is not clear, especially for obese patients. We sought to compare REE, calculated with published formulas, with measured REE in a cohort of mechanically-ventilated subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified all mechanically-ventilated patients with measured body mass index (BMI) who underwent indirect calorimetry (IC) in the ICU. Limits of agreement and Pitman’s test of difference in variance were performed to compare REE by equations with REE measured by IC. RESULTS 927 patients were identified, including 401 obese patients. There was bias and poor agreement between measured REE and REE predicted by the Harris-Benedict, Owen, ACCP, and Mifflin equations (p > 0.05). There was poor agreement between measured and predicted REE by the Ireton-Jones equation, stratifying by gender. Ireton-Jones was the only equation which was unbiased, for men and those in weight categories I and II. In all cases except Ireton-Jones, predictive equations underestimated measured REE. CONCLUSION None of these equations accurately estimated measured REE in this group of mechanically-ventilated patients, most underestimating caloric needs. Development of improved predictive equations for adequate assessment of energy needs is needed. PMID:22425340

Kross, Erin K.; Sena, Matthew; Schmidt, Karyn; Stapleton, Renee D.

2012-01-01

272

Elevation of procalcitonin after implantation of an interventional lung assist device in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

A pumpless interventional arteriovenous lung assist device (iLA) facilitates the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood and is used as part of the lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In case of bacterial infection, delayed antimicrobial therapy increases the mortality in this group of high-risk critically ill patients, whereas overtreatment promotes bacterial resistance and leads to increased drug toxicity and costs. Besides clinical signs and symptoms, antimicrobial treatment is based on the kinetics of biomarkers such as procalcitonin (PCT). We hereby report an up to 10-fold increase in PCT serum concentrations in four mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS detected within 12-20 hours after iLA implantation in the absence of any infection. Procalcitonin concentrations returned to nearly baseline values in all patients on the fourth day after iLA implantation. We discuss the possible mechanisms of PCT induction in this specific patient population and recommend the onset of antibiotics administration after iLA implantation to be carefully considered in the context of other clinical findings and not solely based on the PCT kinetics. Repeated PCT measurements in short time intervals should be performed in these patients. PMID:24399068

Kott, Matthias; Bewig, Burkhard; Zick, Günther; Schaedler, Dirk; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert

2014-01-01

273

Ketoconazole to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Ketoconazole appears to be an effective prophylactic measure in surgical patients at risk of developing ARDS. The beneficial effects may be caused by thromboxane synthetase inhibition because thromboxane B2 concentrations were decreased by ketoconazole in both studies. Two studies were unable to demonstrate a beneficial effect with the selective thromboxane synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben. Both studies consisted of a small number of subjects with already established ARDS, not prophylaxis in patients at risk of ARDS. Although the effects of ketoconazole on mortality in patients at risk of ARDS are conflicting, there may be reduced mortality in patients with sepsis. Several issues must be considered before ketoconazole is used in this setting. First, the studies to date have excluded patients at risk of hepatotoxicity, which is probably wise considering the potential hepatotoxicity with ketoconazole and the unknown benefit/risk ratio in these patients. Also, therapies that reduce gastric acidity should be avoided to ensure bioavailability. If ketoconazole is administered through a jejunostomy tube, it probably should be given with a dilute acid to enhance absorption. Furthermore, ketoconazole is a known inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 system, which results in a number of drug interactions. If ketoconazole is used, the patient's current drug therapy should be reviewed for potential interacting drugs. In light of the current studies, ketoconazole may be considered for surgical patients at risk of developing ARDS (especially patients with sepsis) with the previously noted considerations. Future research should seek to confirm ketoconazole's role for the prevention of ARDS in all critically ill patients. Additional studies also should clarify the role of various inflammatory mediators in the pathophysiology and therapy of ARDS. PMID:8520099

Frazee, L A; Neidig, J A

1995-01-01

274

Compliance to treatment in patients with chronic illness: A concept exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients’ compliance to treatment is an important indicator for evaluating the successful management in chronic illnesses. Despite the fact an applicable definition of compliance is required to suitable intervention and research, this concept is not clear and there is no consensus concerning its meaning, definition, and measurement. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of compliance and to formulate a working definition. Materials and Methods: Theoretical phase of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's Hybrid Model of concept analysis was used to analyze the concept of compliance. Data were collected by using literature reviews. Medline, CINAHL, Ovid, Elsevier, Pro Quest and Blackwell databases were searched from 1975 to 2010 using the keywords “Compliance,” “Non-compliance,” “Adherence,” and “Concordance.” Articles published in English were selected if they included adult patients with chronic illnesses and reported attributes of compliance; 23 such relevant articles were chosen. Results: The attributes of compliance included patient obedience, ability to implement medical advice, flexibility, responsibility, collaboration, participation, and persistence in implementing the advices. Antecedents are organized into two interacting categories: Internal factors refer to the patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and external factors refer to the healthcare professionals, healthcare system, and socioeconomic factors. Compliance may lead to desirable and undesirable consequences. A working definition of compliance was formulated by comparing and contrasting the existing definitions with regard to its attributes which are useful in clinical practice and research. Conclusions: This finding will be useful in clinical practice and research. But this working definition has to be tested in a clinical context and a broad view of its applicability has to be obtained. PMID:24834085

Rafii, Forough; Fatemi, Naima Seyed; Danielson, Ella; Johansson, Christina Melin; Modanloo, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

275

Genetic polymorphisms of innate and adaptive immunity as predictors of outcome in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Sepsis and septic shock frequently cause the admission or complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients admitted in the intensive care units (ICU). Genetic variations disrupting the immune sensing of infectious organisms, could affect the ability of the immune system to respond to infection, and may influence both the genetic predisposition to infection and the diversity of the clinical presentation of sepsis. The aim of this study was to uncover possible associations between common functional immune gene polymorphisms (of both innate and adaptive immunity) and ICU-acquired sepsis and mortality. The TLR4-D299G (rs4986790), TLR4-T399I (rs4986791), C2-c.841_849+19del28 (rs9332736), TACI-C104R (rs34557412), BAFFR-P21R (rs77874543), and BAFFR-H159Y (rs61756766) polymorphisms were detected in a cohort of 215 critically ill patients, admitted in an 8-bed medical/surgical ICU. Interestingly, TLR4-D299G, TLR4-T399I and BAFFR-P21R carriage was associated with a lower risk of ICU-acquired sepsis. This association applied particularly in medical patients, while in trauma and surgical patients no significant associations were observed. Moreover, carriers of TACI-C104R displayed an undiagnosed mild to moderate hypogammaglobulinemia along with a significantly lower survival rate in the ICU, although lethal events were not attributed to sepsis. These findings further elucidate the role that host immune genetic variations may play in the susceptibility to ICU-acquired sepsis and ICU mortality. PMID:25454804

Kompoti, Maria; Michopoulos, Alexandros; Michalia, Martha; Clouva-Molyvdas, Phyllis-Maria; Germenis, Anastasios E; Speletas, Matthaios

2015-03-01

276

Alignment of patient and primary care practice member perspectives of chronic illness care: a cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known as to whether primary care teams’ perceptions of how well they have implemented the Chronic Care Model (CCM) corresponds with their patients’ own experience of chronic illness care. We examined the extent to which practice members’ perceptions of how well they organized to deliver care consistent with the CCM were associated with their patients’ perceptions of the chronic illness care they have received. Methods Analysis of baseline measures from a cluster randomized controlled trial testing a practice facilitation intervention to implement the CCM in small, community-based primary care practices. All practice “members” (i.e., physician providers, non-physician providers, and staff) completed the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) survey and adult patients with 1 or more chronic illnesses completed the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire. Results Two sets of hierarchical linear regression models accounting for nesting of practice members (N?=?283) and patients (N?=?1,769) within 39 practices assessed the association between practice member perspectives of CCM implementation (ACIC scores) and patients’ perspectives of CCM (PACIC). ACIC summary score was not significantly associated with PACIC summary score or most of PACIC subscale scores, but four of the ACIC subscales [Self-management Support (p?patient characteristics. The magnitude of the coefficients, however, indicates that the level of association is weak. Conclusions The ACIC and PACIC scales appear to provide complementary and relatively unique assessments of how well clinical services are aligned with the CCM. Our findings underscore the importance of assessing both patient and practice member perspectives when evaluating quality of chronic illness care. Trial registration NCT00482768 PMID:24678983

2014-01-01

277

Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.  

PubMed

Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

2010-04-01

278

EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL TRAINING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR PATIENTS WITH STRESS-RELATED ILLNESSES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive behavioural training programme and a physical activity programme for patients with stress-related illnesses. Design: In a randomized controlled study, patients were al- located randomly to 1 of 3 groups, where group 1 partici- pated in a cognitive behavioural training programme, group 2 participated in a physical activity programme, and group 3, the

Marina Heiden; Eugene Lyskov; Minori Nakata; Tore Sahlin; Margareta Barnekow-Bergkvist

2007-01-01

279

Outcome Prediction for Critically Ill Cirrhotic Patients: A Comparison of APACHE II and Child-Pugh Scoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cirrhotic patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with high mortality rates. The prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients is determined by the extent of hepatic and extrahepatic organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to assess and compare the accuracy of the Child-Pugh classification and APACHE II scores, obtained on the first day of ICU admission,

Yu-Pin Ho; Yung-Chang Chen; Chun Yang; Jau-Min Lien; Yin-Yi Chu; Ji-Tseng Fang; Cheng-Tang Chiu; Pang-Chi Chen; Ming-Hung Tsai

2004-01-01

280

Ethical considerations in consenting critically ill patients for bedside clinical care and research.  

PubMed

Care of critically ill patients, as in any other field, demands the exercise of ethical principles related to respect of patient's autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and distributive justice. Professional duty and the common law require doctors to obtain consent before giving treatment or for requesting participation in clinical research. A procedure or research study must be adequately explained, and the patient must have the capacity to consent. If a patient does not have decision-making capacity, treatment must be given using alternative forms of consent or using principles of implied consent in emergency or life-threatening situations. In the case of clinical research, informed consent must always be sought. Exemptions to this rule are morally justified in circumstances related to research in life-threatening conditions or life-saving interventions in which the investigator departs from sound principles of equipoise. This usually implies the imposition of safeguards such as consultation with the community in which the study were to take place, oversight in patient screening and recruitment process by institutional review boards, special study designs, retrospective and prospective consent processes, and independent safety monitoring. PMID:24019298

Rincon, Fred; Lee, Kiwon

2015-03-01

281

Efficacy of micafungin in empirical therapy of deep mycosis in surgically ill patients.  

PubMed

Micafungin (MCFG), an echinocandin antifungal agent, exhibits antifungal activity against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. The fungicidal activity of MCFG against clinical isolates of Candida species was investigated, and the clinical efficacy of MCFG in therapy of deep mycosis in surgery was studied using the AKOTT algorithm. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration values of fluconazole were ?0.06-4 and >64 ?g/ml, respectively, for each strain, whereas these values of MCFG were 0.008-0.5 and 0.016-1 ?g/ml, suggesting that MCFG provided superior fungicidal ability against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. The subjects were separated into two groups: group A consisted of 20 subjects with both persisting fever refractory to broad-spectrum antibiotics and positive reaction to ?-D-glucan test, and group B consisted of 20 subjects with either of those conditions. The overall response was evaluated as "effective" in 17 patients (85%) and 20 patients (100%) in groups A and B, respectively. In total, response was evaluated as "effective" in 37 patients (92.5%) and "ineffective" in 3 patients (7.5%). These findings suggest that MCFG administration should be used as empirical therapy for deep mycosis in surgically ill patients as it was shown to be an effective antifungal drug lacking serious adverse effects. PMID:22450876

Okamoto, Kohji; Katsuki, Takefumi; Tamura, Toshihisa; Kanemitsu, Shuichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichirou; Yamaguchi, Koji

2012-10-01

282

Hyperproteic hypocaloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: A randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of hyperproteic hypocaloric enteral feeding on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients, particularly on severity of organic failure measured with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Materials and Methods: In a double blind clinical trial, 80 critically ill adult patients were randomized to hyperproteic hypocaloric or to isocaloric enteral nutrition; all patients completed follow-up of at least 4 days. Prescribed caloric intake was: Hyperproteic hypocaloric enteral nutrition (15 kcal/kg with 1.7 g/kg of protein) or isocaloric enteral nutrition (25 kcal/kg with 20% of the calories as protein). The main outcome was the differences in delta SOFA at 48 h. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, days on ventilator, hyperglycemic events, and insulin requirements. Results: There were no differences in SOFA score at baseline (7.5 (standard deviation (SD) 2.9) vs 6.7 (SD 2.5) P = 0.17). The total amount of calories delivered was similarly low in both groups (12 kcal/kg in intervention group vs 14 kcal/kg in controls), but proteic delivery was significantly different (1.4 vs 0.76 g/kg, respectively P ? 0.0001). The intervention group showed an improvement in SOFA score at 48 h (delta SOFA 1.7 (SD 1.9) vs 0.7 (SD 2.8) P = 0.04) and less hyperglycemic episodes per day (1.0 (SD 1.3) vs 1.7 (SD 2.5) P = 0.017). Discussion: Enteral hyperproteic hypocaloric nutrition therapy could be associated with a decrease in multiple organ failure measured with SOFA score. We also found decreased hyperglycemia and a trend towards less mechanical ventilation days and ICU length of stay. PMID:24501485

Rugeles, Saúl-Javier; Rueda, Juan-David; Díaz, Carlos-Eduardo; Rosselli, Diego

2013-01-01

283

Timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) is used in a step-up approach when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. Recent nutrition guidelines present divergent advices regarding timing of SPN in critically ill patients ranging from early SPN (<48 h after admission; EPN) to postponing initiation of SPN until day 8 after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (LPN). This systematic review summarizes results of prospective studies among adult ICU patients addressing the best timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition (S)PN. A structured PubMed search was conducted to identify eligible articles. Articles were screened and selected using predetermined criteria and appraised for relevance and validity. After critical appraisal, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two prospective observational studies remained. One RCT found a higher percentage of alive discharge from the ICU at day 8 in the LPN group compared to EPN group (p?=?0.007) but no differences in ICU and in-hospital mortality. None of the other RCTs found differences in ICU or in-hospital mortality rates. Contradicting or divergent results on other secondary outcomes were found for ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, infection rates, nutrition targets, duration of mechanical ventilation, glucose control, duration of renal replacement therapy, muscle wasting and fat loss. Although the heterogeneity in quality and design of relevant studies precludes firm conclusions, it is reasonable to assume that in adult critically ill patients, there are no clinically relevant benefits of EPN compared with LPN with respect to morbidity or mortality end points, when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. However, considering that infectious morbidity and resolution of organ failure may be negatively affected through mechanisms not yet clearly understood and acquisition costs of parenteral nutrition are higher, the early administration of parenteral nutrition cannot be recommended.

2014-01-01

284

Protein Binding of ?-Lactam Antibiotics in Critically Ill Patients: Can We Successfully Predict Unbound Concentrations?  

PubMed Central

The use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to optimize beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients is growing in popularity, although there are limited data describing the potential impact of altered protein binding on achievement of target concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured unbound concentration to the unbound concentration predicted from published protein binding values for seven beta-lactams using data from blood samples obtained from critically ill patients. From 161 eligible patients, we obtained 228 and 220 plasma samples at the midpoint of the dosing interval and trough, respectively, for ceftriaxone, cefazolin, meropenem, piperacillin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, and flucloxacillin. The total and unbound beta-lactam concentrations were measured using validated methods. Variabilities in both unbound and total concentrations were marked for all antibiotics, with significant differences being present between measured and predicted unbound concentrations for ceftriaxone and for flucloxacillin at the mid-dosing interval (P < 0.05). The predictive performance for calculating unbound concentrations using published protein binding values was poor, with bias for overprediction of unbound concentrations for ceftriaxone (83.3%), flucloxacillin (56.8%), and benzylpenicillin (25%) and underprediction for meropenem (12.1%). Linear correlations between the measured total and unbound concentrations were observed for all beta-lactams (R2 = 0.81 to 1.00; P < 0.05) except ceftriaxone and flucloxacillin. The percent protein binding of flucloxacillin and the plasma albumin concentration were also found to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.776; P < 0.01). In conclusion, significant differences between measured and predicted unbound drug concentrations were found only for the highly protein-bound beta-lactams ceftriaxone and flucloxacillin. However, direct measurement of unbound drug in research and clinical practice is suggested for selected beta-lactams. PMID:24080664

Wong, Gloria; Briscoe, Scott; Adnan, Syamhanin; McWhinney, Brett; Ungerer, Jacobus; Lipman, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

285

Use of subjective global assessment and clinical outcomes in critically ill geriatric patients receiving nutrition support.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of malnutrition and evaluate the nutrition status and clinical outcome in hospitalized patients aged 65 years and older receiving enteral-parenteral nutrition. This retrospective study was carried out at Ba?kent University Hospital, Adana, Turkey. A total of 119 patients older than 65 years were recruited. Patients were classified into 3 groups: protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), moderate PEM, and well nourished according to subjective global assessment (SGA) at admission. All patients were fed by enteral or parenteral route. Acute physiological and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-2) and simplified acute physiology (SAPS 2) scores were recorded in patients followed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nutrition status was assessed with biochemical (serum albumin, serum prealbumin) parameters. These results were compared with mortality rate and length of hospital stay (LOS). The subjects' mean (+/-SD) age was 73.1 +/- 5.4 years. Using SGA, 5.9% (n = 7) of the patients were classified as severely PEM, 27.7% (n = 33) were classified as moderately PEM, and 66.4% (n = 79) were classified as well nourished. Some 73.1% (n = 87) of the patients were followed in the ICU. Among all patients, 42.9% (n = 51) were fed by a combined enteral-parenteral route, 31.1% (n = 37) by an enteral route, 18.5% (n = 22) by a parenteral route, and 7.6% (n = 9) by an oral route. The average length of stay for the patients was 18.9 +/- 13.7 days. The mortality rate was 44.5% (n = 53). The mortality rate was 43% (n = 34) in well-nourished patients (n = 79), 48.5% (n = 16) in moderately PEM patients (n = 33), and 42.9% (n = 3) in severely PEM patients (n = 7) (P = .86). The authors observed no difference between well-nourished and malnourished patients with regard to the serum protein values on admission, LOS, and mortality rate. In this study, malnutrition as defined by SGA did not influence the mortality rate of critically ill geriatric patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, no factor was found to be a good predictor of survival. PMID:18596319

Atalay, Betül Gülsen; Yagmur, Cahide; Nursal, Tarik Zafer; Atalay, Hakan; Noyan, Turgut

2008-01-01

286

A patient-centred approach to health service delivery: improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness  

PubMed Central

Background The Wagner Model provides a framework that can help to facilitate health system transition towards a chronic care oriented model. Drawing on elements of this framework as well as health policy related to patient centred care, we describe the health needs of patients with chronic illness and compare these with services which should ideally be provided by a patient-centred health system. This paper aims to increase understanding of the challenges faced by chronically ill patients and family carers in relation to their experiences with the health care system and health service providers. Method We interviewed patients, carers and health care professionals (HCPs) about the challenges faced by people living with complicated diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results Patients indicated that they had a range of concerns related to the quality of health care encounters with health care professionals (HCPs), with these concerns being expressed as needs or wants. These included: 1) the need for improved communication and information delivery on the part of HCPs; 2) well organised health services and reduced waiting times to see HCPs; 3) help with self care; 4) greater recognition among professionals of the need for holistic and continuing care; and 5) inclusion of patients and carers in the decision making processes. Conclusions In order to address the challenges faced by people with chronic illness, health policy must be more closely aligned with the identified needs and wants of people affected by chronic illness than is currently the case. PMID:23819721

2013-01-01

287

Palliative medicine and decision science: the critical need for a shared agenda to foster informed patient choice in serious illness.  

PubMed

Assisting patients and their families in complex decision making is a foundational skill in palliative care; however, palliative care clinicians and scientists have just begun to establish an evidence base for best practice in assisting patients and families in complex decision making. Decision scientists aim to understand and clarify the concepts and techniques of shared decision making (SDM), decision support, and informed patient choice in order to ensure that patient and family perspectives shape their health care experience. Patients with serious illness and their families are faced with myriad complex decisions over the course of illness and as death approaches. If patients lose capacity, then surrogate decision makers are cast into the decision-making role. The fields of palliative care and decision science have grown in parallel. There is much to be gained in advancing the practices of complex decision making in serious illness through increased collaboration. The purpose of this article is to use a case study to highlight the broad range of difficult decisions, issues, and opportunities imposed by a life-limiting illness in order to illustrate how collaboration and a joint research agenda between palliative care and decision science researchers, theorists, and clinicians might guide best practices for patients and their families. PMID:21895453

Bakitas, Marie; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Matlock, Dan D; Volandes, Angelo E

2011-10-01

288

The effect of age on illness cognition, subjective well-being and psychological distress among gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

The current study examined illness cognition-thoughts and perceptions-patients hold regarding their illness and psychological adaptation in various age groups. More specifically, we aimed to examine whether illness cognition among cancer patients is related to their age. In addition, such association of illness cognition and age was also examined with respect to subjective well-being and psychological distress. A cross-sectional sample comprised of 123 consecutive post-treatment gastric outpatients. Their mean age was 57.31 (SD?=?12.74), 56.9% (n?=?70) were men and 81.3% (n?=?100) were married. The results indicated a higher level of acceptance and a lower level of psychological distress among the young-old participants (60-69) compared with their counterparts. The oldest group (70+?years) had the highest level of helplessness and psychological distress, and the lowest level of acceptance, satisfaction and affect balance compared with the young-old participants. Among gastric cancer patients, age was found to be a factor relevant to the understanding of illness cognitions (acceptance and sense of helplessness) along with subjective well-being and psychological distress. These findings have practical implications for working with older cancer patients. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23963953

Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Shacham Shmueli, Einat; Shrira, Amit

2014-10-01

289

Sonographic evaluation of the diaphragm in critically ill patients. Technique and clinical applications.  

PubMed

The use of ultrasonography has become increasingly popular in the everyday management of critically ill patients. It has been demonstrated to be a safe and handy bedside tool that allows rapid hemodynamic assessment and visualization of the thoracic, abdominal and major vessels structures. More recently, M-mode ultrasonography has been used in the assessment of diaphragm kinetics. Ultrasounds provide a simple, non-invasive method of quantifying diaphragmatic movement in a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Ultrasonography can assess the characteristics of diaphragmatic movement such as amplitude, force and velocity of contraction, special patterns of motion and changes in diaphragmatic thickness during inspiration. These sonographic diaphragmatic parameters can provide valuable information in the assessment and follow up of patients with diaphragmatic weakness or paralysis, in terms of patient-ventilator interactions during controlled or assisted modalities of mechanical ventilation, and can potentially help to understand post-operative pulmonary dysfunction or weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. This article reviews the technique and the clinical applications of ultrasonography in the evaluation of diaphragmatic function in ICU patients. PMID:23344830

Matamis, Dimitrios; Soilemezi, Eleni; Tsagourias, Matthew; Akoumianaki, Evangelia; Dimassi, Saoussen; Boroli, Filippo; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Brochard, Laurent

2013-05-01

290

The attributable mortality of delirium in critically ill patients: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the attributable mortality caused by delirium in critically ill patients. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 32 mixed bed intensive care unit in the Netherlands, January 2011 to July 2013. Participants 1112 consecutive adults admitted to an intensive care unit for a minimum of 24 hours. Exposures Trained observers evaluated delirium daily using a validated protocol. Logistic regression and competing risks survival analyses were used to adjust for baseline variables and a marginal structural model analysis to adjust for confounding by evolution of disease severity before the onset of delirium. Main outcome measure Mortality during admission to an intensive care unit. Results Among 1112 evaluated patients, 558 (50.2%) developed at least one episode of delirium, with a median duration of 3 days (interquartile range 2-7 days). Crude mortality was 94/558 (17%) in patients with delirium compared with 40/554 (7%) in patients without delirium (P<0.001). Delirium was significantly associated with mortality in the multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.72) and survival analysis (subdistribution hazard ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 3.09). However, the association disappeared after adjustment for time varying confounders in the marginal structural model (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.89). Using this approach, only 7.2% (95% confidence interval ?7.5% to 19.5%) of deaths in the intensive care unit were attributable to delirium, with an absolute mortality excess in patients with delirium of 0.9% (95% confidence interval ?0.9% to 2.3%) by day 30. In post hoc analyses, however, delirium that persisted for two days or more remained associated with a 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 2.8%) absolute mortality increase. Furthermore, competing risk analysis showed that delirium of any duration was associated with a significantly reduced rate of discharge from the intensive care unit (cause specific hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.76). Conclusions Overall, delirium prolongs admission in the intensive care unit but does not cause death in critically ill patients. Future studies should focus on episodes of persistent delirium and its long term sequelae rather than on acute mortality. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01905033. PMID:25422275

Zaal, Irene J; Spitoni, Cristian; Ong, David S Y; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Bonten, Marc J M; Slooter, Arjen J C; Cremer, Olaf L

2014-01-01

291

Thromboprophylaxis patterns and determinants in critically ill patients: a multicenter audit  

PubMed Central

Introduction Heparin is safe and prevents venous thromboembolism in critical illness. We aimed to determine the guideline concordance for thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients and its predictors, and to analyze factors associated with the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), as it may be associated with a lower risk of pulmonary embolism and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia without increasing the bleeding risk. Methods We performed a retrospective audit in 28 North American intensive care units (ICUs), including all consecutive medical-surgical patients admitted in November 2011. We documented ICU thromboprophylaxis and reasons for omission. Guideline concordance was determined by adding days in which patients without contraindications received thromboprophylaxis to days in which patients with contraindications did not receive it, divided by the total number of patient-days. We used multilevel logistic regression including time-varying, center and patient-level covariates to determine the predictors of guideline concordance and use of LMWH. Results We enrolled 1,935 patients (62.3?±?16.7 years, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score 19.1?±?8.3). Patients received thromboprophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH) (54.0%) or LMWH (27.6%). Guideline concordance occurred for 95.5% patient-days and was more likely in patients who were sicker (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.75 per 10-point increase in APACHE II), heavier (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05, 1.65 per 10-m/kg2 increase in body mass index), had cancer (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.81, 5.72), previous venous thromboembolism (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.46,10.66), and received mechanical ventilation (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.32,2.52). Reasons for not receiving thromboprophylaxis were high risk of bleeding (44.5%), current bleeding (16.3%), no reason (12.9%), recent or upcoming invasive procedure (10.2%), nighttime admission or discharge (9.7%), and life-support limitation (6.9%). LMWH was less often administered to sicker patients (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48, 0.89 per 10-point increase in APACHE II), surgical patients (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.72), those receiving vasoactive drugs (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35, 0.64) or renal replacement therapy (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.05, 0.23). Conclusions Guideline concordance for thromboprophylaxis was high, but LMWH was less commonly used, especially in patients who were sicker, had surgery, or received vasopressors or renal replacement therapy, representing a potential quality improvement target. PMID:24766968

2014-01-01

292

Sick Euthyroid Syndrome: Thyroid Function Abnormali- ties in Patients with Non-Thyroid Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Non-thyroid illness is accompanied with many severe illnesses like septice- mia, renal failure, cirrhosis of liver, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, chronic heart failure, after major surgical trauma, etc. This study was undertaken on first four illnesses,which are common medi- cal problems, and admitted in medical wards in advanced stages. This is to bring awareness amongst clinicians while interpreting TFT abnormalities in

Sabeen Aatif; Rana Qamar; Iftekhar Ahmed; Khalid Imran

2008-01-01

293

Effects of Systematic Oral Care in Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

Background No standard oral assessment tools are available for determining frequency of oral care in critical care patients, and the method of providing oral care is controversial. Objectives To examine the effects of a systematic program of oral care on oral assessment scores in critically ill intubated and nonintubated, patients. Methods Clinical data were collected 3 times during critical care admissions before and after institution of a systematic program of oral care in 3 different medical centers. The oral care education program consisted of instruction from a dentist or dental hygienist and a clear procedure outlining systematic oral care. The Beck Oral Assessment Scale and the mucosal-plaque score were used to assess the oral cavity. Data were analyzed by using linear mixed modeling with controls for severity of illness. Results Scores on the Beck Scale differed significantly (F = 4.79, P = .01) in the pattern of scores across the 3 days and between the control group (before oral education) and the systematic oral care group. Unlike the control group, the treatment group had decreasing scores on the Beck Scale from day 1 to day 5. The mucosal-plaque score and the Beck Scale scores had strong correlations throughout the study; the highest correlation was on day 5 (r = 0.798, P < .001, n = 43). Conclusions Oral assessment scores improved after nurses implemented a protocol for systematic oral care. Use of the Beck Scale and the mucosal-plaque score could standardize oral assessment and guide nurses in providing oral interventions. PMID:21885453

Ames, Nancy J.; Sulima, Pawel; Yates, Jan M.; McCullagh, Linda; Gollins, Sherri L.; Soeken, Karen; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

2012-01-01

294

Increased liver stiffness denotes hepatic dysfunction and mortality risk in critically ill non-cirrhotic patients at a medical ICU  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hepatic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients on the ICU and directly influences survival. Liver stiffness can be measured by the novel method of transient elastography (fibroscan) and is closely associated with hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, but also is increased in patients with acute hepatitis, acute liver failure and cholestasis. We investigated liver stiffness as a potentially useful tool for early detection of patients with hepatic deterioration and risk stratification with respect to short- and long-term mortality. Methods We prospectively evaluated 108 consecutive critically ill patients at our medical intensive care unit (ICU) with subsequent longitudinal liver stiffness measurements (admission, Day 3, Day 7 and weekly thereafter) during the course of ICU treatment. Outcome was followed after discharge (median observation time 237 days). Results Liver stiffness could be reliably measured in 71% of ICU patients at admission (65% at Day 3, 63% at Day 7). Critically ill patients (n = 108) had significantly increased liver stiffness compared to sex- and age-matched standard care patients (n = 25). ICU patients with decompensated cirrhosis showed highest liver stiffness, whereas other critical diseases (for example, sepsis) and comorbidities (for example, diabetes, obesity) did not impact stiffness values. At admission to the ICU, liver stiffness is closely related to hepatic damage (liver synthesis, cholestasis, fibrosis markers). During the course of ICU treatment, fluid overload (renal failure, volume therapy) and increased central venous pressure (mechanical ventilation, heart failure) were major factors determining liver stiffness. Liver stiffness values > 18 kilopascal (kPa) at ICU admission were associated with increased ICU and long-term mortality, even in non-cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Considering that liver stiffness cannot be validly measured in about 30% of ICU patients, transient elastography performed at ICU admission might be a useful tool to early identify liver dysfunction and predict mortality in critically ill patients at a medical ICU. PMID:22082207

2011-01-01

295

Granulocyte elastase compared to C-reactive protein for early diagnosis of septicemia in critically Ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of granulocyte elastase and C-reactive protein were measured 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after suspicion of septicemia in 64 critically ill patients. Initial elastase levels were higher in 16 bacteremic patients (mean 773µg\\/l) than in 48 non-bacteremic patients (mean 341µg\\/l, p<0.01), whereas C-reactive protein levels were similar in both groups. At a level of 100 % sensitivity

M. Struelens; J. Delville; P. Luypaert; J. Wybran

1988-01-01

296

Use of acid suppressive therapy in hospitalized non-critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the appropriateness of prescribing acid suppressive therapy (AST) in a general medicine service in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the inpatient records of all patients admitted to the general medical service in a tertiary care hospital in Beirut, Lebanon, from April 1 to May 31, 2011. Treatment with AST was considered appropriate if the patient had a specific indication or appropriate treatment purpose [e.g., gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, acute or suspected gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding]. Appropriate administration of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) was derived from an internal guideline that is based on the American Society of Health System Pharmacists guidelines. Prophylaxis was considered appropriate if a patient had 1 absolute indication (coagulopathy or requiring mechanical ventilation), or 2 or more relative indications (sepsis, occult bleeding, use of high dose corticosteroids, recent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for more than 3 mo, renal or liver failure, enteral feeding and anticoagulant use). RESULTS: Of the 153 patient admissions during the study period, 130 patients (85%) were started on AST, out of which 11 (8.5%) had a diagnosis that supports the use of this therapy (GI bleed, gastritis and GERD), 16 (12.3%) had an absolute indication for SUP, 59 (45.4%) had 2 or more relative indications for SUP, and 44 (33.8%) received AST without an appropriate indication. In addition, one patient with an absolute indication for SUP and four with two or more relative indications did not receive AST. Rabeprazole was the most frequently used AST (59.2%), followed by omeprazole (24.6%), esomeprazole (11.6%) and ranitidine (4.6%). The dose of AST was appropriate in 126 patients (96.9%) and the route of administration was appropriate in 123 patients (94.6%). Fifteen of the admitted patients (10%) were discharged on AST, 7 of which (47%) did not have an appropriate indication. CONCLUSION: AST is overused in hospitalized non-critically ill patients and many patients are discharged on unnecessary AST which can increase cost, drug interactions and adverse events. Potential interventions include implementation of institutional protocols and prescriber education. PMID:23494814

Sheikh-Taha, Marwan; Alaeddine, Sarah; Nassif, Julie

2012-01-01

297

Diabetes Does Not Influence Selected Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate glucose control and clinical outcomes in diabetic burn ICU patients. Methods We reviewed 462 civilian patients admitted to our burn ICU over four years. Exclusion criteria were age<18, admission because of skin infection, incomplete records, and military patients. Subjects were labeled as diabetic if they had a diagnosis of diabetes documented in their medical records. Otherwise they were labeled as non-diabetic. Diabetics (n=57) were compared to non-diabetics (n=405). Admission glucose levels were obtained from chemistries. Point-of-care devices provided the remaining glucose values. While in the burn ICU hyperglycemia for all patients was treated using intensive insulin therapy with a target blood glucose goal of 80–110mg/dL. Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square, and multivariate regressions were used for statistical analysis (p?0.05). Results Diabetics were older (60±15 vs 44±17years) with higher admission glucose (196±81 vs 133±52mg/dL), mean glucose (147±37 vs 122±24mg/dL), glucose variability (30±11 vs 22±11%), and fewer ICU-free days (18±12 vs 20±11). After multivariate regression analyses age, ISS, TBSA, admission glucose, and mean glucose significantly affected the number of ventilator-free days, ICU-free days, and hospital-free days. Glucose variability was associated with hospital-free days only. Age, ISS, and TBSA significantly influenced mortality whereas a pre-existing diagnosis of diabetes was not associated with any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Admission blood glucose is higher and blood glucose is more difficult to control in diabetic burn ICU patients. A pre-existing diagnosis of diabetes does not influence clinical outcomes in critically ill burn patients. PMID:21228710

Dahagam, Chaitanya K; Mora, Alejandra; Wolf, Steven E; Wade, Charles E

2011-01-01

298

Rethinking the patient: using Burden of Treatment Theory to understand the changing dynamics of illness  

PubMed Central

Background In this article we outline Burden of Treatment Theory, a new model of the relationship between sick people, their social networks, and healthcare services. Health services face the challenge of growing populations with long-term and life-limiting conditions, they have responded to this by delegating to sick people and their networks routine work aimed at managing symptoms, and at retarding – and sometimes preventing – disease progression. This is the new proactive work of patient-hood for which patients are increasingly accountable: founded on ideas about self-care, self-empowerment, and self-actualization, and on new technologies and treatment modalities which can be shifted from the clinic into the community. These place new demands on sick people, which they may experience as burdens of treatment. Discussion As the burdens accumulate some patients are overwhelmed, and the consequences are likely to be poor healthcare outcomes for individual patients, increasing strain on caregivers, and rising demand and costs of healthcare services. In the face of these challenges we need to better understand the resources that patients draw upon as they respond to the demands of both burdens of illness and burdens of treatment, and the ways that resources interact with healthcare utilization. Summary Burden of Treatment Theory is oriented to understanding how capacity for action interacts with the work that stems from healthcare. Burden of Treatment Theory is a structural model that focuses on the work that patients and their networks do. It thus helps us understand variations in healthcare utilization and adherence in different healthcare settings and clinical contexts. PMID:24969758

2014-01-01

299

What really matters in end-of-life discussions? Perspectives of patients in hospital with serious illness and their families  

PubMed Central

Background: The guideline-recommended elements to include in discussions about goals of care with patients with serious illness are mostly based on expert opinion. We sought to identify which elements are most important to patients and their families. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design involving patients from 9 Canadian hospitals. We asked older adult patients with serious illness and their family members about the occurrence and importance of 11 guideline-recommended elements of goals-of-care discussions. In addition, we assessed concordance between prescribed goals of care and patient preferences, and we measured patient satisfaction with goals-of-care discussions using the Canadian Health Care Evaluation Project (CANHELP) questionnaire. Results: Our study participants included 233 patients (mean age 81.2 yr) and 205 family members (mean age 60.2 yr). Participants reported that clinical teams had addressed individual elements of goals-of-care discussions infrequently (range 1.4%–31.7%). Patients and family members identified the same 5 elements as being the most important to address: preferences for care in the event of life-threatening illness, values, prognosis, fears or concerns, and questions about goals of care. Addressing more elements was associated with both greater concordance between patients’ preferences and prescribed goals of care, and greater patient satisfaction. Interpretation: We identified elements of goals-of-care discussions that are most important to older adult patients in hospital with serious illness and their family members. We found that guideline-recommended elements of goals-of-care discussions are not often addressed by health care providers. Our results can inform interventions to improve the determination of goals of care in the hospital setting. PMID:25367427

You, John J.; Dodek, Peter; Lamontagne, Francois; Downar, James; Sinuff, Tasnim; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G.; Heyland, Daren K.

2014-01-01

300

Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. Methods Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily participated in in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed by grounded theory. Results Of the 87 uninformed participants at the time of hospitalization, 67% (N = 59) died without being informed of their diagnosis. All were male, 51–66 years of age, and all experienced five psychological stages: anxiety and puzzlement, suspicion and denial, certainty, preparation, and acceptance. At the end of each stage, obvious and severe feelings were observed, which were called "gates." During the final acceptance stage, patients spent a peaceful time with family, even talking about their dreams with family members. Conclusion Unlike in other studies, the uninformed patients in this study accepted death peacefully, with no exceptional cases. Despite several limitations, this study showed that almost 70% of the uninformed terminal cancer patients at hospitalization died without being informed, suggesting an urgent need for culturally specific and effective terminal care services for cancer patients in Japan. PMID:16948863

Maeda, Yuko; Hagihara, Akihito; Kobori, Eiko; Nakayama, Takeo

2006-01-01

301

Even Mild Hyperlactatemia Is Associated with Increased Mortality in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The clinical significance of elevation of lactate levels within the reference range is not well studied. The objective of this study was to determine the best cutoff threshold for serum lactate within the reference range (0.01 to 2.00 mM) that best discriminated between survivors and nonsurvivors of critical illness and to examine the association between relative hyperlactatemia (lactate above the identified threshold) and mortality. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to the medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care academic center. Youden index was calculated to identify the best lactate cutoff threshold that discriminated between survivors and nonsurvivors. Patients with lactate above the identified threshold were defined as having relative hyperlactatemia. Multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for baseline variables, was performed to determine the relationship between the above two ranges of lactate levels and mortality. In addition, a test of interaction was performed to assess the effect of selected subgroups on the association between relative hyperlactatemia and hospital mortality. Results During the study period, 2,157 patients were included in the study with mean lactate of 1.3 ± 0.4 mM, age of 55.1 ± 20.3 years, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22.1 ± 8.2. Vasopressors were required in 42.4%. Lactate of 1.35 mM was found to be the best cutoff threshold for the whole cohort. Relative hyperlactatemia was associated with increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 1.98), and ICU mortality (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.17) compared with a lactate level of 0.01 to 1.35 mM. This association was consistent among all examined subgroups. Conclusions Relative hyperlactatemia (lactate of 1.36 to 2.00 mM) within the first 24 hours of ICU admission is an independent predictor of hospital and ICU mortality in critically ill patients. PMID:24025259

2013-01-01

302

Use and Perceived Credibility of Medication Information Sources for Patients with a Rare Illness: Differences by Gender  

PubMed Central

Patients with rare illnesses may use medication information sources that are appreciably different from those used by patients with more common illnesses. This article's purpose is to describe vasculitis patients' most frequently used medication information sources, determine which sources patients perceive as credible, and explore gender differences in source use and perceived credibility. Using an online questionnaire, patients (n=232) indicated how often they obtained medication information from 12 sources during the previous year and rated the credibility of 6 sources. The authors used multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up contrasts to test for gender differences in source use and conducted t tests to compare patients' perceived credibility ratings. Patients used physicians and the Internet most often to obtain medication information and rated them as the most credible sources. Male patients used their spouse/partner more often and rated them as more credible than did female patients. Female patients were more likely to use medication package inserts and the Internet and were less likely to use nurses than were male patients. There appear to be similarities and differences between the information-seeking behaviors of vasculitis patients and other patient populations. Because male patients view their spouse/partner as a credible information source, providers may want to involve the spouse/partner in prescription decision making. PMID:21476166

Carpenter, Delesha M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Hogan, Susan L.; Fisher, Edwin B.; DeVellis, Brenda M.; Jordan, Joanne M.

2013-01-01

303

Acceptance and valued living as critical appraisal and coping strengths for caregivers dealing with terminal illness and bereavement.  

PubMed

Objective: Informal caregivers of palliative care patients play an essential role in the coordination of care for patients during their final phases of life. However, undertaking a caregiving role can have enduring psychological consequences for caregivers and interfere with functioning. Studies have investigated a variety of factors associated with individual differences in caregiver psychosocial outcomes, but little is known about their relative impact, and there is a need for guiding models to support research in this area. Method: A review of the literature was conducted on factors influencing the psychological distress and grief of caregivers. Drawing from acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and Stroebe and colleagues' integrative risk factor framework, we developed a process model to describe individual differences in caregiver psychological distress and grief. Results: The model presents caregiver psychological distress and grief as functions of death attitudes and communication about death and dying, mediated by acceptance and valued living from an ACT perspective. An outline of the empirical and theoretical underpinnings for each component in the model is provided. Significant of results: The presented model is an inherently strengths-based model that is concordant with acceptance- and values- (ACT) based interventions to facilitate coping in caregivers. PMID:24784235

Davis, Esther L; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

2014-04-30

304

Person-Centered Psychopathology of Schizophrenia: Building on Karl Jaspers’ Understanding of Patient’s Attitude Toward His Illness  

PubMed Central

In this article, building on and extending Jaspers’ concept of the “patient’s attitude toward his illness” we draw attention to the active role that the person, as a self-interpreting agent engaged in a world shared with other persons, has in interacting with his/her basic disorder and in the shaping of psychopathological syndromes. This person-centered approach helps us to see patients as meaning-making entities rather than passive individuals and their attempt at self-understanding as not necessarily pathological and potentially adaptive. We describe 3 contemporary resources for a person-centered psychopathology: dialectical psychopathology, contemporary approaches to the meanings-causes debate, and value-based practice. Each of these provides a theoretical framework and practical resources for understanding the diversity of schizophrenic phenotypes, including symptom presentation, course, and outcome as a consequence of the different ways people with schizophrenia seek to make sense of the basic changes in self and world experiences. A person-centered approach, in building on patients’ individual values and experiences as key aspects of their self-understanding of their psychosis, supports recovery and development of self-management skills. PMID:23314193

Stanghellini, Giovanni

2013-01-01

305

Powerlessness in Terminal Care of Demented Patients: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed five caregiving nursing staff members involved in dementia care concerning their ambivalent feelings toward spoon-feeding a severely demented patient. Although tube-feeding was regarded as an easier way to provide nourishment, spoon-feeding was preferred because it provided more human contact and love. (Author/NB)

Akerlund, Britt Mari; Norberg, Astrid

1990-01-01

306

Physician Office vs Retail Clinic: Patient Preferences in Care Seeking for Minor Illnesses  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Retail clinics are a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, offering cheaper and convenient alternatives to physician offices for minor illness and wellness care. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cost of care and appointment wait time on care-seeking decisions at retail clinics or physician offices. METHODS As part of a statewide random-digit-dial survey of households, adult residents of Georgia were interviewed to conduct a discrete choice experiment with 2 levels each of 4 attributes: price ($59; $75), appointment wait time (same day; 1 day or longer), care setting–clinician combination (nurse practitioner in retail clinic; physician in private office), and acute illness (urinary tract infection [UTI]; influenza). The respondents indicated whether they would seek care under each of the 16 resulting choice scenarios. A cooperation rate of 33.1% yielded 493 completed telephone interviews. RESULTS The respondents preferred to seek care for both conditions; were less likely to seek care for UTI (? =?0.149; P = .008); preferred to seek care from a physician (? =1.067; P <.001) and receive same day care (? =?2.789; P<.001). All else equal, cost savings of $31.42 would be required for them to seek care at a retail clinic and $82.12 to wait 1 day or more. CONCLUSIONS Time and cost savings offered by retail clinics are attractive to patients, and they are likely to seek care there given sufficient cost savings. Appointment wait time is the most important factor in care-seeking decisions and should be considered carefully in setting appointment policies in primary care practices. PMID:20212298

Ahmed, Arif; Fincham, Jack E.

2010-01-01

307

Influence of Patient Caregivers on Course of Patient Illness. "Expressed Emotion" and Alternative Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines historical context, generalizability, methodological strengths and limitations of construct of "expressed emotion" (EE), designed to explore impact of family and social environment on vulnerability to relapse of schizophrenic patients, and Camberwell Family Interview, as well as nature and effects of treatment intervention programs…

Gottschalk, Louis A.; Keatinge, Carolyn

1993-01-01

308

Clinical review: Strict or loose glycemic control in critically ill patients - implementing best available evidence from randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Glycemic control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as 'strict glycemic control' (SGC), decreased mortality and morbidity of adult critically ill patients in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five successive RCTs, however, failed to show benefit of SGC with one trial even reporting an unexpected higher mortality. Consequently, enthusiasm for the implementation of SGC has declined, hampering translation of

Marcus J Schultz; Robin E Harmsen; Peter E Spronk

2010-01-01

309

A new patient focused index for measuring quality of life in persons with severe and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of life in persons with severe and persistent mental illness is often poor. Most treatment programmes have the goal of increasing quality of life. Unfortunately, existing methods to assess qualtiy of life are cumbersome and oriented towards research rather than clinical settings. This study describes preliminary steps in the development, testing and application of a new patient focused

M. Becker; R. Diamond; F. Sainfort

1993-01-01

310

Hospitalization of influenza-like illness patients recommended by general practitioners in France between 1997 and 2010  

E-print Network

Page 1 Hospitalization of influenza-like illness patients recommended by general practitioners-hospitalization ratio; emerging pathogens; influenza pandemics; surveillance, severity. Corresponding author (present.pelat@gmail.com inserm-00709172,version1-18Jun2012 Author manuscript, published in "Influenza and Other Respiratory

311

A prospective determination of the incidence of perceived inappropriate care in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Health care providers’ perceptions regarding appropriateness in end-of-life treatments have been widely studied. While nurses and physicians believe that rationing and other cost-related practices sometimes occur in the intensive care unit (ICU), they allege that treatment is often excessive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the incidence and causes of health care providers’ perceptions regarding appropriateness of end-of-life treatments. METHODS: The present prospective study collected data from patients admitted to the medical-surgical trauma ICU of a 30-bed, Canadian teaching hospital over a three-month period. Daily surveys were completed independently by bedside nurses, charge nurses and attending physician. RESULTS: In total, 5224 of 6558 expected surveys (representing 294 patients) were analyzed, yielding a response rate of 79.7%. The incidence of perceived inappropriate care in the present study was 6.5% (19 of 294 patients), with ongoing treatment for >2 days after this determination occurring in 1% (three of 294 patients). However, at least one caregiver perceived inappropriate care at some point in 110 of 294 (37.5%) patients. In these cases, in which processes to address care were not already underway, respondents believed that important issues resulting in provision of inappropriate treatments included patient-family issues and communication before or in the ICU. Caregivers did not know their patients’ wishes 22% (1129 of 5224) of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Although ongoing inappropriate care appeared to be a rare occurrence, the issue was a concern to at least one caregiver in one-third of cases. Public awareness for end-of-life issues, adequate communication, and up-to-date knowledge and practice in determining the wishes of critically ill patients are potential target areas to improve end-of-life care and reduce inappropriate care in the ICU. A daily, prospective survey of multidisciplinary caregivers, such as the survey used in the present study, is a viable and valuable means of determining the scope and causes of inappropriate care in the ICU. PMID:24367791

Singal, Rohit K; Sibbald, Robert; Morgan, Brenda; Quinlan, Mel; Parry, Neil; Radford, Michael; Martin, Claudio M

2014-01-01

312

Prediction scores do not correlate with clinically adjudicated categories of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Prediction scores for pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) validated in outpatient settings are occasionally used in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of Geneva and Wells scores with adjudicated categories of PE in ICU patients. METHODS: In a randomized trial of thromboprophylaxis, patients with suspected PE were adjudicated as possible, probable or definite PE. Data were then retrospectively abstracted for the Geneva Diagnostic PE score, Wells, Modified Wells and Simplified Wells Diagnostic scores. The chance-corrected agreement between adjudicated categories and each score was calculated. ANOVA was used to compare values across the three adjudicated PE categories. RESULTS: Among 70 patients with suspected PE, agreement was poor between adjudicated categories and Geneva pretest probabilities (kappa 0.01 [95% CI ?0.0643 to 0.0941]) or Wells pretest probabilities (kappa ?0.03 [95% CI ?0.1462 to 0.0914]). Among four possible, 16 probable and 50 definite PEs, there were no significant differences in Geneva scores (possible = 4.0, probable = 4.7, definite = 4.5; P=0.90), Wells scores (possible = 2.8, probable = 4.9, definite = 4.1; P=0.37), Modified Wells (possible = 2.0, probable = 3.4, definite = 2.9; P=0.34) or Simplified Wells (possible = 1.8, probable = 2.8, definite = 2.4; P=0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Pretest probability scores developed outside the ICU do not correlate with adjudicated PE categories in critically ill patients. Research is needed to develop prediction scores for this population. PMID:24083302

Katsios, CM; Donadini, M; Meade, M; Mehta, S; Hall, R; Granton, J; Kutsiogiannis, J; Dodek, P; Heels-Ansdell, D; McIntyre, L; Vlahakis, N; Muscedere, J; Friedrich, J; Fowler, R; Skrobik, Y; Albert, M; Cox, M; Klinger, J; Nates, J; Bersten, A; Doig, C; Zytaruk, N; Crowther, M; Cook, DJ

2014-01-01

313

Microfluidic Leukocyte Isolation for Gene Expression Analysis in Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Microarray technology is becoming a powerful tool for diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic applications. There is at present no consensus regarding the optimal technique to isolate nucleic acids from blood leukocyte populations for subsequent expression analyses. Current collection and processing techniques pose significant challenges in the clinical setting. Here, we report the clinical validation of a novel microfluidic leukocyte nucleic acid isolation technique for gene expression analysis from critically ill, hospitalized patients that can be readily used on small volumes of blood. METHODS We processed whole blood from hospitalized patients after burn injury and severe blunt trauma according to the microfluidic and standard macroscale leukocyte isolation protocol. Side-by-side comparison of RNA quantity, quality, and genome-wide expression patterns was used to clinically validate the microfluidic technique. RESULTS When the microfluidic protocol was used for processing, sufficient amounts of total RNA were obtained for genome-wide expression analysis from 0.5 mL whole blood. We found that the leukocyte expression patterns from samples processed using the 2 protocols were concordant, and there was less variability introduced as a result of harvesting method than there existed between individuals. CONCLUSIONS The novel microfluidic approach achieves leukocyte isolation in <25 min, and the quality of nucleic acids and genome expression analysis is equivalent to or surpasses that obtained from macroscale approaches. Microfluidics can significantly improve the isolation of blood leukocytes for genomic analyses in the clinical setting. PMID:18375483

Russom, Aman; Sethu, Palaniappan; Irimia, Daniel; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Calvano, Steve E.; Garcia, Iris; Finnerty, Celeste; Tannahill, Cynthia; Abouhamze, Amer; Wilhelmy, Julie; López, M. Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Herndon, David N.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Davis, Ronald W.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Toner, Mehmet

2014-01-01

314

Serum uric acid levels and different phases of illness in bipolar I patients treated with lithium.  

PubMed

Recent findings support the role of purinergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of serum uric acid levels in a sample of 98 BD I patients followed-up prospectively in a naturalistic study and treated with lithium monotherapy or in association with other mood stabilizers (valproate or carbamazepine), in relation to different phases of illness and to pharmacological treatment. The results showed that uric acid levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from a manic/mixed episode, than in those euthymic or during a depressive phase. Further, these levels were related to the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) scale score for the severity of manic symptoms. A positive correlation was found also with male sex and with serum lithium levels. These findings suggest that a dysregulation of the purinergic system may occur during manic/mixed episodes, and they support a possible role of serum uric acid levels as a state-dependent marker of BD manic phases. PMID:25547850

Muti, Matteo; Del Grande, Claudia; Musetti, Laura; Marazziti, Donatella; Turri, Milo; Cirronis, Marco; Pergentini, Irene; Corsi, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

2015-02-28

315

Glycemia Prediction in Critically Ill Patients Using an Adaptive Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Strict blood glucose control by applying nurse-driven protocols is common nowadays in intensive care units (ICUs). Implementation of a predictive control system can potentially reduce the workload for medical staff but requires a model for accurately predicting the glycemia signal within a certain time horizon. Methods GlucoDay (A. Menarini Diagnostics, Italy) data coming from 19 critically ill patients (from a surgical ICU) are used to estimate the initial ICU “minimal” model (based on data of the first 24 hours) and to reestimate the model as new measurements are obtained. The reestimation is performed every hour or every 4 hours. For both approaches the optimal size of the data set for each reestimation is determined. Results The prediction error that is obtained when applying the 1-hour reestimation strategy is significantly smaller than when the model is reestimated only every 4 hours (p < 0.001). The optimal size of the data set to be considered in each reestimation process of the ICU minimal model is found to be 4 hours. The obtained average “mean percentage error” is 7.6% (SD 3.1%) and 14.6% (SD 7.0%) when the model is reestimated every hour and 4 hours, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of the ICU minimal model in the appropriate reestimation process results in clinically acceptable prediction errors. Therefore, the model is able to predict glycemia trends of patients admitted to the surgical ICU and can potentially be used in a predictive control system. PMID:19885089

Herpe, Tom Van; Espinoza, Marcelo; Haverbeke, Niels; Moor, Bart De; den Berghe, Greet Van

2007-01-01

316

The Impact of the Organization of High Dependency Care on Acute Hospital Mortality and Patient Flow for Critically Ill Patients.  

PubMed

Rationale: Little is known about the utility of provision of high-dependency care (HDC) that is in a geographically separate location from a primary intensive care unit (ICU). Objectives: To determine whether the availability of HDC in a geographically separate unit affects patient flow or mortality for critically ill patients. Methods: Admissions to ICUs in the UK, from 2009-2011, who received Level 3 intensive care in the first 24 hours after admission and subsequently Level 2 HDC. We compared differences in patient flow and outcomes for patients treated in hospitals providing some HDC in a geographically separate unit (dual HDC) versus patients treated in hospitals providing all HDC in the same unit as intensive care (integrated HDC) using multi-level mixed effects models. Measurements and Main Results: In 192 adult general ICUs, 21.4% provided dual HDC. Acute hospital mortality was no different for patients cared for in ICUs with dual HDC versus those with integrated HDC (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.94 (0.86-1.03) p=0.16). Dual HDC was associated with a decreased likelihood of a delayed discharge from the primary unit. But, total duration of critical care and the likelihood of discharge from the primary unit at night were increased with dual HDC. Conclusions: Availability of HDC in a geographically separate unit does not impact acute hospital mortality. The potential benefit of decreasing delays in discharge should be weighed against the increased total duration of critical care and greater likelihood of a transfer out of the primary unit at night. PMID:25494358

Wunsch, Hannah; Harrison, David; Jones, Andrew; Rowan, Kathryn

2014-12-10

317

Counselling the relatives of the long-term adult mentally ill. I. Evaluation of the impact on relatives and patients.  

PubMed

The efficacy of implementing a clinically feasible psychosocial intervention which addresses the needs of carers of the long-term mentally ill is reported. All the relatives of patients in continuous high contact with one clinical team in a local day-care facility were offered the intervention. An interactive education session at home was followed by a monthly relatives group which aimed to reduce components of expressed emotion and to alleviate burden. Patients and relatives were assessed. The controls were the patients in contact with the other teams in the day-care facility, and their relatives. The intervention was effective at reducing EE and improving family relationships. Offering this kind of support to people who are providing long-term care for the severely mentally ill can contribute significantly to the quality of life of both supporters and patients. PMID:2513080

MacCarthy, B; Kuipers, L; Hurry, J; Harper, R; LeSage, A

1989-06-01

318

Serum resistin levels in critically ill patients are associated with inflammation, organ dysfunction and metabolism and may predict survival of non-septic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in critically ill patients on admission to intensive care units (ICUs) have been identified as factors influencing mortality. The pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) in critically ill patients is complex and not fully understood. Resistin is a hormone mainly derived from macrophages in humans and from adipose tissue in rodents, which regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In non-critically ill patients, resistin was found to be related to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, resistin might represent a link between inflammation, acute phase response and insulin resistance in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the correlation of serum resistin concentrations to parameters of inflammation, organ function, metabolism, disease severity and survival in critically ill patients. Methods On admission to the Medical ICU, 170 patients (122 with sepsis, 48 without sepsis) were studied prospectively and compared with 60 healthy non-diabetic controls. Clinical data, various laboratory parameters, metabolic and endocrine functions as well as investigational inflammatory cytokine profiles were assessed. Patients were followed for approximately three years. Results Resistin serum concentrations were significantly elevated in all critical care patients compared with healthy controls, and significantly higher in sepsis than in non-sepsis patients. Serum resistin concentrations were not associated with pre-existing type 2 diabetes or obesity. For all critically ill patients, a correlation to the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was shown. Serum resistin concentrations were closely correlated to inflammatory parameters such as C-reactive protein, leukocytes, procalcitonin, and cytokines such as IL6 and TNF-?, as well as associated with renal failure and liver synthesis capacity. High resistin levels (> 10 ng/ml) were associated with an unfavourable outcome in non-sepsis patients on ICU and the overall survival. Conclusions Serum resistin concentrations are elevated in acute inflammation due to sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The close correlation with other acute phase proteins suggests a predominant, clinically relevant resistin release from macrophages in ICU patients. Moreover, resistin could potentially serve as a prognostic biomarker in non-sepsis critically ill patients. PMID:19545363

Koch, Alexander; Gressner, Olav A; Sanson, Edouard; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian

2009-01-01

319

Acceptability of offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness: a focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOffering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness is controversial.AimsTo explore the views of different stakeholders on the ethical acceptability of the practice.MethodFocus group study consisting of 25 groups with different stakeholders.ResultsEleven themes dominated the discussions and fell into four categories: (1) ‘wider concerns’, including the value of medication, source of funding, how patients would

Stefan Priebe; Julia Sinclair; Alexandra Burton; Stamatina Marougka; John Larsen; Mike Firn; Richard Ashcroft

2010-01-01

320

The factor structure and reliability of the Illness Attitude Scales in a student and a patient sample  

PubMed Central

Background The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS), designed by Kellner in 1986, assesses fears, beliefs, and attitudes associated with hypochondriasis and abnormal illness behaviour. However, its factor structure is, especially for translations of the IAS, not sufficiently explored. Thus, the present Study aimed to analyse the factor structure of the IAS in a German student and a patient population using exploratory factor analysis. Methods A mixed student (N = 296) and a mixed patient (N = 130) sample completed the IAS. The data was submitted to principal components analyses (PCA) with subsequent oblique rotations. From identified factor structures, scales were derived and submitted to reliability analyses as well as to a preliminary validity analysis. Results The PCA revealed a four-factor solution in the student sample: (1) fear of illness and death; (2) treatment experience; (3) hypochondriacal beliefs; and (4) effect of symptoms. In the patient sample, the data was best explained by a two-factor solution: (1) health related anxiety and (2) effect of symptoms and treatment experience. All scales reached good to acceptable reliability coefficients. The scales derived from the student sample and those derived from the patient sample were able to distinguish between pain patients and a matched group of normal controls. Conclusion Our data suggests that the IAS is in student samples best represented by a four factor-solution and in patient samples by a two-factor-solution. PMID:17067384

Crössmann, Alexander; Pauli, Paul

2006-01-01

321

Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct a systematic review for the evidence supporting or disproving the reality of parenteral nutrition- antiepileptic drugs interaction, especially with respect to the plasma protein-binding of the drug. Methods The articles related to the topic were identified through Medline and PubMed search (1968-Feburary 2010) for English language on the interaction between parenteral nutrition and antiepileptic drugs; the search terms used were anti-epileptic drugs, parenteral nutrition, and/or interaction, and/or in vitro. The search looked for prospective randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies; prospective nonrandomized uncontrolled studies; retrospective studies; case reports; and in vitro studies. Full text of the articles were then traced from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) library subscribed databases, including Wiley-Blackwell Library, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHost, OVID, ScienceDirect, SAGE Premier, Scopus, SpringerLINK, and Wiley InterScience. The articles from journals not listed by USM library were traced through inter library loan. Results There were interactions between parenteral nutrition and drugs, including antiepileptics. Several guidelines were designed for the management of illnesses such as traumatic brain injuries or cancer patients, involving the use of parenteral nutrition and antiepileptics. Moreover, many studies demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo parenteral nutrition -drugs interactions, especially with antiepileptics. Conclusions There was no evidence supporting the existence of parenteral nutrition-antiepileptic drugs interaction. The issue has not been studied in formal researches, but several case reports and anecdotes demonstrate this drug-nutrition interaction. However, alteration in the drug-free fraction result from parenteral nutrition-drug (i.e. antiepileptics) interactions may necessitate scrupulous reassessment of drug dosages in patients receiving these therapies. This reassessment may be particularly imperative in certain clinical situations characterized by hypoalbuminemia (e.g., burn patients). PMID:21194458

2010-01-01

322

A comparison of different diagnostic criteria of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) proposed a new definition and classification of acute kidney injury (AKI) on the basis of the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) criteria, but comparisons of the three criteria in critically ill patients are rare. Methods We prospectively analyzed a clinical database of 3,107 adult patients who were consecutively admitted to one of 30 intensive care units of 28 tertiary hospitals in Beijing from 1 March to 31 August 2012. AKI was defined by the RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria. Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability for mortality, and logistic regression analysis was used for the calculation of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results The rates of incidence of AKI using the RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria were 46.9%, 38.4%, and 51%, respectively. KDIGO identified more patients than did RIFLE (51% versus 46.9%, P?=?0.001) and AKIN (51% versus 38.4%, P <0.001). Compared with patients without AKI, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for those diagnosed as AKI by using the RIFLE (27.8% versus 7%, P <0.001), AKIN (32.2% versus 7.1%, P <0.001), and KDIGO (27.4% versus 5.6%, P <0.001) criteria, respectively. There was no difference in AKI-related mortality between RIFLE and KDIGO (27.8% versus 27.4%, P?=?0.815), but there was significant difference between AKIN and KDIGO (32.2% versus 27.4%, P?=?0.006). The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve for in-hospital mortality were 0.738 (P <0.001) for RIFLE, 0.746 (P <0.001) for AKIN, and 0.757 (P <0.001) for KDIGO. KDIGO was more predictive than RIFLE for in-hospital mortality (P <0.001), but there was no difference between KDIGO and AKIN (P?=?0.12). Conclusions A higher incidence of AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO criteria. Patients diagnosed as AKI had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality than non-AKI patients, no matter which criteria were used. Compared with the RIFLE criteria, KDIGO was more predictive for in-hospital mortality, but there was no significant difference between AKIN and KDIGO. PMID:25005361

2014-01-01

323

Clinicians' Perspectives on the Premature Termination of Treatment in Patients with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews concerning the premature termination of treatment (PTT) were conducted with seven clinicians in an inpatient eating disorders program. Motivation to be in the program and work on recovery, and the ability to establish a trusting relationship with staff were thought to be important factors in completing treatment. Patients who are asked to leave the treatment program, termed “administrative

Philip C. Masson; Judy D. Sheeshka

2009-01-01

324

Predicting Premature Termination within a Randomized Controlled Trial for Binge-Eating Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the dropout rates of efficacious forms of psychotherapy for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) is an unsolved problem within this increasing population. Up until now the role of psychotherapy process characteristics as predictors of premature termination has not been investigated in the BED literature. Within a randomized…

Fluckiger, Christoph; Meyer, Andrea; Wampold, Bruce E.; Gassmann, Daniel; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Munsch, Simone

2011-01-01

325

Microsoft Word - illness_representations.doc  

Cancer.gov

Illness Representations Michael A. Diefenbach, Ph.D. General Description and Theoretical Background Illness representations are patients’ beliefs and expectations about an illness or somatic symptom. Illness representations are central to Leventhal’s

326

Timing of Tracheotomy in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Morbidly Obese Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The optimal timing of tracheotomy and its impact on weaning from mechanical ventilation in critically ill morbidly obese patients remain controversial. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of morbidly obese subjects (BMI ? 40?kg/m2 or BMI ? 35?kg/m2 and one or more comorbid conditions) who underwent a tracheotomy between July 2008 and June 2013 at a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical characteristics, rates of nosocomial pneumonia (NP), weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV), and mortality rates were analyzed. Results. A total of 102 subjects (42 men and 60 women) were included; their mean age and BMI were 56.3 ± 15.1 years and 53.3 ± 13.6?kg/m2, respectively. There was no difference in the rate of NP between groups stratified by successful weaning from MV (P = 0.43). Mortality was significantly higher in those who failed to wean (P = 0.02). A cutoff value of 9 days for the time to tracheotomy provided the best balanced sensitivity (72%) and specificity (59.8%) for predicting NP onset. Rates of NP and total duration of MV were significantly higher in those who had tracheostomy ? 9 days (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. The study suggests that tracheotomy in morbidly obese subjects performed within the first 9 days may reduce MV and decrease NP but may not affect hospital mortality. PMID:25298891

Hussain, Kashif; El-Solh, Ali A.

2014-01-01

327

Scrub typhus in patients reporting with acute febrile illness at a tertiary health care institution in Goa  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is one of the differential diagnoses of haemorrhagic fevers especially if associated with jaundice and/or renal failure. Goa State in the western region of India has been witnessing increased incidence of such fevers, therefore, the present study was undertaken to identify whether scrub typhus is the aetiological agent. Methods: Adult patients presenting with undiagnosed febrile illness between June 2009 to October 2010, were evaluated. Testing was done using a commercial ELISA kit for specific IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi. Results: Of the 44 patients included in the study, 15 (34%) were found to be positive for IGM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. The cases were seen mainly in the months between July to November. The common symptoms noted were fever, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, followed by breathlessness, rash and jaundice. The pathognomonic features such as eschar and lymphadenopathy were seen only in two patients. Nearly two third of the patients had leukocytosis (67%) and low serum albumin (60%). The most common complication noticed was hepatitis (80%) followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (60%), thrombocytopenia (40%) and acute renal failure (33%). Five patients died in the course of illness. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that scrub typhus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, myalgia, including those with organ dysfunctions such as hepatorenal syndrome, coagulopathy or ARDS. Empirical treatment with doxycycline or macrolides may be given in cases with strong suspicion of scrub typhus. PMID:23391799

Narvencar, Kedareshwar P.S.; Rodrigues, Savio; Nevrekar, Ramnath P.; Dias, Lydia; Dias, Amit; Vaz, Marina; Gomes, E.

2012-01-01

328

Early treatment with IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin does not mitigate critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy in patients with multiple organ failure and SIRS/sepsis: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critical illness polyneuropathy and/or myopathy (CIPNM) is a severe complication of critical illness. Retrospective data suggest that early application of IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may prevent or mitigate CIPNM. Therefore, the primary objective was to assess the effect of early IgM-enriched IVIG versus placebo to mitigate CIPNM in a prospective setting. Methods In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, 38 critically ill patients with multiple organ failure (MOF), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/sepsis, and early clinical signs of CIPNM were included. Patients were randomly assigned to be treated either with IgM-enriched IVIG or placebo over a period of three days. CIPNM was measured by the CIPNM severity sum score based on electrophysiological stimulation of the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves on days 0, 4, 7, 14 and on the histological evaluation of muscle biopsies on days 0 and 14 and ranged from 0 (no CIPNM) to 8 (very severe CIPNM). Results A total of 38 critically ill patients were included and randomized to receive either IgM-enriched IVIG (n = 19) or placebo (n = 19). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. CIPNM could not be improved by IVIG treatment, represented by similar CIPNM severity sum scores on day 14 (IVIG vs. placebo: 4.8 ± 2.0 vs. 4.5 ± 1.8; P = 0.70). CIPNM severity sum score significantly increased from baseline to day 14 (3.5 ± 1.6 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9; P = 0.002). After an interim analysis the study was terminated early due to futility in reaching the primary endpoint. Conclusions Early treatment with IVIG did not mitigate CIPNM in critically ill patients with MOF and SIRS/sepsis. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01867645 PMID:24088271

2013-01-01

329

Diabetes and Hemoglobin A1c as Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate whether diabetes mellitus (DM) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infections (BSI) in critically ill patients. Methods. Prospective observational study; patients were recruited from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general district hospital between 2010 and 2012. Inclusion criteria: ICU hospitalization >72 hours and mechanical ventilation >48 hours. HbA1c was calculated for all participants. DM, HbA1c, and other clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed as risk factors for VAP or BSI in ICU. Results. The overall ICU incidence of VAP and BSI was 26% and 30%, respectively. Enteral feeding OR (95%CI) 6.20 (1.91–20.17; P = 0.002) and blood transfusion 3.33 (1.23–9.02; P = 0.018) were independent risk factors for VAP. BSI in ICU (P = 0.044) and ICU mortality (P = 0.038) were significantly increased in diabetics. Independent risk factors for BSI in ICU included BSI on admission 2.45 (1.14–5.29; P = 0.022) and stroke on admission2.77 (1.12–6.88; P = 0.029). Sepsis 3.34 (1.47–7.58; P = 0.004) and parenteral feeding 6.29 (1.59–24.83; P = 0.009) were independently associated with ICU mortality. HbA1c ? 8.1% presented a significant diagnostic performance in diagnosing repeated BSI in ICU. Conclusion. DM and HbA1c were not associated with increased VAP or BSI frequency. HbA1c was associated with repeated BSI episodes in the ICU. PMID:24459586

Tsakiridou, Eirini; Makris, Demosthenes; Chatzipantazi, Vasiliki; Vlachos, Odysseas; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Charalampidou, Olympia; Moraitis, Georgios; Zakynthinos, Epameinondas

2013-01-01

330

Emotional control, styles of coping with stress and acceptance of illness among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations of emotional control with sociodemographic and clinical variables in a sample of patients with a range of chronic somatic diseases. The relationships between emotional control, coping styles and adjustment to the disease were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 patients with the mean age of 54.60?±?17.57 years. Courtauld Emotional Control Scale was used to measure the patients' tendency to suppress negative emotions, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used to measure coping styles and Acceptance of Illness Scale was applied to determine adjustment to the disease. Patients with neurological conditions showed significantly lower suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control were found to be related to gender, age and educational level but not to the place of residence. Task-oriented style of coping with stress correlated positively with suppression of depression and anxiety, whereas acceptance of illness correlated negatively with suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control are only weakly related to the type of diagnosis; however, some clinical samples may show lower suppression of anger. Suppression of negative emotions is weakly related to adjustment indicators such as certain coping styles and acceptance of illness. PMID:23653433

Janowski, Konrad; Kurpas, Donata; Kusz, Joanna; Mroczek, Bo?ena; Jedynak, Tomasz

2014-02-01

331

How severe is antibiotic pharmacokinetic variability in critically ill patients and what can be done about it?  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics (PK) of antimicrobial agents administered to critically ill patients exhibit marked variability. This variability results from pathophysiological changes that occur in critically ill patients. Changes in volume of distribution, clearance, and tissue penetration all affect the drug concentrations at the site of infection. PK-pharmacodynamic indices (fCmax:MIC; AUC0-24:MIC; fT>MIC; fCmin:MIC) for both antimicrobial effect and suppression of emergence of resistance are described for many antimicrobial drugs. Changing the regimen by which antimicrobial drugs are delivered can help overcome the PK variability and optimise target attainment. This will deliver optimised antimicrobial chemotherapy to individual critically ill patients. Delivery of ?-lactams antimicrobial agents by infusions, rather than bolus dosing, is effective at increasing the duration of the dosing interval that the drug concentration is above the MIC. Therapeutic drug monitoring, utilising population PK mathematical models with Bayesian estimation, can also be used to optimise regimens following measurement of plasma drug concentrations. Clinical trials are required to establish if patient outcomes can be improved by implementing these techniques. PMID:24985764

Felton, T W; Hope, W W; Roberts, J A

2014-08-01

332

Care to terminal patients. Perception of nurses from the intensive care unit of a hospital.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify the perception of nurses with regard to the process of providing care to patients in the context of hospice care. Method. Qualitative study using the methodological framework Collective Subject Discourse. A total of 18 nursing professionals of the adult intensive care unit of a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed between June and August 2012. Results. The process of providing care to terminal patients is permeated by negative, conflictive and mixed feelings. As regards communication, while the participants acknowledge its importance as a therapeutic resource, they also admit a lack of professional qualification. Conclusion. The interviewees have difficulties to deal with care provided to terminal patients. The qualification of these professionals needs to be improved, starting in the undergraduate program. PMID:25504407

Mussolin Tamaki, Camila; Meneguin, Silmara; Aguiar Alencar, Rubia; Bronzatto Luppi, Claudia Helena

2014-12-01

333

An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hematological changes are among the most common complications encountered in malaria. This study analyzes and statistically evaluates the hematological changes as a diagnostic test for malaria in patients with acute febrile illness and whether these could guide the physician to institute specific antimalarial treatment. Methods The present study was an observational study, conducted from January to December 2012. A total of 723 patients presenting with acute febrile illness at our hospital were evaluated. A complete blood count and malarial parasite microscopy were performed for each patient. Results The findings showed that 172 out of 723 patients (24%) were diagnosed to have malaria by positive smear report. There were 121 males and 51 females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Maximum number of cases were seen in the 20-30 years age group. There was a statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin (p<0.005), platelet count (p<0.001) and total leukocyte count (p<0.001) levels in patients with malaria compared to those without the disease. Likelihood ratios for a positive result of platelets (6.2) and total leukocyte count (3.4) was relevant as compared to hemoglobin (1.61) and Red cell distribution width (1.79). The negative predictive values for hemoglobin (79%), total leukocyte count (86%), platelets (94%) and Red cell distribution width (93%) were significant. Red cell distribution width values were found to be higher in patients with malaria than in patients without malaria (p<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that routinely used laboratory findings such as hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelet counts and even red cell distribution width values can provide a diagnostic clue in a patient with acute febrile illness in endemic areas, thus increasing the probability of malaria and enhancing prompt initiation of treatment. PMID:24498476

Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Nabi, Farhat; Jetley, Sujata

2014-01-01

334

Isolation of Aspergillus spp. from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients: risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our aims were to assess risk factors, clinical features, management and outcomes in critically ill patients in whom Aspergillus spp. were isolated from respiratory secretions, using a database from a study designed to assess fungal infections. Methods A multicentre prospective study was conducted over a 9-month period in 73 intensive care units (ICUs) and included patients with an ICU stay longer than 7 days. Tracheal aspirate and urine samples, and oropharyngeal and gastric swabs were collected and cultured each week. On admission to the ICU and at the initiation of antifungal therapy, the severity of illness was evaluated using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Retrospectively, isolation of Aspergillus spp. was considered to reflect colonization if the patient did not fulfil criteria for pneumonia, and infection if the patient met criteria for pulmonary infection and if the clinician in charge considered the isolation to be clinically valuable. Risk factors, antifungal use and duration of therapy were noted. Results Out of a total of 1756 patients, Aspergillus spp. were recovered in 36. Treatment with steroids (odds ratio = 4.5) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio = 2.9) were significantly associated with Aspergillus spp. isolation in multivariate analysis. In 14 patients isolation of Aspergillus spp. was interpreted as colonization, in 20 it was interpreted as invasive aspergillosis, and two cases were not classified. The mortality rates were 50% in the colonization group and 80% in the invasive infection group. Autopsy was performed in five patients with clinically suspected infection and confirmed the diagnosis in all of these cases. Conclusion In critically ill patients, treatment should be considered if features of pulmonary infection are present and Aspergillus spp. are isolated from respiratory secretions. PMID:15987390

Garnacho-Montero, José; Amaya-Villar, Rosario; Ortiz-Leyba, Carlos; León, Cristóbal; Álvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Nolla-Salas, Juan; Iruretagoyena, José R; Barcenilla, Fernando

2005-01-01

335

The influences of CD14 -260C>T polymorphism on survival in ICU critically ill patients.  

PubMed

In order to analyze the effect of the two different versions of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) receptor recognizing gene on survival, we determined the -260C>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies in 514 critically ill patients. We compared the -260TT homozygotes with -260C allele carriers (-260CC and -260CT genotypes) and we demonstrated--260TT patients had the highest survival rate (82% vs 64%; p < 0.001; OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.43-4.46). We performed binary logistic regression, incorporating both -260C>T genotype groups and the main clinical predictors to exclude other risk factors that could influence the outcome from critical illness: higher age, APACHE II score, and length of stay at hospital, and the occurrence of sepsis and septic shock were risk factors to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient's mortality, but the -260TT genotype was protective factor toward survival (p = 0.001; OR = 3.08 95%CI = 1.54-5.98). Among septic and septic shock patients, -260TT genotype was also protective factor toward survival (p = 0.001; OR = 3.11 95%CI = 1.63-6.66 to septic patients, and p = 0.001; OR = 3.80 95%CI = 1.68-8.58 to patients with septic shock). Our results and our hypothesis suggest that the higher -260TT genotype frequency in ICU survivor patients is possibly explained by a beneficial effect on innate immunity signaling. PMID:19860589

Fallavena, Paulo R V; Borges, Thiago J; Paskulin, Diego D; Paludo, Francis J O; Goetze, Thayse B; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Nóbrega, Otávio T; Dias, Fernando S; Alho, Clarice S

2009-01-01

336

Utilization of Nasogastric feeding tubes in a group of chronically Ill, Elderly patients in a community hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physician practice patterns and attitudes about the use of nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes in a group of elderly patients with\\u000a severe chronic illness were explored in a community-based teaching hospital in Rochester, NY, using a physician questionnaire\\u000a and a chart review. The physician questionnaire showed considerable divergence in beliefs about whether this treatment is\\u000a extraordinary (42%), ordinary (21%), or comfort

Timothy E. Quill

1992-01-01

337

A model of integrated primary care for HIV-positive patients with underlying substance use and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high burden of underlying substance use and mental illness in HIV-infected populations. HIV-care settings provide an important opportunity to assess substance and mental health needs among HIV-positive patients and to provide or make referrals for appropriate treatment services. In 2003, with funding from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), we developed a model of integrated substance-use

N. Zaller; F. S. Gillani; J. D. Rich

2007-01-01

338

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients, in comparison with usual care. Methods We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PEDro to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of NMES in critically ill patients, which had a well-defined NMES protocol, provided outcomes related to skeletal-muscle strength and/or mass, and for which full text was available. Two independent reviewers extracted data on muscle-related outcomes (strength and mass), and participant and intervention characteristics, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. Owing to the lack of means and standard deviations (SDs) in some studies, as well as the lack of baseline measurements in two studies, it was impossible to conduct a full meta-analysis. When means and SDs were provided, the effect sizes of individual outcomes were calculated, and otherwise, a qualitative analysis was performed. Results The search yielded 8 eligible studies involving 172 patients. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Five studies reported an increase in strength or better preservation of strength with NMES, with one study having a large effect size. Two studies found better preservation of muscle mass with NMES, with small to moderate effect sizes, while no significant benefits were found in two other studies. Conclusions NMES added to usual care proved to be more effective than usual care alone for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness in critically ill patients. However, there is inconclusive evidence for its benefit in prevention of muscle wasting. PMID:23701811

2013-01-01

339

Intravenous colistin in the treatment of sepsis from multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative strains in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently rekindled interest in colistin, a bactericidal antibiotic that was used in the 1960s for treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. We conducted the present observational study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous colistin in the treatment of critically ill patients with sepsis caused by

Nikolaos Markou; Haralampos Apostolakos; Christiana Koumoudiou; Maria Athanasiou; Alexandra Koutsoukou; Ioannis Alamanos; Leonidas Gregorakos

2003-01-01

340

Prospective randomized trial to assess caloric and protein needs of critically Ill, anuric, ventilated patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe measured the energy and protein needs in 50 sequential, critically ill, ventilated patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for renal failure by using indirect calorimetry and three sequential isocaloric protein-feeding regimes of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g · kg?1 · d?1. We also assessed the compliance of actual feeding with target feeding and correlated the predictive energy requirements

C. D Scheinkestel; L Kar; K Marshall; M Bailey; A Davies; I Nyulasi; D. V Tuxen

2003-01-01

341

End-of-Life Care for Critically Ill Patients with Heart Failure: A Multidisciplinary Viewpoint from the Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Care near the end of life (EOL) for critically ill patients is emerging as an essential task in cardiology and heart failure\\u000a (HF) management. Professional recommendations were recently published on this topic and a consensus exists that research and\\u000a debate in this area need further progress. In the field of critical care medicine, development of research about EOL care\\u000a was

Thomas Fassier; Elie Azoulay

342

Impact of War Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Psychopathology in Croatian and German Patients with Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore posttraumatic stress symptoms and current psychopathology in a binational sample of Croatian and German participants with severe mental illness. Methods We studied 178 inpatients from the Greifswald University (German patients, n?=?89) and University Hospital Zagreb and Ivan Barbot Neuropsychiatric Hospital (Croatian patients, n?=?89) with either major depression (n?=?150), schizophrenia (n?=?26), or bipolar disorder (n?=?2). Measurements included the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and the Symptom Check List 90-R. Participants were matched according to age, sex, and diagnosis. Results Croatians reported significantly more war traumatic events (64/82 vs 5/74, ?21?=?77.142, P?illness between two nations. Our results clearly indicate the importance of trauma assessment in patients with severe mental illness, particularly in post-conflict settings. PMID:20401955

Jovanovi?, Nikolina; Kuwert, Philipp; Sarajli? Vukovi?, Iris; Poredoš Lavor, Daša; Medved, Vesna; Kova?, Marina; Spitzer, Carsten; Dudeck, Manuela; Vogel, Matthias; Freyberger, Harald J.; Grabe, Hans J.

2010-01-01

343

Hospital-acquired sinusitis is a common cause of fever of unknown origin in orotracheally intubated critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sinusitis is a well recognised but insufficiently understood complication of critical illness. It has been linked to nasotracheal intubation, but its occurrence after orotracheal intubation is less clear. We studied the incidence of sinusitis in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) in our intensive care unit with the aim of establishing a protocol that would be applicable in everyday clinical practice. Methods Sinus X-rays (SXRs) were performed in all patients with fever for which an initial screening (physical examination, microbiological cultures and chest X-ray) revealed no obvious cause. All patients were followed with a predefined protocol, including antral drainage in all patients with abnormal or equivocal results on their SXR. Results Initial screening revealed probable causes of fever in 153 of 351 patients (43.6%). SXRs were taken in the other 198 patients (56.4%); 129 had obvious or equivocal abnormalities. Sinus drainage revealed purulent material and positive cultures (predominantly Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species) in 84 patients. Final diagnosis for the cause of fever in all 351 patients based on X-ray results, microbiological cultures, and clinical response to sinus drainage indicated sinusitis as the sole cause of fever in 57 (16.2%) and as contributing factor in 48 (13.8%) patients with FUO. This will underestimate the actual incidence because SXR and drainage were not performed in all patients. Conclusion Physicians treating critically ill patients should be aware of the high risk of sinusitis and take appropriate preventive measures, including the removal of nasogastric tubes in patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. Routine investigation of FUO should include computed tomography scan, SXR or sinus ultrasonography, and drainage should be performed if any abnormalities are found. PMID:16277722

van Zanten, Arthur RH; Dixon, J Mark; Nipshagen, Martine D; de Bree, Remco; Girbes, Armand RJ; Polderman, Kees H

2005-01-01

344

A single nucleotide polymorphism in glycogen synthase kinase 3-? promoter gene influences onset of illness in patients affected by bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies in medicine exploited age of onset as a criterion to delineate subgroups of illness. Bipolar patients stratified with this criterion were shown to share clinical characteristics and patterns of inheritance of illness. The molecular mechanisms driving the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus may play a role in mood disorders. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

Francesco Benedetti; Alessandro Bernasconi; Cristina Lorenzi; Adriana Pontiggia; Alessandro Serretti; Cristina Colombo; Enrico Smeraldi

2004-01-01

345

[Sharing information of urological cancer patient in terminal stage using Cybozulive® for home medical care].  

PubMed

It is very important to share patient information because home patient care involves several different specialties of care. We introduced Cybozulive ® , a cloud-based free groupware, for 14 terminal-stage patients with urological cancer to share information among doctors and co-medical staff. This system enables access to patient information regardless of time and place. Of the 14 patients (mean age 74.4 years), 11 died of cancer. The average period in which Cybozulive® was used for the patients was 210 days. The average number of entries to the electronic bulletin board in this period was 88.4. We were able to obtain more information about the patients from the website. There was no difference in the average number of times that the patient consulted the out patient clinic before and after the introduction of Cybozulive® (before 7.0 ; after 6.3). After introduction of this system, eleven patients were hospitalized in our department 21 times. Eighteen of these 21 times, since we had acquired patient information from the website beforehand, there was a quick response for management of the emergency admission. This system could be used to construct a network for home care and may be helpful for sharing patient information in homecare. PMID:25293794

Yumura, Yasushi; Hattori, Yusuke; Gobara, Ayako; Takamoto, Daiji; Yasuda, Kengo; Nakamura, Masafumi; Noguchi, Kazumi; Asahina, Kan; Kamijo, Takeo

2014-09-01

346

Very Early Passive Cycling Exercise in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: Physiological and Safety Aspects - A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Early mobilization can be performed in critically ill patients and improves outcomes. A daily cycling exercise started from day 5 after ICU admission is feasible and can enhance functional capacity after hospital discharge. In the present study we verified the physiological changes and safety of an earlier cycling intervention (< 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation) in critical ill patients. Methods Nineteen hemodynamically stable and deeply sedated patients within the first 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a single 20 minute passive leg cycling exercise using an electric cycle ergometer. A minute-by-minute evaluation of hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic variables was undertaken before, during and after the exercise. Analyzed variables included the following: cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central venous blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and tidal volume, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and blood lactate levels. Results We enrolled 19 patients (42% male, age 55±17 years, SOFA = 6 ± 3, SAPS3 score = 58 ± 13, PaO2/FIO2 = 223±75). The median time of mechanical ventilation was 1 day (02), and 68% (n=13) of our patients required norepinephrine (maximum concentration = 0.47 µg.kg-1.min-1). There were no clinically relevant changes in any of the analyzed variables during the exercise, and two minor adverse events unrelated to hemodynamic instability were observed. Conclusions In our study, this very early passive cycling exercise in sedated, critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients was considered safe and was not associated with significant alterations in hemodynamic, respiratory or metabolic variables even in those requiring vasoactive agents. PMID:24040200

Camargo Pires-Neto, Ruy; Fogaça Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria; Sayuri Hirota, Adriana; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice; Caruso, Pedro; Park, Marcelo; Ribeiro Carvalho, Carlos Roberto

2013-01-01

347

Multiplex PCR performed of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increases pathogen identification rate in critically ill patients with pneumonia: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background In critically ill patients with pneumonia, accurate microorganism identification allows appropriate antibiotic treatment. In patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), direct examination of the fluid using Gram staining provides prompt information but pathogen identification accuracy is low. Culture of BAL fluid is actually the reference, but it is not available before 24 to 48 h. In addition, pathogen identification rate observed with direct examination and culture is decreased when antibiotic therapy has been given prior to sampling. We therefore assessed, in critically ill patients with suspected pneumonia, the performance of a multiplex PCR (MPCR) to identify pathogens in BAL fluid. This study is a prospective pilot observation. Methods We used a MPCR detecting 20 types of microorganisms. Direct examination, culture, and MPCR were performed on BAL fluid of critically ill patients with pneumonia suspicion. The final diagnosis of infective pneumonia was retained after the medical chart was reviewed by two experts. Pathogen identification rate of direct examination, culture, and MPCR in patients with confirmed pneumonia was compared. Results Among the 65 patients with pneumonia suspicion, the diagnosis of pneumonia was finally retained in 53 cases. Twenty nine (55%) were community-acquired pneumonia and 24 (45%) were hospital acquired. Pathogen identification rate with MPCR (66%) was greater than with culture (40%) and direct examination (23%) (p =0.01 and p <0.001, respectively). When considering only the microorganisms included in the MPCR panel, the pathogen identification rate provided by MPCR reached 82% and was still higher than with culture (35%, p <0.001) and direct examination (21%, p <0.001). Pathogen identification rate provided by MPCR was not modified in the case of previous antibiotic treatment (66% vs. 64%, NS) and was still better than with culture (23%, p <0.001). Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that in critically ill patients, MPCR performed on BAL fluid could provide higher identification rate of pathogens involved in pneumonia than direct examination and culture, especially in patients having received antimicrobial treatment.

2014-01-01

348

Effects of Chronic Illness on the Quality of Life in Psychiatric out patients of the Iraq – Iran War  

PubMed Central

Objective Quality of life measures can provide an important source of medical information for promoting the health status of chronically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate health related quality of life in psychiatric veterans of the Iraq- Iran war of the 1980s. Methods They were out patients diagnosed with various psychiatric symptoms. The present study used a cross sectional design, in which 971 psychiatric veterans were selected by Systematic-randomized sampling and evaluated using the SF36 questionnaire. Results Findings revealed that veterans who suffered from one or more chronic conditions/illnesses reported significantly more bodily pain and significantly less vitality, mental and general health compared to those veterans without chronic conditions. Moreover, specific aspects of poor quality of life were more salient in specific chronic conditions/illnesses than others. Conclusion Based on these findings, chronic conditions, especially respiratory problems, can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life in psychiatric war veterans. PMID:23682246

Shahidi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid; Karami, Gholamreza; Masoomi, Mehdi

2013-01-01

349

The challenges of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extra-corporeal circuits for drug delivery in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is characterized by more than one organ system failing, especially during critical illness. MODS is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in current ICU practice; moreover, multiple organ dysfunction, especially liver and kidneys, may significantly affect the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of different drugs that are currently administered in critically ill patients. These PK alterations may either result in insufficient drug concentrations to achieve the desired effects or in blood and tissue accumulation, with the development of serious adverse events. The use of extra-corporeal circuits, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), may further contribute to PKs changes in this patients' population. In this review, we have described the main PK changes occurring in all these conditions and how drug concentrations may potentially be affected. The lack of prospective studies on large cohorts of patients makes impossible any specific recommendation on drug regimen adjustment in ICU patients. Nevertheless, the clinicians should be aware of these abnormalities in order to better understand some unexpected therapeutic issues occurring in such patients. PMID:24842474

Hites, Maya; Dell'Anna, Antonio Maria; Scolletta, Sabino; Taccone, Fabio Silvio

2014-11-20

350

Comparison of the accuracy and precision of pharmacokinetic equations to predict free meropenem concentrations in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Population pharmacokinetic analyses can be applied to predict optimized dosages for individual patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prediction performance of the published population pharmacokinetic models for meropenem in critically ill patients. We coded the published population pharmacokinetic models with covariate relationships into dosing software to predict unbound meropenem concentrations measured in a separate cohort of critically ill patients. The agreements between the observed and predicted concentrations were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots. The absolute and relative bias and precision of the models were determined. The clinical implications of the results were evaluated according to whether dose adjustments were required from the predictions to achieve a meropenem concentration of >2 mg/liter throughout the dosing interval. A total of 157 free meropenem concentrations from 56 patients were analyzed. Eight published population pharmacokinetic models were compared. The models showed an absolute bias in predicting the unbound meropenem concentrations from a mean percent difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of -108.5% (-119.9% to -97.3%) to 19.9% (7.3% to 32.7%), while absolute precision ranged from -249.1% (-263.4% to -234.8%) to 31.9% (17.6% to 46.2%) and -178.9% (-196.9% to -160.9%) to 175.0% (157.0% to 193.0%). A dose change was required in 44% to 64% of the concentration results. Seven of the eight equations evaluated underpredicted free meropenem concentrations. In conclusion, the overall accuracy of these models supports their inclusion in dosing software and application for individualizing meropenem doses in critically ill patients to increase the likelihood of achievement of optimal antibiotic exposures. PMID:25512414

Wong, Gloria; Farkas, Andras; Sussman, Rachel; Daroczi, Gergely; Hope, William W; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

2015-03-01

351

Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving sustained low-efficiency diafiltration.  

PubMed

Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent in critically ill patients. It is predominantly (60-80%) excreted unchanged in urine. Sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) is increasingly being utilised in critically ill patients because of its practical advantages over continuous renal replacement therapy. To date, the effect of SLED-f on fluconazole pharmacokinetics and dosing has not been studied. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving SLED-f and to compare this with other forms of renal replacement therapy. Serial blood samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit during SLED-f and from an arterial catheter before and after SLED-f from three patients during one session. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. Median clearance (CL) and 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) were 2.1L/h and 152mg·h/L, respectively, whilst receiving SLED-f. Moreover, 72% of fluconazole was cleared by a single SLED-f session (6h) compared with previous reports of 33-38% clearance by a 4-h intermittent haemodialysis session. CL and AUC0-24 were comparable with previous observations in a pre-dilution mode of continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration. The observed rebound concentration of fluconazole post SLED-f was <2%. Although a definitive dosing recommendation is not possible due to the small patient number, it is clear that doses >200mg daily are likely to be required to achieve the PK/PD target for common pathogens because of significant fluconazole clearance by SLED-f. PMID:25455854

Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Robertson, Thomas A; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

2015-02-01

352

Becoming patient: a path to effective participation with chronic terminal cancer.  

PubMed

One chronic terminal lung cancer patient was purposely selected. My grounded theory findings indicated that this middle-aged, asymptomatic, otherwise healthy woman used the basic social process of asking, "How can I participate in treatment?" in order to resolve a crisis of pain. Participation involved the overarching condition of trust in medical personnel, and included seven overlapping considerations: expense, disease progress, bodily feeling, explanations, plans, emotional reactions, and turning point. The findings provide information that may lead to smoother transitions to changing the status of a patient. PMID:23216097

Katzman, Sandra

2013-01-01

353

Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?  

PubMed Central

The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H+ is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and conventional methods. Although the introduction of the Stewart approach was a new insight into acid-base physiology, the method has not significantly improved our ability to understand, diagnose, and treat acid-base alterations in critically ill patients.

Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

2015-01-01

354

Using the synergy model of patient care in understanding the lived emergency department experiences of patients, family members and their nurses during critical illness: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

Despite many studies conducted aimed to understand and improve emergency care, research on the triad of nurses, patients, and family members looking at the lived emergency department experiences and their perspective of each from the other is notably absent. In a hermeneutic phenomenological study using van Manen's method, a sample of 10 patients, 5 family members, and 8 nurses of a nonprofit community hospital was recruited and interviewed in 2010 to 2011 to explore, understand, and describe their lived experiences during critical illness in the emergency department. The nurses perceived that addressing the patient's physiologic deficit promptly is vital in the emergency department as well as including family members as coparticipants in the care. Patients and family members perceived that communication, critical thinking, sensitivity, and caring are essential for emergency department nurses. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' Synergy Model for Patient Care was applied in conceptualizing the findings and served as a framework in recommending practices and interventions geared toward improving competencies required in caring for critically ill patients and their families in the emergency department. The study supports recognizing the patient and family as active participants in the patient's medical care; encouraging family-member presence and creating institutional policies for patient- and family-centered care, as well as encouraging the development of ongoing programs that will recognize, enhance, and support the psychological and emotional well-being of emergency department nurses. PMID:24100433

Cypress, Brigitte S

2013-01-01

355

Self-awareness of depression and life events in three groups of patients: Psychotic depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic medical illness in North India  

PubMed Central

Background: Depression is a common experience across cultures although not all languages have words describing depression. Aim: To identify patients' perception and awareness of depression as an illness. Methods: Sixty psychiatric patients (each with depression or obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD]) were compared with 30 medical patients with chronic physical illness and assessed on levels of awareness of depression in relation to life events. Results: Life events were more in patients with OCD compared to other two groups. All the three groups of patients had major depression. Conclusion: Absence of help-seeking for depression in patients with OCD and physical illness possibly indicate low level of awareness of depression in these patients. The findings are discussed in context of clinical practice. PMID:20703346

Gupta, Anjali; Bahadur, Indu; Gupta, K.R.; Bhugra, Dinesh

2006-01-01

356

Genetic Variations of PIP4K2A Confer Vulnerability to Poor Antipsychotic Response in Severely Ill Schizophrenia Patients  

PubMed Central

Literature suggests that disease severity and neurotransmitter signaling pathway genes can accurately identify antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients. However, putative role of signaling molecules has not been tested in schizophrenia patients based on severity of illness, despite its biological plausibility. In the present study we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms from five candidate genes RGS4, SLC6A3, PIP4K2A, BDNF, PI4KA with response to antipsychotic in variably ill schizophrenia patients. Thus in present study, a total 53 SNPs on the basis of previous reports and functional grounds were examined for their association with antipsychotic response in 423 schizophrenia patients segregated into low and high severity groups. Additionally, haplotype, diplotype, multivariate logistic regression and multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) analyses were performed. Furthermore, observed associations were investigated in atypical monotherapy (n?=?355) and risperidone (n?=?260) treated subgroups. All associations were estimated as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and test for multiple corrections was applied. Single locus analysis showed significant association of nine variants from SLC6A3, PIP4K2A and BDNF genes with incomplete antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients with high severity. We identified significant association of six marker diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT (rs746203-rs10828317-rs7094131-rs2296624-rs11013052-rs1409396) of PIP4K2A gene in incomplete responders (corrected p-value?=?0.001; adjusted-OR?=?3.19, 95%-CI?=?1.46–6.98) with high severity. These associations were further observed in atypical monotherapy and risperidone sub-groups. MDR approach identified gene-gene interaction among BDNF_rs7103411-BDNF_rs1491851-SLC6A3_rs40184 in severely ill incomplete responders (OR?=?7.91, 95%-CI?=?4.08–15.36). While RGS4_rs2842026-SLC6A3_rs2975226 interacted synergistically in incomplete responders with low severity (OR?=?4.09, 95%-CI?=?2.09–8.02). Our findings provide strong evidence that diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT of PIP4K2A gene conferred approximately three-times higher incomplete responsiveness towards antipsychotics in severely ill patients. These results are consistent with the known role of phosphatidyl-inositol-signaling elements in antipsychotic action and outcome. Findings have implication for future molecular genetic studies as well as personalized medicine. However more work is warranted to elucidate underlying causal biological pathway. PMID:25025909

Kaur, Harpreet; Jajodia, Ajay; Grover, Sandeep; Baghel, Ruchi; Gupta, Meenal; Jain, Sanjeev; Kukreti, Ritushree

2014-01-01

357

Usefulness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a multicenter prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) as a prognostic factor in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is not yet fully established. We aimed to determine whether NT-pro-BNP is predictive of ICU mortality in a multicenter cohort of critically ill patients. Methods A total of 1440 patients admitted to 22 ICUs (medical, 14; surgical, six; multidisciplinary, two) in 15 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals between July 2010 and January 2011 were assessed. Patient data, including NT-pro-BNP levels and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 scores, were recorded prospectively in a web-based database. Results The median age was 64 years (range, 53–73 years), and 906 (62.9%) patients were male. The median NT-pro-BNP level was 341 pg/mL (104–1,637 pg/mL), and the median SAPS 3 score was 57 (range, 47–69). The ICU mortality rate was 18.9%, and hospital mortality was 24.5%. Hospital survivors showed significantly lower NT-pro-BNP values than nonsurvivors (245 pg/mL [range, 82–1,053 pg/mL] vs. 875 pg/mL [241–5,000 pg/mL], respectively; p?ill patients. However, there was little additional prognostic power when adding NT-pro-BNP to SAPS 3 score. PMID:24612820

2014-01-01

358

Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of linezolid in neurosurgical critically ill patients with proven or suspected central nervous system infections.  

PubMed

Linezolid is a valuable treatment option for central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive micro-organisms. Data regarding its penetration into the CNS have shown wide variability. The aim of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of linezolid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in critically ill patients with external CSF drainage and proven or suspected CNS infections. This was an observational pharmacokinetic (PK) study in 11 critically ill patients with proven or suspected CNS infection receiving linezolid. Serial blood and CSF samples were taken and were subject to population PK analysis. The median (interquartile range) of AUC0-12h was 47.6 (17.9-58.6)mgh/L in plasma and 21.1 (18.8-30.4)mgh/L in CSF, with a median CSF/plasma ratio of 0.77. At pre-dose at steady state, a strong positive correlation was observed between linezolid concentrations in CSF and plasma (Spearman's rho=0.758; P=0.011). For a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2mg/L, the median AUC0-24h/MIC values in plasma and CSF were <80 in all patients. A three-compartment linear model was found to be most appropriate. The mean value for linezolid clearance was 16.6L/h and mean volume of distribution was 101.3L. No covariate relationships could be supported on any of the parameters. Linezolid demonstrated good penetration into the CNS but high interindividual PK variability. Administration of higher than standard doses of linezolid and therapeutic drug monitoring should therefore be considered as options to optimise linezolid dosing in critically ill patients with CNS infections. PMID:25216547

Luque, S; Grau, S; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Ferrández, O; Campillo, N; Horcajada, J P; Basas, M; Lipman, J; Roberts, J A

2014-11-01

359

Indian Psychiatric Society multicentric study on assessment of health-care needs of patients with severe mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess the health-care needs of the patients with severe mental disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder (schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, recurrent depressive disorder, major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder) were assessed using Camberwell Assessment of Need-Research version (CAN-R) Scale and indigenously designed Supplementary Needs Assessment Scale (SNAS). Results: The study included 1494 patients recruited from 15 centers. The most common diagnostic group was that of affective disorders (55.3%), followed by psychotic disorders (37.6%). The mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 on the CAN-R. About two-third of the needs as assessed on CAN-R were met, and one-third were unmet. On CAN-R, main domains of needs as reported by patients were those of money, welfare benefits, transport, information about the illness and treatment, relief of psychological distress, company, household skills and intimate relationships. On SNAS, the mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 of which 4.1 were met needs. The most common domains of needs as assessed on SNAS were those of financial help, medical reimbursement, psychoeducation, free treatment, certification of mental illness, flexible work/job timings, addressing the caregiver stress and legal aid. Conclusion: About two-third of the needs, of the patients with severe mental disorders are met as assessed using CAN-R. However, higher percentages of unmet needs are identified on SNAS. In view of the commonly reported needs, a change in the orientation of services offered to people with mental disorders is very much called for. At the government level, desired policies must be formulated to support the patients with mental disorders. PMID:25657456

Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Shah, Sandip; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Nebhinani, Naresh; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Dalal, Pranob K.; Sinha, Vishal; Khairkar, Praveen; Mukerjee, Divya G.; Thara, R.; Behere, Prakash; Chauhan, Nidhi; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Malhotra, Sameer

2015-01-01

360

Home based care and standard hospital care for patients with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy of home based care with standard hospital care in treating serious mental illness. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--South Southwark, London. PATIENTS--189 patients aged 18-64 living in catchment area. 92 were randomised to home based care (daily living programme) and 97 to standard hospital care. At three months' follow up 68 home care and 60 hospital patients were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Use of hospital beds, psychiatric diagnosis, social functioning, patients' and relatives' satisfaction, and activity of daily living programme staff. RESULTS--Home care reduced hospital stay by 80% (median stay six days in home care group, 53 days in hospital group) and did not increase the number of admissions compared with hospital care. On clinical and social outcome there was a non-significant trend in favour of home care, but both groups showed big improvements. On the global adjustment scale home care patients improved by 26.8 points and the hospital group by 21.6 points (difference 5.2; 95% confidence interval -1.5 to 12). Other rating scales showed similar trends. Home care patients required a wide range of support in areas such as housing, finance, and work. Only three patients dropped out from the programme. CONCLUSIONS--Home based care may offer some slight advantages over hospital based care for patients with serious mental illness and their relatives. The care is intensive, but the low drop out rate suggests appreciation. Changes to traditional training for mental health workers are required. PMID:1571681

Muijen, M.; Marks, I.; Connolly, J.; Audini, B.

1992-01-01

361

Personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects by gender and the relationship with illness severity  

PubMed Central

Background Personality traits and schizophrenia present gender differences; however, gender has not been considered in most studies on personality and schizophrenia. This study aims to identify the different personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects by gender and to explore the relationship between personality dimensions and illness severity variables by analyzing data for males and females separately. Methods Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised dimensions were compared by gender between 161 schizophrenia patients and 214 healthy controls from a population-based sample using independent t-tests. We then investigated whether personality dimensions are related to illness severity variables using correlation analyses and bivariate logistic regression, also by gender. Results The patients had significantly higher scores for harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) and lower scores for reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (C), and self-directedness (SD) than the controls. Similar results were obtained when the sample was stratified by gender, however the differences were higher and more significant for HA among males and for RD among females. The number of admissions to a psychiatric hospital positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) in males and negatively with SD in females. In males, SD and ST negatively correlated with the number of suicide attempts. Conclusions Male and female patients present difficulties for regulating and adapting behavior to achieve goals (SD) and for identifying and accepting others (C), as well as a great sense of spirituality and universe identification (ST). However, male patients are more characterized by being fearful, doubtful and easily fatigued (HA), while female patients are characterized by presenting difficulties maintaining and pursuing associated reward behaviors (RD). Furthermore, male and female patients who are frequently admitted to psychiatric hospitals and male patients who attempt suicide should be evaluated regarding their personality dimensions. Future studies assessing the relationship between personality dimensions and the clinical features of schizophrenia should consider gender differences. PMID:24884428

2014-01-01

362

Anticoagulation Strategies in Venovenous Hemodialysis in Critically Ill Patients: A Five-Year Evaluation in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Renal failure is a common complication among critically ill patients. Timing, dosage, and mode of renal replacement (RRT) are under debate, but also anticoagulation strategies and vascular access interfere with dialysis success. We present a retrospective, five-year evaluation of patients requiring RRT on a multidisciplinary 50-bed surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital with special regard to anticoagulation strategies and vascular access. Anticoagulation was preferably performed with unfractionated heparin or regional citrate application (RAC). Bleeding and suspected HIT-II were most common causes for RAC. In CVVHD mode filter life span was significantly longer under RAC compared to heparin or other anticoagulation strategies (P = 0.001). Femoral vascular access was associated with reduced filter life span (P = 0.012), especially under heparin anticoagulation (P = 0.015). Patients on RAC had higher rates of metabolic alkalosis (P = 0.001), required more transfusions (P = 0.045), and showed higher illness severity measured by SOFA scores (P = 0.001). RRT with unfractionated heparin represented the most common anticoagulation strategy in this study population. However, patients with bleeding risk and severe organ dysfunction were more likely placed on RAC. Citrate provided longer filter life spans regardless of vascular access site. Attention has to be paid to metabolic disturbances. PMID:25548793

Kabisch, Björn; Wurm, Karin; Ebert, Katharina; Bauer, Michael

2014-01-01

363

Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function in Critically Ill Patients With Normal Serum Creatinine  

PubMed Central

Background: Serum creatinine as a classic marker of renal function has several limitations in the detection of renal dysfunction. Objectives: This study assessed the validity of serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in critically ill patients with normal serum creatinine. Patients and Methods: Eighty adult patients referred to intensive care units with serum creatinine levels < 1.5 mg/dL and without hemodynamic instability were chosen and their serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were measured. A 24-hour urine sample was collected to calculate creatinine clearance (Ccr). Renal dysfunction was defined as Ccr < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: There were significant correlations between measured Ccr and 1/serum creatinine (R = 0.51, P < 0.001) and 1/serum cystatin C (R = 0.25, P = 0.028). The difference between false negative rates of serum creatinine (93.33%) and cystatin C (80%) in the detection of renal dysfunction was significant (P = 0.032). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis illustrated that area under the curve of serum creatinine and cystatin C for detecting renal dysfunction were 0.711 and 0.607, respectively; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.222). Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that serum cystatin C is not superior to serum creatinine in the early detection of renal dysfunction in critically ill patients. PMID:24783172

Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Namazi, Soha; Geramizadeh, Bita; Karimzadeh, Amin; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Karimzadeh, Iman

2014-01-01

364

Malnutrition at the Time of Surgery Affects Negatively the Clinical Outcome of Critically Ill Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Malnutrition is a frequent concomitant of surgical illness, especially in gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in the GI cancer patients and its relation with clinical outcome. We also examined associations between the energy balance and clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods: Prospective study on 694 surgical patients treated in the ICU of the UHC of Tirana. Patients were divided into well-nourished and malnourished groups according to their nutritional status. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of malnutrition and cumulated energy balance on clinical outcome. Results: The prevalence of pre-operative malnutrition was 65.3% for all surgical patients and 84.9% for gastrointestinal cancer patients. Malnutrition, as analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model, is an independent risk factor for higher complications, infections, and mortality, longer stay in the ventilator and ICU. Also this model showed that cumulated energy balance correlated with infections, and mortality and was independently associated with the length ventilator and ICU stay. Conclusion: This study shows that malnutrition is a significant problem in surgical patients, especially in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Malnutrition and cumulated energy deficit in gastro-intestinal surgery patients with malignancy is an independent risk factor on increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568549

Shpata, Vjollca; Prendushi, Xhensila; Kreka, Manika; Kola, Irena; Kurti, Floreta; Ohri, Ilir

2014-01-01

365

Psychological and symptom distress in terminal cancer patients with met and unmet needs.  

PubMed

This study identified the needs of terminal cancer patients, investigated the factors associated with unmet needs, and assessed psychological and symptom distress associated with unsolved needs. Ninety-four patients were randomly selected from 324 patients admitted for palliative care in 13 Italian centers. Two self-administered questionnaires (the Symptom Distress Scale and the Psychological Distress Inventory) were administered to all the patients. Patients needs were identified using a semi-structured interview, aimed at exploring five areas: physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, self-esteem needs, self-fulfillment needs. A content analysis of the answers defined 11 needs, and identified patients with unmet needs. The most frequent unmet needs were symptom control (62.8%), occupational functioning (62.1%), and emotional support (51.7%). The less frequently reported needs were those related to personal care (14.6%), financial support (14.1%), and emotional closeness (13.8%). Low functional state was significantly associated with a high proportion of patients with unmet needs of personal care, information, communication, occupational functioning, and emotional closeness. Patients with unmet needs showed significantly higher psychological and symptom distress for most needs. This study provides some suggestions about the concerns that should be carefully considered during the late stage of cancer. PMID:10388245

Morasso, G; Capelli, M; Viterbori, P; Di Leo, S; Alberisio, A; Costantini, M; Fiore, M; Saccani, D; Zeitler, G; Verzolatto, N; Tirelli, W; Lazzari, L; Partinico, M; Borzoni, G; Savian, C; Obertino, E; Zotti, P; Ivaldi, G P; Henriquet, F

1999-06-01

366

Effects of qigong exercise on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background. Anxiety/depressive symptoms are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness. Qigong as a modality of complementary and alternative therapy has been increasingly applied by patients with chronic illnesses, but little is known about the effect of Qigong on anxiety/depressive symptoms of the patients with CFS-like illness. Purpose. To investigate the effects of Qigong on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in patients with CFS-illness. Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CFS-like illness were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a waitlist control group. Participants in the intervention group received 10 sessions of Qigong training twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks, followed by home-based practice for 12 weeks. Fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Results. Total fatigue score [F(1,135) = 13.888, P < 0.001], physical fatigue score [F(1,135) = 20.852, P < 0.001] and depression score [F(1,135) = 9.918, P = 0.002] were significantly improved and mental fatigue score [F(1,135) = 3.902, P = 0.050] was marginally significantly improved in the Qigong group compared to controls. The anxiety score was not significantly improved in the Qigong group. Conclusion. Qigong may not only reduce the fatigue symptoms, but also has antidepressive effect for patients with CFS-like illness. Trial registration HKCTR-1200. PMID:23983785

Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yuen, Lai Ping; Sham, Jonathan S T; Chan, Cecilia L W

2013-01-01

367

Real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus conventional glucose monitoring in critically ill patients: a systematic review study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stress-induced hyperglycaemia, which has been shown to be associated with an unfavourable prognosis, is common among critically ill patients. Additionally, it has been reported that hypoglycaemia and high glucose variabilities are also associated with adverse outcomes. Thus, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may be the optimal method to detect severe hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and decrease glucose excursion. However, the overall accuracy and reliability of CGM systems and the effects of CGM systems on glucose control and prognosis in critically ill patients remain inconclusive. Therefore, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the associations between CGM systems and clinical outcome. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014. Studies comparing CGM systems with any other glucose monitoring methods in critically ill patients will be eligible for our meta-analysis. The primary endpoints include the incidence of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, mean glucose level, and percentage of time within the target range. The second endpoints include intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and the Pearson correlation coefficient and the results of error grid analysis. In addition, we will record all complications (eg, acquired infections) in control and intervention groups and local adverse events in intervention groups (eg, bleeding or infections). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. Trial registration number PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014013488. PMID:25616512

Zhu, Weidong; Jiang, Libing; Jiang, Shouyin; Ma, Yuefeng; Zhang, Mao

2015-01-01

368

How does a biopsy of endoscopically normal terminal ileum contribute to the diagnosis? Which patients should undergo biopsy?  

PubMed Central

Background Terminal ileum endoscopy and biopsy are the diagnostic tools of diseases attacking the ileum. However, abnormal histological findings can be found in endoscopically normal terminal ileum. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the histopathological results of biopsies from endoscopically normal terminal ileum in order to determine pre-procedure clinical and laboratory factors predicting abnormal histopathological results, if any. Methods A total of 297 patients who underwent colonoscopy and terminal ileum biopsy and had normal terminal ileum or a few aphthous ulcers in the terminal ileum together with completely normal colon mucosa were included in the study. The patients were grouped into two arms as normal cases and cases with aphthous ulcers. Histopathological and pre-procedural laboratory results of patients were analyzed according to their indications. Results The terminal ileum was endoscopically normal in 200 patients, and 97 patients had aphthous ulcers. Chronic ileitis rate was present in 5.5% of those with endoscopically normal terminal ileum and in 39.2% of the patients with aphthous ulcers. In both groups, the highest rate of chronic ileitis was detected in the patients with known inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (15.4 and 50%, respectively), anemia (9.5 and 43.5%, respectively), and in the patients having chronic diarrhea together with abdominal pain (7.7 and 44.8%, respectively). We found that the sensitivity of mean platelet volume for predicting chronic ileitis was 87% and the specificity was 45% at a cut-off value lower than 9.35 fl. Conclusion In anemia indication or chronic diarrhea together with abdominal pain, the frequency of aphthous ulcers detected by ileoscopy and the frequency of chronic ileitis detected histopathologically despite a normal-appearing ileum were elevated. PMID:24560378

Riza Koksal, Ali; Boga, Salih; Alkim, Huseyin; Ergun, Meltem; Bayram, Mehmet; Sakiz, Damlanur; Ozdogan, Osman; Altinkaya, Engin; Alkim, Canan

2014-01-01

369

Religious versus Conventional Psychotherapy for Major Depression in Patients with Chronic Medical Illness: Rationale, Methods, and Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

This paper (1) reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2) discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3) describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a) overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b) compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4) presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients' religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes. PMID:22778932

Koenig, Harold G.

2012-01-01

370

Disclosing the truth to terminal cancer patients: a discussion of ethical and cultural issues.  

PubMed

One of the most difficult ethical dilemmas facing health care professionals working in oncology is whether, when, how and how much to tell terminal cancer patients about their diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of this article is to review the trends in this issue worldwide. While a majority of physicians in both developed and developing countries tell the truth more often today than in the past, the assumption that truth-telling is always beneficial to patients can be questioned. The issue of truth-telling is still approached differently in different countries and cultures and there is a need for an increased awareness of cultural differences to truth-telling among patients from ethnic minorities. PMID:20795432

Kazdaglis, G A; Arnaoutoglou, C; Karypidis, D; Memekidou, G; Spanos, G; Papadopoulos, O

2010-04-01

371

Etiologies of illness among patients meeting integrated management of adolescent and adult illness district clinician manual criteria for severe infections in northern Tanzania: implications for empiric antimicrobial therapy.  

PubMed

We describe the laboratory-confirmed etiologies of illness among participants in a hospital-based febrile illness cohort study in northern Tanzania who retrospectively met Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness District Clinician Manual (IMAI) criteria for septic shock, severe respiratory distress without shock, and severe pneumonia, and compare these etiologies against commonly used antimicrobials, including IMAI recommendations for emergency antibacterials (ceftriaxone or ampicillin plus gentamicin) and IMAI first-line recommendations for severe pneumonia (ceftriaxone and a macrolide). Among 423 participants hospitalized with febrile illness, there were 25 septic shock, 37 severe respiratory distress without shock, and 109 severe pneumonia cases. Ceftriaxone had the highest potential utility of all antimicrobials assessed, with responsive etiologies in 12 (48%) septic shock, 5 (14%) severe respiratory distress without shock, and 19 (17%) severe pneumonia illnesses. For each syndrome 17-27% of participants had etiologic diagnoses that would be non-responsive to ceftriaxone, but responsive to other available antimicrobial regimens including amphotericin for cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis; anti-tuberculosis therapy for bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis; or tetracycline therapy for rickettsioses and Q fever. We conclude that although empiric ceftriaxone is appropriate in our setting, etiologies not explicitly addressed in IMAI guidance for these syndromes, such as cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and tetracycline-responsive bacterial infections, were common. PMID:25385866

Rubach, Matthew P; Maro, Venance P; Bartlett, John A; Crump, John A

2015-02-01

372

Extending the benefits of early mobility to critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy: the Michigan experience.  

PubMed

Evidence to support improved outcomes with early ambulation is strong in medical literature. Yet, critically ill continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) patients remain tethered to their beds by devices delivering supportive therapy. The University of Michigan Adult CRRT Committee identified this deficiency and sought to change it. There was no guidance in the literature to support mobilizing this population; therefore, we reviewed literature from devices with similar technological profiles. Revision of our institutional mobility protocol for the CRRT population included a simple safety acronym, ASK. The acronym addresses appropriate candidacy; secured, appropriate access; and potential device and patient complications as a memorable aid to help nursing staff determine whether their CRRT patients are candidates for early mobility. After implementing our CRRT mobility standard, a preliminary study of 109 CRRT patients and a review of incident reports related to CRRT demonstrated no significant adverse patient events or falls and no access complications related to mobility. This deliberate intervention allows CRRT patients to safely engage in mobility activities to improve this population's outcomes. A simple mobility protocol and safety acronym partnered with strong clinical leadership has permitted the University of Michigan to add CRRT patients to the body of early mobility literature. PMID:23221445

Talley, Cheryl L; Wonnacott, Robert O; Schuette, Janice K; Jamieson, Jill; Heung, Michael

2013-01-01

373

Improving Communication About Serious Illness  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

2014-09-13

374

First-year experience of a Brazilian tertiary medical center in supporting severely ill patients using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the first year of our experience using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. METHODS: Ten patients with severe refractory hypoxemia, two with associated severe cardiovascular failure, were supported using venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (eight patients) or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (two patients). RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 31 yr (range 14–71 yr). Their median simplified acute physiological score three (SAPS3) was 94 (range 84–118), and they had a median expected mortality of 95% (range 87–99%). Community-acquired pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (50%), followed by P. jiroveci pneumonia in two patients with AIDS (20%). Six patients were transferred from other ICUs during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, three of whom were transferred between ICUs within the hospital (30%), two by ambulance (20%) and one by helicopter (10%). Only one patient (10%) was anticoagulated with heparin throughout extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Eighty percent of patients required continuous venous-venous hemofiltration. Three patients (30%) developed persistent hypoxemia, which was corrected using higher positive end-expiratory pressure, higher inspired oxygen fractions, recruitment maneuvers, and nitric oxide. The median time on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was five (range 3–32) days. The median length of the hospital stay was 31 (range 3-97) days. Four patients (40%) survived to 60 days, and they were free from renal replacement therapy and oxygen support. CONCLUSIONS: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in severely ill patients is possible in the presence of a structured team. Efforts must be made to recognize the necessity of extracorporeal respiratory support at an early stage and to prompt activation of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation team. PMID:23070342

Park, Marcelo; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Tucci, Mauro; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Taniguchi, Leandro Utino; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Nardi, Raquel Oliveira; de Nardi Ignácio, Michelle; Machtans, Cláudio Cerqueira; Neves, Wellington Alves; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira

2012-01-01

375

Care of the family when the patient is dying.  

PubMed Central

Families shoulder many burdens during terminal illness. Their needs grow and change as their loved one's illness progresses. We describe specific physician behaviors that can assist families in coping with terminal illness. Early in serious illness, there are the emotional burdens of learning of the illness and coming to accept a terminal diagnosis, of giving up hope of cure. As terminal illness progresses, patients often need family members to help refocus hope despite the inevitability of death. Patients and families need support, guidance, and encouragement to begin planning for many decisions. Although emotional burdens are felt by most family members, families who choose to have their loved one die at home take on enormous direct caregiving burdens as well. They need information and supplies, including specific teaching of caregiving skills and logistic support. After the death of the loved one, family members have bereavement needs that require ongoing support. PMID:7571594

Bascom, P B; Tolle, S W

1995-01-01

376

Depression and Chronic Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... and one-fifth with terminal cancer experience a depressive disorder. Sadly, less than half of those receive treatment for depression. Facing a chronic illness naturally leads to ... treatment as soon as depressive symptoms appear because early treatment is more likely ...

377

Chronically ill Canadians’ experiences of being unattached to a family doctor: a qualitative study of marginalized patients in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Background Unattached patients do not have a regular primary care provider. Initiatives are being developed to increase attachment rates across Canada. Most existing attention paid to patient unattachment has focused on quantifying the problem and health system costs. Our purpose is to qualitatively identify the implications of chronically ill patients’ experiences of unattachment for health policy and planning to provide policy-relevant insights for Canadian attachment initiatives. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with marginalized chronically ill individuals residing in a mid-sized city in British Columbia who are unattached to a family doctor. We use the term marginalized as a descriptor to acknowledge that by virtue of their low socio-economic status and lack of attachment the participants are marginalized in Canada’s health care system Focus groups were structured as an open conversation organized around a series of probing questions. They were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed. Results Twenty-six individuals participated in the focus groups. The most common chronic illnesses reported were active drug addiction or recovery (and their associated symptoms), depression, arthritis, and hepatitis C. Participants identified life transitions as being the root cause for not having a family doctor. There was a strong sense that unsuccessful attempts to get a family doctor reflected that they were undesirable patients. Participants wanted to experience having a trusting relationship with a regular family doctor as they believed it would encourage greater honesty and transparency. One of the main health concerns regarding lack of access to a regular family doctor is that participants lacked access to preventative care. Participants were also concerned about having a discontinuous medical record due to unattachment. Conclusions Participants perceived that there are many benefits to be had by having attachment to a regular family doctor and that experiencing unattachment challenged their health and access to health care. We encourage more research to be done on the lived experience of unattachment in order to provide on-the-ground insights that policy-makers require in order to develop responsive, patient-centred supports and programs. PMID:22799280

2012-01-01

378

Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in critically ill patients and its associations with other clinical markers and 28-day mortality  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the possible associations between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and specific clinical markers and prognosis in critically ill patients diagnosed with stress hyperglycemia. Patients and methods A total of 70 critically ill patients and 25 normal controls were recruited for this study. Serum levels of sRAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional data on other clinical markers were obtained from patient records in the intensive care unit. Comparisons of sRAGE and AGEs levels between groups were assessed by t-test. The relationships between sRAGE and other clinical markers were assessed by Pearson’s correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses. Risk factors for prognosis, such as 28-day mortality were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results Serum sRAGE and AGEs levels were significantly higher in critically ill patients, compared to normal controls (P<0.05). The increase in serum sRAGE levels was significantly correlated with AGEs levels, interleukin-6 levels, and the sequential organ failure assessment score (P<0.01). Using multiple linear regression analysis, the association between AGEs and sRAGE remained significant after adjustment of other clinical factors. However, there were no significant correlations between sRAGE levels and patient outcome in these critically ill patients. Conclusion Serum sRAGE levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients and positively correlated with higher AGEs levels, but sRAGE levels were not associated with increased mortality, suggesting sRAGE levels are not a predictor of prognosis in critically ill patients. PMID:25429209

Cheng, Yanzi; Zhong, Jiwen; Xiang, Yang; Zeng, Fan; Cai, Dehong; Zhao, Ling

2014-01-01

379

Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with mental illness: Application of a self-assessment score for diabetes mellitus risk.  

PubMed

Various methods for diabetes risk assessment have been developed over a decade, but they were not evaluated in patients with mental illness. This study examined the feasibility and utility of a self-assessment score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) risk among patients with mental illness. DM2 risk was assessed by patients with mental illness as well as clinicians via a self-assessment questionnaire, and the resulting scores were compared to each other as well as with actual diagnosis. Of 100 patients, nine patients were newly revealed to have DM2 and 34 patients have pre-DM2. Patients tended to underreport risk factors - obesity and physical activity - so perceived to have lower risk. Sensitivity of the self-assessment score was different when used by patients and by clinicians despite correlation coefficient of 0.82. Based on positive predictive values, we may expect one out of two patients who have high scores actually have DM2 or pre-DM2. Also, the discrimination capability was reasonably high (AUC=0.79), comparable to its performance observed in general populations. The self-assessment score has potential as a simple and adjunct tool to identify a high risk group of DM2/pre-DM2 among persons with mental illness, especially, when used together with health care providers. PMID:25223258

Shin, Jinah K; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Sachmechi, Issac; Barron, Charles; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Bajracharya, Bhavana; Bang, Heejung

2014-12-30

380

The pain, agitation, and delirium practice guidelines for adult critically ill patients: a post-publication perspective  

PubMed Central

The recently published Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium in Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit differ from earlier guidelines in the following ways: literature searches were performed in eight databases by a professional librarian; psychometric validation of assessment scales was considered in their recommendation; discrepancies in recommendation votes by guideline panel members are available in online supplements; and all recommendations were made exclusively on the basis of evidence available until December of 2010. Pain recognition and management remains challenging in the critically ill. Patient outcomes improve with routine pain assessment, use of co-analgesics and administration as well as dose adjustment of opiates to patient needs. Thoracic epidurals help ease patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Little data exists to guide clinicians as to the type or dose of co-analgesics; no opiate choice is associated with better patient outcomes. Lighter or no sedation is beneficial, and interruption is desirable in patients who require deep sedation for specific pathologic states. Delirium screening is probably useful; no treatment modality can be unequivocally recommended, and the benefit of prophylaxis is established only for early mobilization. The details of these recommendations, as well as more recent publications that complement the guidelines, are provided in this commentary. PMID:23547921

2013-01-01

381

Psychological support based on positive suggestions in the treatment of a critically ill ICU patient – A case report  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the way psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) was added to the traditional somatic treatment of an acute pancreatitis 36-year-old male patient. Psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) is a new adjunct therapeutic tool focused on applying suggestive techniques in medical settings. The suggestive techniques usually applied with critically ill patients are based on a number of pre-prepared scripts like future orientation, reframing, positivity, supporting autonomy, etc., and other, very unique and personalized interventions, which are exemplified with verbatim quotations. We describe the way several problems during treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) patients were solved using suggestive methods: uncooperativeness, difficulties of weaning, building up enteral nutrition, supporting recovery motivation, and so on, which permanently facilitated the patient’s medical state: the elimination of gastrointestinal bleeding, recovery of the skin on the abdomen, etc. Medical effects follow-up data at 10 months show that the patient recovered and soon returned to his original work following discharge. PMID:24381733

Varga, Zsófia; Fritúz, Gábor

2013-01-01

382

Efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in elderly, critically ill patients with invasive Candida infections: a post hoc analysis.  

PubMed

Post hoc analysis of a non-comparative, prospective, multicentre, phase IIIb study was performed to compare efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in elderly (?65 years) versus non-elderly (<65 years) Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC). Adult ICU patients with confirmed C/IC meeting ?1 of the following criteria were enrolled: post-abdominal surgery; solid tumour; renal/hepatic insufficiency; solid organ transplantation; neutropenia; age ?65 years. Patients received anidulafungin (200 mg on Day 1, 100 mg/day thereafter) for ?10 days followed by optional azole step-down therapy for a total treatment duration of 14-56 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was global (clinical and microbiological) response at the end of all therapy (EOT). Primary efficacy analysis was performed in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population (n=170), excluding unknown and missing responses. In total, 80 patients (47.1%) were aged ?65 years and 90 (52.9%) were aged <65 years; the mean age difference between the two groups was 21.9 years. Global success at EOT in mITT patients was similar in elderly (68.1%) and non-elderly (70.7%) patients (P=0.719). However, global success rates were significantly lower in elderly versus non-elderly patients at 2 and 6 weeks after EOT (P=0.045 and P=0.016, respectively). Ninety-day survival was significantly lower (P=0.006) for elderly (42.8%) versus non-elderly patients (63.3%). The incidence and profile of adverse events were similar in elderly and non-elderly patients. Anidulafungin was effective and safe for treatment of C/IC in elderly ICU patients, despite higher baseline severity of illness scores. PMID:22998997

Dimopoulos, George; Paiva, José-Artur; Meersseman, Wouter; Pachl, Jan; Grigoras, Ioana; Sganga, Gabriele; Montravers, Philippe; Auzinger, Georg; Sá, Marcio Borges; Miller, Paul J; Mar?ek, Tomas; Kantecki, Michal; Ruhnke, Markus

2012-12-01

383

A Pill for the Ill? Patients’ Reports of Their Experience of the Medical Encounter in the Treatment of Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Starting in the 1960s, a broad-based patients’ rights movement began to question doctors’ paternalism and to demand disclosure of medical information, informed consent, and active participation by the individual in personal health care. According to scholars, these changes contributed to downplay the biomedical approach in favor of a more patient-oriented perspective. The Swedish non-profit organization Consumer Association for Medicines and Health (KILEN) has offered the possibility for consumers to report their perceptions and experiences from their use of medicines in order to strengthen consumer rights within the health care sector. Methodology In this paper, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 181 KILEN consumer reports of adverse events from antidepressant medications in order to explore patients’ views of mental ill health symptoms and the doctor-patient interaction. Principal Findings Overall, the KILEN stories contained negative experiences of the patients’ medical encounters. Some reports indicated intense emotional outrage and strong feelings of abuse by the health care system. Many reports suggested that doctors and patients had very different accounts of the nature of the problems for which the patient was seeking help. Although patients sought help for problems like tiredness and sleeplessness (often with a personal crisis of some sort as a described cause), the treating doctor in most cases was exceptionally quick in both diagnosing depression and prescribing antidepressant treatment. When patients felt they were not being listened to, trust in the doctor was compromised. This was evident in the cases when the doctor tried to convince them to take part in medical treatment, sometimes by threatening to withdraw their sick-listing. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the dynamics happening in the medical encounter may still be highly affected by a medical dominance, instead of a patient-oriented perspective. This may contribute to a questionable medicalization and/or pharmaceuticalization of depression. PMID:23823902

Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Svensson, Tommy; Meeuwisse, Anna

2013-01-01

384

Chronic Critical Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... others remain critically ill and need a breathing machine for a long time. But we are learning how to take better care of patients with ... critical illness and their families. We are also learning more about what to ... they still need a breathing machine even after weeks in the ICU. For most ...

385

Correlates of HIV infection among patients with mental illness in Brazil.  

PubMed

People living with mental illness are at increased risk for HIV. There are scarce data on correlates and prevalence of HIV infection, and none with a nationally representative sample. We report on correlates of HIV infection from a cross-sectional national sample of adults receiving care in 26 publicly funded mental health treatment settings throughout Brazil. Weighted prevalence rate ratios were obtained using multiple log-binomial regression modeling. History of homelessness, ever having an STD, early age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, having suffered sexual violence, previous HIV testing, self-perception of high risk of HIV infection and not knowing one's risk were statistically associated with HIV infection. Our study found an elevated HIV seroprevalence and correlates of infection were not found to include psychiatric diagnoses or hospitalizations but instead reflected marginalized living circumstances and HIV testing history. These adverse life circumstances (history of homelessness, having suffered sexual violence, reporting a sexually transmitted disease, and early sexual debut) may not be unique to people living with mental illness but nonetheless the mental health care system can serve as an important point of entry for HIV prevention in this population. PMID:23998905

Guimarães, Mark D C; McKinnon, Karen; Cournos, Francine; Machado, Carla J; Melo, Ana Paula S; Campos, Lorenza N; Wainberg, Milton L

2014-04-01

386

Burden of Illness, Annual Healthcare Utilization and Costs Associated with Commercially Insured Patients with Cushing's Disease in the United States.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe the burden-of-illness, healthcare utilization, and costs associated with Cushing's disease (CD), a rare disorder resulting from adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary tumor, in commercially-insured patients in the US.Methods: Patients with CD were identified in 2010 in the IMS Health PharMetrics and Truven Health Analytics MarketScan claims databases. Since there is no diagnosis code for CD, patients were identified with a claim for Cushing's syndrome and either benign pituitary adenoma or hypophysectomy. We estimated total and CD-related utilization and costs using pharmacy and medical claims.Results: We identified 685 CD patients (81% female; mean age: 41.7 years; mean Charlson comorbidity index: 1.6; mean no. of chronic conditions: 4.2); 30.5% of the patients had diabetes, 22.5% had psychiatric disturbances, 21% had infections, 8.6% had osteoporosis, 8% had cardiovascular disease/stroke, 5.5% had kidney stones, and 0.7% had compression fracture of vertebra. Patients had a mean of 19.8 office visits/year; 38.4% had inpatient hospitalizations and 34.2% visited emergency departments. Patients had a mean of 3.2 CD-related office visits per year; 26.9% had CD-related hospitalizations, 0.9% had CD-related ED visits, and 36.8% had CD treatments. Mean annual total costs were $34,992 (pharmacy: $3,597; medical costs: $31,395). CD-related costs accounted for $14,310 of total costs (CD treatment: $9,353; nontreatment costs: $4,957).Conclusion: CD patients have a high burden-of-illness, including 30.5% with diabetes, 22.5% with psychiatric disturbances, 21% with infections, 8.6% with osteoporosis, 8% with cardiovascular disease/stroke, and 5.5% with kidney stones. Patients had 19.8 office visits/year and >34% were hospitalized. Mean total cost of care was $35,000/year. PMID:25148813

Broder, Michael S; Neary, Maureen P; Chang, Eunice; Cherepanov, Dasha; Ludlam, William H

2014-08-22

387

[Out-of-the-hospital care for terminal cancer patients. Clinical and organizational features. Our experience].  

PubMed

Home care for terminal oncological patients is, in Italy and in many other highly developed countries, a rapidly expanding part of the health system. At the time of writing it would appear to be the most valid response to the mounting economic and social demands of the population. The present paper has two purposes: 1) to propose an integrated home care operating model for the cancer patient that comprises various operating stages: a) recruitment of patients on the basis of the seriousness of the cancer, life expectancy and socioeconomic conditions of the family; b) interdisciplinary planning of a personalized care project; c) implementation of an integrated care programme at the home of the patient; d) periodic control of the project team; e) periodic professional courses for health personnel; 2) to illustrate our specific clinical expertise in the sector, in 16 months of activity (October 94-February 96) during which we handled on a home basis 27 cancer patients at an advanced stage of the disease; specifically, we describe the main internal-oncological and palliative type problems encountered during the home care period; 3) finally, to highlight in terms of cost/benefit ratio the economic advantages of home compared to the traditional hospitalization care model. PMID:9132628

Marchei, P; Simeoni, F; Bianco, V; Santini, D; Balducci, M; Vecchione, A; Frati, L

1997-01-01

388

[The KEP-1 enteral feeding system for tube hyperalimentation of seriously ill patients].  

PubMed

The KEP-1 system is designed for tube hyperalimentation of patients, including burn patients. It consists of a four-channel peristaltic pump and a liquid food mixer tank. The results of clinical testing are given. PMID:3112506

Bresler, P I; Elfimova, E V; Lioznov, V Ia; Mordkovich, M R; Na?nik, V M

1987-01-01

389