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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Algebra at the Tertiary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary report of the Algebra Working Group's discussion subgroup on tertiary algebra at the Seventh International Conference on Mathematical Education held in Quebec City, Canada in August 1992. (MKR)

Barbeau, Edward

1995-01-01

2

CAL-laborate: A Collaborative Publication on the Use of Computer Aided Learning for Tertiary Level Physical Sciences and Geosciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science community has been trying to use computers in teaching for many years. There has been much conformity in how this was to be achieved, and the wheel has been re-invented again and again as enthusiast after enthusiast has "done their bit" towards getting computers accepted. Computers are now used by science undergraduates (as well as…

Fernandez, Anne, Ed.; Sproats, Lee, Ed.; Sorensen, Stacey, Ed.

2000-01-01

3

Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

1979-01-01

4

Students' Views of Science: A Comparison between Tertiary and Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is relatively little research evidence that documents current students' views of science--particularly a comparison of secondary and tertiary science. Further, little is known about how students' views of science differ according to level of study. This study provides evidence of students' view of science from both school and university…

Hassan, Ghali

2011-01-01

5

Understanding and Enhancing Learning Communities in Tertiary Education in Science and Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to build upon current research in the area of teaching and learning at tertiary level and explore the nature of learning communities in tertiary science and engineering. This study uses a sociocultural approach to address the following question: "What are teachers' and learners' perceptions of the nature of the learning…

Forret, Michael; Eames, Chris; Coll, Richard

2007-01-01

6

Increasing Equity and Compensating Historically Academically Disadvantaged Students at a Tertiary Level: Benefits of a Science Foundation Programme as a Way of Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to remedy the scarcity of Black students within the sciences at southern African universities has been the development of access programmes. There has been little acknowledgement of the contribution of these access programmes in increasing the quantity and quality of graduates. The contribution made by the Science Foundation Programme…

Downs, Colleen

2010-01-01

7

Effectiveness of Using Games in Tertiary-Level Mathematics Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary focus of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of games when used in tertiary-level mathematics classes in the United Arab Emirates. Our study incorporated a mixed-method approach that involved surveys (to assess students' perceptions of the learning environment and attitudes towards mathematics), interviews, observations of…

Afari, Ernest; Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.

2012-01-01

8

Text categorization in selecting authentic materials on tertiary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus linguistics as a methodology of linguistics research has had such significant influence over the years that corpora have been used extensively in language teaching and learning. This paper explores, through the method of text categorization (TC), the selection of appropriate corpus data for tertiary-level students on English learning. It firstly introduced the importance of corpora data's authentic nature on

Fei Lang; Guang-Lu Sun; Yuewu Shen

2011-01-01

9

The Number of Life Science Graduates from Australian Tertiary Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey sought to determine if, from 1968-77, the number of college graduates in the life sciences corresponds with the enrollment growth in biology at the secondary level. Results are considered for the fields of agriculture, biological sciences, and health care/therapy. Implications for course offerings are discussed. (Author/SJL)

Stern, W.; Burchett, M.

1979-01-01

10

Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter at Secondary and Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study is to elicit students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can…

Ayas, Alipasa; Ozmen, Haluk; Calik, Muammer

2010-01-01

11

The predictability of strong-campbell interest themes among tertiary-level students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest assessment is an integral part of vocational counselling. In this study, tertiary-level students predicted their Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory theme scores prior to receiving test results. Findings revealed considerable accuracy in the predictions. Significant results relating to year of tertiary education, sex differences, and differences between seekers and non-seekers of counselling, are discussed, along with implications for counselling.

A. P. Thompson; G. E. Hutchinson

1981-01-01

12

An Investigation of Tertiary-Level Learning in Some Practical Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental physics is seen as an essential part of tertiary physics education. Students are supposed to develop practical skills and advance from closed "cookbook" experiments to open experiment and design experiment procedures independently. As a consequence tertiary practical physics courses increase in the level of challenge throughout an…

Wang, Weili; Coll, Richard K.

2005-01-01

13

The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

2001-01-01

14

HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

15

Strategies for enhancing the learning of ecological research methods and statistics by tertiary environmental science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To undertake rigorous research in biology and ecology, students must be able to pose testable hypotheses, design decisive studies, and analyse results using suitable statistics. Yet, few biology students excel in topics involving statistics and most attempt to evade optional courses in research methods. Over the last few years, we have developed a tertiary-level unit to create a positive, inquiry-based,

D L Panizzon; A J Boulton

2004-01-01

16

Emotions or Science? Pre-Tertiary Males' Accounts of Psychology as a Subject Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that the number of males studying psychology in the UK, both at A-level and on degree courses, is disproportionately low compared to females. There is a paucity of research, however, which discusses how psychology is viewed by this group. The present study employed focus groups with 35 pre-tertiary males (some of whom were…

Mercer, Jenny; Sander, Paul; Williams, Stella; Jones, Tim

2013-01-01

17

A Holistic Approach To Preparing Disadvantaged Students To Succeed in Tertiary Science Studies Part II. Outcomes of the Science Foundation Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the implementation and results of the Science Foundation Programme (SFP), a year-long pre-degree program designed to identify academically talented but underprepared black students who want to pursue tertiary studies in science or applied science. (DDR)

Grayson, Diane J.

1997-01-01

18

Maternal Perceptions of Antenatal Care Provision at a Tertiary Level Hospital, Riyadh  

PubMed Central

Objective Report maternal perceptions of antenatal care provision and identify deficiencies in the current model of care provision. Methods A survey was conducted to record maternal views about quality of antenatal consultations provided at a tertiary level hospital. Trained nurses and female health workers interviewed the patients attending antenatal visits during the month of July 2009. A standard questionnaire was use to enter the responses. Data were entered into the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for appropriate statistical analysis of the results. Data analysis generated two groups. One group had up to 4 antenatal visits and the other group had more than 4 visits. Results Responses were obtained for 244 patients. Chi-square test was applied for the comparison of variables between the two groups. Significantly higher number of women preferred to follow the 4 visit care plan (n=118/244 vs. n=103/244, respectively; p=0.004). Patient satisfaction was also significantly higher among women in the 4 visit group (n=112/244 vs. n=90/244; p=0.04). More than 50% of patients said that they did not receive any information about the process of labor, breast-feeding or contraception. Conclusion Women included in the study did not want frequent visits to antenatal clinic. Efforts should be made to provide information about labor, breast-feeding and contraception.

Kamil, Aneela; Khorshid, Ezzeldin

2013-01-01

19

The Sociolinguistic Awareness of Tertiary Level Students in Hong Kong and Mainland China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the sociolinguistic awareness in English of tertiary level students in Hong Kong and Wuhan (Mainland China). The language data consisted of specific instances when a native speaker presenter made changes, in the course of oral delivery, to the written text of a conference paper that she had prepared in advance. Matched pairs of…

Littlewood, William; Danli, Li

2006-01-01

20

English as a Foreign Language Instructors' Induction: Early Practices of Language Teachers Teaching at Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the nature of the induction process of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers teaching at tertiary level through individual interviews. In order to gather intended data, fifteen novice instructors teaching at four different public universities in Ankara were interviewed on a basis of two criteria: (a) having 1…

Ozturk, Mustafa; Yildirim, Ali

2012-01-01

21

Pattern of poisoning in a tertiary level hospital.  

PubMed

This cross sectional observational study was carried out in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over a period of 4 months from January 2012 to April 2012 to assess the clinico-epidemiological condition of different types of poisoning and to evaluate immediate hospital outcome. Suspected case of poisoning aged 12 years or above of either sex was included. Patients of paediatric age group, having other co-morbid condition and died before clinical evaluation were excluded. This study revealed that rural people (76.9%), aging 20-30 years (46.3%) were mostly affected in poisoning. Patients belong to low socioeconomic group (65.3%), illiterate (26.5%) and educated up to primary level (29.9%) were mostly identified. Regarding the occupation this study showed student (30.6%) and farmer (25.2%) were predominantly involved. In this series organophosphorus compound (63.9%) poisoning was in the top of the list followed by benzodiazepine (6.8%). Suicidal attempt (81.6%) was found as a motive of poisoning in maximum cases. Among the precipitating factors quarrel with spouse, girl or boy friend (46.9%) were significant in number. In this study outcome was measured as complete recovery (92.5%) and death (3.4%). PMID:23715343

Khan, N A; Rahman, A; Sumon, S M; Haque, M F; Hasan, I; Sutradhar, S R; Barman, T K; Rahman, S; Ferdous, J; Miah, A H; Alam, M K; Debnath, C R; Islam, M Z; Miah, O F

2013-04-01

22

An Annotated Bibliography of Research into the Teaching and Learning of the Physical Sciences at the Higher Education Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains an annotated bibliography aimed at the teaching of the physical sciences at the tertiary level to those who wish to become more informed about teaching related research evidence and undertake science education research. The bibliography offers an overview of teaching and learning in the physical sciences and key references…

Palmer, David

23

Effect of Constructivist-Based Teaching Strategy on Academic Performance of Students in Integrated Science at the Junior Secondary School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated science plays vital role in Nigerian science education programme because it prepares pupils at the Junior Secondary School level for the study of core science subjects at the Senior Secondary School level which in turn brings about students' interest in science oriented courses at the tertiary institutions. Despite government's efforts…

Bimbola, Oludipe; Daniel, Oludipe I.

2010-01-01

24

Making a Map of Science: General Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Tertiary Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…

Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.

2002-01-01

25

The Place of Indigenous Knowledge in Tertiary Science Education: A Case Study of Canadian Practices in Indigenising the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, Indigenising the curriculum is increasingly acknowledged as a possible avenue for addressing Indigenous under-representation in tertiary science education in a culturally appropriate and relevant manner. While no Australian university has implemented such a program, there is much to be learnt about the inherent complexities of…

Hauser, Vivian; Howlett, Catherine; Matthews, Chris

2009-01-01

26

Death of Metaphors in Life Science?--A Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Use of Metaphors in Their Meaning-Making of Scientific Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article investigated the use of metaphors by upper secondary and tertiary students while learning a specific content area in molecular life science, protein function. Terms and expressions in science can be used in such precise and general senses that they are totally dissociated from their metaphoric origins. Beginners…

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Hirsch, Richard; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2009-01-01

27

"Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

28

Supporting Low Ability Learners in a Tertiary Level Compulsory English Programme Using CEFR Based Online Language Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the processes, methods and results of using language software based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in a tertiary level institute in Japan in order to facilitate the learning of low ability learners of English. None of the learners were English majors, all were between the ages of 18 and 20,…

Lynch, Gavin; McKeurtan, Maureen

2012-01-01

29

?whina: a programme for M?ori and Pacific tertiary science graduate and postgraduate success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, M?ori (indigenous New Zealanders) and Pacific students tend not to attain the same levels of educational success\\u000a as P?keh? (New Zealanders of European descent). Addressing this problem is a particular challenge in the sciences. The kaupapa\\u000a (values-base) of Te R?p? ?whina (?whina) is to produce M?ori and Pacific professionals to contribute to M?ori and Pacific\\u000a development and

Marc Wilson; Maree Hunt; Liz Richardson; Hazel Phillips; Ken Richardson; Danna Challies

30

Theories of Levels in Organizational Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents concepts and principles pertinent to the development of cross-level and multilevel theory in organizational science by addressing a number of fundamental theoretical issues. It describes hierarchy theory, systems theory, and mixed-level models of organization developed by organizational scientists. Hierarchy theory derives from…

Rousseau, Denise M.

31

Population and colony-level determinants of tertiary sex ratio in the declining barn swallow.  

PubMed

Sex ratio of adults (tertiary sex ratio, TSR) is a major feature of animal populations with consequences for their behaviour, genetic structure and viability. Spatial and temporal variation in TSR occurs within species but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. In this long-term study of a declining population of a socially monogamous, colonial, migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we first analyzed population-level variation in TSR (?=? proportion of males) of yearlings at sexual maturation in relation to ecological conditions as gauged by annual survival rate of adults. TSR was male-biased both among yearlings and older individuals, but male bias of yearlings was more pronounced after years with larger decline in adult survival. Thus, male offspring were less susceptible to the adverse ecological conditions that cause increased mortality. Dispersal and settling site decisions can have major consequences on fitness via the effects of local TSR on mating and sperm competition. Breeding barn swallows are highly philopatric while natal dispersal is high and, together with mortality, is the main determinant of colony TSR. We thus also investigated the mechanisms of breeding colony choice by yearlings and found that TSR of new-settlers in a given colony and year was negatively predicted by TSR of returning, early arriving older individuals in that year, but not by overall TSR at the colony in the previous year. This suggests that in our male-biased population new-settler males respond to local TSR upon arrival to choose the sites with larger breeding opportunities. Hence, variation in ecological conditions as reflected by adult survival can shift the TSR of individuals recruiting into a local population, with potentially various demographic consequences. However, breeding site choice based on TSR tends to homogenize TSR at a population level likely by facilitating settling of dispersing males in colonies with less male-biased TSR. PMID:23418577

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Canova, Luca

2013-01-01

32

Striving for Balance: The Co-Existence of Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinary Curricula in Information Management Education To Address Information Imbalances on Tertiary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the South African tertiary education context, information management is taught from a variety of perspectives, including computer science, business management, informatics, and library and information science. Each discipline has a particular multidisciplinary focus dealing with its fundamentals. To investigate information management…

Fairer-Wessels, Felicite A.

33

A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

de Berg, Kevin

2012-01-01

34

The Importance of Production: An Expanding Focus in Secondary and Tertiary Science Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages science educators to consider engaging students in science projects resulting in socially useful products. Educational presentations meant to perform social functions (soft products) and preparation/execution of environmental manipulations (hard products) such as pollution analysis, plant breeding, or administering medical tests are…

Seale, T. S.

1983-01-01

35

Assessment and Evaluation: Middle Level Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference for teachers describes the phases of the evaluation process, assessing student progress, student assessment in science, performance-based evaluation in science, record-keeping, program evaluation, and curriculum evaluation. It contains many "how-tos" for teachers. The reader is guided through the evaluation process phases, which include preparation, assessment, evaluation, and reflection. In the preparation stage, the teacher is given examples of what is good to evaluate. The assessment stage helps the evaluator to identify information-gathering strategies, construct or select instruments, administer them to the student, and collect information on student learning progress. In the evaluation phase, the information gathered is used to make judgements about student progress. And in the reflection phase, the evaluator decides what was or was not useful from the previous three phases. The document also has a chart detailing what types of evaluation methods are good for evaluating specific skills. For example, a portfolio is suggested for use in understanding a student's grasp of key concepts and science processes, as well as the student's values and attitudes. The sections on program and curriculum evaluation discuss how the Saskatchewan Board of Education is revamping its middle-level science program and lists what they will do and why they feel it will work to improve science education in that province.

36

A study of understanding: Alchemy, abstraction, and circulating reference in tertiary science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an empirical study of the concept of understanding. After analyzing various constructions of understanding in current U.S. education literature, I suggest that understanding is defined by five distinct features---they are knowledge (or knowledge base), coherence, transfer, extrapolation, and cognition--- and that these features are heavily informed and shaped by the psychological sciences. This relationship is neither good nor bad, I argue, but it means that teaching for and learning with understanding are not heavily informed and shaped by, for example, the natural sciences. Drawing from historical, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives of science, but especially from the work of Bruno Latour, I enact a radical revision(ing) of psychological notions such as "abstraction" and "transfer." The two main purposes of this re-visioning are (1) to draw critical attention to particular characteristics of a cognitive learning theory that emphasizes abstract concepts, and (2) to align many of the principles and tools used in science education more closely with those used in empirical scientific research. Finally, by bringing some examples of teaching and learning from an undergraduate biology classroom into conversation with both psychological and empirical practices and perspectives, I suggest that problematizing the current construction of understanding creates much needed room in mainstream science education for more empirical forms of learning and styles of teaching. A shift to such forms and styles, I conclude, should prove to be more inclusive and less constraining for both students and teachers.

Merritt, Brett W.

37

The Predictive Power of Measured Interests in Tertiary Course Choice: The Case of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal study, the relationships between student interests, school subjects studied, and preference for college science and technology courses were investigated in a group of 262 Australian male students attending independent single sex secondary schools. Interests, ability, and occupational preferences were all predictive in varying…

Kidd, Garry; Naylor, Frank

1991-01-01

38

Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

39

Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

40

Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

41

Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

42

Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

43

Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

44

Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

45

A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary level teaching institute.  

PubMed

Objective: Snake bite remains major public health problem worldwide. We present our experience with cases of snake bites managed in our tertiary care teaching center of South India. Materials and Methods: The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively retrieved and reviewed. The details regarding age, gender, first aid received or not, time elapsed between the bite, emergency care management and ASV (Anti Snake Venom) administration, site of snake bite, clinical features at the time of presentation, local examination findings at the site of bite, duration of hospital stay, need for elective ventilation, details of investigations and outcome were reviewed. The data were analyzed in PSPP software (Free Software Foundation, Inc.) for window for statistical analysis, while standard deviation (SD) was applied for the continuous variables, and proportions were applied for the categorical variables. Results: Mean age was 38.4 ± 14.8 years (range 4-70 years). Majority [72 (82.8%)] were farmers. In 86.2% patients, the site of bite was in lower limbs. Snake could be identified in only 20 cases [Cobra-12 (60%), Krait-2 (10%), and Viper-6 (30%)]. Mean time to reach to hospital was 12.1 ± 21.4 hours (range 1-120 hours). Mean anti-venom therapy duration was 3.2 ± 2.0 days (range 1-14 days). Mean hospital stay was 4.7 ± 3.1 days (range 1-15 days). Majority (72.4%) made good recovery; mortality was in 4.6% cases, and 20 (23%) patients left against medical advice. Conclusions: This study identified major epidemiological and management variables related to snake bite. There is a need for a well-planned data collection and information dissemination system to avoid this potentially preventable disease. PMID:24705112

Kumar, M Rajesh; Veeraprasad, M; Babu, P Ramesh; Kumar, S Satish; Subrahmanyam, B V; Rammohan, P; Srinivas, M; Agrawal, Amit

2014-01-01

46

Relationship between science knowledge levels and beliefs toward science instruction held by preservice elementary teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of science background knowledge and attitudes toward teaching science were examined among preservice elementary teachers. The results indicated a low level of science knowledge, a negative relationship between science knowledge and attitude toward teaching science, and a marked lack of confidence toward teaching science among the prospective teachers. Some interesting paradoxes were also found. Recommendations concerning preservice preparation, inclusion of academic science coursework, and collaborative efforts between college departments are offered.

Wenner, George

1993-09-01

47

Science question level and its relationship to seventh graders' interest and achievement in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science question level and its relationship to science topic interest level and achievement in reading, mathematics, and science\\u000a were explored for eight classes of seventh graders (n=106). Each student completed a science topic interest rating scale,\\u000a wrote four science questions (two on least interesting topics, and two on most interesting topics), and completed scholastic\\u000a aptitude tests. The questions were rated

Santine Cuccio-Schirripa

1999-01-01

48

Confidence Levels of Earth Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined relationships between college/secondary earth science teachers' confidence in ability to teach field-based earth science cognitive objectives and perceived sources of that confidence, discussing objectives teachers felt confident/unconfident in teaching. Indicates that inservice education ranked behind preservice education or teaching…

Agnew, Jimmie Dell

1983-01-01

49

The Effects of Extensive Reading via E-Books on Tertiary Level EFL Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Comprehension, and Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of extensive reading of e-books on tertiary level EFL students' English reading attitude, reading comprehension and vocabulary. Eighty-nine participants were assigned in two groups, with 46 students in the experimental group and the other 43 students in the control group. In addition to a traditional…

Chen, Chin-Neng; Chen, Shu-Chu; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Wey, Shyh-Chyi

2013-01-01

50

Becoming an Urban School Middle-Level Science Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study was to document the journey of three novice career change science inductees as they became middle-level science teachers in urban low socioeconomic status (SES) schools and included post-internship employment status data on all nine science teachers who completed the alternative certification program, up to the time…

Jeanpierre, Bobby

2007-01-01

51

Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to the exemplary science teachers' level of computer use suggesting that computer use is dependent on perceived abilities at using computers. The teachers' use of computer-related applications/tools during class, and their personal self-efficacy, age, and gender are highly related with their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction and gender related to their use of computer-related applications/tools during class and the students' use of computer-related applications/tools in or for their science class. In conclusion, exemplary science teachers need assistance in learning and using computer-related applications/tool in their science class.

Hakverdi, Meral

52

Thyroid Hormone Levels in Apparently Euthyroid Subjects with Essential Hypertension in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: High blood pressure (BP) is a major health problem in Nigeria and the involvement of thyroid hormones in this condition has not been evaluated in this center. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with an essential hypertension who had abnormal thyroid hormone levels and the type of thyroid disorders commonly observed in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 94 patients (30 males, aged 30.4 ± 2 years and 64 females, aged 43.4 ± 1.3 years) with essential hypertension was carried out between January 2005 and December 2007. Demographic and other medical information were obtained from the health records. Analysis of laboratory results of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were made. Results: Of the 94 patients evaluated, 26 (27.7%) had abnormal thyroid hormone levels, with 23.4% having hyperthyroidism, 4.3% had sub-clinical hypothyroidism and none had overt hypothyroidism. Of the 26 subjects with abnormal thyroid hormone levels, 18 (69.2%) were females while 8 (30.8%) were males. Out of the 18 female subjects with abnormal thyroid hormone levels, 16 had hyperthyroid levels while 2 had sub-clinical hypothyroid levels. Out of the 8 male patients, 6 had hyperthyroid hormone levels while 2 had sub-clinical hypothyroid levels. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone abnormalities are common in patients with essential hypertension. Hyperthyroidism was the most common thyroid disorder observed. Young patients presenting with essential hypertension should be screened for thyroid hormone abnormalities since they can best be managed by treating the underlying causes.

Emokpae, Abiodun Mathias; Abdu, Aliyu; Osadolor, Humphrey Benedo

2013-01-01

53

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for...

1996-01-01

54

Technology and the improvement of mathematics education at the tertiary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, technology is being used more and more in a variety of educational endeavours. This thesis considers the use of technology in the improvement of teaching and learning mathematics in higher education. In particular, it addresses, through three case studies, specific technological solutions to two well documented educational problems: the knowledge gap between secondary school and university level

Elahe Aminifar

2007-01-01

55

Nutritional knowledge levels of nursing students in a tertiary institution: lessons for curriculum planning.  

PubMed

This article presents findings of a study which assessed the nutritional knowledge levels of nursing students as nurses are in a better position to serve as nutrition educators and counselors by engaging their clients in discussions that would increase their knowledge about disease prevention and management through nutrition. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, where a selfadministered questionnaire was completed by 166 undergraduate consenting third (3rd) and final (4th) year nursing students in a public university in Ghana who answered 20 multiple choice general nutrition questions. An average score of 8.95 ± 2.01 corresponding to 44.8%, below average, was obtained by the respondents. It was determined that the nutrition knowledge of 3.6%, 62.7% and 33.7% of the study participants was good, adequate and inadequate respectively. It was found that the differences with respect to the nutrition knowledge levels between the age groups, gender, work experience and educational background of respondents were not statistically significant at p < 0.05. The findings of this study support other reports that nurses need more training in nutrition and therefore have important implications for professionals planning curricula for nursing education at the undergraduate level in the university. PMID:23083895

Buxton, Christiana; Davies, Anita

2013-09-01

56

Tolerable G-Level for Fluid Science Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tolerable gravity levels for fluid and material science experiments, concerning space platforms, are investigated. The definition of the scenario of the gravity disturbances (topology and levels), the evaluation of the effects of the gravity disturban...

1987-01-01

57

Teaching College-Level Science and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, created by Dr. Sanjoy Mahajan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, focuses on the knowledge and skills necessary for teaching science and engineering in higher education. This course is designed for graduate students interested in an academic career, and anyone else interested in teaching. Readings and discussions include: teaching equations for understanding, designing exam and homework questions, incorporating histories of science, creating absorbing lectures, teaching for transfer, the evils of PowerPoint, and planning a course. The subject is appropriate for both novices and those with teaching experience.

Mahajan, Sanjoy, 1969-

2011-03-17

58

A single center multioperator initial experience of 4195 patients at a primary radial intervention program in a tertiary level center  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase the acceptability and the number of the procedures via the radial approach. We present our experience pertaining to the clinical characteristics, procedural details and post procedural outcome of patients undergoing radial artery access, coronary angiographies over a period of 4 years at a primary care tertiary level center. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of all the coronary artery procedures during the last 4 years was done and the various parameters related to these procedures noted. Results In 4195 procedures performed, success in radial artery procedures was achieved in 3975 (94.8%) procedures. The average puncture time and total procedure time was 9.5 + 3 min (min) and 15 + 2.5 min in the initial 500 patients, whereas the times taken in the final 695 patients were just 1.5 + 0.5 min and 3.0 + 1.5 min respectively. The total fluoroscopy time was not significantly different among the groups, when performed by an operator with training in the femoral route for angiography. Cardiology fellows needed more fluoroscopy time when mastering the radial route. Crossover of access sites was seen in 220 patients (5.2%). Conclusions After 100 procedures, radial access coronary angiographies take less than 4.5 min, with first attempt radial artery access and negligible complication rates. Prior experience of coronary angiography helps in the reduction of fluoroscopy time during the learning curve.

Gokhroo, Rajendra K.; Kaushik, Satish K.; Padmanabhan, Deepak; Bisht, Devendra; Gupta, Sajal

2014-01-01

59

A tertiary level hospital-based study on frequency of changing presbyopic glasses in primary open angle glaucoma patients.  

PubMed

A tertiary level hospital-based case control study on frequency of changing presbyopic glasses among primary open angle glaucoma cases was carried out jointly by the departments of community medicine and ophthalmology from 1st July to 31st December, 2008. Each of the case and control groups included 31 persons. Odd's ratio of 4.55 (95% CI = 1.37-15.68) using epi-info version 3.2 showed that among primary open angle glaucoma cases the time of changing spectacles at < or = 2 years was 4.55 times more than that among control group; Pearson's Chi-square test (chi2 = 7.94, df = 1, p = 0.00) was statistically significant; Z-test for proportion = 2.56, p=0.01. So changing spectacles at < or = 2 years among patients would help the paramedical workers/paramedical ophthalmic assistants in the community to refer the patients earlier to ophthalmologists for further investigation and management. PMID:23025223

Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar; Chakrabarti, Asim; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Biswas, Jaya

2012-04-01

60

Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Room from a Tertiary Level Hospital: Risk Factors and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective Timely identification and prompt resuscitation of newborns in the delivery room may cause a decline in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We try to identify risk factors in mother and fetus that result in birth of newborns needing resuscitation at birth. Methods Case notes of all deliveries and neonates born from April 2010 to March 2011 in Mahdieh Medical Center (Tehran, Iran), a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, were reviewed; relevant maternal, fetal and perinatal data was extracted and analyzed. Findings During the study period, 4692 neonates were delivered; 4522 (97.7%) did not require respiratory assistance. One-hundred seven (2.3%) newborns needed resuscitation with bag and mask ventilation in the delivery unit, of whom 77 (1.6%) babies responded to bag and mask ventilation while 30 (0.65%) neonates needed endotracheal intubation and 15 (0.3%) were given chest compressions. Epinephrine/volume expander was administered to 10 (0.2%) newborns. In 17 patients resuscitation was continued for >10 mins. There was a positive correlation between the need for resuscitation and following risk factors: low birth weight, preterm labor, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, prolonged rupture of membranes, abruptio placentae, prolonged labor, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, multiple pregnancy and fetal distress. On multiple regression; low birth weight, meconium stained liquor and chorioamnionitis revealed as independent risk factors that made endotracheal intubation necessary. Conclusion Accurate identification of risk factors and anticipation at the birth of a high-risk neonate would result in adequate preparation and prompt resuscitation of neonates who need some level of intervention and thus, reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Esmaili, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

61

Turkish Pre-Service Elementary Science Teachers' Scientific Literacy Level and Attitudes toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to educate elementary students scientifically literate as expected in the science curricula in many countries around the world, science teachers need to be equipped with the diverse aspects of scientific literacy. This study investigates whether pre-service elementary science teachers at universities in Turkey have a satisfactory level of…

Cavas, Pinar Huyuguzel; Ozdem, Yasemin; Cavas, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Jale; Ertepinar, Hamide

2013-01-01

62

Experimental Science Projects: An Introductory Level Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David Morano, Associate Professor at Mankato State University, has put together this introductory resource on experimental science projects. Organized into fourteen sections, this guide walks the user through the basics of hypothesis testing, from the inception of an idea through its experimental test. For each section, a brief summary is provided: Observations, Information Gathering, Title, Purpose, Hypothesis, Procedure, Materials, Data, Recording Observations, Results, Calculations, Questions, and Conclusions. To illustrate the process outlined in the guide, the site includes an example of a science project (The Effect of Salt on the Boiling Temperature of Water), with explanations of how thinking is formulated (or tested) at each stage. This resource is simple in format and will be a useful learning tool for honing critical thinking in beginning scientists.

63

Family and Consumer Sciences. Middle-Level Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a curriculum guide for middle school and junior high school family and consumer sciences courses in North Dakota. The guide is organized in 16 sections. The first section provides a rationale for a middle-level family and consumer sciences curriculum and identifies nine major areas of study to be covered by the curriculum. It is…

Jackman, Diane H.; And Others

64

Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

Singh, Mamta K.

2009-01-01

65

Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little

Mamta K. Singh

2009-01-01

66

Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses. Similarly, students' performance and success in entry-level physics courses were influenced by high school physics. Finally, the study developed student success equation with high school GAP and high school chemistry as good predictors of students' success in entry-level science courses.

Singh, Mamta K.

67

Tertiary Education in Portugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

68

A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For that to happen, science textbooks need to be more inviting, more user-friendly, and more interesting to the readers. This study concludes with recommendations for further research.

Trainer, Robyn

69

TORCH screening in pregnancy. Where are we now? An audit of use in a tertiary level centre.  

PubMed

Abstract This audit was performed in the obstetrics and gynaecology department of a tertiary referral hospital, to investigate the use and results of TORCH screening. St Michael's Hospital delivers approximately 6,000 women from South Bristol a year and receives tertiary referrals from the South West of England and South Wales. It was found that 739 patients over a 6-year period from April 2006 to January 2012 underwent testing. The majority's indication (21%) was polyhydramnios. Three patients had evidence of primary CMV infection in pregnancy on serology, two for fetal indications (polyhydramnios and echogenic bowel) and one following a miscarriage. There were no confirmed cases of gestational toxoplasma or rubella. Routine testing for toxoplasma and rubella infection as part of the TORCH screening in cases of fetal or obstetric abnormality should thus be discontinued in our population. PMID:24476395

Halawa, S; McDermott, L; Donati, M; Denbow, M

2014-05-01

70

Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum, Grades 5-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide is intended to assist teachers and supervisors for grades 5-8 as they prepare curriculum, instruction, and assessment for intermediate-level content and skills of the New York State Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology. This Core Curriculum is not a syllabus. It addresses only the content and skills to be tested by the Intermediate Level Science Assessment. The document identifies process skills and describes their alignments with standards, key ideas, and performance indicators. It includes a description of the content of the Intermediate Level Science Examination and a set of examples of activities intended to build skills to support standards on scientific inquiry, the living environment, and the physical setting.

71

Trends in Enrollment, Graduation and Staffing of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions: A Gender Participation Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prominence has been given to science and technology (S&T) education of women in recent years. This is because they constitute a critical mass of non-harnessed potentials in the country that if given the opportunity, would contribute to national development. Thus the objective of this work was to study the enrollment, graduation and staffing…

Aderemi, H. O.; Hassan, O. M.; Siyanbola, W. O.; Taiwo, K.

2013-01-01

72

Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions  

PubMed Central

Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science.

Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

2011-01-01

73

A holistic approach to preparing disadvantaged students to succeed in tertiary science studies. Part I. Design of the Science Foundation Programme (SFP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 of the 143 students who completed a BSc at the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, only nine (6%) were black. (For the purposes of this paper, ‘black’ will exclude Indians and people of mixed race.) The Science Faculty committed itself to trying to increase the abysmally small number of black students obtaining science degrees by deciding to launch

Diane J. Grayson

1996-01-01

74

Science at 0 Level: Subject Choice and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines science course selection by curriculum candidates (N=2178) for Northern Ireland GCE 0 level in 1980. Data are provided for nature (biology, chemistry, physics) and number of courses selected, and achievement (pass/failure rates). Data are also reported for males/females and type of school. (JN)

McGuffin, S. J.

1983-01-01

75

GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

Solomon, J.

1995-07-01

76

Total variation and level set methods in image science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review level set methods and the related techniques that are common in many PDE-based image models. Many of these techniques involve minimizing the total variation of the solution and admit regularizations on the curvature of its level sets. We examine the scope of these techniques in image science, in particular in image segmentation, interpolation, and decomposition, and introduce some relevant level set techniques that are useful for this class of applications. Many of the standard problems are formulated as variational models. We observe increasing synergistic progression of new tools and ideas between the inverse problem community and the `imagers'. We show that image science demands multi-disciplinary knowledge and flexible, but still robust methods. That is why the level set method and total variation methods have become thriving techniques in this field.Our goal is to survey recently developed techniques in various fields of research that are relevant to diverse objectives in image science. We begin by reviewing some typical PDE-based applications in image processing. In typical PDE methods, images are assumed to be continuous functions sampled on a grid. We will show that these methods all share a common feature, which is the emphasis on processing the level lines of the underlying image. The importance of level lines has been known for some time. See, e.g., Alvarez, Guichard, Morel and Lions (1993). This feature places our slightly general definition of the level set method for image science in context. In Section 2 we describe the building blocks of a typical level set method in the continuum setting. Each important task that we need to do is formulated as the solution to certain PDEs. Then, in Section 3, we briefly describe the finite difference methods developed to construct approximate solutions to these PDEs. Some approaches to interpolation into small subdomains of an image are reviewed in Section 4. In Section 5 we describe the Chan-Vese segmentation algorithm and two new fast implementation methods. Finally, in Section 6, we describe some new techniques developed in the level set community.

Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard; Osher, Stanley

77

A Three Level Autonomous Software System for Increased Science Return  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of smart science instruments for autonomous operation (on Earth or in space) has the potential to increase science return and reduce the risk of experiment failure. When researchers are confronted with unexpected data/results of the experimental test system, they must determine whether the experimental setup has failed, or scientific discovery is being made. These two classes of events could have the same time series signature. To directly address this issue, we have developed a three-level software system referred to as E3, which consists of an engineering level, an experiment level, and an executive level. Each level of the software system is designed in a modular fashion using model based feedback controllers. The same feedback control mechanism is used for each level; the model itself determines the level. To determine if failure of the experimental setup can explain the data/results, researchers run calibration tests for hardware (e.g., sensors and actuators) as well as verify that the software (e.g., controls and analog to digital conversion routines) is running as planned. If anomalies are found, then modifications are made to the experimental setup, or the anomaly is accepted as the new baseline state of the instrument. The engineering level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. To determine if scientific discovery, as opposed to failure, can explain the data/results, a researcher tries to explain the difference between the observed and expected results. These explanations are terms of the basic processes of nature to determine the rate limiting step(s) of a complex set of processes, where the flux could be due to heat transfer, mass transfer, momentum transfer, or chemical reaction processes. Once the differences are understood, modifications are made to the software control of the experiment, as well as to the model the researcher is building over the course of repeated experiments. The experiment level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. Regardless of whether the experimental setup, or the experiment protocol must be modified in order to maximize science return, it is desired to continue to gather scientific value for an experiment even when it is not going according to plan. In order to accomplish this task, the researcher may fix or float different parameters in the experiment, or modify the experimental conditions to continue to acquire data. The executive level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. The software system has been developed using a bioreactor - useful for modeling planetary atmospheres, as well as life-support systems. As an example, for the bioreactor studies, the engineering level regulates the performance of the experimental setup, including the bioreactor vessel, temperature control hardware (cooler, heater, lights), light controller (lights), ion-specific electrode hardware, as well as the sample loop hardware. The experiment level regulates the fixed parameters as defined by the researcher (e.g., pH and CO2, O2, etc.). The executive level regulates performance of both the engineering and experiment levels to determine which parameters to fix or float in order to maximize the science return.

Robinson, P. I.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Landheim, R.

2005-12-01

78

SWEET- An Upper Level Ontology for Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) provides a set of upper-level ontologies constituting a concept space of Earth system science. These ontologies can be used, mapped, or extended by developers of specialized domain ontologies. SWEET components are being adopted within a diverse range of applications, including: the Geosciences Network (GEON), the Marine Metadata Initiative (MMI), the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO), and the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML). SWEET includes 12 ontologies, decomposed into component parts that can be reassembled to meet the needs of user communities. For example, the Property ontology terms (e.g., temperature, pressure) can be associated with measurable (observable) quantities of a dataset. The Substance ontology provides representations of the substance in which a property is being measured (e.g., air, water, rock). The Earth Realm ontology provides representations for the environmental regions of the Earth (e.g., atmospheric boundary layer, ocean mixed layer). The Data and Service ontology enables representations of how data are captured, stored, and accessed. The Numerics ontology entries represent 2-D and 3-D objects or spatial/temporal entities and relations. The Human Activities ontology captures the human side or applications of Earth science. The Phenomena ontology describes major geophysical or geophysical-related events. All of the ontologies are written in the OWL-DL language to give domain specialists a starting vocabulary, over which layers, synonyms, or extensions can be applied.

Raskin, R.

2005-12-01

79

Tertiary Literacy: A Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the adoption of a literacy pedagogy to enable tertiary level students from different language backgrounds to access expository text. The article describes the outcomes of a project exploring whether college freshmen from different language backgrounds had appropriate strategies and awareness levels to understand and retain ideas from…

McLoughlin, Catherine

1995-01-01

80

Prevalence of High and Low Level Mupirocin Resistance among Staphylococcal Isolates from Skin Infection in a Tertiary Care Hospital.  

PubMed

Background: Mupirocin has been used for the treatment of skin infections and for the eradication of the nasal carriage of Methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The increased use of this antibiotic has been accompanied by its resistance, resulting in treatment failures. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalences of low and high level Mupirocin resistance among the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species which were obtained from pyogenic infections. Material and Method: Clinical samples such as wound swabs, tissues and pus which were submitted to the microbiology laboratory during a period of six months were screened for the growth of Staphylococcus species, which were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species by the routine microbiological procedures. All the isolates were tested for their Mupirocin susceptibilities by using 5 and 200 ?g discs and their resistance was confirmed from their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Result: Out of 400 samples, 150 samples grew Staphylococcus species, of which 113 were Staphylococcus aureus and 37 were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). Only 5(3.3%) mupirocin resistant Staphylococcus species: three high level and two low level strains were detected. The MICs for the two low level and three high level Mupirocin resistant strains were 256 mg/L and ?512mg/L each respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that the screening for mupirocin resistance, in terms of high-level and low-level resistance among the Staphylococcus species from patients with skin and soft tissue infections is warranted and that it is important for the clinicians in selecting the appropriate, empirical, topical, antimicrobial therapy. It also provides useful information about the prevalence of these resistant pathogens. PMID:23543635

S, Jayakumar; M, Meerabai; A S, Shameem Banu; Mathew, Renu; M, Kalyani; Lal Y, Binesh

2013-02-01

81

The effectiveness of take-home science kits at the elementary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major reason for the lack of scientific and technological literacy in this country is the lack of emphasis on high-quality science education at the elementary school level. The National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology states in its report (1983) that formal study of science must be reinforced by a wide range of activities

Eugene Gennaro; Frances Lawrenz

1992-01-01

82

Tertiary lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches.

Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica

2014-01-01

83

Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

2009-01-09

84

Gains in Content Knowledge, Confidence and Comfort Levels from a Physical Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical Science for Everyday Thinking (PSET) is a guided inquiry approach to teaching physical science. Pre and post survey data were collected during four years of using PSET. The course was taught in an intensive format at a small, private liberal arts college; at least half the students were education majors. The surveys assessed content knowledge and confidence in the answers, attitudes toward science and understanding of the process of learning science. Analysis indicated significant increases in content knowledge, confidence in content knowledge and comfort levels with physical science; also significant changes in identification as a science person, what is a fact, objectivity of scientists and science as a solitary pursuit.

van Wormer, Laura; Sorrick, Roxanne

2009-10-01

85

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors influencing middle level students’ science achievement and attitudes about science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student?reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student?centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group experiments during science class) and traditional teaching practices (e.g. having

Arthur Louis Odom; Jacob M. Marszalek; Elizabeth R. Stoddard; Jerzy M. Wrobel

2011-01-01

86

Teaching Geologic/Earth Science Remote Sensing at the Collegiate and the Secondary School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes util satellite photography, satellite remote sensing, and high altitude aircraft photography for teaching environmental and ecological aspects of earth science at the secondary or college levels. (SL)

Fisher, John J.

1977-01-01

87

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

2011-01-01

88

Educational Initiatives at the Tertiary Level for Black South Africans: Constraints, Changes, and Challenges. South African Information Exchange, Working Paper Number 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking primarily at the issues of black students at South African universities and of access and bursaries, the seven articles contained in this document focus on access to tertiary education, the kind of support provided to students once they have gained access, and the roles for which people are being educated. Following an introduction by John…

Samuel, John, Ed.; Micou, Ann McKinstry, Ed.

89

Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

Plane, Jandelyn

2010-01-01

90

Practical Considerations for Integrating Alternate Reality Gaming into Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present my experience with integrating an alternate reality gaming (ARG) framework into a pre-service science teacher education course. My goal is to provide an account of my experiences that can inform other science education practitioners at the tertiary and secondary levels that wish to adopt a similar approach in their…

Bellocchi, Alberto

2012-01-01

91

CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

2010-01-01

92

A Critical Appraisal of State Level Science Exhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science exhibitions are really great opportunities to students as well as teachers to disseminate knowledge that they have, and to experience a variety of new inventions and innovations that also need wide dissemination. The great significance of exhibition is that it fosters acquisition of different process skills leading to the development of…

Nath, Baiju K.

2007-01-01

93

Teachers' beliefs about science teaching and context factors: Implications for teaching and learning science at the middle school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research shows that teachers' beliefs have been virtually ignored in science education reform efforts spearheaded by the development of national, state, and local standards. Since the aim of science education reform is to improve scientific literacy for all students, increasingly, researchers are questioning the lack of attention to teachers' beliefs and are calling for more research to examine teachers' beliefs and the influence of school environmental factors on their classroom practices. The purpose of this study was to explore, investigate, and analyze data that might reveal middle school science teachers' beliefs about science teaching and how school environmental factors influence their classroom behavior. The mixed methods study was conducted in a large urban/suburban county in an eastern state in the United States. Data were collected through a Likert-style survey and interview and observation sessions. Ninety-one middle school science teachers completed the survey. Three teachers from the survey sample also participated in the interview and observation sessions. The findings from the quantitative and qualitative data indicated that most of the middle school science teachers in this study believed that science teaching should be student-centered, and science instruction should be based on an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning. They also believed that the state and county standards were the most important factors in helping teachers to use inquiry-based instructional strategies to teach science. In addition to the science standards, the middle school science teachers believed that peer and principal support were critical to their success as teachers, and that instructional materials and supplies were readily available to help them teach science. The findings from the study indicated that few school environmental factors affected the middle school teachers' classroom practices. However, time (to participate in more professional activities and to complete class work), student level of maturity to do inquiry, and students taking responsibility for their own learning were identified as school environmental factors teachers believed hindered their effectiveness as teachers. The research findings confirmed findings from earlier studies that some teachers' beliefs are inconsistent with their practices. Although most of the teachers responded or were observed using nontraditional practices, the inconsistency that was observed between some teachers' stated beliefs and their practices supports the idea that it may be difficult to achieve scientific literacy for all students. Since current science reform marks a sharp departure from the way science was taught in the past, more research is needed to help determine why this inconsistency continues to exist.

Pea, Celeste H.

94

Conventional Tertiary Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tertiary treatment on effluent from the EPA-DC Pilot Plant's step aeration activated sludge system included two-stage or single-stage lime clarification, air stripping of ammonia, dual-media filtration, neutralization, and activated carbon adsorption. Wit...

T. P. O'Farrell D. F. Bishop

1976-01-01

95

Science Competencies for Exit Level and Checkpoint Competencies for Levels 3, 5, & 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restatements of the educational standards and the science competencies established by the New Mexico State Board of Education are provided in this document. Identified as basic and process skills, these checkpoint competencies are tied directly to the exit competencies for science. It is suggested that the checkpoint competencies be used as a…

New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

96

Pixel-level calibration in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the pixel-level calibration of flight data from the Kepler Mission performed within the Kepler Science Operations Center Science Processing Pipeline. This article describes the calibration (CAL) module, which operates on original spacecraft data to remove instrument effects and other artifacts that pollute the data. Traditional CCD data reduction is performed (removal of instrument\\/detector effects such

Elisa V. Quintana; Jon M. Jenkins; Bruce D. Clarke; Hema Chandrasekaran; Joseph D. Twicken; Sean D. McCauliff; Miles T. Cote; Todd C. Klaus; Christopher Allen; Douglas A. Caldwell; Stephen T. Bryson

2010-01-01

97

Even Low Levels of Alcohol during Pregnancy Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Science Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

2008-01-01

98

A Summary of Research in Science Education for the Years of 1968-69, College Level Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 132 research documents is presented for the purpose of describing and categorizing research and development in science instruction on the college level. The documents are limited to publications, dissertation abstracts, and abstracted research and development reports, primarily appearing during 1968-69. Descriptions are made concerning…

Koran, John J., Jr.

99

Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

100

A Comparison of Social Science Textbook Readability and Students' Reading Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first phase of a study investigating textbook readability and students' reading levels used three traditional formulas to assess the readability levels of 51 primary textbooks from college introductory social science courses in 7 disciplines. The second phase investigated the relationship between the readability levels of students' texts,…

Townsend, Brenda S.; Wilkie, Carolyn J.

101

Cognitive Levels of Questioning Demonstrated by Test Items That Accompany Selected Fifth-Grade Science Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the cognitive levels of questioning of end-of-chapter test items accompanying selected fifth-grade science textbooks. The extent to which test items emphasized high level questioning and significant differences among texts in the distribution of knowledge and above-knowledge-level test items were also investigated.…

Risner, Gregory P.

102

An instructional package integrating science and social studies instruction at the fifth-grade level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrative education is being implemented by classroom teachers who want to immerse students in an environment rich in problem-solving skills, critical analysis skills, ethics, valuing of knowledge, and communication of learning. Several subject areas in the curriculum have been integrated, such as literature with social studies and mathematics with science. The focus of this dissertation is on the integration of science and social studies at the fifth grade level using the Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives (MSDE, 1995) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council (NRC), 1996). An instructional package of lesson plans that teachers can use as ideas to create their own plans for an integrated curriculum of science and social studies was devised. The Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives for Social Studies (MSDE, 1995) at the fifth grade level contain fifteen competencies. Three standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) were chosen. They include (a) science and technology, (b) science in personal and social perspectives, and (c) the history and nature of science. Each competency for social studies has three lesson plans written that integrate the three chosen standards from the National Science Education Standards. A total of forty-five lesson plans were written integrating science and social studies. Each lesson plan includes an objective, materials, procedures, and evaluation for teachers. Teachers are encouraged to use the lesson plans as a guide in creating their own lesson plans that would correspond to their school's particular curriculum guidelines. Consideration should be given to the learning levels and styles of their classroom. This qualitative study was done to create lesson plans that integrate science and social studies with the hope that teachers will expand upon them and implement them into their curricula.

Hulley, Kathy Louise Sullivan

103

Optical sensing systems for primary-level science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three years, a number of Irish primary schools have been using LEGO Mindstorms technology in order to investigate the use of project-based learning as an alternative teaching tool. This has involved the use of LEGO bricks combined with standard electronic motors and some commercial sensors (e.g. temperature). In order to develop this project into the area of science education, we have developed a range of miniaturized optical sensors, which are compatible with the LEGO platform. This paper describes two such sensors that have been developed and fabricated for use with the LEGO platform, a collaboration between the MIT Media Lab and the National Centre for Sensor Research. In particular a working oxygen sensor has been designed and fabricated. The principal design features were compatibility with the programmable LEGO platforms and robustness for classroom use. This sensor uses the method of intensity quenching to determine oxygen concentration. In addition, simple color sensors have been produced. The aim of developing such sensors is to familiarize students with the concept of colour detection and to introduce them to the basic principles of spectroscopy. The performance of both sensor types and preliminary classroom results are reported.

Markey, Adam; Tyers, Bernard; Shepherd, Roderick; McEvoy, Aisling K.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Mikhak, Bakhtiar; Strohecker, Carol

2003-03-01

104

From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for student achievement. Professional development for teachers in inquiry science must address the cognitive foundations for inquiry science and the benefits students derive from this educational approach. Institutions delivering pre-service training for elementary teachers in science must change the curriculum to reflect these needs.

Ferrini, Cynthia D.

105

Tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

Byham, D. E.

1985-03-05

106

Predicting Scientific Understanding of Prospective Elementary Teachers: Role of Gender, Education Level, Courses in Science, and Attitudes toward Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple regression analysis of the relationship between prospective teachers' scientific understanding and Gender, Education Level (High School, College), Courses in Science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Astronomy, and Agriculture), Attitude Towards Science, and Attitude Towards Mathematics is reported. Undergraduate elementary…

Kumar, David D.; Morris, John D.

2005-01-01

107

Differential workload calculation and its impact on lab science instruction at the community college level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of workload for science instructors who teach classes with laboratory components at the community college level is inconsistent. Despite recommendations from the National Research Council (1996) and the large body of evidence which indicates that activity-based instruction produces greater learning gains than passive, lecture-based instruction, many community colleges assign less value to the time spent in science lab than in lecture in workload calculations. This discrepancy is inconsistent with both current state and nation-wide goals of science excellence and the standards set by the American Chemical Society (2009) and the American Association of Physics Teachers (2002). One implication of this differential lab-loading policy is that the science instructors must teach more hours per week to make the same workload as their colleagues in other disciplines which have no formal laboratory activities. Prior to this study, there was no aggregate data regarding the extent of this policy at the community college level nor of its possible impact upon instruction. The input of full-time two-year college members of four different professional science organizations was solicited and from their responses, it is clear that differential loading of lab hours is common and widely variable. A majority of the respondents to this study had their hours in lab assigned less credit than their hours in lecture, with multiple perceived impacts upon lab preparation, assistance, revision, and follow-up activities. In combination with open-ended comments made by study participants, the results suggest that science instructors do perceive impacts upon their ability to teach science labs in a pedagogically current and challenging manner when their hours spent in lab instruction are counted for less than their hours in lecture. It is hoped that the information from this study will be used to implement improvements in the working conditions needed to advance science instruction and student science outcomes at the community college level.

Boyd, Beth Nichols

108

What Makes Science Relevant?: Student Perceptions of Multimedia Case Learning in Ecology and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perception of science as boring is a major issue for teachers at all instructional levels. Tertiary classes especially suffer from a reputation for being dry, instructor-centered, and irrelevant to the lives of students. However, previous research has shown that science can be interesting to students if it is presented in such a manner as to…

Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark

2013-01-01

109

Reasons for Girls to Choose Agriculture or other Science and Technology Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive-correlational study was conducted to determine the reasons for girls to choose agriculture or other science and technology programs at high school and tertiary levels. Findings revealed that respondents' reasons for enrolling in the sciences were in the following order: economic, personal, educational, family, and social. The background characteristics of respondents related negligibly to lowly with their reasons to

Marietta P. Dlamini; Sicelo S. Ngwenya; Barnabas M. Dlamini

110

Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Students' Motivation and Attitudes Levels in Science Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…

Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem

2013-01-01

111

CONVENTIONAL TERTIARY TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Tertiary treatment on effluent from the EPA-DC Pilot Plant's step aeration activated sludge system included two-stage or single-stage lime clarification, air stripping of ammonia, dual-media filtration, neutralization, and activated carbon adsorption. With a good secondary efflue...

112

Categorical principles, techniques and results for high-level-replacement systems in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give an introduction how to use categorical methods in a specific field of computer science: The field of high-level-replacement systems has its roots in the well-established theories of formal languages, term rewriting, Petri nets, and graph grammars playing a fundamental role in computer science. More precisely, it is a generalization of the algebraic

Hartmut Ehrig; Michael Löwe

1993-01-01

113

Teaching "Digital Earth" technologies in Environmental Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a review process for a module entitled "Digital Earth" which is currently taught as part of a BSc in Environmental Sciences program, research into the current provision of Geographical Information Science and Technology (GIS&T) related modules on UKbased Environmental Science degrees is made. The result of this search is used with DiBiase et al. (2006) "Body of Knowledge of GIS&T" to develop a foundation level module for Environmental Sciences. Reference is also made to the current provision geospatial analysis techniques in secondary and tertiary education in the UK, US and China, and the optimal use of IT and multimedia in geo-education.

Griffiths, J. A.

2014-04-01

114

Comparing scientists' views of nature of science within and across disciplines, and levels of expertise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to understand how Thai scientists from four disciplines viewed nature of science (NOS). The sixteen participating scientists were chosen from the areas of chemistry, physics, biology/life sciences, and geology/earth sciences and were separated into novice and expert groups. The scientists' understandings about NOS were compared within and among the science groups as well as within and between novices and experts. All participants in the study had an opportunity to voice their opinions about the seven aspects of NOS that science educators in the United States have agreed should be taught in K-12 science classrooms. The scientists' views were found to be neither informed nor naive but were a mix between the two. Many scientists' responses showed more naive views with respect to tentativeness, subjectivity, social and cultural embeddedness, and the relationship between scientific theories and laws. The scientists' views about NOS differed with few observable patterns within or across disciplines. The novices' and experts' views of aspects of NOS were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally shared mixed viewpoints. Even though a few discipline specific patterns emerged from this study, cross disciplinary aspects of NOS in integrated science instruction is suggested rather than establishing particular concepts of NOS for each discipline so as to reduce complexity. Representatives of both novice and expert groups might be recruited to participate in developing new science curricula, teaching materials, and science teacher training programs. In addition, other factors need to be considered such as their knowledge of NOS, their willingness to get involved in science education at the school level or teacher education program, and their willingness to cooperate in the multi-step tasks of curriculum development.

Tira, Praweena

115

Effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.

Searson, Robert Francis

116

Smart Utilization of Tertiary Instructional Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…

Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat

2010-01-01

117

Promoting Reflection in Tertiary Teaching through Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen the emergence of international concern about the quality of teaching and learning in universities, and consequently also interest in the investigation of models of staff development for improving teaching and learning at university level. This study monitored the reflective deliberations of a tertiary chemistry lecturer engaged in peer collaboration with other university lecturers for the purpose

Campbell J. McRobbie

1994-01-01

118

Policy Innovation and Tertiary Education Graduation Rates: A Cross-Country Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends Trow's theory of higher education development to examine changes in national-level tertiary education graduation rates. Applying Trow's framework we arrive at three stages: (1) elite systems with gross tertiary graduation rates less than 15%, (2) massified systems with gross tertiary graduation rates between 15% and 50%, and (3)…

Delaney, Jennifer A.; Yu, Patricia

2013-01-01

119

The Arkansas Science Crusade: A descriptive study of the implications for science education reform at the postsecondary level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the National Science Foundation-sponsored, constructivist-based course Higher Order Thinking Skills in Science for teachers of grades 5--16 in Arkansas in terms of its impact on post secondary teaching. The course was part of the Arkansas Statewide Systemic Initiative from 1995 to 1998. The participants in the study were 10 science instructors from 9 two-year colleges, 16 instructors from 8 four-year colleges or universities, and one instructor from a private college. Four of the participants were also involved in teaching science education courses. Data were collected from questionnaires and telephone interviews of the 27 participants. They were asked to respond to 26 interview questions to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and its impact on reform of college science teaching. The transcribed interviews were analyzed and responses were tabulated in order to investigate why the participants chose to participate, including their expectations for the course; how the course had changed their views toward the need for reform; how the course had changed the way the participants teach; factors that they considered to hinder reform in science teaching on the college level; and how they would evaluate the overall effectiveness of the course. The findings indicated that there was no difference in responses between participants from two-year or four-year colleges or from the teacher-educators. The majority of the participants reported that the course had resulted in changes in, or reinforcement of, their teaching strategies to include constructivist, hands-on, and/or collaborative group methodologies; use of alternative assessments; and use of calculator-based technology, as well as an opportunity to interact with pre-college teachers. Based upon the interview responses, suggestions for improving the course were discussed. Recommendations for future research included increasing the sample size, especially to include more teacher-educators, and evaluating the effects of the course on the attitudes and achievement of the students of the participants.

Ross, Carol Ann

120

Pedagogical Issues in Teaching Upper-Level Science Courses at a "Community University"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors teach upper-level science courses in cell biology, genetics, and biochemistry at a public, four-year "community university" that serves a demographically diverse population of traditional and nontraditional students. In this article, they describe some of the issues they have found to be particularly significant at their "community…

Deutch, Charles E.; Jurutka, Peter W.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

121

"In-Determinacy" in Science and Discourse: A Rhetoric of Disciplinary Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that research and writing begin with a play of determinacy and indeterminacy, including presuppositions, formal findings, and technical and media products. Finds that this rhetorical approach leads to identifying levels and relationships. Suggests a typology for furthering dialog in science, literary criticism, and technical writing. (PA)

Valletta, Clement L.; Paoletti, Robert A.

1995-01-01

122

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Science Teachers' Imagination at the Microscopic Level in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the mental images at the microscopic level of matter created by 22 preservice science teachers in Oman. Participants were encouraged during a guided imagery session to construct mental images for a scenario written about the explanation of the reaction of sodium in water. They were then asked to describe what they envisioned in…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

2009-01-01

123

Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

2007-01-01

124

CONCEPTIONS OF SCIENCING HELD BY PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE-IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SCIENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an attempt is made to argue that philosophy of science is relevant to science, science teaching and learning and is useful in analyzing the concept of sciencing. The analysis focuses on the goals of sciencing, the conceptions of the scientific method, scientific discovery, and scientific progress held by philosophers of science. The need is argued for prospective

Olakanmi Abimbola

125

Middle-Level Reform: The Introduction of Advanced English and Science Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven middle-level schools in a large suburban district created an open enrollment system for advanced English and science courses. The advanced courses provided students with an opportunity to learn through the use of primary sources, high-level literature, and a variety of projects. A vertical teaming process in each middle–high school attendance area was instrumental in promoting teacher collaboration and acceptance

Jennifer I. Friend; Elizabeth Degen

2007-01-01

126

A new approach to g-level tolerability for fluid and material science experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The g-level tolerability of Fluid and Material Science experiments is analyzed in the general case of quasi steady residual g-levels superimposed to high frequency g-jitters. The results of the non-dimensional Order of Magnitude Analysis (Napolitano's method) are extended to the non-linear problem accounting for non-zero average steady flow induced by high frequency oscillations, leading to a new criterion for assessing

R. Monti; R. Savino

1995-01-01

127

An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

Cottingham, Susan M.

128

Enhancing K-12 Ocean Science Education Through Multi-level Partnership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the results of long-term collaborations between the University of South Florida's College of Marine Science (CMS) and the Pinellas County school district (22nd largest nationally) to advance and improve K-12 Earth/Ocean science education. The 12-year mission of Education and Public Outreach (EPO) in the College of Marine Science has been to meaningfully integrate ocean science research and science learning to enhance K-12 education for teachers and students. Our interactive and interdisciplinary programs include research cruises, field trips, authentic research projects, satellite broadcasts, and web-based technologies. This paper will focus on two programs, the Oceanography Camp for Girls and Teachers and Project Oceanography. We will address impact of these programs, what works, the role and value of partnerships, sustainability and future initiatives. An especially critical aspect of EPO is partnerships. Our partners include people, scientific facilities, community, and donors. Financial partnerships provide sustainability and continuity. For example, private donors have built a series of endowments to support the Oceanography Camp for Girls currently valued at over \\$1 million. Given the recent shift in state and federal funding priorities, private funding is a vital element of successful EPO programs. To date, marine science EPO partnerships have included 34 state agencies, universities, private research laboratories, schools, and museums; 75 scientist, advanced graduate students and teachers as co-instructors; 4 television stations and 2 production companies; and over 2,000,000 participants in 7 countries. Multi-level partnerships are enhancing K-12 classrooms around the world with relevant ocean science content and resources to further science interests, ocean awareness, and informed decision making.

Greely, T. M.; Coble, P.; Betzer, P. R.

2003-12-01

129

Measuring Computer Science Knowledge Level of Hungarian Students Specialized in Informatics with Romanian Students Attending a Science Course or a Mathematics-Informatics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…

Kiss, Gabor

2012-01-01

130

Moving toward equitable, systemic science education reform: The synergy among science education and school-level reforms in an urban middle school  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships among school-level and science education reform efforts and how, collectively, they contribute to the progress of equitable, systemic science education reform. A case study research design was employed to gather both qualitative and quantitative data between 1995 and 1999. The site of this study is a non-selective,

Mary Kathryn Kelly

2001-01-01

131

Preparedness for Tertiary Chemistry: Issues of Placement and Performance of Academic Development Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of an outcomes-based curriculum in South Africa together with a new syllabus for physical sciences for grades 10-12, prompted the development of an instrument to monitor conceptual understanding in chemistry at the secondary-tertiary interface. This instrument was used to evaluate placement within different programmes at tertiary

Potgieter, M.; Davidowitz, B.; Mathabatha, S. S.

2008-01-01

132

Passive measles immunity in a nigerian tertiary health care facility: the influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on measles antibody levels in mother-infant pairs at birth.  

PubMed

Background: Infants are protected from measles infection by maternal measles antibodies (MMA). The level of these MMA at birth in newborn children depends on the levels in their mother and the extent of placental transfer. We investigated maternal HIV infection as a predictor of levels of MMA in mother-infant pairs in Maiduguri. Methods: A total of 180 mother-infant pairs were tested for MMA between 15th January and 29th March 2010. Levels of MMA were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Results: Fifteen (8.3%) mothers were found with HIV infection and all were on antiretroviral treatment for HIV, and all of them had protective MMA. Of these mothers with HIV infection, only one (0.6%) of their newborn infants had unprotective level of maternal measles antibody. Maternal measles antibodies in mother-infant pairs had significant correlation (p = 0.005) for both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. The mean MMA of the newborn children was lower in infants of HIV-infected mothers than in HIV-uninfected mothers (p = 0.37). Linear regression analysis showed no significant association between maternal HIV infection and MMA in mother-infant pairs (p = 0.72) for mothers and (p = 0.37) for newborn infants. Conclusion: Maternal HIV infection was not associated with significantly reduced MMA in mother-infant pairs, as high protective levels were evident in both mother-infant pairs at birth. PMID:23468026

Baba, U A; Mustapha, M G; Ashir, G M; Rabasa, A I; Ibrahim, B A; Ibrahim, H A

2012-01-01

133

Ethiopian Tertiary dike swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping of the Ethiopian rift and Afar margins revealed the existence of Tertiary dike swarms. The structural relations of these swarms and the fed lava pile to monoclinal warping of the margins partly reflect a style of continental margin tectonics found in other parts of the world. In Ethiopia, however, conjugate dike trends appear to be unusually strongly developed. Relation of dikes to subsequent margin faulting is ambiguous, and there are instances where the two phenomena are spatially separate and of differing trends. There is no evidence for lateral migration with time of dike injection toward the rift zone. No separate impingement of Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and African rift system stress fields on the Ethiopian region can be demonstrated from the Tertiary dike swarms. Rather, a single, regional paleostress field existed, suggestive of a focus beneath the central Ethiopian plateau. This stress field was dominated by tension: there is no cogent evidence for shearing along the rift margins. A gentle compression along the rift floor is indicated. A peculiar sympathy of dike hade directions at given localities is evident.

Mohr, P. A.

1971-01-01

134

A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

2001-01-01

135

Conductance quantization: A laboratory experiment in a senior-level nanoscale science and technology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple, inexpensive, and robust undergraduate lab experiment that demonstrates the emergence of quantized conductance as a macroscopic gold wire is broken and unbroken. The experiment utilizes a mechanically controlled break junction and demonstrates how conductance quantization can be used to understand the importance of quantum mechanics at the nanoscale. Such an experiment can be integrated into the curriculum of a course on nanoscale science or contemporary physics at the junior and senior levels.

Tolley, R.; Silvidi, A.; Little, C.; Eid, K. F.

2013-01-01

136

Multi-Level Evaluation of Cooperative Research Centers: Bridging between the Triple Helix and the Science of Team Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two emergent conceptual models for fostering the development of innovative technology through applied science at Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs)--the Triple Helix and the science of team science--have proved highly productive in stimulating research into how the innovation process works. Although the two arenas for fostering innovation have…

Gray, Denis O.; Sundstrom, Eric

2010-01-01

137

Intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

We report herein a case of intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was recommended for parathyroidectomy due to sustained hypercalcemia after kidney transplantation. Preoperative radiologic evaluations showed a benign-looking thyroid mass and three enlarged parathyroid glands. Intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level and frozen biopsy results indicated a missed parathyroid gland after immediate subtotal parathyroidectomy. Then, a secondary partial resection of thyroid including the thyroid nodule was performed. An excised intrathyroid nodule was diagnosed to be parathyroid hyperplasia by frozen biopsy, and intraoperative iPTH level abruptly decreased. A benign-looking thyroidal mass in patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism should be carefully evaluated considering the possibility of an intrathyroidal parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:24964443

Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun

2013-01-01

138

?-Synuclein Tertiary Contact Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Tertiary contact formation rates in ?-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered polypeptide implicated in Parkinson's disease, have been determined from measurements of diffusion-limited electron transfer kinetics between triplet excited tryptophan:3-nitrotyrosine pairs separated by 10, 12, 55, and 90 residues. Calculations based on a Markovian lattice model developed to describe intrachain diffusion dynamics for a disordered polypeptide give contact quenching rates for various loop sizes ranging from 6 to 48 that are in reasonable agreement with experimentally determined values for small loops (10?20 residues). Contrary to expectations, measured contact rates in ?-synuclein do not continue to decrease as the loop size increases (?35 residues), and substantial deviations from calculated rates are found for the pairs W4-Y94, Y39-W94, and W4-Y136. The contact rates for these large loops indicate much shorter average donor-acceptor separations than expected for a random polymer.

Lee, Jennifer C.; Lai, Bert T.; Kozak, John J.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

2008-01-01

139

Pixel-level calibration in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the pixel-level calibration of flight data from the Kepler Mission performed within the Kepler Science Operations Center Science Processing Pipeline. This article describes the calibration (CAL) module, which operates on original spacecraft data to remove instrument effects and other artifacts that pollute the data. Traditional CCD data reduction is performed (removal of instrument/detector effects such as bias and dark current), in addition to pixel-level calibration (correcting for cosmic rays and variations in pixel sensitivity), Kepler-specific corrections (removing smear signals which result from the lack of a shutter on the photometer and correcting for distortions induced by the readout electronics), and additional operations that are needed due to the complexity and large volume of flight data. CAL operates on long (~30 min) and short (~1 min) sampled data, as well as full-frame images, and produces calibrated pixel flux time series, uncertainties, and other metrics that are used in subsequent Pipeline modules. The raw and calibrated data are also archived in the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute for use by the astronomical community.

Quintana, Elisa V.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean D.; Cote, Miles T.; Klaus, Todd C.; Allen, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Bryson, Stephen T.

2010-07-01

140

Plasma adiponectin, IL-6, hsCRP, and TNF-? levels in subject with diabetic foot and their correlation with clinical variables in a North Indian tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Aim: Pro- and anti-inflammatory processes are crucial in different phases of wound healing and their disturbances interfere with tissue homeostasis after the manifestation of ulcers, leading to chronic non-healing wounds. However, data on the association between infl ammation and acute foot syndrome are scarce. Materials and Methods: Circulating levels of acute-phase reactants and cytokines were measured in diabetic patients with ulcer (n = 162) and without ulcer (n = 162) in a case control study. Results: Of the patients, 85.1% had type 2 diabetes. Subjects with diabetic foot ulcer showed lower median plasma level of adiponectin [8.4 (7.1–9.2) ng/ml vs. 13.4 (12.1–14.2) ng/ml], and higher median plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) [32.5 (9.4–44.8) ng/ml vs. 6.7 (4.6–14.6) ng/ml], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) [12.6 (11.2–13.6) mg/ml vs. 8.4 (7.1–9.2) mg/ml], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) [99.4 (79.9–121.5) ng/ml vs. 4.9 (4.5–5.6) ng/ml]. A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) (r = ?0.088, P < 0.264) and retinopathy (r = 0.249, P < 0.001) for adiponectin. For IL-6, it was between grade of ulcer (r = 0.250, P < 0.001), BMI (r = ?0.161, P < 0.04), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = ?0.155, P < 0.049), triglycerides (r = ?0.165, P < 0.035), retinopathy (r = ?0.166, P < 0.035), nephropathy (r = ?0.199, P < 0.011), and smoking (r = ?0.164, P < 0.036). For hsCRP: grade of ulcer (r = 0.236, P < 0.002), BMI (r = ?0.155, P < 0.048), LDL-C (r = ?0.174, P < 0.026), triglycerides (r = ?0.216, P < 0.005), retinopathy (r = ?0.165, P < 0.037), nephropathy (r = ?0.028, P < 0.007), and smoking (r = ?0.164, P < 0.036), while total cholesterol (r = ?0.209, P < 0.007) and neuropathy (r = 0.141, P < 0.072) for TNF-?. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that diabetic subjects with various grades of diabetic foot ulcer showed a higher IL-6, hsCRP, TNF-?, and lower adiponectin plasma levels in comparison with diabetes without foot ulcer, independent of the concomitant infections. It would be interesting to fi nd out whether an activation of immune system precedes the development of foot ulcer and whether anti-infl ammatory therapies might be effective in improving the outcome in such patients.

Zubair, Mohammad; Malik, Abida; Ahmad, Jamal

2012-01-01

141

Apolipoproteins AI/B/E gene polymorphism and their plasma levels in patients with coronary artery disease in a tertiary care-center of Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Aim The present study was designed to investigate whether the three-apolipoprotein (AI, B, E) gene polymorphisms were related to alter their plasma protein levels and hence associated to coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We determined distribution of MspI apo AI, EcoRI apo B, HhaI apo E gene polymorphisms, plasma apolipoproteins and lipids levels among 150 patients having CAD admitted to the Department of Cardiology, N.R.S. Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, India during June 2010–June 2012 and 150 age sex matched healthy controls. Results We found that ApoAI concentration of studied population was significantly different in each genotypes of ?75 G/A apo AI (p < 0.0001) gene polymorphism. A significant association was found in multivariate analysis for the genotypes with apo E4 allele [odds ratio (OR): 3.639; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019–12.995, p = 0.040] with four conventional risk factors (i.e. smoking, low-density lipoprotein, ApoAI and ApoB) with CAD. In contrast E2 allele has reverse effect, but the genotypes with apo E2 allele was no longer significant in the multivariate model (OR: 1.788; 95% CI: 0.400–8.001, p = 0.447) where as being significant in univariate analysis (OR: 0.219; 95% CI: 0.087–0.552, p = 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms apo AI MspI and apo B EcoRI do not seem to affect CAD. But the genotype with E4 allele of apo E gene independent of other risk factors is associated with this disease.

Biswas, Santanu; Ghoshal, Pradip K.; Halder, Bhubaneswar; Ganguly, Kajal; DasBiswas, Arup; Mandal, Nripendranath

2013-01-01

142

Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

2007-01-01

143

Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

Scarborough, Jule Dee

2004-01-01

144

Workshop on Teaching Astronomy Space Science at High School and Middle School Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have conducted a workshop mostly supported by a NASA IDEAS grant on providing professional development for teachers teaching Astronomy/Space Science at high school and middle school level. In some cases this effort has also supported efforts at schools in creating new courses in Space Science. The effort has included a one week summer workshop with as many as six follow up one-day meetings in the school year. The summer workshops have included presentations by experts in current space science research themes and also tours of professional and amateur observatories in and around Wisconsin. The format also allows for some time for teachers to share ideas, curricula among themselves and to present and share "best practices". As in many other instances, the different needs of individual schools, students and teachers prevents a single approach to content and course implementation in schools. Therefore our efforts have focused in serving the needs of individual teachers as much as feasible with limited resources. We gratefully acknowledge the support received from NASA/IDEAS program as well as the Wisconsin Idea program funded by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Pertzborn, R. A.; Limaye, S. S.

2003-12-01

145

Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The health effects of occupational exposure to secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines are reviewed. The extent and degree of exposure through the natural occurrence of aliphatic amines in the environment and by occupational exposure are discussed. Pa...

1981-01-01

146

Contribution of science to farm-level aquatic animal health management.  

PubMed

The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animal health management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animal health management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to identify simple and affordable farm practices for the control of aquatic animal diseases is highlighted. PMID:18306517

Corsin, F; Giorgetti, G; Mohan, C V

2007-01-01

147

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

148

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

149

Carleton College Science Education Resource Center (SERC) - Starting Point Entry Level Geoscience Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Starting Point collection consists of resources to support teaching entry-level undergraduate geoscience of all types. The collection includes modules on instructional methods. At the Starting Point website, examples demonstrate ways of using these methods in geoscience courses and laboratories, and provide additional information and resources. The collection includes resources that span the needs of faculty and graduate students in designing, developing, and delivering entry-level undergraduate courses in the geosciences. It consists primarily of instructional materials and activities, annotations and materials supporting the use of instructional materials and activities, information on instructional methods and issues in teaching customized for geoscientists, primary sources, review articles, summaries and bibliographies pertaining to pedagogy, assessment, issues in teaching, course development and management, and learning science.

150

Participatory System Science: Multi-Level Comprehension Through a Game-like Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participatory System Science: Multi-Level Comprehension Through a Game-like Process We built a time-series game that permits the player to make water management decisions concerning the Skagit River (north-central Washington state) every five years for 60 years. This work was inspired by the integrative efforts of the Skagit Climate Science Consortium and the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington. Our principle guiding concepts have been - Construct a reasonable system description with -- wherever possible -- Events / Consequences rendered both visually and in terms of financial impact. - Base the system description on peer reviewed publications - Emphasize both connection and absence of connection between player Actions and subsequent Consequences in the catchment basin. Player choices center around dam flow levels and steps to mitigate negative impacts of sediment transport into the lower (populated) reaches of the Skagit River and into Puget Sound (levees, new dams, estuary restoration, etcetera). With this work we hope to explore scientific results in public awareness by engaging the game Player as a problem solver.

Fatland, D. R.; Kuntz, L.

2012-12-01

151

Analysis and classification of RNA tertiary structures  

PubMed Central

There is a fast growing interest in noncoding RNA transcripts. These transcripts are not translated into proteins, but play essential roles in many cellular and pathological processes. Recent efforts toward comprehension of their function has led to a substantial increase in both the number and the size of solved RNA structures. With the aim of addressing questions relating to RNA structural diversity, we examined RNA conservation at three structural levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary structure. Additionally, we developed an automated method for classifying RNA structures based on spatial (three-dimensional [3D]) similarity. Applying the method to all solved RNA structures resulted in a classified database of RNA tertiary structures (DARTS). DARTS embodies 1333 solved RNA structures classified into 94 clusters. The classification is hierarchical, reflecting the structural relationship between and within clusters. We also developed an application for searching DARTS with a new structure. The search is fast and its performance was successfully tested on all solved RNA structures since the creation of DARTS. A user-friendly interface for both the database and the search application is available online. We show intracluster and intercluster similarities in DARTS and demonstrate the usefulness of the search application. The analysis reveals the current structural repertoire of RNA and exposes common global folds and local tertiary motifs. Further study of these conserved substructures may suggest possible RNA domains and building blocks. This should be beneficial for structure prediction and for gaining insights into structure–function relationships.

Abraham, Mira; Dror, Oranit; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

2008-01-01

152

Deciphering the impact of sea-level changes and tectonic movement on erosional sequence boundaries in carbonate successions: A case study from Tertiary strata on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac, British West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic architecture of carbonate successions that develop on geographically isolated islands reflects the balance between sea-level highstands, lowstands, and tectonic activity. This is readily apparent in the Tertiary carbonate sequences on the Cayman Islands that are formed of the Bluff Group, which includes the Brac Formation (Lower Oligocene), Cayman Formation (Middle Miocene), and Pedro Castle Formation (Middle Pliocene). These strata are overlain by the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation. The unconformities that define the boundaries between these formations are variable because some developed during one cycle of past erosion, others developed through two or more past erosional cycles, and some are still developing today. Some unconformities, like the one at the top of the Cayman Formation, are geographically variable because they underwent different developmental histories in different areas. The challenge with architectural complex successions, like those on the Cayman Islands, is that of deciphering the impact of sea-level changes as opposed to tectonic influences. During sea-level lowstands, the older carbonate successions were exposed on land and modified by surface and subsurface karst development. At the same time, marine erosional processes affected the coastal areas. Surface karst modification, which commonly produced rugged topographies with erosional relief at least 62 m, was controlled largely by rainfall, runoff, and stratal dip. Weathering on Grand Cayman at the end of the Miocene, for example, produced a dish-shaped topography with elevated peripheral rims. In contrast, uplift of the east end of Cayman Brac between the Late Pliocene (3.6 Ma) and ~ 400 ka, elevated the basal part of the Cayman Formation 33 m above sea level. Subsequent karst development, which is still ongoing today, removed most of the Cayman Formation on the eastern part of the island and produced peripheral rims that are higher than those on Grand Cayman. During some lowstands, like that between the Late Pliocene and ~ 400 ka, coeval coastal erosion led to the development of coastal benches that cut into the older carbonate strata. The combination of karst development in the islands' interiors and coastal erosion produced complex, rugged topographies that strongly influenced patterns of deposition during the following highstand. The complex stratigraphic architecture of the carbonate successions on the Cayman Islands reflects the variable impact of tectonics, karst development, and coastal erosion that was associated with each lowstand-highstand cycle.

Liang, Ting; Jones, Brian

2014-05-01

153

Electron transfer followed by double fragmentation reactions: mechanism of photogeneration of tertiary amines and radicals from tetraorganyl borates 1 Contribution No. 371 from the Center for Photochemical Sciences. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double fragmentation reactions of N,N,N-tributyl-N-acetobenzo[b]thiophene ammonium borates have been investigated. The primary step in the cleavage reactions is electron transfer from the borate anion to the excited acceptor. This generates radical pairs that decompose by rapid carbon–nitrogen and carbon–boron bond fragmentation. Transient spectra and photoproducts are consistent with this bond cleavage. Tertiary amines are formed as a result of

Ananda M. Sarker; Yuji Kaneko; D. C. Neckers

1999-01-01

154

Level of Internet Use Among Science Teachers Involved in a Professional Development Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the level of instructional use of Internet among science teachers involved with an in-service professional development project. An instrument on Level of Use of innovation was modified for the study. A criterion sample of teachers to be interviewed via telephone was randomly selected from a pool of 347 K-12 teachers. Somers' d and contingency coefficients were determined to see whether any relationship exists between a teacher's Level of Use and the following categories: (a) amount of experience with the Internet; (b) availability of resources support and access to the Internet in classroom and at home; (c) number of teacher and student users at school, (d) gender; and (e) type of school. Results of step-wise multiple regression indicate that classroom access, instructional experience of using Internet with students, availability of resource support and number of teacher users at school are the best predictors of teacher's Level of Use. Chi square test for comparisons between groups of completers and noncompleters of On-Line West Virginia K-12 RuralNet courses also revealed that a lack of classroom access to Internet and lack of resource/technical support at school contributed significantly to lower level of use among noncompleters.

Wiesenmayer, Randall L.; Koul, Ravinder

1999-06-01

155

Gender- and Grade-Level Differences in Science Interest and Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores students' attitudes towards science, prior science-related experiences, and perceptions of science and scientists and how these vary by gender and grade. Findings indicate that girls and boys expressed similar opinions on all survey scales but girls were less likely to view science as a male-stereotyped field. Younger students expressed…

Greenfield, Teresa Arambula

1997-01-01

156

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01

157

An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

Mlenga, Francis Howard

158

Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE). Candidates point sources and high-level science products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE) project (HST/AR program 12652; PI Soummer) is currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent reprocessing of HST-NICMOS coronagraphic survey data to search for point sources and disks using advanced PSF subtraction. The Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm based on principal component analysis was developed for this project. We present the main concept for the pipeline, reduction strategy, and PSF subtraction implementation and performance. The ALICE pipeline was designed to process automatically approximately 400 targets in the NICMOS coronagraphic archive, and to deliver High-Level Science Products (HLSPs) back to the MAST archive at STScI. The HLSPs are defined in collaboration with other similar projects to define a standard format for high-contrast imaging. We present and discuss the ALICE point source candidates detected in the NICMOS archive together with a statistical analysis of the population of background objects.

Choquet, Elodie; Chen, C.; Debes, J. H.; Golimowski, D. A.; Hagan, J.; Hines, D. C.; Lonsdale, S.; Marois, C.; Mawet, D.; Mittal, T.; Moerchen, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Perrin, M. D.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Reid, I. N.; Schneider, G.; Wolff, S.; Soummer, R.

2014-01-01

159

A Model for Teaching a Climate Change Elective Science Course at the Community College Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of global climate change is far-reaching, both for humanity and for the environment. It is essential that our students be provided a strong scientific background for the role of natural and human caused climate change so that they are better prepared to become involved in the discussion. Here the author reveals a successful model designed for use with a diverse student body at the community college level. Teaching strategies beyond the traditional lecture and exam style include: web-based resources such as static websites along with dynamic blogging tools, post-lecture cooperative learning review sessions, weekly current event research projects, use of rubrics to assist students in their own project evaluation before submission, and a research paper utilizing the Skeptical Science website to examine the validity of the most common climate change myths.

Mandia, S. A.

2012-12-01

160

Using High Level Literacy Techniques to Teach Astronomy to Non-Science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a discussion of an introductory-level college astronomy class which significantly relied on reading and writing assignments to deliver basic content knowledge and provide a basis for deeper analysis of the material. As opposed to the traditional problem-set method of homework, students were required to read popular articles from magazines and newspapers related to the content presented in class and then prepare responses. Responses ranged from methodological analysis to using the readings to create original science journalism. Other forms of assessment indicated that students benefitted from this type of course design. We propose that given the background of students in this type of course, the course design is better suited to engage students in the material and provides a better assessment of student achievement.

Garland, C. A.; Ratay, D. L.

2005-12-01

161

Attitudes and beliefs, about inquiry science, of middle level and secondary science teachers in northwest Arkansas and northwest Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A This study attempted to close gaps in the literature with regards to implementation of inquiry practices in secondary science classrooms. In addition, the areas and ways in which practice ties to beliefs and experiences in the area of inquiry were examined. This study introduces an instrument that could be used to assess teachers' attitudes and beliefs about inquiry teaching practices and potential barriers to teaching science using an inquiry approach. Because the efficacy of reform efforts rests largely with teachers, their voices need to be included in the design and implementation of inquiry---based curriculum. This study helps to clarify the need for future research to examine inquiry as a pedagogical approach. If we desire pre-service teachers to teach using an inquiry approach when they have their own classrooms, they must know how to plan, implement, and assess inquiry science lessons, not just have experienced "inquiry lessons" as a student. One unique finding in this study was in the area of licensure and teaching style. Other studies found that in general traditionally licensed teachers felt better prepared to teach. This study found that participants who were alternatively certified incorporated characteristics of inquiry less often than those with traditional certification. This indicates that more research is needed in the area of certification and the affect it may have on quality of instruction for specific content areas like science.

Dockers, Jean E.

162

Attitudes and Beliefs, about Inquiry Science, of Middle Level and Secondary Science Teachers in Northwest Arkansas and Northwest Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to close gaps in the literature with regards to implementation of inquiry practices in secondary science classrooms. In addition, the areas and ways in which practice ties to beliefs and experiences in the area of inquiry were examined. This study introduces an instrument that could be used to assess teachers' attitudes and…

Dockers, Jean E.

2010-01-01

163

Student Levels of Cognitive Development: Establishing Links between Logical Thinking Skills and Success in Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in inquiry-based, general education Earth Science courses were found to display a wide range of logical thinking skills that are known indicators of success in science courses. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument that tests six logical operations was administered on the first day of class and near the end of the course. Such tests can be used to assess a student's overall level of cognitive development (concrete, transitional or formal) and specific logical thinking strengths or weaknesses. Results from paired pre- and post-course logical thinking tests of 393 students indicated that 25% of the incoming students were concrete, 30% were transitional and 45% were formal thinkers. Concrete and transitional thinkers were far more likely to withdraw from or fail the course when compared to their formal thinking peers (35%, 25% and 10% respectively). Differences in scores between genders were significant with 210 females testing at 30% concrete, 35% transitional and 35% formal on the pretest compared to 183 males who tested 15% concrete, 25% transitional and 60% formal. Overall logical thinking scores of students increased significantly in every inquiry-based class with lecture-based classes showing overall lower increases. Post-test data indicated that there were fewer concrete thinkers (16% female, 7% male), little change in the number of transitional thinkers (30% female, 23% male) and more formal thinkers (54% female, 70% male) toward the end of the inquiry-based course. Scores on two of the logical operations, conservation and probability, were sufficient to separate those who received a high grade (A or B in course) from those were unsuccessful (D, F or withdrew). Students who score low in conservation operations (n=46) tend to rely on intuition rather than logic when trying to understand typical Earth System concepts such as plate tectonics, atmospheric processes and climate change. Students who score low in probability skills (n=46) have difficulty distinguishing the difference between unrelated, but possible, data and those data that confirm a supposition. Such skills are necessary to properly apply the scientific method. By the end of the course, unsuccessful concrete students improved conservation reasoning skills to the same levels of their higher performing concrete peers on the post-test but remained behind them in probability skills. Successful transitional thinkers (n=50) displayed better correlation-reasoning skills than their lower performing contemporaries (n=51). Correlation reasoning skills are necessary to understand some of the many causal relationships routinely developed in the Earth Sciences (e.g. those associated with plate tectonics and earthquakes or volcanoes; CO2 and global climate change).

Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

2003-12-01

164

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary Female Student Teachers' Choice of Science as a Major at College Level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there has been an unprecedented expansion in education in the last 2 decades. This reflects the broad recognition that education contributes to national development. This expansion has not been matched with equal access and opportunity to education. The education of females still lags behind that of males in most developing countries, and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular (Hyde, 1989). Fewer girls than boys study science at both secondary and college levels. The study took place in Zimbabwe at Mkoba Teachers' College. Two groups of elementary female student teachers participated in the study, namely science majors and nonscience majors. Ten science majors and nine nonscience majors took part in individual interviews. For focus group interviews, there were three groups of six each from science and nonscience majors. The study was conducted between May 2004 and July 2004. Out-of-school experiences, culture, and attitudes toward science emerged as factors affecting female student teachers' choice of science as a major. A number of implications have been discussed as well as suggestions for further research. Limitations of the study have been analyzed as well.

Mlenga, Francis

165

Integration of Science, Technology and Society (STS) approach in teaching chemistry at higher secondary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a continuous debate in shifting emphasis of science education for attaining the goal of scientific literacy (Hodson, 2003). Over the past 30-40 years, science educators felt a need for having a more context-based approach of science education in order to make it relevant, significant, and interesting for students. Science-Technology-Society (STS) is one of those context-based approaches, getting

Shairose Irfan Jessani

2007-01-01

166

Comparing Scientists' Views of Nature of Science within and across Disciplines, and Levels of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how Thai scientists from four disciplines viewed nature of science (NOS). The sixteen participating scientists were chosen from the areas of chemistry, physics, biology/life sciences, and geology/earth sciences and were separated into novice and expert groups. The scientists' understandings about NOS…

Tira, Praweena

2009-01-01

167

How Can the Teaching of Woodwork and Science at Secondary School Level Be Integrated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of how to integrate science instruction (specifically, science for Zimbabwe syllabus number 50006) and woodworking. In order to formulate its recommendations, the study sought to analyze course syllabi; collect data on teachers' years of teaching within and without their areas of specialization (woodworking and science); analyze…

Assani, Sydney P.

168

Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students'…

Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

1994-01-01

169

Engaging in Science through Astrobiology Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a steady decline in the number of Australian students studying science at the senior high school level. By the time students reach this point in their education, when they can choose whether or not to continue to study science, many have already decided that science is not for them. It is possible that students in the junior high school years may be gaining a false view of the world of science due to the disparity between the way that science is portrayed in schools and "real" science. A study is being undertaken to explore whether engaging in real science through outreach activities may increase students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and whether such activities may heighten students' interest in science and potentially lead to an increase in the number of students studying science at the tertiary level. The study examines three astrobiology-related outreach programs, two in Australia and one in the US. The features of the programs are described and results from the Australian research carried out to date are presented.

Fergusson, J.; Oliver, C.; Walter, M.

2011-12-01

170

Life Science Teachers' Discourse on Assessment: A Valuable Insight into the Variable Conceptions of Assessment in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' conceptions of teaching, including assessment practices, are substantial in directing student learning. Our article refers to assessment at tertiary level biological education. We studied life science (more specifically microbiology-related) teachers' assessment discourse describing how they understood assessment as part of…

Halinen, Katrianna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Katajavuori, Nina; Virtanen, Viivi

2014-01-01

171

Preparedness for tertiary chemistry: Issues of placement and performance of academic development programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of an outcomes-based curriculum in South Africa together with a new syllabus for physical sciences for grades 10-12, prompted the development of an instrument to monitor conceptual understanding in chemistry at the secondary-tertiary interface. This instrument was used to evaluate placement within different programmes at tertiary institutions as well as improvement in the conceptual understanding of chemistry during

M. Potgieter; B. Davidowitz; S. S. Mathabatha

172

Systems Science and Obesity Policy: A Novel Framework for Analyzing and Rethinking Population-Level Planning  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We demonstrate the use of a systems-based framework to assess solutions to complex health problems such as obesity. Methods. We coded 12 documents published between 2004 and 2013 aimed at influencing obesity planning for complex systems design (9 reports from US and Canadian governmental or health authorities, 1 Cochrane review, and 2 Institute of Medicine reports). We sorted data using the intervention-level framework (ILF), a novel solutions-oriented approach to complex problems. An in-depth comparison of 3 documents provides further insight into complexity and systems design in obesity policy. Results. The majority of strategies focused mainly on changing the determinants of energy imbalance (food intake and physical activity). ILF analysis brings to the surface actions aimed at higher levels of system function and points to a need for more innovative policy design. Conclusions. Although many policymakers acknowledge obesity as a complex problem, many strategies stem from the paradigm of individual choice and are limited in scope. The ILF provides a template to encourage natural systems thinking and more strategic policy design grounded in complexity science.

Matteson, Carrie L.; Finegood, Diane T.

2014-01-01

173

Systems science and obesity policy: a novel framework for analyzing and rethinking population-level planning.  

PubMed

Objectives. We demonstrate the use of a systems-based framework to assess solutions to complex health problems such as obesity. Methods. We coded 12 documents published between 2004 and 2013 aimed at influencing obesity planning for complex systems design (9 reports from US and Canadian governmental or health authorities, 1 Cochrane review, and 2 Institute of Medicine reports). We sorted data using the intervention-level framework (ILF), a novel solutions-oriented approach to complex problems. An in-depth comparison of 3 documents provides further insight into complexity and systems design in obesity policy. Results. The majority of strategies focused mainly on changing the determinants of energy imbalance (food intake and physical activity). ILF analysis brings to the surface actions aimed at higher levels of system function and points to a need for more innovative policy design. Conclusions. Although many policymakers acknowledge obesity as a complex problem, many strategies stem from the paradigm of individual choice and are limited in scope. The ILF provides a template to encourage natural systems thinking and more strategic policy design grounded in complexity science. PMID:24832406

Johnston, Lee M; Matteson, Carrie L; Finegood, Diane T

2014-07-01

174

The Petasis Reaction: Microscale Synthesis of a Tertiary Amine Antifungal Analog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students prepare a tertiary amine antifungal analog in an upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. A microscale Petasis reaction is performed to generate a liquid compound readily characterized via IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The biological relevance of the product is highlighted, with the tertiary amine scaffold being an important…

Koroluk, Katherine J.; Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

175

Widening Access to Tertiary Education for Women in Ghana through Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education--age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana…

Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

2007-01-01

176

Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual-preference effect. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with a multisensory approach on either grade-level or above-grade level science content (p < 0.0001). The findings supported using a multisensory approach when teaching science concepts that are new to and difficult for students (Martini, 1986).

Roberts, Patrice Helen

177

Curriculum Design and Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has seen enormous changes in the quality and quantity of mathematics taught at secondary school. These changes have had a cumulative effect on the readiness of mathematics students for tertiary education. Furthermore the need for university staff to be accountable to both community and students adds to the responsibility of…

Hockman, Meira

2005-01-01

178

Perceptions of teaching and learning automata theory in a college-level computer science course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation identifies and describes student and instructor perceptions that contribute to effective teaching and learning of Automata Theory in a competitive college-level Computer Science program. Effective teaching is the ability to create an appropriate learning environment in order to provide effective learning. We define effective learning as the ability of a student to meet instructor set learning objectives, demonstrating this by passing the course, while reporting a good learning experience. We conducted our investigation through a detailed qualitative case study of two sections (118 students) of Automata Theory (CS 341) at The University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Lily Quilt. Because Automata Theory has a fixed curriculum in the sense that many curricula and textbooks agree on what Automata Theory contains, differences being depth and amount of material to cover in a single course, a case study would allow for generalizable findings. Automata Theory is especially problematic in a Computer Science curriculum since students are not experienced in abstract thinking before taking this course, fail to understand the relevance of the theory, and prefer classes with more concrete activities such as programming. This creates a special challenge for any instructor of Automata Theory as motivation becomes critical for student learning. Through the use of student surveys, instructor interviews, classroom observation, material and course grade analysis we sought to understand what students perceived, what instructors expected of students, and how those perceptions played out in the classroom in terms of structure and instruction. Our goal was to create suggestions that would lead to a better designed course and thus a higher student success rate in Automata Theory. We created a unique theoretical basis, pedagogical positivism, on which to study college-level courses. Pedagogical positivism states that through examining instructor and student perceptions of teaching and learning, improvements to a course are possible. These improvements can eventually develop a "best practice" instructional environment. This view is not possible under a strictly constructivist learning theory as there is no way to teach a group of individuals in a "best" way. Using this theoretical basis, we examined the gathered data from CS 341. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Weidmann, Phoebe Kay

179

The teacher's role in college level classes for non-science majors: A constructivist approach for teaching prospective science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This interpretive research set out to investigate the characteristics of an exemplary college science instructor who endeavors to improve teaching and learning in a physical science course for prospective teachers. The course was innovative in the sense that it was designed to meet the specific needs of prospective elementary teachers who needed to have models of how to teach science in a way that employed materials and small group activities. The central purpose for this study is to understand the metaphors that Mark (a pseudonym), the chemistry instructor in the course, used as referents to conceptualize his roles and frame actions and interactions in the classroom. Within the theoretical frame of constructivism, human cognitive interests, and co-participation theories, an ethnographic research design, described by Erickson (1986), Guba and Lincoln (1989), and Gallagher (1991), was employed in the study. The main sources of data for this study were field notes, transcript analysis of interviews with the instructor and students, and analyses of videotaped excerpts. Additional data sources, such as student journals and the results of students' responses to the University/Community College Student Questionnaire which was developed by a group science education researchers at Florida State University, were employed to maximize that the assertions I constructed were consistent with the variety of data. Data analyses and interpretation in the study focused on identifying the aspects which the instructor and the researcher might find useful in reflecting to understand what was happening and why that was happening in the classroom. The analysis reveals how the instructor used constructivism as a referent for his teaching and the learning of his students. To be consistent with his beliefs and goals that prospective teachers should enjoy their journey of learning chemistry, Mark, the driver in the journey, used the roles of controller, facilitator, learner, and entertainer as referents for actions to create conducive learning environments. He was able to switch his actions based on which of the constituent metaphors he used as a referent to frame his actions and interactions, and thereby, to create an exciting environment for learning.

Abbas, Abdullah Othman

1997-12-01

180

Resistance of spiders to Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction events.  

PubMed

Throughout Earth history a small number of global catastrophic events leading to biotic crises have caused mass extinctions. Here, using a technique that combines taxonomic and numerical data, we consider the effects of the Cenomanian-Turonian and Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinctions on the terrestrial spider fauna in the light of new fossil data. We provide the first evidence that spiders suffered no decline at the family level during these mass extinction events. On the contrary, we show that they increased in relative numbers through the Cretaceous and beyond the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. PMID:14686534

Penney, David; Wheater, C Philip; Selden, Paul A

2003-11-01

181

Analysis of Student Beliefs in a Tertiary Preparatory Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year approximately 800 students enrol in the tertiary preparatory course TPP7181 at the University of Southern Queensland. Successful completion of this course will allow students to enrol in either further preparatory level mathematics courses or undergraduate study. For many of the students enrolled in this course, the study of mathematics…

Carmichael, C.; Taylor, J. A.

2005-01-01

182

Key Issue: Recruiting Mathematics and Science Teachers at the High School Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High attrition rates amongst secondary mathematics and science teachers disrupts studentsâ learning, concerns parents, and magnifies the stressors to which remaining teachers are subjected. The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality provides a list of strategies for recruiting high school teachers: implement strategies that provide meaningful incentives for prospective teachers; specifically target those teachers with the experience and education to meet the needs of the school; build a relationship and craft a strategy with input from local institutions of higher education; view the strategies as part of a larger effort to recruit and retain high-quality teachers for every subject at every grade level; take advantage of the local supply of potential teachers; use the internet to increase the reach of recruitment efforts; provide high-quality opportunities for people in other professions to transfer into teaching; be selective in accepting candidates from alternative preparation programs; and broaden the diversity of prospective teachers. These tips are broken down into six steps, and examples are provided of programs with remarkably effective recruitment strategies.

2009-04-22

183

Increasing Higher Level Thinking Skills in Science of Gifted Students in Grades 1-4 through "Hands-On" Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum was designed to increase higher level thinking skills of gifted students in primary school. The project sought to retrain students from recalling science information from the textbook to a more challenging and active form of learning through individual projects and small group and large group activities. Students were given…

Dindial, Myrna J.

184

A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

Yilmaz, Ismail

2012-01-01

185

Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Why You're You. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters include basic information about heredity, activities, and optional "excursions." The answers to all activities are included. An introduction describes the work of Gregor Mendel and his…

Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

186

Perceptions and Perceived Knowledge Levels of Texas Public School Superintendents Regarding the Agricultural Science and Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superintendent is a public school district's highest academic officer. The success of an agricultural science and technology program can be dependent on whether the superintendent recognizes the program as a vital part of the school and society. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and perceived knowledge levels of Texas public school superintendents regarding

Dwayne Pavelock; Paul Vaughn; Lance Kieth

2001-01-01

187

Determining the Effectiveness of the 3D Alice Programming Environment at the Computer Science I Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention in Computer Science is becoming a serious concern among Educators in many colleges and universities. Most institutions currently face a significant drop in enrollment in Computer Science. A number of different tools and strategies have emerged to address this problem (e.g., BlueJ, Karel Robot, etc.). Although these tools help to…

Sykes, Edward R.

2007-01-01

188

Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 13-21 and Semester Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the third part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are presented for the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

189

Correlated Curriculum Program: An Experimental Program. Science Level 1 (9A, 9B, 10A).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unit plans in Correlated Science 1 are intended to be of use to the teacher in both lesson and team planning. The course in science was designed for optimum correlation with the work done in business, health, and industrial careers. Behavioral objectives, class routines, time allotments, student evaluation, and the design of the manual are…

Loebl, Stanley, Ed.; And Others

190

Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is a unique compendium and synthesis of the cumulative knowledge of more than 100 years of discovery and study of North American tertiary mammals. The potentially most valuable contribution of this book is the detailed information of the distribution in time and space of each species at fossil localities, recorded in a uniform scheme, so that each chapter provides the same level of information. Thirty six chapters are devoted to a particular family or order, written by leading North American authorities, including discussion of anatomical features, systematics, and paleobiology. Three introductory chapters summarize information on the geological time scale, Tertiary vegetation, and Pleistocene events, and four summary chapters integrate systematic and biogeographic information for higher taxa. This book will serve as a unique data base for continuing studies in faunal diversification and change, and for questions such as how changing biogeography and climates influenced the evolution of mammalian communities. It will be an invaluable addition to the libraries of paleontologists and zoologists.

Janis, Christine M.; Scott, Kathleen M.; Jacobs, Louis L.

2005-03-01

191

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge to Science and Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society is challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often subsiding and densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Faced with a trade-off between imposing the very high costs of coastal protection and adaptation upon today's national economies and leaving the costs of potential major disasters to future generations, governments and decision makers are in need of scientific support for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies for the coastal zone. Low-frequency to secular changes in LSL are the result of many interacting Earth system processes. The complexity of the Earth system makes it difficult to predict Global Sea Level (GSL) rise and, even more so, LSL changes over the next 100 to 200 years. Humans have re-engineered the planet and changed major features of the Earth surface and the atmosphere, thus ruling out extrapolation of past and current changes into the future as a reasonable approach. The risk of rapid changes in ocean circulation and ice sheet mass balance introduces the possibility of unexpected changes. Therefore, science is challenged with understanding and constraining the full range of plausible future LSL trajectories and with providing useful support for informed decisions. In the face of largely unpredictable future sea level changes, monitoring of the relevant processes and development of a forecasting service on realistic time scales is crucial as decision support. Forecasting and "early warning" for LSL rise would have to aim at decadal time scales, giving coastal managers sufficient time to react if the onset of rapid changes would require an immediate response. The social, environmental, and economic risks associated with potentially large and rapid LSL changes are enormous. Therefore, in the light of the current uncertainties and the unpredictable nature of some of the forcing processes for LSL changes, the focus of scientific decision support may have to shift from projections of LSL trajectories on century time scales to the development of models and monitoring systems for a forecasting service on decadal time scales. The requirements for such a LSL forecasting service and the current obstacles will be discussed.

Plag, H.

2009-12-01

192

Classroom management at the university level: lessons from a former high school earth science teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just a few days before my career as a fledgling science teacher began in a large public high school in New York City, a mentor suggested I might get some ideas about how to run a classroom from a book called The First Days Of School by Harry Wong. Although the book seemed to concentrate more on elementary students, I found that many of the principles in the book worked well for high school students. Even as I have begun to teach at the university level, many of Wong’s themes have persisted in my teaching style. Wong’s central thesis is that for learning to occur, a teacher must create the proper environment. In education jargon, a good climate for learning is generated via classroom management, an array of methods used by elementary and secondary school teachers to provide structure and routine to a class period via a seamless flow of complementary activities. Many college professors would likely consider classroom management to be chiefly a set of rules to maintain discipline and order among an otherwise unruly herd of schoolchildren, and therefore not a useful concept for mature university students. However, classroom management is much deeper than mere rules for behavior; it is an approach to instructional design that considers the classroom experience holistically. A typical professorial management style is to lecture for an hour or so and ask students to demonstrate learning via examinations several times in a semester. In contrast, a good high school teacher will manage a class from bell-to-bell to create a natural order and flow to a given lesson. In this presentation, I will argue for an approach to college lesson design similar to the classroom management style commonly employed by high school and elementary school teachers. I will suggest some simple, practical techniques learned during my high school experience that work just as well in college: warm-up and practice problems, time management, group activities, bulletin boards, learning environment, and standard procedures. Central to all of these suggestions is the basic concept of planning activities for students beyond passive absorption of lecture material and fitting them smoothly within the typical time constraints of a class period. Well-managed students learn better. I close with the observation that the most basic desires of students are independent of age; learners of all ages and levels prefer well-designed classroom experiences. In this context, books and resources intended for the professional development of secondary--and even elementary—teachers suddenly contain a wealth of techniques that, with some modification, might be useful at the university level.

Lazar, C.

2009-12-01

193

Mapping the level of scientific reasoning skills to instructional methodologies among Malaysian science-mathematics-engineering undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this quantitative survey research were (1) to establish the level of scientific reasoning (SR) skills among science, mathematics and engineering (SME) undergraduates in Malaysian Institute of Higher Learning (IHL); (b) to identify the types of instructional methods in teaching SME at universities; and (c) to map instructional methods employed to the level of SR skills among the undergraduates. There were six universities according to zone involved in this study using the stratification random sampling technique. For each university, the faculties that involved were faculties which have degree students in science, mathematics and engineering programme. A total of 975 students were participated in this study. There were two instruments used in this study namely, the Lawson Scientific Reasoning Skills Test and the Lecturers' Teaching Style Survey. The descriptive statistics and the inferential statistics such as mean, t-test and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. Findings of the study showed that most students had concrete level of scientific reasoning skills where the overall mean was 3.23. The expert and delegator were dominant lecturers' teaching styles according to students' perception. In addition, there was no correlation between lecturers' teaching style and the level of scientific reasoning skills. Thus, this study cannot map the dominant lecturers' teaching style to the level of scientific reasoning skills of Science, Mathematics and Engineering undergraduates in Malaysian Public Institute of Higher Learning. Nevertheless, this study gave some indications that the expert and delegator teaching styles were not contributed to the development of students' scientific reasoning skills. This study can be used as a baseline for Science, Mathematics and Engineering undergraduates' level of scientific reasoning skills in Malaysian Public Institute of Higher Learning. Overall, this study also opens an endless source of other researchers to investigate more areas on scientific reasoning skills so that the potential instructional model can be developed to enhance students' level of scientific reasoning skills in Malaysian Public Institute of Higher Learning.

Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Saad, Noor Shah; Rahman, Nurulhuda Abd; Yahaya, Asmayati; Alimon, Hasimah; Dollah, Mohd. Uzi; Abd Karim, Mohd. Mustaman

2012-05-01

194

Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

195

Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more of a suggestion than a set schedule. Maintaining flexibility was critical to the success of the partnerships. Unanticipated fieldwork, new priorities within organizations, and differing levels of involvement from partner staff, advisory boards, or Friends groups, led to varying resource development timelines. The distributed nature of and the willingness of partner staff and volunteers to implement Project BudBurst at their facilities have broadened the participation of the public in this program more than could have been accomplished alone. The new partners benefit from the free and customized education and outreach materials provided by Project BudBurst, while Project BudBurst benefits from the local knowledge and contacts with the public from the partner organizations.

Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

2012-12-01

196

Decision-making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the conceptual foundations of PBS at the universal level have been widely described and presented in the literature, secondary and tertiary interventions have been presented through very limited examples. This paper defines the key features of secondary and tertiary interventions and presents a decision-making process to guide schools through a continuum of strategies at these levels. The continuum is

Terrance M. Scott; Michael Rosenberg; Peter J. Alter; Chris Borgmeier

2010-01-01

197

Decision-making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Although the conceptual foundations of PBS at the universal level have been widely described and presented in the literature, secondary and tertiary interventions have been presented through very limited examples. This paper defines the key features of secondary and tertiary interventions and presents a decision-making process to guide schools through a continuum of strategies at these levels. The continuum is

Terrance M. Scott; Michael Rosenberg; Peter J. Alter; Chris Borgmeier

2010-01-01

198

Using a dynamic, introductory-level volcanoes class as a means to introduce non-science majors to the geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the University of California, San Diego, I teach a quarter-long, introductory Earth Science class titled "Volcanoes," which is, in essence, a functional class in volcanology designed specifically for non-majors. This large-format (enrollment ~ 85), lecture-based class provides students from an assortment of backgrounds an opportunity to acquire much-needed (and sometimes dreaded) area credits in science, while also serving as an introduction to the Earth Science major at UCSD (offered through Scripps Institution of Oceanography). The overall goal of the course is to provide students with a stimulating and exciting general science option that, using an inherently interesting topic, introduces them to the fundamentals of geoscience. A secondary goal is to promote general science and geoscience literacy among the general population of UCSD. Student evaluations of this course unequivocally indicate a high degree of learning and interest in the material. The majority of students in the class (>80%) are non-science majors and very few students (<3%) are Earth science degree-seeking students. In addition, only a handful of students have typically had any form of geology class beyond high school level Earth Science. Consequently, there are challenges associated with teaching the class. Perhaps most significantly, students have very little background—background that is necessary for understanding the processes involved in volcanic eruptions. Second, many non-science students have built-in anxieties with respect to math and science, anxieties that must be considered when designing curriculum and syllabi. It is essential to provide the right balance of technical information while remaining in touch with the audience. My approach to the class involves a dynamic lecture format that incorporates a wide array of multimedia, analogue demonstrations of volcanic processes, and small-group discussions of topics and concepts. In addition to teaching about volcanoes—a fascinating subject in and of itself—I take the opportunity in the first two weeks to introduce students to basic geology, including tectonics, earth materials, surface processes, and geologic time. In fact, this is a vital segment of the class, as the students need this background for the latter portions of the class. A side benefit is that students are provided with a "mini" education in geology whether they know it or not and take this knowledge with them into other classes, and ultimately, their futures. Student satisfaction is uniformly very high with this class. 100% of students agreed that the course material was intellectually stimulating; 95% of students agreed that they learned a great deal from the course; 100% of students stated that they would recommend the class to other students. Overall, the class highlights the role that non-major introductory-level geoscience classes, in particular ones with interesting topics, can serve in educating college-level students about Earth Science. They may also serve as a gateway into the Earth Sciences for students who previously had no such inclination.

Cook, G. W.

2012-12-01

199

High Level Community Perspective of VxOs and Their Science Expectations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years NASA has initiated a program to develop a set of Virtual Observatories (VxOs, where the “x” represents a discipline, such as the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory, or VMO). From a high level perspective the VxOs fulfill an important, if not essential, role in fulfilling NASA’s open data policy. VxOs are envisaged as being portals for access to many different types and sources of data, thereby removing the need for an individual to access separate data sources, with different query and data transfer mechanisms. New missions are expected to develop Project Data Management Plans that adhere to NASA’s open data policy, and the VxOs are clearly a mechanism to ensure that data are disseminated to as large a community as possible. That being said, there are some concerns. First, a mission cannot rely on a VxO being present, as a VxO’s existence depends on programmatic decisions separate from mission-specific programmatic decisions. Second, since early in a mission, much of the expertise needed to interpret the data resides within the mission science team, the VxO may not have enough resources to disseminate the necessary knowledge. Independent scientists may consequently find themselves using the primary mission data source, rather than going through the VxO. This leads to a secondary concern with VxOs, which is the need for extensive metadata to characterize and catalog the data. Early in a mission, while all parties may have the best of intentions, there will in all likelihood be insufficient time and resources to develop the necessary metadata for the VxOs. This can be partially mitigated through the adoption of an incremental approach to metadata development for the VxO. But, since many of the properties of the mission, its instruments, and the data they provide will not be fully understood until well into the mission, it is likely that VxOs will have greatest utility for mature missions. One last aspect of VxOs comes from the user perspective. It is important that VxOs make extensive use of “beta testers.” What is important for a VxO is not that it have a clever interface, but that it provide quick access to datasets by constructing the appropriate queries, and that it is flexible enough to handle both large and small data requests.

Strangeway, R. J.

2009-12-01

200

An introduction of Tertiary Peritonitis  

PubMed Central

Intraperitoneal infection known as peritonitis is a major killer in the practice of clinical surgery. Tertiary peritonitis (TP) may be defined as intra-abdominal infection that persists or recurs ³48 h following successful and adequate surgical source control. A planned or on-demand relaparotomy after an initial operation is probably most frequent way to diagnose TP, but is a late event to occur. Hence it is desirable to have timely and nonoperative diagnosis of TP after the initial operation and subsequent initiation of an appropriate therapy to reduce the complications and to improve the outcome.

Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Tiwary, Satyendra Kumar; Mishra, Manjaree; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-01-01

201

Effect of four instructional strategies on integrated science process skill achievement of preservice elementary teachers having different cognitive development levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two instructors with 7 classes and 165 students were in this study. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of\\u000a cooperative learning techniques and instruction with microcomputer-based laboratories on the achievement of preservice elementary\\u000a teachers (with different operational levels of cognitive development) in acquiring integrated science process skills and enhancing\\u000a formal thinking abilities. Cooperative learning is an

George O’Brien; Joseph Peters

1994-01-01

202

Primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of phototherapy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of the cellular effects of phototherapy into primary, secondary and tertiary types is an aid to understanding variation in the predictability of the events that follow its application. Primary effects are generally restricted to the absorption of photons by cytochromes and catalytic interactions with these and other intracellular molecules. If suprathreshold, they stimulate cell activity, initiating secondary anabolic effects in those cells affected by the photons. These events can also be initiated by nonphotonic stimuli. Some of the secondary effects, such as growth factor secretion, can produce effects in cells that did not absorb photons. It is proposed that this group of effects be classified as tertiary. Primary effects are strongly predictable, secondary effects less so, being dependent on cell sensitivity, while tertiary effects are the least predictable, being affected by variation in both the internal and external environment and by intercellular interactions. The investigation of primary and secondary effects of phototherapy can be used to determine which irradiation parameters are ineffective in vitro and therefore cannot be effective in vivo. Since tertiary effects predominate in vivo only clinical testing can demonstrate which parameters are most likely to be effective, and with what level of predictability. It is essential that all relevant exposure conditions be recorded and disseminated if experimental work is to be of clinical value. It is also essential that all relevant information about the target of phototherapy, be it molecule, organelle, cell, healthy volunteer or patient, be recorded and disseminated.

Dyson, Mary

2006-03-01

203

Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

1986-02-01

204

An instructional package integrating science and social studies instruction at the fifth-grade level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrative education is being implemented by classroom teachers who want to immerse students in an environment rich in problem-solving skills, critical analysis skills, ethics, valuing of knowledge, and communication of learning. Several subject areas in the curriculum have been integrated, such as literature with social studies and mathematics with science. The focus of this dissertation is on the integration of

Kathy Louise Sullivan Hulley

1998-01-01

205

Grade Level and Science Achievement: US Performance in Cross-National Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how international differences in age-grade distributions and grade effects contribute to science scores among 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. As shown in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, countries vary substantially in the grade distribution of 15-year-olds. The costs…

Dalton, Benjamin

2012-01-01

206

Classroom management at the university level: lessons from a former high school earth science teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just a few days before my career as a fledgling science teacher began in a large public high school in New York City, a mentor suggested I might get some ideas about how to run a classroom from a book called The First Days Of School by Harry Wong. Although the book seemed to concentrate more on elementary students, I

C. Lazar

2009-01-01

207

Student Perception of Metacognitive Activities in Entry-Level Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study investigated student perception of the use of metacognitive activities in the classroom. The courses were large enrollment (n greater than 100) introductory Plant and Soil Sciences courses taught in the fall semester. The courses implemented activities such as concept sketches or conceptual modeling to help students develop their…

Sandall, Leah; Mamo, Martha; Speth, Carol; Lee, Don; Kettler, Timothy

2014-01-01

208

Gender Differences in Science, Math, and Technology Careers: Prestige Level and Holland Interest Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in Holland's occupational interest types and occupational prestige for persons in a science, math, or technical (SMT) career. Participants were 113 (62 female, 51 male) young adults followed up in 1990 from a larger Midwest longitudinal study involving six high schools first assessed in 1980. Their 1990 occupations (n= 71) or college majors (n= 42)

Helen Farmer; Susanne Rotella; Carolyn Anderson; James Wardrop

1998-01-01

209

Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

2013-01-01

210

Barriers and Supports for Continuing in Mathematics and Science: Gender and Educational Level Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents three studies that provide an in-depth examination of STEM-related supports and barriers. These studies constructed an instrument to identify male and female perceptions of the barriers and supports for pursuing coursework and/or careers in mathematics and sciences domains; to pilot test and refine that instrument; and then…

Fouad, Nadya A.; Hackett, Gail; Smith, Philip L.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Haag, Susan; Spencer, Dee

2010-01-01

211

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

212

The Science Shortfall: An Analysis of the Shortage of Suitably Qualified Science Teachers in Australian Schools and the Policy Implications for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Declining enrollment in the physical sciences at university is causing concern among higher education institutions, governments and industry. In response, renewed attention is being paid to the tertiary science background of school teachers, given their key role in both preparing and enthusing students for tertiary science study. A recent study,…

Harris, Kerri-Lee; Farrell, Kelly

2007-01-01

213

Changing Tertiary Education in Modern European Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent developments and problems in the diversification of tertiary education in seven Western European countries are presented by members of the Working Party on the Diversification of Tertiary Education. Policy analysis and evaluation and recommendations for future policy are also provided. As a policy, diversification refers to the…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

214

Reductive amination of tertiary anilines and aldehydes.  

PubMed

An unprecedented oxidant-mediated reductive amination of tertiary anilines and aldehydes without external reducing agents was developed via the nucleophilic attack of the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group to in situ generated iminium ions, in which tertiary anilines were used as both nitrogen source and reducing agent for the first time. PMID:23963514

Lv, Yunhe; Zheng, Yiying; Li, Yan; Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Qian

2013-10-01

215

Tertiary Education in Australia: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliography on tertiary education in Australia is presented. The following topics are included: tertiary education of aborigines; academic salaries; colleges of advanced education; community colleges; the constitutional and legal basis of education; courses and awards; educational policy and the politics of education; entrance requirements;…

Lundberg, Kristine, Comp.

216

Herbivory in early Tertiary Arctic forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Tertiary High Arctic forest ecosystems are unique in that they have no equivalent among modern forests. Today, no forest ecosystem exists at such high latitudes. To assess the potential role of herbivory during the early Tertiary warm period at high latitudes, we have surveyed 1567 fossil angiosperm leaves from Svalbard for the presence or absence of 35 insect damage

Torsten Wappler; Thomas Denk

2011-01-01

217

Asymmetric synthesis of tertiary thiols and thioethers  

PubMed Central

Summary Enantiomerically pure tertiary thiols provide a major synthetic challenge, and despite the importance of chiral sulfur-containing compounds in biological and medicinal chemistry, surprisingly few effective methods are suitable for the asymmetric synthesis of tertiary thiols. This review details the most practical of the methods available.

MacLellan, Paul

2011-01-01

218

Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on tertiary education and training during 2010, including statistics on participation and outcomes. The definition of tertiary education and training adopted for this publication is formal study in vocational education and training (VET) and higher education, including enrolments in Australian Qualifications…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

2012-01-01

219

Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

Kerr, Rebecca

220

How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or are considering doing so, however, are not just concerned with “getting the science right” or getting the most credible and relevant information. They immediately, and sometimes primarily, are concerned with the reactions of coastal residents, developers, and business interests to the prospects of potentially difficult and substantial changes in coastal land use, their property rights, and the potential loss of their homes and establishments. How to engage the public constructively in developing adaptation strategies is a largely unmet challenge for most coastal managers. Similarly, they have not been trained in how to effectively communicate an issue that is ripe with the potential for loss, danger, and social and legal conflict - more so than they already face. Better physical science on sea-level rise alone will not meet these needs. Meanwhile, the social sciences have only begun to study public attitudes toward local impacts and adaptation responses. This paper will summarize key insights available at this time and point to important research and education/training needs to better assist practitioners faced with developing and implementing coastal adaptation strategies.

Moser, S. C.

2010-12-01

221

Graduate student involvement with designing inquiry-based Earth science field projects for the secondary-level classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a secondary-level Earth System Science (ESS) curriculum, the most authentic learning is achieved through the inquiry-based application of real-world research methods in the context of modern understanding of the interconnected components of the Earth System (e.g. lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere). Following the intensive ESST-1 summer institute at UNH, during which teachers enhance their ESS content knowledge via interactions with UNH faculty, staff, and graduate students, each participating teacher is paired with one graduate student fellow for the duration of the school year. This graduate fellow provides a continuing link between the secondary-level school teaching environment and university resources, facilitating the implementation of new content knowledge and current scientific research methodology into the classroom setting. According to the National Science Education Standards (1), scientific inquiry is the central strategy for teaching science. "In successful science classrooms, teachers and students collaborate in the pursuit of ideas... Students formulate questions and devise ways to answer them, they collect data and decide how to represent it, they organize data to generate knowledge, and they test the reliability of the knowledge they have generated. As they proceed, students explain and justify their work to themselves and to one another, learn to cope with problems such as the limitations of equipment, and react to challenges posed by the teacher and by classmates." To speak to these goals, an ongoing local wetland field study has been conceptualized and implemented in three example classrooms (seventh grade general science, ninth grade physical science and tenth grade biology) in two school systems (Oyster River Middle School in Durham, NH and Berlin High School in Berlin, NH). These field studies were conducted using authentic scientific equipment to collect data, including a Li-Cor 840 infrared CO2 analyzer and handmade sediment coring devices. Students utilized GPS and Google Earth technology both to facilitate the generation of research questions and for accurate geographic location during their field studies. An emphasis was placed on maintaining organized records of observations and data using field notebooks. Every site visit was followed by teacher-guided data analyses, and students communicated their results through a variety of formats, including posters, written reports, and oral presentations. These authentic research experiences create an initial data set which may be referenced in future classroom studies, while effectively engaging students in ESS topics that meet national and state educational standards. (1) National Research Council, 1996.

McDermott, J. M.; Scherf, L.; Ward, S.; Cady, P.; Bromley, J.; Varner, R. K.; Froburg, E.

2008-12-01

222

Low-Cost Science and Technology Materials at Kindergarten Level (Examples of National Institutions of Democratic People's Republic of Korea, People's Republic of China and Brasilia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing attention is being paid today to the place of science in general education at the preprimary, primary, and secondary levels. Educational authorities and specialists in many countries throughout the world agree about the important role that science should and can play in the context of education, but specific aims and objectives must be…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

223

A Comparison of Two Laboratory Methods for the Teaching of General Physical Science at the College Level: Vicarious Experimentation Versus Conventional Experimentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study comparing two laboratory teaching methods used with a college level general physical science course. The criterion instruments used were: (1) Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal; (2) The Sequential Test of Educational Progress; (3) Nelson-Denny Reading Test; (4) Welch Science Process Inventory; and (5) The Smith Appraisal…

Smith, Melvin Ouston

224

The Effects of Using Problem-Based Learning in Science and Technology Teaching upon Students' Academic Achievement and Levels of Structuring Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the problem-based learning method used in science and technology teaching upon elementary school students' construction levels for the concepts concerning the "Systems in Our Body" unit in the science and technology course and their academic achievement. To this end, during the four-week…

Inel, Didem; Balim, Ali Gunay

2010-01-01

225

Where can we find future K-12 science and math teachers? a search by academic year, discipline, and academic performance level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to the increasing math and science teacher shortage in the United States, this study intended to determine which science, engineering, and math (SEM) majors during which years in their undergraduate education and from which academic performance levels are most interested in K-12 teaching. Results may aid policymakers and practitioners in making most effective use of this traditional undergraduate candidate

Laura J. Moin; Jennifer K. Dorfield; Christian D. Schunn

2005-01-01

226

MultiLevel Modeling of Dyadic Data in Sport Sciences: Conceptual, Statistical, and Practical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to present a series of conceptual, statistical, and practical issues in the modeling of multi-level dyadic data. Distinctions are made between distinguishable and undistinguishable dyads and several types of independent variables modeled at the dyadic level of analysis. Multi-level modeling equations are explained in a non-technical manner. A database of 66 athletes regrouped in

Patrick Gaudreau; Marie-Claude Fecteau; Stéphane Perreault

2010-01-01

227

Change in science teaching behaviors: Evaluating the impact of a collaborative learning network at the level of practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the results of research designed to explore the impact of a science and technology collaborative network called the Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN) on the teaching practices of Kansas City, Kansas elementary and middle school science teachers. Research questions were developed around the theory that collaborative networks provide teachers the kind of support they need to create contexts conducive to change. Hence, research questions first dealt with determining whether teachers, who had participated in the network for two years, reported changes in their teaching practices. Subsequent questions asked teachers to describe these changes and to describe the role KanCRN played in the change process. Analysis, during the first phase of the investigation, was based on the KanCRN Teacher Practice Survey Data. Data analysis revealed that change in teacher practice had occurred. The second phase of the investigation sought to build a descriptive picture of the role KanCRN played in the change process. Interview data revealed that teachers described changes in their teaching practices concurrent with those specified by science education reform documents. KanCRN teachers also noted personal changes in pedagogical skill, and science content knowledge. These changes served as a catalyst for the behavioral changes cited. Moreover, teachers expressed changes in their views of the nature of science that also transferred to the types of classroom teaching behaviors now employed. Teachers credited network participation as the force behind the change. Teachers cited (a) challenging pedagogical and technological training, (b) interactive real world experiences with science content, (c) progressive technological tools and materials, and (d) personal guidance from mentors who respected and valued teachers as knowledgeable professionals critical for promoting change. One conclusion drawn from this study is that collaborative networks are capable on influencing the types of teaching behaviors used by elementary and middle school teachers. However, network offerings must employ a combination of adaptable features that meet the individual learning needs of the teachers as well as the individual contextual they serve. Another major conclusion drawn from this study is that to be successful agents of change, collaborative networks must allow teachers to behave in ways atypical of most change efforts. First, participation in collaborative networks must be participatory. Moreover, teachers must be able to participate as they deem fit. There can be no predetermined prescription for level of participation. Second, network facilitators or activities should not be intent on bringing a teacher to a particular standard of behavior. Finally, teachers must be allowed to construct the network elements intended to change their practice. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Carroll, Teresa Mae

228

Biopolitical science.  

PubMed

This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

Arnhart, Larry

2010-03-01

229

Psychiatric emergencies in a tertiary care hospital.  

PubMed

People with psychiatric problems often visit a general hospital. Many of them require emergency service. B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) is one of the few health institutes in Nepal providing comprehensive 24-hour psychiatric emergency service. This study aims to document the pattern of psychiatric emergencies in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern Nepal. All psychiatric emergencies referred from different departments in 30 random days during a six-month period were enrolled. This is a descriptive study with convenience sampling method where the diagnoses were made based on the'International Classification of Disease and Infirmity' (ICD-10). One hundred twenty-nine cases were referred in the study period. The M:F ratio was 1.3:1. The service users were predominantly young adults. The majority of cases were seen in the emergency department and medical ward. The most common causes for the consultation were behavioral problems (39%), altered consciousness (32%) and somatic complaints (17%). Approximately 83% received the diagnosis of Category F of the ICD-10. Mental and behavioral disorder due to substance use (F10-19) was the most common disorder (30%), followed by mood/affective disorders (23%) and neurotic, stress-related anxiety disorders (16%). Roughly 46% had co-morbid physical illnesses and 8% received only a physical diagnosis. About 20% had attempted suicide using different means, poisoning being the most common. Emergency psychiatric consultation for mental problems is sought by almost all departments of a general hospital. These consultations are most commonly sought for substance use, mood or anxiety disorders. PMID:18552889

Shakya, D R; Shyangwa, P M; Shakya, R

2008-01-01

230

METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE): Gasoline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation of Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), also known as an oxygenate, a chemical compound used as a gasoline additive to enhance the octane and subsequently burn the fuel more completely.

2007-04-08

231

The Cretaceous/Tertiary Extinction Controversy Reconsidered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews varying positions taken in the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/Y) extinction controversy. Analyzes and contests the meteoritic impact theory known as the Alvarez Model. Presents an alternative working hypothesis explaining the K/T transition. (ML)

McCartney, Kevin; Nienstedt, Jeffrey

1986-01-01

232

Tertiary aralkyl urethanes and isocyanates derived therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Production of tertiary aralkyl isocyanates, such as tetramethyl xylylene diisocyanates, by thermal cracking of corresponding urethanes formed by addition of corresponding olefins and carbamic acid esters at moderate temperatures and in the presence of acid catalyst.

Singh, B.; Chang, L.W.; Forgione, P.S.

1984-03-27

233

Restructuring support staff classification levels for academic health sciences library positions.  

PubMed

Nonprofessional library support staff traditionally hold what are considered to be low-paying, nonchallenging positions. These negative factors make retaining creative and productive employees difficult. This article outlines the approach taken at the Medical College of Georgia's Robert B. Greenblatt, M.D. Library to devise a structure of library staff positions that becomes progressively more demanding. A new nine-level Library Staff Classification Plan resulted. This plan also enables and encourages employees to acquire more skills and to accept more responsibility in order to qualify for higher-level library positions or to advance their present position to receive comparable rewards. The plan expresses the level of responsibilities expected, the employee qualifications desired, and lists representative duties across the spectrum of typical library tasks. PMID:2393758

McCann, J C; Davis, S E; Trainor, D J; Waller, D K; Greenblatt, R B

1990-07-01

234

Job Stress, Satisfaction, and Coping Strategies Among Medical Interns in a South Indian Tertiary Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. Aims: A modified version of the health consultant's job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ) was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. Settings and Design: A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical interns doing a rotating internship at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. Materials and Methods: After completion of 6 months of internship, the modified version of the HCJSSQ was administered to all participants. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 9 by double data entry technique. Percentages of interns reporting high levels of stress, satisfaction were calculated. Results: While 63.4% of interns reported high levels of satisfaction, 45.2% of the interns experienced high levels of stress, 17.6% coped with work stress by using alcohol and nicotine, and 37% coped through unhealthy eating habits. Conclusion: More people found internship satisfying than stressful. However, a high proportion found it stressful, and many reported unhealthy coping mechanisms.

Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Edwin, Natasha C; Braganza, Deepa

2014-01-01

235

Communicating Climate Change Science to Stakeholders for Assessments of Impact and Adaptation: Experiences at the Municipal Level in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of climate change impacts and the identification of adaptation strategies require understandable communication of climate change science and its uncertainties to a diverse group of stakeholders. This paper will report on the experience being gained from a set of municipal case studies conducted in Canada, where climate change impacts such as water resource depletion, permafrost melting and coastal sea level rise are being addressed. Two aspects will be discussed: the local process of stakeholder interaction and the effort to bring the local experiences to a national level through development of municipal best practice guides. Ideally, stakeholders are engaged at the local level through a structured process. This is to avoid the common problem that pre-existing tensions between stakeholders tend to dominate unstructured discussions and distract attention from the target issue. One-on-one interviews with the stakeholders and research into the socio-economic history of the communities provide background on the issues that may arise before group workshops are attempted. When workshops involving stakeholders are held, they are professionally facilitated and the science delivery is carefully rationed into digestible portions that enable informed discussion of specific climate change scenarios. Municipalities can be engaged at political, practitioner and public levels not only as major stakeholders, but also as key partners in the communication process. We have used presentations to council, direct involvement of city planning departments and public events such as Science and Technology Week to nurture two-way communication. We have also put considerable thought into the effort to communicate these experiences to the over one thousand communities across the country that will not benefit from a case study. Our initial approach was to develop best practice guides on climate change topics based on the successes and lessons learned in the case studies. While the idea has been generally welcomed by organizations representing Canadian municipalities and professional planners, the large matrix of user groups and climate change issues makes the development of generic climate change best practice guides extremely challenging. An alternate approach would be to contribute climate change sections to existing and future best practice guides developed by the professional organizations concerned with municipal infrastructure, environment and land use. We are presently organizing a national workshop to canvas user groups on the best form for the guides.

Hill, P. R.; Mate, D.; Tansey, J. D.

2004-12-01

236

Secondary-Level Physical Science Teachers and Teaching in Kansas: Survey Results from the Early 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all Kansas physical sciences (chemistry, general science, physical science, and physics) teachers (36 percent return rate) in the Spring of 1991 provided elements of a profile of physical sciences teachers and teaching. Findings are presented concerning teaching assignments, course enrollments, school demographics, teacher background…

Backhus, DeWayne

237

Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

Baker, Daniel

2001-01-01

238

Policy Issues in the Teaching and Learning of the Mathematical Sciences at University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics education at every level is increasingly influenced by powerful bureaucrats rather than by the profession. Suggests that mathematical scientists should try to understand the political forces affecting mathematics education for the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) study on teaching and learning mathematics at…

Thomas, Jan

2000-01-01

239

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge to Science and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often subsiding and densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Faced with a trade-off between imposing the very high costs

H. Plag

2009-01-01

240

Diagnostic assessment of preparedness of level one sports science students for biomechanics modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the prepardness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon completion of

Sharon J. Dixon

2005-01-01

241

Do Content, Format, and Level of Inquiry Affect Scores on Open-Ended Science Tasks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated three factors that may contribute to the large variation in student performance across open-ended measures. These factors are content domain, format (whether the task required only pencil and paper or involved a hands-on manipulation of equipment), and level of inquiry (whether the task guided the student toward the…

Stecher, Brian M.; Klein, Stephen P.; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; McCaffrey, Dan; Robyn, Abby; Shavelson, Richard J.; Haertel, Edward

242

Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

Dixon, Sharon J.

2005-01-01

243

Science PhD Career Preferences: Levels, Changes, and Advisor Encouragement  

PubMed Central

Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or “alternative careers.” There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

Sauermann, Henry; Roach, Michael

2012-01-01

244

Latitudinal gradients in tertiary molluscan faunas of the Pacific coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tertiary molluscan faunas of the middle latitudes of the marginal eastern North Pacific are characterized by warm-water taxa whose descendants now live in more southerly latitudes. A series of profiles in which cumulative percentages of warm-water faunal elements are plotted against latitude show progressive northward decreases in the percentage of these elements in the faunas of Pacific coast Tertiary stages. Systematic changes in the relative position of these latitudinal gradients during the Middle and Late Tertiary are related to climatic change in the Pacific Basin. Widespread tropical marine climate in the middle latitudes of the eastern North Pacific during the Eocene is indicated by widespread faunal units characterized by high levels of taxonomic diversity. Succeeding Early Oligocene faunas are less diverse, suggesting cooler climatic conditions. Unusually low representations of warm-water genera characterize the molluscan faunas of the Acila shumardi Zone in central California (latitude 34??-37??N). The anomalously cool-water aspect of these faunas may record the occurrence of upwelling along a bold linear segment of the Pacific coast. During the Late Oligocene or the Early Miocene, they are replaced by faunas of unusually warm-water aspect resulting in positive anomalies in Miocene latitudinal faunal gradients in central California. The Miocene anomalies seem to result from the development of an irregular Neogene coastline with extensive, newly established shallow-water embayments. ?? 1970.

Addicott, W. O.

1970-01-01

245

Assessing Science Pathways: Tracking Science Education and Careers from Precollege through Professional Levels. Undergraduate Program Directors Meeting (Chevy Chase, MD, September 30-October 2, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the results of a meeting of undergraduate biology departments that receive funding from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The focus of this meeting was the assessment of science pathways. Discussion focused on assessment, predictors of student success in science, the importance of undergraduate research, career choices,…

Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Chevy Chase, MD. Office of Grants and Special Programs.

246

A Comparison of the Readability of Community College Social Science Textbooks with Student Reading Levels and the Effect on Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A determination of the reading grade placement levels (GPLs) and final course grades of community college students in relationship to the GPLs of their assigned social science textbooks was the focus of a study at Citrus Community College (Florida). Dale-Chall readability placement levels were calculated for eight textbooks used in 19 classes of…

Bertalan, John J.

247

The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

Deboer, George E.

1981-01-01

248

"G.P.S Matrices" programme: A method to improve the mastery level of social science students in matrices operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this action research was to increase the mastery level of Form Five Social Science students in Tawau II National Secondary School in the operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices in Mathematics. A total of 30 students were involved. Preliminary findings through the analysis of pre-test results and questionnaire had identified the main problem faced in which the students felt confused with the application of principles of the operations of matrices when performing these operations. Therefore, an action research was conducted using an intervention programme called "G.P.S Matrices" to overcome the problem. This programme was divided into three phases. 'Gift of Matrices' phase aimed at forming matrix teaching aids. The second and third phases were 'Positioning the Elements of Matrices' and 'Strenghtening the Concept of Matrices'. These two phases were aimed at increasing the level of understanding and memory of the students towards the principles of matrix operations. Besides, this third phase was also aimed at creating an interesting learning environment. A comparison between the results of pre-test and post-test had shown a remarkable improvement in students' performances after implementing the programme. In addition, the analysis of interview findings also indicated a positive feedback on the changes in students' attitude, particularly in the aspect of students' understanding level. Moreover, the level of students' memory also increased following the use of the concrete matrix teaching aids created in phase one. Besides, teachers felt encouraging when conducive learning environment was created through students' presentation activity held in third phase. Furthermore, students were voluntarily involved in these student-centred activities. In conclusion, this research findings showed an increase in the mastery level of students in these three matrix operations and thus the objective of the research had been achieved.

Lee, Ken Voon

2013-04-01

249

Safer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

Roy, Ken

2011-01-01

250

Building an electronic book on the Internet: ''CSEP -- an interdisciplinary syllabus for teaching computational science at the graduate level''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computational Science Education Project was initiated in September 1991, by the Department of Energy to develop a syllabus for teaching interdisciplinary computational science. CSEP has two major activities. The writing and maintenance of an electroni...

C. E. Oliver M. R. Strayer V. M. Umar

1994-01-01

251

Forces. 'O' Level Teacher's Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Udwin, Martin

252

Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

Udwin, Martin

253

Building an electronic book on the Internet: “CSEP-an interdisciplinary syllabus for teaching computational science at the graduate level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computational Science Education Project was initiated in September 1991, by the US Department of Energy to develop a syllabus for teaching interdisciplinary computational science. CSEP has two major activites: the writing and maintenance of an electronic book (e-book); and educational outreach to the computational science communities through presentations at professional society meetings, journal articles, and by training educators. The

C. E. Oliver; M. R. Strayer; V. M. Umar

1994-01-01

254

Science, computational science, and computer science: at a crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe computational science as an interdisciplinary approach to doing science on computers. Our purpose is to introduce computational science as a legitimate interest of computer scientists.We present a possible foundation for computational science. These foundations show that there is a need to consider computational aspects of science at the scientific level. We next present some obstacles to computer scientists'

D. E. Stevenson

1993-01-01

255

What type and level of science content knowledge of elementary education students affect their ability to construct an inquiry-based science lesson?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various governmental and professional organizations recommend that teachers use, an inquiry-based approach to science\\u000a education, most teachers do not use this pedagogy. Lack of content knowledge and\\/or insufficient skills in planning inquiry-based\\u000a lessons may contribute to teachers’ reluctance to utilize this methodological approach. This study explores the relationship\\u000a between science content knowledge and inquiry-based lesson planning ability. The authors

Gail R. Luera; Richard H. Moyer; Susan A. Everett

2005-01-01

256

Tertiary filtration in small wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Tertiary filtration can be proposed in small wastewater treatment plants with impact on protected water bodies. Rotating disk filters may be adopted, in respect to conventional sand filters, when low availability of space and low investment costs are the prevailing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate the filtration efficiency of rotating disk filters; to compare effectiveness with traditional sand filters; to analyse thoroughly the importance of particle size distribution in wastewater tertiary filtration. In the experimental activity, conventional wastewater quality parameters were investigated and particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized to discuss the filter effectiveness. The effect of design and operation parameters of tertiary filters were discussed related to particle removal curves derived from particles counts. Analysis of particle size distribution can be very useful to help comprehension of filtration processes, design of filtration treatments and to decide the best measures to improve filter performance. PMID:17506441

Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

2007-01-01

257

Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding  

SciTech Connect

Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A. (JHU); (Maryland)

2013-04-08

258

Cooperative tertiary interaction network guides RNA folding  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Non-coding RNAs form unique three-dimensional structures, which perform many biochemical and regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting and native PAGE. Double and triple mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on native state stability. Instead, formation of core and peripheral structural motifs are cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native topology of the ribozyme. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses non-native structures and makes the search for the native state more efficient. We suggest that cooperativity in non-coding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures that promote a unique fold despite a rugged energy landscape.

Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, Robert M.; Woodson1, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

259

Cultures of Learning: Critical Reading in the Social and Applied Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares course requirements and student reading practices in a selection of units in business, engineering, health science, and social science and the findings challenge prevailing ideas of what constitutes tertiary literacy in Australian universities. (Author/VWL)

Kirkpatrick, Andy; Mulligan, Denise

2002-01-01

260

A Delphi study: Practitioners' perceptions of how the science curriculum is differentiated for academically gifted students at the middle school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and compare the perceptions of selected district science educators and teachers of middle school science students regarding the following issues: (1) Current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (2) Strengths of the current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (3) Weaknesses of the current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (4) The types of training/experience needed to prepare teachers to effectively differentiate science instruction for gifted middle school students. (5) The steps need to develop an effective differentiated science program at the middle school level. (6) Trends for the future development of differentiated science programs at the middle school level. The panel of educators was identified using the Delphi technique and asked to participate in the study by responding to the research questions. The responses to the first round were condensed into two lists of discrete statements, and in the second round, each group of panelists was asked to rank each statement on a Likert scale. A third round was sent to each group of panel members showing the median and interquartile ranges of the second round. Panelists could adjust their responses based on the results of the second round. The analysis of the data was computed using the computer program Statistics Package for the Social Sciences. Based on the data obtained, the following results and conclusions were determined. The coordinators and the teachers both considered training of teachers, strategies for differentiation, and future trends to be the most important considerations. The areas with the most differences were those dealing with the current methods of differentiating science instruction at the middle school level. There were several limitations identified in this study. Among them were the makeup of the sample of panelists and different definitions of the same term(s). If we are to address the needs of middle school students who are academically gifted in science, teachers and coordinators need to communicate more about expectations in the classroom and what is really happening.

Kelley, Jean Mary

261

Using Science Teaching Case Narratives to Evaluate the Level of Acceptance of Scientific Inquiry Teaching in Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry.\\u000a Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to\\u000a evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of a positive and negative\\u000a science teaching case narrative. These case

Ron Wagler

2010-01-01

262

Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…

Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

263

The Cretaceous/Tertiary Extinction Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cause of the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction has become a major geologic controversy. Current evidence for the two opposing views is reviewed to provide an introduction to the controversy and to form the basis for a seminar of discussion topic. (Author/JN)

McCartney, Kevin

1984-01-01

264

Gas Gangrene at Tertiary Care Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : To study gas gangrene isolates at tertiary care centre. Methods : Analysis of a series of 206 cases of gas gangrene was done over a period of 2 yr (Dec. 2004 - Dec. 2006). Results : Clostridium perfringens was cultured in 58 (90.6%) of the cases, Clostridium tertium were isolated in 5 (7.8%) and clostridium tetani in 1

A Sonavane; M Mathur

265

[A case of active tertiary syphilis].  

PubMed

A case of tertiary active syphilis in a 41-year-old male patient is described, who had not been administered specific treatment. Clinical symptoms of the disease manifested without apparent provoking factors; they were characterized by extensive involvement and no visceral abnormalities. PMID:2609774

Borisenko, K K; Vinokurov, I N; Toporovski?, L M; Riumin, D V; Vavilov, A M

1989-01-01

266

An Effective Preparation for Tertiary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Auckland offers a one-year pre-degree Tertiary Foundation Certificate (TFC) Programme, for up to 200 students who are under-prepared for university study. The students may come straight from school without having gained a university entrance qualification, or they may be students returning to education who lack the confidence to…

Parnell, Sheena; Statham, Moira

2007-01-01

267

Investigating the Secondary-Tertiary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secondary-tertiary transition has been studied in a great amount of research in mathematics education, adopting different focuses and theoretical approaches. I present here how these focuses led the authors to identify and study different students' difficulties and to develop different means of didactical action. Individual, social, but also…

Gueudet, Ghislaine

2008-01-01

268

Nothofagus macrofossils from the Tertiary of Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves assignable to Nothofagus from two fossil deposits in Tasmania represent the first macrofossils of this genus from the Tertiary in southeastern Australia. One fossil species, N. johnstonii, is closely related to the extant Australian species N. cunninghamii while the other fossil species, N. tasmanica, has very close affinites with the extant Australian species N. moorei. All four of these

Robert S. Hill

1983-01-01

269

Tertiary Nothofagus macrofossils from Cethana, Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Tertiary species of Nothofagus from the Early Eocene-Oligocene deposit at Cethana represent the first reports of fossil species which are not closely related to the extant Australian species N. moorei and N. cunninghamii. N. cethanica sp. nov. is most closely related to the extant New Zealand species N. fusca and N. truncata and gives further evidence of the

Robert S. Hill

1984-01-01

270

Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

2011-01-01

271

Tertiary Aminourea-Catalyzed Enantioselective Iodolactonization  

PubMed Central

Binding the anion: A highly enantioselective iodolactonization of 5-hexenoic acids has been achieved using a tertiary aminourea-catalyst. The use of catalytic iodine in this process is critical to enhancing both the reactivity and enantioselectivity of the stoichiometric I+source.The mechanism is proposed to involve binding of an iodonium imidate intermediate by the H-bond donor catalyst.

Veitch, Gemma E.

2010-01-01

272

Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary o...

Bruce Cerveny Tor Kragas Travis Gillham

1998-01-01

273

Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

2011-01-01

274

High level science products from deep ACS and WFC3/IR imaging over the CDF-S/GOODS-S region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CDF-S, with its extensive datasets that include the well-known HUDF, GOODS and CANDELS fields, is a remarkable resource for studying distant galaxies. CDF-S is a unique region in the sky. An astonishing 6 Msec of Hubble data {nearly 2600 orbits of WFC3 and ACS data alone}, 6 Msec of Spitzer IRAC images, and 4 Msec of Chandra data, plus ground-based spectra, imaging and, now, ALMA observations, make this one of Hubble's key legacy areas. Remarkably, while the major areas, HUDF, GOODS and CANDELS are available as high-level data products, over 40% { 1000 orbits} of HST data are unavailable to the community as high-level science products and catalogs in MAST. This includes several deep fields, including the parallel field HUDF09-2 which reaches as deep in ACS { 400 orbits} as the HUDF. We propose to use our extensive experience processing and delivering HST ACS and WFC3/IR datasets to STScI MAST to now deliver a complete processed and aligned dataset of all deep fields and the deeper, but as-yet-unused, SNe follow-up and parallel datasets across the CDF-S. The same will be done for the much smaller but similar dataset on the HDF-N region. These data products will add substantially to our understanding of the build up of galaxies to z 6 in the first Gyr during reionization, and their impact on reionization, the development of galaxies over the subsequent Gyr to to the peak of the star formation rate in the universe around 2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang at z 2-3, and the transition of early star-forming galaxies to the full splendor of the Hubble sequence since z 2. These Hubble Legacy Field datasets will be of great value as the Frontier Fields are used by the community.;

Illingworth, Garth

2012-07-01

275

Clusters, Innovation and Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the integration between research findings produced at the University and Community College levels and local SMEs (small and medium enterprises) as it impacts regional innovation systems and in particular the prospect of cluster formation. The paper explores certain factors that have been identified in…

Madgett, Paul; Belanger, Charles H.; Mount, Joan

2005-01-01

276

Indirect-Collective Referencing (ICR) in the Elite Journal Literature of Physics. II. A Literature Science Study on the Level of Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues previous research on indirect-collective referencing (ICR) in physics literature, focusing on the level of communications and specific degree of documentedness of a communication. Explains ICR as a special kind of scientific referencing, mentioning references that are not indexed and hence not included in the Science Citation Index. (LRW)

Szava-Kovats, Endre

2002-01-01

277

Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

278

Impediments To Change: An Application of Force-Field Analysis to Leader Master Teacher Training in an Elementary Level Science Systemic Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies Leader Master Teachers' (LMTs) perceptions of restraining and driving forces in the implementation of an elementary-level science systemic reform initiative. A group process technique utilizing Lewin's force-field analysis concept provided the framework for professional development activities for 124 LMTs. Categories of supporting and…

Harwell, Sharon H.

2000-01-01

279

Early Childhood Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: The Influence of Intellectual Levels, Cultural Values, and Explicit Reflective Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tracked the influence of explicit reflective instructional methods on cultural values, ethical and intellectual development, and the relationship of these with preservice teachers' views of nature of science (NOS). The researchers used the Views of Nature of Science Form B (VNOS B) to describe NOS views, the Learning Context…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.

2008-01-01

280

Integration of Live Video and WWW Delivery Systems To Teach University Level Science, Technology, and Society in High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1997, the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater (UWW) provided Science and Technology in Society, a university general studies science literacy course, to advanced placement high school students at three local high schools, using a combination of live video presentations and World Wide Web (WWW) courseware. A total of 26 high school students…

Urven, Lance E.; Yin, L. Roger; Bak, John D.

281

Using Science Teaching Case Narratives to Evaluate the Level of Acceptance of Scientific Inquiry Teaching in Preservice Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of…

Wagler, Ron

2010-01-01

282

Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding Held by Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of senior secondary and tertiary level chemistry students' descriptions of their mental models for chemical bonding revealed prevalent alternative conceptions. Some 20 alternative conceptions were revealed, the most common being belief that continuous ionic or metallic lattices were molecular in nature, and confusion over ionic size…

Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

2001-01-01

283

The effect of the development of an emergency transfer system on the travel time to tertiary care centres in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, the emergency medical system is categorized into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary, depending on the severity of the condition of the patient. Tertiary care centres accept patients who require 24-h monitoring. In this research, the average travel times (minutes) from the centroids of all municipalities in Japan to the nearest tertiary care centre were estimated, using the geographic information system. The systems affecting travel time to tertiary care centres were also examined. Regression analysis was performed to determine the factors affecting the travel time to tertiary care centres, using selected variables representing road conditions and the emergency transfer system. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify specific benchmarks that would be effective in reducing the average travel time to tertiary care centres in prefectures with travel times longer than the average 57 min. Results The mean travel time was 57 min, the range was 83 min, and the standard deviation was 20.4. As a result of multiple regression analysis, average coverage area per tertiary care centre, kilometres of highway road per square kilometre, and population were selected as variables with impact on the average travel time. Based on results from linear regression analysis, benchmarks for the emergency transfer system that would effectively reduce travel time to the mean value of 57 min were identified: 26% pavement ratio of roads (percentage of paved road to general roads), and three tertiary care centres and 108 ambulances. Conclusion Regional gaps in the travel time to tertiary care centres were identified in Japan. The systems we should focus on to reducing travel time were identified. Further reduction of travel time to tertiary care centres can be effectively achieved by improving these specific systems. Linear regression analysis showed that a 26% pavement ratio and three tertiary care centres are beneficial to prefectures with an average time longer than the mean score, to achieve a reduction of travel time. Measures for reducing travel time need to be considered in policy-making to re-evaluate the current locations of tertiary care centres to provide equality of access to emergency medicine.

Miwa, Makiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Arima, Hideaki; Kawahara, Kazuo

2006-01-01

284

Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

Lehner, Ed

2007-04-01

285

LSST telescope primary\\/tertiary mirror hardpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes an 8.4-meter cast borosilicate primary\\/tertiary mirror (M1M3). This mirror system has stringent vibration and stiffness requirements because the LSST optical system does not include a fast steering mirror and the mission requires a short slew and settling time. The position stability of the M1M3 relative to the mirror cell is controlled by six

Joe Devries; Douglas Neill; Ed Hileman

2010-01-01

286

International Education: A Tertiary-Level Industry Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in the international education industry are notable in three respects. First, international student mobility has more than doubled in the last two decades or so. Second, programme mobility encompassing distance education has also led to new forms of cross-border education. Third, institution mobility through such commercial…

Naidoo, Vikash

2006-01-01

287

Greening agricultural education at the tertiary level: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

College curricula are broadening to take into account environmental imperatives, the relatively slow rate of economic and policy change, along with the welter of technical detail which has been generated by agricultural development, militate against successful systematic environmental teaching. This is particularly true within a private institution which must be seen to be serving the immediate needs of the agricultural

J. Rowe

1994-01-01

288

Students' Perceptions and Learning Experiences of Tertiary Level Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence to suggest that first-year chemistry learning experiences may discourage students from studying further chemistry courses. This paper reports on an investigation on the influence of first year learning experiences in two first year chemistry courses on students' chemistry enrollment choices. Students enrolled in first year…

Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

289

Science for Real Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

290

Queuing Models of Tertiary Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale scientific projects generate and use large amounts of data. For example, the NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project is expected to archive one petabyte per year of raw satellite data. This data is made automatically available for processing into higher level data products and for dissemination to the scientific community. Such large volumes of data can only be stored in robotic storage libraries (RSL's) for near-line access. A characteristic of RSL's is the use of a robot arm that transfers media between a storage rack and the read/write drives, thus multiplying the capacity of the system. The performance of the RSL's can be a critical limiting factor for the performance of the archive system. However, the many interacting components of an RSL make a performance analysis difficult. In addition, different RSL components can have widely varying performance characteristics. This paper describes our work to develop performance models of an RSL in isolation. Next we show how the RSL model can be incorporated into a queuing network model. We use the models to make some example performance studies of archive systems. The models described in this paper, developed for the NASA EODIS project, are implemented in C with a well defined interface. The source code, accompanying documentation, and also sample JAVA applets are available at: http://www.cis.ufl.edu/ted/

Johnson, Theodore

1996-01-01

291

Use of Earth Observing Satellite Data for the Development of "Learning Exercises" for College-Level Science Courses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on experiences being gained through a project entitled "The Mississippi Community College Pilot Project". The project was labeled "pilot" because it is thought that lessons learned during the implementation of this project may aid similar endeavors in other states. The objective of the project is to provide curriculum enrichment and associated faculty enhancement through the use of earth observations data in biological and physical sciences courses. The premise underlying the objective is that information from earth observations from satellite and aircraft platforms provides an effective means of illustrating and explaining science topics/phenomena in a new and/or different perspective. It is also thought that the use of data acquired from space may also serve to captivate the students interest and/or inquisitiveness about the particular science issue.

Joyce, Armond T.

1998-01-01

292

Comparison of dermatoses seen in community health camps and a tertiary care centre in Kashmir.  

PubMed

Background: Various environmental, socio-economic and geographical factors influence the pattern of dermatoses in an area. Observations made at tertiary dermatology centres may not reflect the actual pattern of dermatoses at the community level. Aims: To evaluate the pattern of dermatoses at community level and compare it with that at a tertiary centre. Methods: Cases were registered through community visits in block Hazratbal in Kashmir valley, once a week over a calendar year. The pattern of dermatoses observed was compared with that seen at the tertiary centre over the same period. Results: A total of 1065 community cases, with 1105 dermatoses, were compared with 4358 patients with 4466 dermatoses seen at the tertiary centre. Non-infectious dermatoses in each group were more common than infectious dermatoses (34.08% infectious dermatoses versus 65.97% non-infectious in community cases and 29.42% infectious dermatoses versus 70.58% non-infectious in hospital patients). Infectious cases were seen significantly more in the community (34.08%) than at the tertiary centre (29.42%). Among the infectious diseases, fungal infection was the most common and in the non-infectious group, pigmentary disorders were the most common, followed by acne and eczema. Conclusion : Infectious dermatoses were found statistically significantly more in community cases as compared to hospital patients while the opposite was the case with non-infectious dermatoses. The study emphasizes the need for providing frequent dermatology services to the community at the primary healthcare level so that the burden of dermatoses, especially infectious, may be reduced. Also, wider studies should be conducted in different regions in order to assess the actual magnitude of dermatological illnesses in the community. PMID:24823398

Hassan, Iffat; Anwar, Parvaiz; Bilquis, Safoora; Nabi, Shahnaz; Rasool, Farhaan; Munshi, Iftikar

2014-01-01

293

The Rural Systemic Initiative of the National Science Foundation: An Evaluation Perspective at the Local School and Community Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on an almost 5-year continual study of selected collaboratives engaged in education reform and improvement with a focus on science, math, and technology in schools serving K-12 students in rural America. This version of the final report of the study is primarily intended for use by educators, decision makers, and others who…

Horn, Jerry G.

2004-01-01

294

An Investigation of Item Bias in Science and Technology Subtests and Mathematic Subtests in Level Determination Exam (LDE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the items in Science and Technology and Mathematics subtests of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades in the 2009 LDE, which was performed to select the students for the secondary schools, exhibited item bias with regard to student gender. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method was used in order to determine the differential item…

Karakaya, Ismail

2012-01-01

295

Learning in a personal context: Levels of choice in a free choice learning environment in science and natural history museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to characterize contextual learning during class visits to science and natural history museums. Based on previous studies, we assumed that outdoor learning is different from classroom-based learning, and free choice learning in the museums enhances the expression of learning in personal context. We studied about 750 students participating in class visits at four museums, focusing on the

Yael Bamberger; Tali Tal

2007-01-01

296

Teaching the Physically Disabled in the Mainstream Science Class at the Secondary and College Levels. Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-chapter resource book provides both general and specific state-of-the-art information on the various technologies and strategies available to educators of physically handicapped students in "regular" junior/senior high school and college science classrooms. It provides information about accommodating students with physical impairments so…

Keller, E. C., Jr.; And Others

297

Mid-tertiary ash flow tuff cauldrons, southwestern New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of 28 known or suspected mid-Tertiary ash-flow tuff cauldrons in New Mexico are described. The largest region is 40 km in diameter, and erosional and block faulting processes have exposed levels as far down as the plutonic roots. The study supports a five-stage process: precursor, caldera collapse, early post-collapse, volcanism, major ring-fracture volcanism, and hydrothermal activity. The stages can repeat or the process can stop at any stage. Post-collapse lavas fell into two categories: cauldron lavas, derived from shallow defluidized residues of caldera-forming ash flow tuff eruption, and framework lavas, evolved from a siliceous pluton below the cauldron complex. The youngest caldera was shallow and formed from asymmetric subsidence and collapse of the caldera walls.

Elston, W. E.

1984-01-01

298

Science Fiction Aids Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cited are the experiences of the authors with a college-level course which used science fiction films to teach scientific principles. Included is a set of sample scientific concepts explored using the film "Forbidden Planet." (CW)

Dubeck, Leroy W.; And Others

1990-01-01

299

Normal Science, Pathological Science and Psychometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathology of science is defined as a two-level breakdown in processes of critical inquiry: first, a hypothesis is accepted without serious attempts being made to test it; and, second, this first-level failure is ignored. Implications of this concept of pathology of science for the Kuhnian concept of normal science are explored. It is then shown that the hypothesis upon

Joel Michell

2000-01-01

300

Tertiary Paleogeography and Tectonic History, Central Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents images and text depicting the paleogeography and tectonic evolution of central Arizona during the Tertiary period. Emphasis is on an evolving Oligocene to Miocene drainage system that documents the existence of the Mogollon Rim, the southern physiographic boundary of the Colorado Plateau. The goal of this page is to demonstrate the evolution of stream systems in relation to complex, dynamic, tectonic events in the Southwest including the Laramide orogeny, Cenozoic core complexes, Basin and Range faulting, and Cenozoic volcanism. This is done through photographs, stratigraphic columns and cross-sections of area geology.

Blakey, Ronald

301

Tertiary lymphoid organs in infection and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

The lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen have an optimal structure that allows the interaction between T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) on a matrix made up by stromal cells. Such a highly organized structure can also be formed in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) at sites of infection or chronic immune stimulation. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of TLO formation and maintenance, the controversies surrounding the nature of the inducing events, and the functions of these structures in infection, transplantation and autoimmunity. PMID:22622061

Neyt, Katrijn; Perros, Frédéric; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

2012-06-01

302

Lower Tertiary laterite on the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge and the Thulean land bridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

CORES of a lower Tertiary lateritic palaeosol resting on basalt were recovered1 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 336 (Leg 38) on the north-east flank of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge (Fig. 1), a major aseismic oceanic ridge that, together with Iceland, forms the Icelandic transverse ridge 2. The transverse ridge extends from the West European continental margin to the East Greenland continental margin, forming the geographic boundary and a partial barrier to flow of water between the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the north and the northern North Atlantic Ocean to the south. The palaeosol indicates that at least part of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge was above sea level during early Tertiary time3. Palaeogeographic and palaeooceanographic reconstructions suggest that it formed the main part of the Thulean land bridge that connected South-east Greenland and the Faeroe islands during the early Tertiary4. This report summarises the subsidence history of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge relative to early Tertiary seafloor spreading, basaltic volcanism, and the development of the proposed Thulean land bridge. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.

Nilsen, T. H.

1978-01-01

303

Disaster resilience in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as a hospital’s ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining critical functions, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one. This study aims to explore the status of resilience among tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Methods A stratified random sample (n =?50) was derived from tertiary A, tertiary B, and tertiary C hospitals in Shandong Province, and was surveyed by questionnaire. Data on hospital characteristics and 8 key domains of hospital resilience were collected and analysed. Variables were binary, and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies. Results A response rate of 82% (n =?41) was attained. Factor analysis identified four key factors from eight domains which appear to reflect the overall level of disaster resilience. These were hospital safety, disaster management mechanisms, disaster resources and disaster medical care capability. The survey demonstrated that in regard to hospital safety, 93% had syndromic surveillance systems for infectious diseases and 68% had evaluated their safety standards. In regard to disaster management mechanisms, all had general plans, while only 20% had specific plans for individual hazards. 49% had a public communication protocol and 43.9% attended the local coordination meetings. In regard to disaster resources, 75.6% and 87.5% stockpiled emergency drugs and materials respectively, while less than a third (30%) had a signed Memorandum of Understanding with other hospitals to share these resources. Finally in regard to medical care, 66% could dispatch an on-site medical rescue team, but only 5% had a ‘portable hospital’ function and 36.6% and 12% of the hospitals could surge their beds and staff capacity respectively. The average beds surge capacity within 1 day was 13%. Conclusions This study validated the broad utility of a framework for understanding and measuring the level of hospital resilience. The survey demonstrated considerable variability in disaster resilience arrangements of tertiary hospitals in Shandong province, and the difference between tertiary A hospitals and tertiary B hospitals was also identified in essential areas.

2014-01-01

304

Management of coronary artery disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital  

PubMed Central

Aims: The objective of the study was to study the prescribing patterns of drugs used in the coronary artery disease (CAD) and to identify, which drug is mostly prescribed at that hospital. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational survey including case series analysis of patients with CAD who met the inclusion criteria. It was conducted in the cardiology unit of multidisciplinary Tertiary Care Hospital in Kanpur. Materials and Methods: Data of patients who met the inclusion criteria was collected in specially designed case record forms. It was designed to include the patient data such as, demographics, risk factors, clinical and biochemical characteristics, procedures and investigations performed during the hospital stay, in-hospital and discharge drug therapy. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were performed for baseline characteristics, risk factors and medication use. All the analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: Subjects of age groups 65-74 (33.34%) were found to be more susceptible to CAD. In this study, we see that Aspirin, Clopidogrel and Statins were mostly prescribed in this hospital. Conclusions: In this study, Aspirin and Clopidogrel were mostly prescribed. According to 2009 focused updates of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction. So in this hospital prescription for CAD were according to the guideline.

Wal, Pranay; Wal, Ankita; Nair, Vandana R.; Rai, A. K.; Pandey, Umeshwar

2013-01-01

305

Pyuric diabetic patients: A tertiary centre experience from Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objectives: (1) To determine frequency of urinary tract infection among pyuric diabetic patients. (2) To determine sterile pyuria frequency among pyuric diabetic patients. (3) To determine factors predisposing to urinary tract infection. Methods: This is a non randomized, prospective observational study done in tertiary care set up of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. Data collection done from June 2013 till August 2013. Sampling was done by convenient method, sample size of 97. Inclusion criteria was all adult (above 16) patients with diabetes mellitus and pyuria (more than 4 pus cells /HPF) whose urine culture report was also available. Verbal consent was sought from patients. All data was collected on a Performa. Data was maintained and analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results: Total number of pyuric diabetic patients in study was 97. Frequency of Urinary tract infection was 59/97 (60.82%), prevalence of culture negative sterile pyuria was found 38/97 (39.17%). Urinary tract infection was found to be more in females with lower urinary tract symptoms and flank pains. Stone disease, obstructed pelvicalyceal system, proteinuria, high serum creatinine and positive nitrites were found more in culture positive patients than in culture negative pyuric patients. Conclusions: Pyuric diabetic patients in our study population were found to have culture positive UTI in 60.82% and culture negative sterile pyuria among 39.17% of patients. UTI was found more in females, in symptomatic patient and with abnormal urinary tract anatomy and function.

Mamun Mahmud, Huma; Qureshi, Sobia; Kumar, Darshan; Farman, Syed

2014-01-01

306

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

307

Challenges associated with the management of gynecological cancers in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There are reports of increasing incidence of gynecological cancers in developing countries and this trend increases the need for more attention to gynecological cancer care in these countries. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the presentation and treatment of gynecological cancers and identify barriers to successful gynecological cancer treatment in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Methods This study was a retrospective longitudinal analysis of the presentation and treatment of histologically diagnosed primary gynecological cancers from 2000 to 2010. Analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 software. Results Records of 200 gynecological cancers managed during the study period were analyzed. Over 94% of cervical cancers presented in advanced stages of the disease and received palliative/symptomatic treatment. Only 1.9% of cervical cancer patients had radical surgical intervention, and postoperative mortality from these radical surgeries was 100%. Approximately 76% of patients with ovarian cancer had debulking surgery as the mainstay of treatment followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative mortality from ovarian cancer surgery was 63%. Cutting edge cytotoxic drugs were not used as chemotherapy for ovarian and chorionic cancers. Compliance with chemotherapy was poor, with over 70% of ovarian cancer patients failing to complete the prescribed courses of chemotherapy. Most patients with endometrial and vulval cancers had only surgical treatment, as compliance with follow-up for adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy was poor. Functional radiotherapy facilities were not available at the center during the study period, thereby necessitating external referrals to centers hundreds of kilometers away. Conclusion Late presentation of cases, noncompliance with treatment regimens, lack of use of cutting edge cytotoxic drugs, the poor outcome of radical surgeries, and lack of a functional radiotherapy facility combined to create a very difficult gynecological cancer care environment at the study center.

Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ugwu, George Onyemaechi; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Ezugwu, Frank Okechukwu; Lawani, Osaheni Lucky; Onyebuchi, Azubuike Kanayo

2014-01-01

308

Science Grades K-4 Benchmarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades K-4 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

309

40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). ...identified generically as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN...

2011-07-01

310

Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of

M. A. Wopat; W. E. Curry; J. W. Robins; D. K. Marjaniemi

1977-01-01

311

Psychotherapy as a model for interpersonal dynamics in tertiary teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarity of process in psychotherapy and in the interpersonal dynamics of tertiary teaching is of interest in attempting to maximise student interest and success. This article reviews the similarities in predictors of positive outcome in both psychotherapy and tertiary education, and suggests that the two processes have a great deal in common. This suggestion is tested by comparing the

Michael W. Ross

1984-01-01

312

Two-bank miscible tertiary oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a laboratory investigation of a 2-bank, water-driven, miscible tertiary oil recovery process indicate that substantial quantities of additional oil can be obtained from flooded out reservoirs under favorable conditions. This process uses an initial bank of tertiary amyl alcohol followed by a second bank composed of sodium xylene sulfonate, methanol, a thickener, and water. These 2 banks can

Ayer; R. C. Jr

1972-01-01

313

An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in New Zealand Tertiary Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shift in policy from market driven behaviour towards a more cooperative tertiary sector is having an effect on New Zealand academic libraries and their relationships. Despite this, there has been no investigation of collaboration specifically targeting New Zealand tertiary libraries. This research project examine the state of collaboration…

Finnerty, Colleen

2005-01-01

314

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, is highly mobile in groundwater, dissolving and traveling faster than the other petroleum constituents which tend to biodegrade and adsorb to soil particles. This unit will introduce the problem of pollutants as they move through the various soil layers and contaminate the groundwater and challenge the students to investigate the effects of MTBE spills in the environment by researching the available literature on fuel oxygenates and learning their mode of transport through the soil. Experimentally determined data, obtained in lab activities, will facilitate building models of the contamination process of the groundwater. Mathematics modeling will involve the use of spreadsheet analysis of real-world-data obtained online.

315

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01

316

Discovery of Tertiary Amine and Indole Derivatives as Potent ROR?t Inverse Agonists.  

PubMed

A novel series of tertiary amines as retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (ROR?t) inverse agonists was discovered through agonist/inverse agonist conversion. The level of ROR?t inhibition can be enhanced by modulating the conformational disruption of H12 in ROR?t LBD. Linker exploration and rational design led to the discovery of more potent indole-based ROR?t inverse agonists. PMID:24900774

Yang, Ting; Liu, Qian; Cheng, Yaobang; Cai, Wei; Ma, Yingli; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Qianqian; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Zhou, Ling; Xiang, Zhijun; Huxdorf, Melanie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Leung, Stewart; Qiu, Yang; Zhong, Zhong; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen; Wang, Yonghui

2014-01-01

317

The Hyper-Commons: how open science prizes can expand and level the medical research playing field.  

PubMed

The largest industry in America is increasingly incapable of serving its customers. Over-fencing of the information commons has led to unaffordable medicine, for want of which millions of Americans and people around the world go without lifesaving treatments. Eliminating patent distribution exclusivity altogether, however, is not feasible, given the entrenched nature of the health-care industry. This paper proposes a program of voluntary Open Science Prizes that would draw large numbers of new players, who would in turn produce much new medical innovation, provide academic priority recognition, and develop a growing body of patent-beating prior art that would serve as public domain firewalls on a new supranational Hyper-Commons. PMID:19119862

Hynek, Paul

2008-12-01

318

Tertiary Excess of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Hypophosphatemia Following Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia due to inappropriate urinary phosphate wasting is a frequent metabolic complication of the early period following kidney transplantation. Although previously considered to be caused by tertiary hyperparathyroidism, recent evidence suggests a primary role for persistently elevated circulating levels of the phosphorus-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factors 23 (FGF23). In the setting of a healthy renal allograft, markedly increased FGF23 levels from the dialysis period induce renal phosphate wasting and inhibition of calcitriol production, which contribute to hypophosphatemia. While such tertiary FGF23 excess and resultant hypophosphatemia typically abates within the first few weeks to months post-transplant, some recipients manifest persistent renal phosphate wasting. Furthermore, increased FGF23 levels have been associated with increased risk of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death outside of the transplant setting. Whether tertiary FGF23 excess is associated with adverse transplant outcomes is unknown. In this article, we review the physiology of FGF23, summarize its relationship with hypophosphatemia after kidney transplantation, and speculate on its potential impact on long term outcomes of renal allograft recipients.

Seeherunvong, Wacharee; Wolf, Myles

2010-01-01

319

Enhancement of enantioselectivity by THF in asymmetric mo-catalyzed olefin metathesis. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of cyclic tertiary ethers and spirocycles.  

PubMed

Mo-catalyzed enantioselective rearrangement of achiral cyclopentenyl tertiary ethers to chiral cyclohexenyl tertiary ethers are reported. These olefin metathesis transformations proceed efficiently and with high levels of enantioselectivity. A noteworthy feature of these reactions is that added tetrahydrofuran exerts a remarkably positive influence on the enantioselectivity of the metathesis-based rearrangement. The first examples of catalytic asymmetric synthesis of spirocyclic structures by enantioselective olefin metathesis are also disclosed. PMID:12207534

Teng, Xin; Cefalo, Dustin R; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

2002-09-11

320

Issues regarding threshold concepts in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold Concepts deserve discussion and reflection in Computer Science Education; they provide a conceptual framework intended to re-empower tertiary educators. At this stage, the idea of Threshold Concepts raises plenty of questions, promises renewed learner and teacher engagement, and suggests a means of focusing on the key aspects of a discipline that will allow a learner to, for example, \\

Janet Rountree; Nathan Rountree

2009-01-01

321

The Science Club: Kids' Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of science projects covers electricity and magnets, optics, and other physical science topics. The projects are arranged by simple, medium, and advanced skill levels, and include videos that show the materials used and how the experiment is performed. There are also links to other science project websites and to sites where materials for the projects may be purchased.

Beaty, William J.

322

Continuum Damage Mechanics modeling of circumferentially notched tension bars undergoing tertiary creep with physically-based constitutive equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the result of finite element computations, based on Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM), carried out on circumferentially notched tension bars undergoing tertiary creep and failure. The material constitutive equations are physically based and generalized from those applicable to polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys. The equations describe the stress level dependence of creep rate using a sinh function and two damage

A. M. Othman; B. F. Dyson; D. R. Hayhurst; J. Lin

1994-01-01

323

Skeletal Point Stresses in Circumferentially Notched Tension Bars Undergoing Tertiary Creep Modelled with Physically Based Constitutive Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive equations are proposed in which the stress level dependence of creep rate is described by a sinh function, and two damage state-parameters are used to model the tertiary softening caused by: (i) grain boundary cavity nucleation and growth, and (ii) the multiplication of mobile dislocations. These constitutive equations are applicable to polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys and are used together with

A. M. Othman; D. R. Hayhurst; B. F. Dyson

1993-01-01

324

Proteocubosomes: nanoporous vehicles with tertiary organized fluid interfaces.  

PubMed

Proteocubosomes are nanostructured open-nanochannel hierarchical fluid vehicles characterized by a cubic lattice periodicity of the lipid/protein supramolecular assembly (protein-loaded cubosomes). They are obtained here at very high hydration levels by a three-dimensional (3D) self-assembly process, which exploits a protein-directed 3D patterning and fragmentation to create a new, tertiary-level structural order of fluid lipid/water interfaces. Our freeze-fracture electron microscopy study reveals that the proteocubosome structures are built up by patterned assemblies of nanocubosomes, which comprise 3D nanoporous fracture surfaces throughout. Complex cubosomic architectures, involving arrays of nanodroplets (larger than 20 nm) inside the proteocubosome particles, are established at high resolution. The soft-matter hierarchical nanocompartment formations display internal aqueous pores belonging to the D-type lipid cubic lattice nanochannel system that is proven by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The reported nanostructured fluid may give rise to novel applications in nanofluidic biomimetic devices, porous protein drug delivery vehicles, nanoscale enzymatic bioreactors, and protein-encapsulating fluid nanomaterials. PMID:15835985

Angelova, Angelina; Angelov, Borislav; Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Brigitte; Ollivon, Michel; Bourgaux, Claudie

2005-04-26

325

Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

The College of Business Administration is deeply involved in the Center for Collaboration Science and the ideal candidate will become part of the Center's Management Team and participate in the Center's efforts to develop grants and research projects in Collaboration Science. Additional duties include working with local and national organizations on Collaboration Science research and outreach projects, conducting and publishing academic research on Collaboration Science, and mentoring junior faculty and students on all levels on aspects of Collaboration Science research and teaching.

326

Frank Potter's Science Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Gems is a collection of thousands of links to online science resources for students, teachers, and the general public. Resources include websites, interactive features, applets, multimedia resources, problem sets, online books, and many others. The resources are arranged by subject (physical science, Earth science, life science, mathematics, and engineering) and by grade level. There are also links to other guides and resource collections, a reference desk, online calculators, and other materials. The collection is searchable by keyword.

Potter, Frank; Martindale, Jim

327

Science Centers for All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the merits of science learning centers as a tool for teachers to encourage positive interaction among students of different backgrounds and ability levels. Describes the success of science centers through work with children and preservice teachers. (Author/KHR)

Irwin, Leslie; Nucci, Christine; Beckett, E. Carol

2003-01-01

328

Science Education Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains five articles about various aspects of British science education. Includes articles on norm referenced versus criterion referenced assessment, proportionality in science education, practical skills in advanced level chemistry, creating an antiracist ethos, and heat transfer experiments. (TW)

School Science Review, 1987

1987-01-01

329

A Delphi study: Practitioners' perceptions of how the science curriculum is differentiated for academically gifted students at the middle school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and compare the perceptions of selected district science educators and teachers of middle school science students regarding the following issues: (1) Current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (2) Strengths of the current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (3) Weaknesses of the

Jean Mary Kelley

2002-01-01

330

Transient hyperthyroidism after total parathyroidectomy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Surgical removal of enlarged parathyroid glands is the treatment of choice in most cases of tertiary renal hyperparathyroidism. Complications of this surgical procedure are rare. We report two cases of patients who developed acute hyperthyroidism after total parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation for refractory tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The patients had no history or biochemical or radiologic evidence of thyroid disease. They were not taking drugs affecting thyroid function. Thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, free T(3) and free T(4)) was measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery and again three months later. Total parathyroidectomy was successful in both patients. Circulating levels of parathyroid hormone were at the lower limit of normal values. Postoperative thyroid function tests demonstrated acute hyperthyroidism with a rapid increase in free T(3) and T(4) levels above normal and a drop in thyroid stimulating hormone below normal in both patients. The course of hyperthyroidism was short (normalization of fT(3) and fT(4) values within 14-21 days). Neither patient had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Transient hyperthyroidism may be an under-recognized complication of total parathyroidectomy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism. These patients should be monitored with thyroid function tests and assessed for clinical signs attributable to thyrotoxicosis. PMID:18726670

Lederer, Stephan R; Schiffl, Helmut

2008-01-01

331

A prospective study assessing patient satisfaction at a large tertiary gynecologic oncology/dysplasia unit  

PubMed Central

Background: Patient satisfaction is an important quality assurance measure in the delivery of health care. We conducted a prospective study to assess patient satisfaction at a large tertiary oncology/dysplasia unit. Aims: To assess current patient satisfaction at a large tertiary oncology/dysplasia unit and identify potential areas for improvement. Methods: This was a prospective study of patients attending a tertiary oncology/dysplasia unit. Patients were invited to participate and, if they agreed, were given a validated questionnaire to complete at the end of their consultation. Descriptive statistics were then used to analyze the data and identify potential areas of improvement. Results: One hundred eighty-seven patients were recruited, and 96% of patients were satisfied with the overall level of care received. Significant positive features of the service included helpfulness of the staff, cleanliness of the facility, and measures implemented to respect patient privacy. Lack of patient parking, waiting times in the clinic, difficulties in contacting the service, and locating the building were identified as areas for improvement. Conclusion: Patients attending our facility were largely satisfied with the overall level of care received. Nonclinical factors including parking, waiting times, and access to the service were identified as areas for improvement.

Pather, Selvan; Tai, Davina; Philp, Shannon; Nattress, Kathryn; Carter, Jonathan; Dalrymple, Christopher; Atkinson, Ken

2010-01-01

332

Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

2013-01-01

333

It's not Easy being Green--Adaptation is our Theme: Inquiry Teaching in the Middle-Level Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing true inquiry teaching is challenging. Many teachers confuse hands-on activities with inquiry and fail to provide opportunities for students to think critically and analytically. As with any teaching, teachers must guide, focus, challenge, and encourage students to continue questioning and exploring. The level of inquiry that a teacher…

Ross, Ann; Skinner, Charlotte; Fillippino, Tonja

2005-01-01

334

Stage Models for Collaboration, Levels of Collaboration Survey and Collaboration Map; Measuring Collaboration Among Grant Partners - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Collaboration is a prerequisite for the sustainability of interagency programs, particularly those programs initially created with the support of time-limited grant-funding sources. From the perspective of evaluators, however, assessing collaboration among grant partners is often difficult. It is also challenging to present collaboration data to stakeholders in a way that is meaningful. In this article, the authors introduce the Levels of Collaboration Scale, which was developed from existing models and instruments.

335

The Policy Determinants of Investment in Tertiary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 576  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses how policies and institutions affect private returns to invest in tertiary human capital, the ability of individuals to finance this investment and the institutional characteristics of tertiary education systems. Focusing on core tertiary education services, the paper presents new measures of private returns to tertiary

Martins, Joaquim Oliveira; Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine; Saadi, Clarice

2007-01-01

336

Facility Benchmarking Trends in Tertiary Education - An Australian Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents how Australia's facility managers are responding to the growing impact of tertiary education participation and the increase in educational facility usage. Topics cover strategic asset management and the benchmarking of education physical assets and postsecondary institutions. (GR)

Fisher, Kenn

2001-01-01

337

Prediction of protein tertiary structures using MUFOLD.  

PubMed

There have been steady improvements in protein structure prediction during the past two decades. However, current methods are still far from consistently predicting structural models accurately with computing power accessible to common users. To address this challenge, we developed MUFOLD, a hybrid method of using whole and partial template information along with new computational techniques for protein tertiary structure prediction. MUFOLD covers both template-based and ab initio predictions using the same framework and aims to achieve high accuracy and fast computing. Two major novel contributions of MUFOLD are graph-based model generation and molecular dynamics ranking (MDR). By formulating a prediction as a graph realization problem, we apply an efficient optimization approach of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) to speed up the prediction dramatically. In addition, under this framework, we enhance the predictions consistently by iteratively using the information from generated models. MDR, in contrast to widely used static scoring functions, exploits dynamics properties of structures to evaluate their qualities, which can often identify best structures from a pool more effectively. PMID:22130979

Zhang, Jingfen; He, Zhiquan; Wang, Qingguo; Barz, Bogdan; Kosztin, Ioan; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

2012-01-01

338

Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase  

PubMed Central

A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded ?-sheet, five ?-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose–synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs.

Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D.; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

2013-01-01

339

Tertiary tectonic in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A microplate model in the basement was proposed according to photointerpretation of satellite imagery and supported with microtectonic studies in the Tehuantepec's Isthmus. The microplate is located in the northwestern part of the [open quotes]Sierra de Chiapas,[close quotes] and structurally has lineaments that correspond with sinestral wrench faults oriented northeast-southwest and dextral faults oriented northwest-southeast. In the front of the microplate, these faults are joined in an arc form. The microplate began its movement forward to the north in the middle Tertiary. This movement originated in a regional compressional stress that was younger to the north. The stress changed the orientation of the anticline axis from northwest-southeast to west-east. In its western limit, the stress produces a sinestral shear stress that built a rotational deformation in the [open quotes]Sierra Atravesada,[close quotes] and represents a superimposed tectonic block over an ancient (laramide) orogeny. This system has also produced other secondary transtensional effects oriented northwest-southeast, represented along the [open quotes]Depression Central del Istmo.[close quotes] The microplate has formed a tensional system opening the [open quotes]Superior, Inferior, and Mar Muerto[close quotes] lagoons. The microplate is strongly related with the relief, seismic activity, and the tectonics of the salt of the Tehuantepec's Isthmus.

Lopez, F.A.

1993-02-01

340

Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase.  

PubMed

A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded ?-sheet, five ?-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose-synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs. PMID:23592721

Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H; Kubicki, James D; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G

2013-04-30

341

Predicting loop-helix tertiary structural contacts in RNA pseudoknots.  

PubMed

Tertiary interactions between loops and helical stems play critical roles in the biological function of many RNA pseudoknots. However, quantitative predictions for RNA tertiary interactions remain elusive. Here we report a statistical mechanical model for the prediction of noncanonical loop-stem base-pairing interactions in RNA pseudoknots. Central to the model is the evaluation of the conformational entropy for the pseudoknotted folds with defined loop-stem tertiary structural contacts. We develop an RNA virtual bond-based conformational model (Vfold model), which permits a rigorous computation of the conformational entropy for a given fold that contains loop-stem tertiary contacts. With the entropy parameters predicted from the Vfold model and the energy parameters for the tertiary contacts as inserted parameters, we can then predict the RNA folding thermodynamics, from which we can extract the tertiary contact thermodynamic parameters from theory-experimental comparisons. These comparisons reveal a contact enthalpy (DeltaH) of -14 kcal/mol and a contact entropy (DeltaS) of -38 cal/mol/K for a protonated C(+)*(G-C) base triple at pH 7.0, and (DeltaH = -7 kcal/mol, DeltaS = -19 cal/mol/K) for an unprotonated base triple. Tests of the model for a series of pseudoknots show good theory-experiment agreement. Based on the extracted energy parameters for the tertiary structural contacts, the model enables predictions for the structure, stability, and folding pathways for RNA pseudoknots with known or postulated loop-stem tertiary contacts from the nucleotide sequence alone. PMID:20100813

Cao, Song; Giedroc, David P; Chen, Shi-Jie

2010-03-01

342

pH-ISFETs using tertiary amines as sensing material  

Microsoft Academic Search

pH ionophores were investigated using lipophilic tertiary amines for pH-ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs) for acid-rain monitoring as an alternative sensing material of the conventional insulators to eliminate interference of charged contaminant. Among eight kinds of lipophilic tertiary amines, we found an excellent pH ionophore, a branched isomer of octylamine which shows an almost linear response range from pH 1.4 to

S Wakida; M Ohnishi; M Yamane; K Higashi; J Liu; X Wu; Z Zhang

2000-01-01

343

The Cretaceous/ Tertiary Boundary At Iridium Hill, Garfield County, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this virtual field trip to Iridium Hill, Montana is to investigate the disappearance of dinosaur fossils above the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary. The site provides rock outcrop photos of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations), stratigraphic sections and supporting text for this classic iridium-bearing locality. Topics include the K/T boundary, iridium concentrations, stratigraphy, sedimentology and, fluvial and lacustrine depositional environments.

Limited, Athro

344

Exploring Omani pre-service science teachers' imagination at the microscopic level in chemistry, and their use of the particulate nature of matter in their explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore learners' imagination at the microscopic level of matter and their use of the Particulate Theory of Matter. As for the imagination component, twenty-two Omani pre-service science teachers were encouraged individually during a guided imagery session to construct images for the interactions among micro-species such as molecules, atoms, and electrons. The findings determined several factors that contributed in shaping participants' mental images at the microscopic level of mater. Some of these factors related to previous experience, mental abilities, and the nature of microscopic interactions. This study argued that participants lacked a homogeneous and reliable mental model of the atom that was required to carry out advanced cognitive processes for mental exploration of chemical phenomena. In addition, the imagination of three female participants was further analyzed to explore their information processing of the microscopic imagined actions. They were chosen because they created different atomic models from each other. These models were: space-filling balls model, humanized model, and Latin characters model. Each participant's created mental images of microscopic actions were discussed based on her atomic model. The findings suggested that the nature of each participant's model partially influenced her microscopic imagined actions. The second component of this study tested the effect of different textual, pictorial, and reflective cues on participants' use of the microscopic level, the accuracy of their explanations and the originality of their inventions. The cues, either microscopic or macroscopic, were administered in a researcher-designed test to 152 Omani pre-service science teachers. The findings revealed that students did not use the PTM theory unless they were cued. The particulate level of the explanations of those who received a microscopic guided imagery textual cue was significantly higher than those who received a macroscopic cue. Also, the accuracy of explanations of participants who received a microscopic pictorial cue was significantly higher than those who received the macroscopic picture. In addition, a microscopic reflective cue improved the microscopic level of 43 participants' explanations. However, the microscopic textual cue did not have a significant effect on the accuracy of explanations, or on the originality of inventions.

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman Mohamed

345

Teaching-Focused Science Academics Supervising Research Students in Science Education: What's the Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academics who specialise in improving the teaching of "hard" sciences like chemistry, biology, maths and physics are increasing in number and influence at Australian universities. Those in academia who have channelled their energies into teaching are delighted with this development. It means that many committed tertiary teachers can now look…

Rowland, Susan

2012-01-01

346

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

Shaw, G. W.; And Others

1989-01-01

347

Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

2014-01-01

348

ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.  

SciTech Connect

Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with soil and plant roots to better understand the mechanisms responsible for uptake. This effort will lead to improvements in phytoremediation, an innovative and cost-effective approach to the cleanup of large volumes of soil with low concentrations of contaminants. In a third effort, we are investigating molecular interactions of contaminants in high-level waste tanks with potential grouting materials for remediation of the West Valley, NY site to assess their suitability and long-term performance.

FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

2004-03-01

349

Freezing-induced perturbation of tertiary structure of a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of pH and solution additives on freezing-induced perturbations in the tertiary structure of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy. In general, freezing caused perturbations in the tertiary structure of the mAb, which were reversible or irreversible depending on the pH or excipients present in the formulation. Protein aggregation occurred in freeze-thawed samples in which perturbations of the tertiary structure were observed, but the levels of protein aggregates formed were not proportional to the degree of structural perturbation. Protein aggregation also occurred in freeze-thawed samples without obvious structural perturbations, most likely because of freeze concentration of protein and salts, and thus reduced protein colloidal stability. Therefore, freezing-induced protein aggregation may or may not first involve the perturbation of its native structure, followed by the assembly processes to form aggregates. Depending on the solution conditions, either step can be rate limiting. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy as a valuable tool for screening therapeutic protein formulations subjected to freeze-thaw stress. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:1979-1986, 2014. PMID:24832730

Liu, Lu; Braun, Latoya Jones; Wang, Wei; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

2014-07-01

350

Deriving Accessible Science Books for the Blind Students of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel integrated methodology for the development and production of accessible physics and science books from the elementary up to tertiary educational levels. This language independent approach adopts the Design-for-All principles, the available international standards for alternative formats and the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines. Moreover it supports both static (embossed and refreshable tactile) and dynamic (based on synthetic speech and other sounds) accessibility. It can produce Tactile Books (Embossed Braille and Tactile Graphics), Digital Talking Books (or Digital Audio Books), Large Print Books as well as Acoustic-Tactile Books for the blind and visually impaired students as well as but for the print-disabled. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of blind students of the Physics, Mathematics and Informatics Departments in the University of Athens.

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios; Kacorri, Hernisa

2010-01-01

351

LSST telescope primary/tertiary mirror hardpoints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes an 8.4-meter cast borosilicate primary/tertiary mirror (M1M3). This mirror system has stringent vibration and stiffness requirements because the LSST optical system does not include a fast steering mirror and the mission requires a short slew and settling time. The position stability of the M1M3 relative to the mirror cell is controlled by six displacement controlled actuators (subsequently referred to as "hardpoints") that form a large hexapod. This design is based largely on previous hardpoints implemented for borosilicate mirror positioning. Traditionally, all dynamic forces applied to these mirrors are reacted through their hardpoints. Consequently, the characteristics of these hardpoints critically affect the ability of the telescope to meet the stringent dynamic requirements without overstressing the mirror. The hardpoints must have a high stiffness of 120 N/um in the axial direction, while protecting the mirror by limiting the loads in all six degrees of freedom. The non-axial direction loads are limited by flexures. The axial loads are limited by a pneumatic breakaway mechanism. Since the hardpoints react the dynamic mirror loads, the axial breakaway force may limit the telescope's slewing accelerations. The travel of the breakaway mechanism must accommodate the transfer of the mirror from its active supports to its static supports. The hardpoint positioning mechanism must have sufficient travel and resolution to properly position the mirror relative to the mirror cell. Fulfilling these functions also requires numerous sensors, including a precision axial load cell which is paramount in determining the figure control actuator forces.

Devries, Joe; Neill, Douglas; Hileman, Ed

2010-07-01

352

Science in Science Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

Allday, Jonathan

2003-01-01

353

The effect of online discussion forums on student learning and student perception of learning in a science course at the community college level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutions of higher education are feeling the pressure to offer a greater number of courses through alternative methods of instructional delivery including hybrid and online courses in an attempt to meet the needs of their students. Among institutions of higher education, community colleges have become a forerunner in online education, in many cases incorporating the development of online education into the institution's strategic plan. To some educators, hybrid course offerings provide the best of face-to-face education with electronic transfer of information. One of the greatest challenges which exists in the development of a hybrid course is the development of instructional methodologies which utilize cooperative and active learning. All learning management systems utilized by institutions of higher education have some form of online discussion forum as a key component. Online discussion forums have been suggested as an effective pedagogical tool which requires both cooperative interaction amongst students while simultaneously requiring individual active reflection of knowledge. However, current studies have focused on the effectiveness of online discussion forums at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of online discussion forums in an upper level science course at the community college level in terms of student satisfaction and student achievement. Analysis of the data acquired from this study determined that the incorporation of online discussion forums as well as individual written reflections as a post-reflective assignment effectively improved student achievement and understanding of scientific topics and concepts related to Microbiology. In addition, it was determined that the students' attitudes towards the online discussion forum as a cooperative learning experience were somewhat positive. Thus, it can be concluded that the incorporation of online discussion forums into courses at the community college level can be considered as an alternative pedagogical tool which can effectively improve student learning.

Ryan, Rachel Syring

354

"Actually, I May be Clever Enough to do it". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories Towards Science and University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated interviews, questionnaires (pre-and post-) and observations) from 14 target students have been collected. Using Late Modern identity theory as a lens, we have analysed students' identity narratives in order to establish their trajectories in relation to university in general, and towards science studies and science careers in particular. We find that the diversity of students' educational identity narratives can be characterized and their trajectories understood in terms of a Four Factor Framework comprising: general identity process orientations (reflecting, committing, exploring), personal values, subject self-concepts and subject interests. In various ways these constructs interact and set the range and direction of the students' searches for future education and careers. Our longitudinal study suggests that they have enough permanence to enable us to hypothesize more or less secured paths of individual students to tertiary science (or other areas of academia).

Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

2013-04-01

355

Near total parathyroidectomy is effective therapy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3°HPT) is defined as persistent hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. Near total parathyroidectomy (NTPTX) is the current standard for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify outcomes of NTPTX. A retrospective review was conducted of surgeries performed between 1994 and 2013. NTPTX resulted in resolution of 96.9 per cent of patients' hypercalcemia at a median follow-up of three years (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 8). However, 3.1 per cent of patients remained hypercalcemic with a mean calcium of 10.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL. A total of 78.4 per cent of patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels below 250 pg/mL at a median follow-up of two years (IQR, 2 to 8). The remaining 21.6 per cent had a median PTH of 535 (IQR, 345 to 857). PTH levels dropped from a median of 745 (IQR, 285.75 to 1594.25) pg/mL to 97 (IQR, 60 to 285) pg/mL one month post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). The most frequent complication was transient hypocalcemia in 27.1 per cent of patients, but no patients became permanently hypocalcemic. In the 1-month postoperative period, only one patient had a cardiac complication, and there was 0 per cent all-cause mortality. Glomerular filtration rate fell from 57.9 ± 28.3 mL/min pre-NTPTX to 53.2 ± 27.5 mL/min at 1-year post-NTPTX (P < 0.01). NTPTX effectively treats hypercalcemia in 3°HPT. However, PTH remains elevated (greater than 250) in 21.6 per cent of patients. PMID:24987894

Dewberry, Lindel Krige; Weber, Collin; Sharma, Jyotirmay

2014-07-01

356

Financial Planning at the National and State Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tertiary education in Australia, organized in three sectors (universities, colleges of advanced education, and technical and further education) have three main levels of planning--institutional, state, and commonwealth. Financial planning in tertiary education is discussed including inputs and outputs, information systems, resource planning, and…

Allen, J. A.

1979-01-01

357

Cool Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science is quite cool, but you don't need to tell this to the dedicated team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Their website, Cool Science, entertains questions of all kinds, encourages young scientists to "get their hands dirty", and also provides educators with a range of resources, including interactive media features, lesson plans, and lab exercises. These materials are contained with six primary sections: "For Educators", "Biointeractive", "For Curious Kids", and "Ask A Scientist". Educators of all stripes can use the "For Educators" area to focus in on resources organized by type, topic, grade level, and also to sign up for the resources RSS feed. Moving on, the "Biointeractive" area features archived video lectures, virtual labs, and another series of animations on stem cells, cancer, and immunology. There's a great deal to explore here, and it's a site that anyone with an interest in science will want to share with others.

358

Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods

J. A. Madsen; D. E. Allen; R. S. Donham; S. J. Fifield; H. L. Shipman; D. J. Ford; Z. R. Dagher

2004-01-01

359

Earth Science in GCSE Science Syllabuses and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds variable coverage of Earth Science topics in the United Kingdom among General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) double-award science syllabuses and examination papers. Concludes that the levels of error in the examination papers were high and that Earth Science questions showed lower levels of demand and higher levels of recall than…

King, Chris; Brooks, Mike; Gill, Robin; Rhodes, Alan; Thompson, David

1999-01-01

360

Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth  

PubMed Central

It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

2012-01-01

361

Is It Possible to Teach Music Composition Today? A Search for the Challenges of Teaching Music Composition to Student Composers in a Tertiary Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim is to identify the challenges of teaching music composition to today's students of composition at a tertiary or professional level. We undertake this by two different approaches: on one level, by establishing a context through reviewing literature on the teaching practices of three renowned teachers from the twentieth century; on a second…

Mateos-Moreno, Daniel

2011-01-01

362

Boundless Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our science is critical to understanding the future prospects for life. The laboratory for natural sciences encompasses our planet and reaches into the solar system. The forces of nature respect no boundaries. But, we who try to understand these forces are handicapped by national, political, language, religious, and other concocted barriers. These barriers limit both our effectiveness as scientists and our ability to reach those outside our community who need to know what we have uncovered about our environment. An unencumbered worldwide scientific community has been an objective with limited successes for too long. Action began in earnest after the first world war with the formation of the various scientific Unions and ICSU. Fifty years later Keith Runcorn initiated another approach, when he proposed what quickly became EGS and which has grown and evolved with the merger with EUG. To be truly effective we need to communicate and share comfortably with colleagues worldwide. Personal relationships and trust are required. We count on a high level of ethical behavior within our community. We individually must also be constantly vigilant for the encroachment of the manmade barriers that have held back science through time immemorial. Our scientific organizations cannot achieve this alone. They will facilitate, however, the onus is on each of us to reach out and form interlocking informal communities, which will bring our whole planet-wide community together at many overlapping levels. When we achieve this community, our science will more bountiful and better address the needs of human society.

Spilhaus, F.

2009-04-01

363

Three-dimensional tertiary structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an analysis and interpretation of a 3-A electron density map of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. Some earlier detailed assignments of nucleotide residues to electron density peaks are found to be in error, even though the overall tracing of the backbone conformation of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA was generally correct. A new, more comprehensive interpretation is made which makes it possible to define the tertiary interactions in the molecule. The new interpretation makes it possible to visualize a number of tertiary interactions which not only explain the structural role of most of the bases which are constant in transfer RNAs, but also makes it possible to understand in a direct and simple fashion the chemical modification data on transfer RNA. In addition, this pattern of tertiary interactions provides a basis for understanding the general three-dimensional folding of all transfer RNA molecules.

Kim, S. H.; Sussman, J. L.; Suddath, F. L.; Quigley, G. J.; Mcpherson, A.; Wang, A. H. J.; Seeman, N. C.; Rich, A.

1974-01-01

364

Improvements of the hierarchical approach for predicting RNA tertiary structure.  

PubMed

Computational prediction of RNA tertiary structures is a significant challenge, especially for longer RNA and pseudoknots. At present it is still difficult to do this by pure all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. One of possible approaches is through hierarchical steps: from sequence to secondary structure and then to tertiary structure. Here we present improvements of two key steps of this approach, the manual adjustment of atom clashes and bond stretches and molecular dynamics refinement. We provide an energy function to find the locations of atom clashes and bond stretches and to guide their manual adjustment and a new scheme of molecular dynamics refinement using a tested combination of solvent model and the ff98 Amber force field suitable for RNA. We predicted with higher accuracy the tertiary structures of nine typical RNA molecules of lengths from 12 to 52, including hairpins, duplex helices and pseudoknots. PMID:21294592

Zhao, Yunjie; Gong, Zhou; Xiao, Yi

2011-04-01

365

Production of tertiary alkyl ether using improved zeolite catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reducing the formation of olefinic oligomer by-products and improving tertiary ether selectivity in the production of high octane alkyl tertiary alkyl ether employing acid zeolite beta catalyst particles having alpha value greater than 300, comprising: steaming or hydrothermally treating said zeolite catalyst particles at elevated temperature to provide treated acid zeolite beta catalyst particles having a reduced alpha value of less than 300; and contacting alkanol and a hydrocarbon feed stream rich in iso-olefins with said steamed or hydrothermally treated catalyst particles under iso-olefin etherification conditions sufficient to provide at least 70 weight percent conversion of said iso-olefins, whereby a product containing at least 95 weight percent of said alkyl tertiary alkyl ether is produced while the formation of olefinic oligomer-by-product is not more than 5 weight percent.

Bell, W.K.; Haag, R.O.

1993-07-06

366

The equity imperative in tertiary education: Promoting fairness and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.

Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

2014-01-01

367

Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students’ lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that\\u000a students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science\\u000a education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to\\u000a their lives or

Lynda L. Jenkins

2011-01-01

368

Science Grades 5-8 Benchmarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades 5-8 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

369

Evaluating Science Information with Thinking Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Books & Films," the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), reviews books for young readers in the sciences to identify winners of these categories: Children's Science Picture Book, Middle Grades Science Book, and Young Adult Science Book. At each age level five finalists are selected for the annual…

Grady, Cynthia

2010-01-01

370

Design of a compliant passive magnetic bearing for use in SIRTF's Tertiary Mirror Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed baseline design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility includes a Tertiary Mirror Assembly (TMA) which selectively redirects the telescope's converging science beam to each of several instruments. The TMA's mirror rotates on an axis coincident with the beam's axis, and is held steady during observation by a kinematic mount. A bearing has been designed whose compliance causes minimal interference with the precision of the kinematic mount, and which is well suited to the particular requirements of a cryogenic satellite such as SIRTF. The bearing suspends its rotor by taking advantage of the repulsion between a superconductor and a magnet. It potentially eliminates problems associated with mechanical bearings that arise in similar applications, such as lubricant loss or failure, bearing wear, and sensitivity to particulates, and does so without imposing the thermal load of a bearing heater or active magnetic bearing. The bearing shows promise of offering an alternative to ball bearings in cryogenic applications where some compliance is acceptable or advantageous.

Cannon, David M.; Brereton, Margot; Dill, Harry; Sullivan, Mark

1990-01-01

371

Joffre viking tertiary carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

Vikor Resources Ltd. and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority are currently developing a CO/sub 2/ miscible flood project in the Joffre Viking Tertiary Oil Unit. The project is located in an area of the reservoir which had been produced to its economic limit under waterflood in the 1960s. The project consists of 4 water prepressure wells flanking 2 adjacent inverted 5-spot CO/sub 2/ injection patterns, which will be produced under a water alternating gas injection process. This study presents an overview of the CO/sub 2/ handling, injection and tertiary oil producton facilities, wells, and briefly discusses anticipated project performance.

Ilsley, D.B.; Macintyre, K.J.; Stephenson, D.J.

1983-01-01

372

Late Tertiary paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean area  

SciTech Connect

The present geography of the Mediterranean Sea is the result of late Tertiary tectonic processes and hardly reflects its Mesozoic and early Tertiary evolution. This paper outlines a plate tectonics model for the Mediterranean area from the Oligocene to the Pliocene. Seismic and well data have been integrated into the regional structural framework to produce a set of paleogeographic maps, which includes the Oligocene, early and middle Miocene, late Miocene, and Pliocene. These maps highlight the changes in sedimentation patterns in response to the tectonic development of the Mediterranean area. Special attention will be given to the Messinian desiccation event.

Arnott, R.J.; Haan, E.A.

1988-08-01

373

The global Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil carbon. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living carbon, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.

Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank

1988-01-01

374

Women & Science: Celebrating Achievements, Charting Challenges: Conference Report  

NSF Publications Database

... Science Celebrating Achievements Charting Challenges Conference Report March 1997 National Science ... levels of education and career. Enable women and girls to participate fully in science and ...

375

Fluid Science Users Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microgravity fluid science concerns all the studies aimed at the understanding of influence of gravity levels in the properties and hydrodynamics of fluids or to exploit particular fluid behaviors occurring under reduced gravity levels to study new or...

R. Monti L. Carotenuto

1992-01-01

376

Science Literacy for All Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected college programs designed to increase students' science literacy are described, and perspectives on science education are addressed in an article by E. James Rutherford, "Sputnik, Halley's Comet, and Science Education." The article suggests that leadership and consensus are needed at the national level to improve science education and to…

Brown, Peggy, Ed.

1982-01-01

377

Education Place: Houghton Mifflin Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education Place presents Houghton Mifflin's K-6 science textbook support resources, organized by grade level. Each of the seven modules offers broad coverage of concepts in physical science, Earth science, and life science through a series of topic units. Each unit includes engaging activities such as Family Newsletters, Unit Bibliographies, Vocabulary Games, eGlossaries, Cricket Connections, and Discover! Simulations, with teacher support.

2005-09-14

378

Teaching Children Science. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on science teaching at the elementary school level. It includes chapters dealing with various science content areas and teaching processes including: (1) what is science; (2) why teach science; (3) process skills as a foundation for unit and lesson planning; (4) how to plan learning units, daily lessons, and assessment…

Abruscato, Joseph

379

Seres Vivos. Nivel I. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Living Beings. Level 1. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in the elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the first grade science classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections,…

Senger, Graciela

380

Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian\\/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the \\

Henry Ellsworth Wirt Bouchelle III

2002-01-01

381

Putting the Science Back into Science Education Through the Science Education Program and Leadership (SEPAL) Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Science Education Program and Leadership (SEPAL) project, a model science program for elementary teachers and students, designed to improve the teaching of science at the K-8 level. Focuses on experiential learning for teachers and promotes an inquiry-oriented approach to science teaching. (JRH)

Greenwood, Anita; Haury, David

1995-01-01

382

Competition and Reform of the New Zealand Tertiary Education Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to use an historical approach to examine the changing nature, size and diversification of education and training in New Zealand. In particular, attention will be concentrated on the impact of the introduction of competition into the New Zealand tertiary education industry since 1989. It will examine the relationship…

Abbott, Malcolm

2006-01-01

383

Mechanical Models for Absolute Plate Motions in the Early Tertiary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test hypotheses relating the absolute velocities of the plates to driving force models for the present plate system, we have determined the absolute plate motions in the early Tertiary for a number of force models using the assumption that these forces exert no net torque on the lithosphere. All absolute motion models are based on a self-consistent set of

Sean C. Solomon; Norman H. Sleep; Donna M. Jurdy

1977-01-01

384

The structure of aqueous solutions of tertiary butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution, the structures of aqueous solutions of tertiary butanol have been studied as a function of concentration. As the behaviour of this system is thought to be driven by hydrophobic interactions, particular attention was paid to the hydration of the non-polar headgroups and the nature of the intermolecular contacts. As concentration is increased from 0.06

John L. Finney; Daniel T. Bowron; Alan K. Soper

2000-01-01

385

The Tertiary Programming Learning Environment: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computing learning environment has not often been equitable for female students. For example, the number of females enrolled in tertiary computing courses is low compared with males and their retention is poor. In recent years, New Zealand educational institutions have experienced an increased enrolment of "new arrivals"--students of diverse…

Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

2004-01-01

386

Reform and Development of Tertiary Education in Europe. Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tertiary education policies in seven Western European and seven Southern European countries are evaluated in two reports. In the first report by R. A. de Moor, attention is focused on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The evaluation and policy recommendations for the…

de Moor, R. A.; Vedel, Doyer Georges

387

Three-Dimensional Tertiary Structure of Yeast Phenylalanine Transfer RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-angstrom electron density map of crystalline yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA has provided us with a complete three-dimensional model which defines the positions of all of the nucleotide residues in the molecule. The overall features of the molecule are virtually the same as those seen at a resolution of 4 angstroms except that many additional details of tertiary structure are

S. H. Kim; F. L. Suddath; G. J. Quigley; A. McPherson; J. L. Sussman; A. H. J. Wang; N. C. Seeman; Alexander Rich

1974-01-01

388

Seawater Strontium Isotopes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anomalously high values of Seawater Sr-87/Sr-86 near the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary have been reported. However, few of the data from the literature are from a single continuous section, and perhaps the most complete study of the boundary region, ...

J. D. MacDougall E. Martin

1988-01-01

389

A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral

R. N. Alonso; C. Helvac?; R. J. Sureda; J. G. Viramonte

1988-01-01

390

Slaughter Estate Unit Tertiary Miscible Gas Pilot Reservoir Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir description for the Slaughter Estate Unit tertiary pilot and surrounding area and the procedure that we used to obtain it are discussed in this paper. The procedure is based on matching waterflood performance prior to pilot miscible gas injection with a black oil reservoir simulator. An initial estimate of the reservoir description is obtained from petrophysical data and

Joseph Ader; Michael Stein

1984-01-01

391

Diploma of Further Education Project: Pathways to Tertiary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1998 a consortium of six educational and community institutions in Australia have created a pathway into tertiary education for those not served by existing paths. The new path results in a Diploma of Further Education. The program is based on a philosophy of lifelong learning, including a foundation of eight lifelong learning goals.…

Palmieri, Phoebe

1999-01-01

392

Automated extraction and classification of RNA tertiary structure cyclic motifs  

PubMed Central

A minimum cycle basis of the tertiary structure of a large ribosomal subunit (LSU) X-ray crystal structure was analyzed. Most cycles are small, as they are composed of 3- to 5 nt, and repeated across the LSU tertiary structure. We used hierarchical clustering to quantify and classify the 4 nt cycles. One class is defined by the GNRA tetraloop motif. The inspection of the GNRA class revealed peculiar instances in sequence. First is the presence of UA, CA, UC and CC base pairs that substitute the usual sheared GA base pair. Second is the revelation of GNR(Xn)A tetraloops, where Xn is bulged out of the classical GNRA structure, and of GN/RA formed by the two strands of interior-loops. We were able to unambiguously characterize the cycle classes using base stacking and base pairing annotations. The cycles identified correspond to small and cyclic motifs that compose most of the LSU RNA tertiary structure and contribute to its thermodynamic stability. Consequently, the RNA minimum cycles could well be used as the basic elements of RNA tertiary structure prediction methods.

Lemieux, Sebastien; Major, Francois

2006-01-01

393

Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

McNaughton, Susan M.

2013-01-01

394

Predictors of Attrition and Achievement in a Tertiary Bridging Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the attrition and achievement of a sample of 295 students in an on-campus tertiary bridging program at a regional university. A logistic regression analysis using enrolment status, age and the number of absences from scheduled classes at week three of the semester as predictor variables correctly predicted 92.8 percent of…

Whannell, Robert

2013-01-01

395

English Textbooks in Parallel-Language Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tertiary education in many countries is increasingly bilingual, with English used in parallel with the national language, particularly as a reading language. This article describes the results of a survey of student attitudes toward, and reading practices regarding, English language textbooks. Over 1,000 students at three Swedish universities…

Pecorari, Diane; Shaw, Philip; Malmstrom, Hans; Irvine, Aileen

2011-01-01

396

Secondary and tertiary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora.  

PubMed

From the secondary and tertiary alkaloidal fractions of the root and the bark of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), the isoquinoline alkaloids, 10,11-dihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxynoraporphine and parvinine were isolated, along with 39 known alkaloids. Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data. PMID:16963092

Nishiyama, Yumi; Moriyasu, Masataka; Ichimaru, Momoyo; Iwasa, Kinuko; Kato, Atsushi; Mathenge, Simon G; Chalo Mutiso, Patrick B; Juma, Francis D

2006-12-01

397

DEPIGMENTATION FROM 4TERTIARY BUTYL CATECHOL-AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the cause of leucoderma among four tappet assembly workers revealed the presence of 4-tertiary butyl catechol (TBC) in the assembly oil. This substance was able to depigment black guinea pig skin in 5% and 10% concentrations in a variety of vehicles. The TBC is an irritant to guinea pig, rabbit, and human skin in concentrations of 0.5%

Gerald A. Gellin; Paul A. Possick; Vernon B. Perone

1970-01-01

398

Tertiary architecture of the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group II intron.  

PubMed

Group II introns are large ribozymes that act as self-splicing and retrotransposable RNA molecules. They are of great interest because of their potential evolutionary relationship to the eukaryotic spliceosome, their continued influence on the organization of many genomes in bacteria and eukaryotes, and their potential utility as tools for gene therapy and biotechnology. One of the most interesting features of group II introns is their relative lack of nucleobase conservation and covariation, which has long suggested that group II intron structures are stabilized by numerous unusual tertiary interactions and backbone-mediated contacts. Here, we provide a detailed description of the tertiary interaction networks within the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group IIC intron, for which a crystal structure was recently solved to 3.1 A resolution. The structure can be described as a set of several intricately constructed tertiary interaction nodes, each of which contains a core of extended stacking networks and elaborate motifs. Many of these nodes are surrounded by a web of ribose zippers, which appear to further stabilize local structure. As predicted from biochemical and genetic studies, the group II intron provides a wealth of new information on strategies for RNA folding and tertiary structural organization. PMID:19952115

Toor, Navtej; Keating, Kevin S; Fedorova, Olga; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Wang, Jimin; Pyle, Anna Marie

2010-01-01

399

Pedagogical Practices of Reflection in Tertiary Dance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three different perspectives on reflection in education are embedded in the philosophical traditions of pragmatism, critical social theory and Kant. We aimed to describe the pedagogical practices of reflection, and to develop a descriptive model of the practices of reflection in tertiary dance education which can be used by dance educators to…

Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Wildschut, Liesbeth

2008-01-01

400

Identification of tertiary sulfonamides as RORc inverse agonists.  

PubMed

Screening a nuclear receptor compound subset in a RORc biochemical binding assay revealed a benzylic tertiary sulfonamide hit. Herein, we describe the identification of compounds with improved RORc biochemical inverse agonist activity and cellular potencies. These improved compounds also possessed appreciable selectivity for RORc over other nuclear receptors. PMID:24685544

Fauber, Benjamin P; René, Olivier; Burton, Brenda; Everett, Christine; Gobbi, Alberto; Hawkins, Julie; Johnson, Adam R; Liimatta, Marya; Lockey, Peter; Norman, Maxine; Wong, Harvey

2014-05-01

401

The Place of VET in the Tertiary Sector. Conference Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utilitarian spirit of Australian education has meant that since the nineteenth century the notion of tertiary education has embraced all post-school learning, delivered in sandstone universities or working men's institutes or on the job. This is not the definition the peak bodies TAFE (Technical and Further Education) Directors Australia (TDA)…

Beddie, Francesca

2010-01-01

402

Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Biotic Crisis in the Basque Country.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Zumaya section has been selected as a classic locality for the study of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary due to its richness in microfaune, macrofaune, and nannoflora. The sections present similar good conditions for the study of the K-T boundar...

M. A. Lamolda

1988-01-01

403

Group Assessments: Dilemmas Facing Lecturers in Multicultural Tertiary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Group is good, and group is good for curing all social ills" was the cynical observation of one of the lecturers in this study. Her comment reflects the uneasiness of lecturers at tertiary institutions with the notion that the educational advantages of group assessments far outweigh the disadvantages, and that such an approach promotes the…

Strauss, Pat; U, Alice

2007-01-01

404

Sustainability in Tertiary Curricula: What Is Stopping It Happening?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of environmental education and education for sustainability have been acknowledged by many tertiary institutions for over a decade. An appreciable number of institutions have signed agreements to educate students in all disciplines about sustainability. Although several Australian institutions of higher education have signed the…

Thomas, Ian

2004-01-01

405

Awareness of cancer risk factors among patients and attendants presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine awareness of cancer risk factors in the patients and attendants of Out-patient Clinics at a University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 315 respondents reporting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their level of awareness regarding risk factors of cancer.RESULTS: The respondents belonged to an urban population with the

Hadi Bhurgri; Saqib Ali Gowani; Ahmed Itrat; Saira Samani; Akbar Zuberi; Momin Saulat Siddique; Waris Qidwai; Yasmin Bhurgri

2008-01-01

406

Tertiary metamorphic core complexes in Sonora, northwestern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several ranges encompassing more than 35,000 km2 of Sonora, Mexico, contain distinctly lineated and foliated granitic and metamorphic rocks that constitute the lower plates of metamorphic core complexes. Penetrative deformation is characterized by gently dipping mylonitic foliation across which northeast trending stretching lineation is everywhere developed. Prominent northwest trending fractures, dikes, and normal faults are orthogonal to the lineation. Most kinematic indicators in lower plate mylonitic rocks record top-to-the-southwest sense of shear. Upper plate stratigraphic sequences include Mesozoic supracrustal rocks, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and allochthonous Precambrian basement. Tilted blocks of upper plate strata generally overlie the mylonites along gently dipping detachment faults. Previously published U-Pb and K-Ar ages from lower plate granitic orthogneisses, upper plate volcanic sequences, and crosscutting dikes constrain the time of mylonitic deformation and detachment faulting in several of these areas to late Oligocene-early Miocene. Partitioning of extensional strain in Sonora was influenced by pre-Tertiary crustal structure. The belt of core complexes developed across two contrasting blocks of continental crust separated by the N60°W striking Mojave-Sonora megashear. Portions of the southern Papago block (northeast of the megashear) consisting of Jurassic magmatic arc rocks and Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous siliciclastic and carbonate strata resting upon a concealed, tectonically fragmented Precambrian basement were especially susceptible to crustal attenuation. Some core complexes of the southern Papago block occur within zones trending northwest that may coincide with Late Jurassic lineaments. In the Caborca block (southwest of the megashear), core complex-related rocks and structures have not been identified where surface exposures of Middle Proterozoic basement and overlying Upper Proterozoic-Paleozoic platform strata are common. However, extensional mylonitic fabrics are locally developed along the margins of a Tertiary two-mica granite batholith. Core complexes on both sides of the megashear appear to be preferentially developed where Tertiary granites have intruded regions of crust with basement disrupted by pre-Tertiary structures. Sonoran core complexes preserve an extensional tectonic history comparable with that described from core complexes farther north in the United States and Canadian Cordillera. The timing of mid crustal extension in Sonora (25-18 Ma) is contemporaneous with the timing of core complex development in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. Extension occurred later in these areas than in the Pacific Northwest-British Columbia region but earlier than in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley region. Middle Tertiary mylonitic fabrics of similar style and orientation have not been recognized farther south in Mexico. The southern terminus of the mid-Tertiary Cordilleran core complex belt appears to be in Sonora.

Nourse, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Thomas H.; Silver, Leon T.

1994-10-01

407

A New Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl N-Arylcarbamates from Isocyanates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The method involves the dissolution of a small piece of metallic lithium in a small quantity of tertiary alcohol followed by addition to a mixture of the isocyanate and the tertiary alcohol in ether. This should be useful in organic chemistry laboratory courses for the identification of tertiary alcohols. (Author/BB)

Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.

1978-01-01

408

Formaldehyde formation from tertiary amine derivatives during chlorination.  

PubMed

In May 2012, formaldehyde (FA) precursor contamination in the Tone River Basin led to the suspension of water supply to approximately 360,000 homes, which affected approximately 870,000 people in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The discharge of industrial effluents containing hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), a tertiary amine and FA precursor, without proper treatment resulted in the formation of FA during chlorination at water purification plants. Tertiary amines are known to be the precursors of aldehydes upon chlorination. In this study, FA formation from 29 separate amine derivatives during chlorination was investigated to determine any other potential causes of this water quality accident. The FA formation yield also included FA formation by the autolysis of the target compounds as well as the chlorination of the autolysis products. The FA molar formation yield of HMT was the highest after 24h of chlorination (440%). Among the various tertiary amine derivatives containing N-methyl groups, tertiary amines and hydrazines were found to be strong FA precursors because the FA molar formation yields per N-methyl group ranged from 25% to 45% (with a mean of 38%) and from 35% to 45% (with a mean of 41%), respectively. Guanidines and sulfamides containing N-methyl groups were also FA precursors but they exhibited lower FA molar formation yields per N-methyl group. The FA molar formation yields of the remaining compounds were <4%. The FA formation yield of HMT was extremely high even on a per weight basis (95wt.%). The FA weight formation yields of some tertiary amines and hydrazines were greater than 20wt.%. PMID:24836388

Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Nakai, Takahiko; Ohkubo, Keiko; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

2014-08-01

409

Research Writing in the Sciences: Liminal Territory and High Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic and scientific literacy experts agree that becoming literate in an academic discipline involves coordinating language learning, and thinking in increasingly sophisticated ways to enable participation in discipline practices of knowledge construction. Despite this knowledge, understanding of writing pedagogies in tertiary science are in…

Ross, P. M.; Burgin, Shelley; Aitchison, Claire; Catterall, Janice

2011-01-01

410

Connecting university science experiences to middle school science teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Science teachers naturally rely on their university science experiences as a foundation for teaching middle school science.\\u000a This foundation consists of knowledge far too complex for the middle level students to comprehend. In order for middle school\\u000a science teachers to utilize their university science training they must search for ways to adapt their college experiences\\u000a into appropriate middle school learning

Gordon Johnson; Laura Laughran; Ray Tamppari; Perry Thomas

1991-01-01

411

Education World Site Reviews: Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of reviews of online resources for the teaching of science. The reviews are organized by topic: general science, chemistry, Earth science, life science, physics, space science, and zoology. Each review includes date of the review, a link to the web site, grade levels for which the site is appropriate, an overall rating by letter grade (A, B, C), and comments on site's content, design or aestetics, and organization. There are also links to reviews on related topics.

412

Into the Curriculum. Interdisciplinary: Celebrating Our Animal Friends: An Across-the-Curriculum Unit for Middle Level Students [and] Music: Program Notes [and] Reading-Language Arts: Letters: Written, Licked, and Stamped [and] Science: Plants in Families [and] Science: Physics and Holiday Toys (Gravity) [and] Social Studies: Learning about Geography through Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six curriculum guides for elementary and secondary education. Subjects include interdisciplinary instruction, music, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide provides library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, a…

Gillen, Rose; And Others

1995-01-01

413

Try Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TryScience contains games and virtual reality adventures, virtual field trips to museums and science centers, and experiments. There is a Starfleet Academy virtual reality game involving communications, engineering, environments, and lifeforms; an electrolysis experiment that can be conducted online or at home; and a game about an African Naked Mole-rat colony. Experiments are categorized by: Earth science, biological science, mathematics, physical science, space science, technology and engineering, chemistry, social science, and medicine and health.

414

Why Do Staff of Joint-Use Libraries Sometimes Fail to Integrate? Investigating Cultures and Ethics in a Public-Tertiary Joint-Use Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint-use libraries have identified staff integration as a problem. Using focus groups, this project investigated the culture, professional ethics, and attitudes of staff in a public-tertiary joint-use library in Auckland, New Zealand. Findings show some difference in organizational cultures, but more variation at the lower level of roles and…

Calvert, Philip James

2010-01-01

415

Making Political Science More Relevant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that political science teachers on the college level use their free summer months constructively by leading workshops for government officials and interested citizens on political science theory, research techniques, and practical political knowledge. (Author/DB)

Kearney, Richard C.; Alberts, Lyle K.

1980-01-01

416

Science, Technology and African Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three points of view on the place of science and technology in African society. Examines the relationship that exists between cultural values and science and technology development. Provides implications at three levels of technology. (Author/YP)

Urevbu, Andrew O.

1988-01-01

417

CBEâÂÂLife Sciences Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CBEâÂÂLife Sciences Education (CBE-LSE), a free, online quarterly journal from The American Society for Cell Biology, publishes peer-reviewed articles on life sciences education at the KâÂÂ12, undergraduate, and graduate levels.

American Soceity for Cell Biology (ASCB;)

2010-05-17

418

China Report, Science and Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains information on national-level science policies, technology strategies, and research and development programs in China Science and technology with particular attention to Electronics, computers, production engineering, and national defe...

1986-01-01

419

Stop for Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This building-wide science enrichment program consists of a series of posters and accompanying questions designed to pique student interest in science concepts and their application to the world in which we live. Accompanying each poster are question sheets of increasing difficulty levels that students answer and submit at a designated location (collection box, office, etc.). Random prize drawings can be used to recognize/celebrate student participation. The purpose is to expose students to and create school-wide interest about science so students want to "STOP for Science" as displays are changed throughout the year. Although the focus is on enhancing building-wide science interest, content can also be linked directly to science classroom activities through use of accompanying teacher resource guides that provide science background, fun facts, typical questions and misconceptions, and several demonstrations or experiments related to the poster concepts.

2010-04-29

420

Lithological and hydrological characteristics of the tertiary hydrostratigraphic systems of the general separations area at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The General Separations Area (GSA) is an approximately 15-square-mile area near the geographic center of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province of South Carolina on the Aiken Plateau at an elevation of approximately 300 feet above mean sea level. The sedimentary sequence of the GSA comprises unconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Cretaceous to Holocene with isolated zones of consolidated sediments. The Tertiary sediments are composed of sand, silt, clay, and calcareous materials of varying composition. The alpha-numeric hydrostratigraphic nomenclature proposed by Aadland (1990) is used herein. The Tertiary-age lithostratigraphic sequence at the GSA is composed predominantly of terrigenous clastics interspersed with carbonate-rich clastics and limestones. The calcareous lithologies are discontinuous and divided into a lower and upper zone. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Aadland, R.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Harris, M.K.; Westbrook, T.M. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

421

Pharmaceutical care and medication adherence in management of psychosis in a Nigerian tertiary hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: The primary objective of this study is to examine the medication adherence levels (as a function of pharmaceutical care) and its contributing factors in schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic drugs. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study administering a structured questionnaire to 231 patients. Adherence was measured through patient self-reporting. Association between independent variables and adherence to antipsychotics were measured through odds ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis while the best predictors of adherence were determined through the multiple logistic regressions. Findings: Adherence level was found to be 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.3-71.9%). The following factors were identified to be associated with adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.088), sex (OR 1.231), employment (OR 0.366), marital status (singles, OR 0.022), drug adherence counseling (OR 11.641), twice a day frequency (OR 8.434), alcohol non-intake (OR 1.469), educational level (primary OR 1.9312, secondary OR 11.022, tertiary OR 4.771), occupation (public servant 6.273). In the multivariate analysis, age, three times a day frequency of drug intake, singles and educational levels such as primary, secondary or tertiary school, strongly affected adherence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although patients adherence level was high (65.8%), there is a need to emphasize that pharmacists spend more time in counseling and educating patients, especially younger ones on drug adherence before any antipsychotic medications are dispensed. Furthermore, patients should be taught the use of adherence devices such as reminders so that adherence to antipsychotic medications can be optimized.

Danladi, Jonathan; Falang, Kakjing D.; Barde, Raymond A.; Jimam, Nanlok S.; Dangiwa, Dauda A.; Jimoh, Hafsat O.

2013-01-01

422

National Science Education Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides lists of national education standards from the National Academy of Science. It was created by contributions from science educators, scientists, and experts from across the country. These provide science literacy standards, offer proven teaching practices, and outline classroom and district level curriculum design. The book can be purchased from the National Academies Press or read here for free by selecting sections from the Table of Contents.

2008-06-24

423

Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Solutions to our most pressing scientific questions come from cross-cutting efforts in which investigators deploy diverse research methods and attack problems at multiple levels of analysis. ICPS will showcase these efforts in thematic Integrative Science Symposia featuring leading investigators from not only psychological science, but also neuroscience, genetics, sociology, economics, anthropology, linguistics, and related fields. Each Integrative Science Symposium will be paired with Cutting-Edge Methodological Workshops that will provide scientific skill-building opportunities for all conference attendees.

424

Science Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Academy of Sciences presents content standards which outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for each category, the form of the standards, the criteria used to select the standards, and some advice for using the science content standards. Information is included for levels K-12.

Standards, National S.; Press, National A.

425

Science history  

Microsoft Academic Search

A science history content in a science course is a humanizing element which makes the science appeal more strongly to imaginative and creative minds. It also provides perspective and prepares the pupil for the ever-changing character of modern science. Examples are given of charts which can key science history to its social and political background and which illustrate the interdependence

A J Woodall

1967-01-01

426

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30

427

Tertiary side resonant DC/DC converter with integrated magnetics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a constant frequency tertiary side resonant dc/dc converter topology. The proposed converter topology gives the opportunity to integrate all the resonant inductors with the output transformer and provides greater flexibility in selecting the resonant capacitors. The harmonic equivalent circuit model and frequency domain analysis, which incorporates the effect of the leakage inductance of the high frequency transformer are presented. Steady state characteristics curves are presented to describe the effect of the leakage inductance and resonant circuit parameters on the performance of the converter. It is shown that with a tuned parallel resonant circuit on the tertiary winding the converter can be operated at higher frequencies. Finally, the experimental results show a higher than 80% efficiency for a 500 W, 48V to 5V dc/dc converter operating at 128 kHz.

Jain, P. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Jain, P.; Quaicoe, J. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada)] [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada)

1996-09-01

428

Characteristics of tertiary lymphoid structures in primary cancers  

PubMed Central

Tumors are sustained by complex networks of interactions between malignant cells, stromal cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells. These networks differ from patient to patient in terms of nature, composition and organization as well as with regard to the precise localization of tumor-infiltrating cells. Of note, the heterogeneity of the immunological component of the tumor microenvironment, as opposed to its mere abundance, has been shown to influence disease outcome. However, a key question remains: where does the activation of tumor-specific T cells take place? The recently described, tumor-associated lymph node-like entities termed “tertiary lymphoid structures” exhibit a structural organization that is reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs, and thus may imprint the local immune contexture. Here, we discuss how cancer-associated tertiary lymphoid structures impact on the tumor micro-architecture, immune microenvironment, and ultimately, patient survival.

Goc, Jeremy; Fridman, Wolf-Herman; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

2013-01-01

429

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Tertiary Structure Ensembles of Amyloid-? Peptides  

PubMed Central

The interplay of modern molecular simulation and high-quality nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments has reached a fruitful stage for quantitative characterization of structural ensembles of disordered peptides. Amyloid-? 1–42 (A?42), the primary peptide associated with Alzheimer’s disease, and fragments such as A?21–30 are both classified as intrinsically disordered peptides (IDPs). We use a variety of NMR observables to validate de novo molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water to characterize the tertiary structure ensemble of A?42 and A?21–30 from the perspective of their classification as IDPs. Unlike the A?21–30 fragment that conforms to expectations of an IDP that is primarily extended, we find that A?42 samples conformations reflecting all possible secondary structure categories and spans the range of IDP classifications from collapsed structured states to highly extended conformations, making it an IDP with a far more heterogeneous tertiary ensemble.

Ball, K. Aurelia; Phillips, Aaron H.; Nerenberg, Paul S.; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Wemmer, David E.; Head-Gordon, Teresa

2012-01-01

430

Association of oil source algae in some Tertiary basins, northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coal petrographic study of sediments, including coals, oil shale, and oil source rocks, in the fossil fuel deposits of northern Thailand revealed changes in alginite associations. In the Lower part of these Tertiary deposits, especially in the Fang oilfield, alginite A (a Botryococcus sp.) was the only type of alga found. Later, the association of Botryococcus braunii, Pila algae, thick-walled alginite B, and temperate palynomorphs were recognized in many coalfields, as well as in the middle part of the deposits in the Fang Basin. Their ages were Late Oligocene (?) to Early Miocene. In the upper part of the fossil fuel deposits, alginite B is dominant in many basins, together with Botryococcus-related taxa such as Pila algae, Reinschia and fresh-water-dwelling ferns. In the Mae Sod Basins Reinschia was found to be dominant in the northern part, whereas lamaginite dominated in the south, showing different environmental conditions in different parts of the basin during deposition. These different associations indicate changes in depositional environments in northern Thailand, resulting from climatic and/or sea level changes during Tertiary time.

Ratanasthien, Benjavun

1999-04-01

431

Catalytic enantioselective epoxidation of tertiary allylic and homoallylic alcohols.  

PubMed

An efficient and versatile method for the enantioselective epoxidation of both tertiary allylic and homoallylic alcohols catalyzed by Hf(IV)-bishydroxamic acid (BHA) complexes is described. Asymmetric epoxidation, kinetic resolution, and desymmetrization have been developed, demonstrating the flexible nature of the Hf(IV)-BHA system. This is the first report in which these substrates were obtained with enantioselectivities of up to 99%. PMID:23406082

Olivares-Romero, José Luis; Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

2013-03-01

432

Major wildfires at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the reconstruction of major biomass fire events at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is discussed. Attention is given to the sources of charcoal and soot, the identification of biomass and fossil carbon, and such ignition-related problems as delated fires, high atmospheric O2 content, ignition mechanisms, and the greenhouse-effect consequences of fire on the scale envisioned. Consequences of these factors for species extinction patterns are noted.

Anders, Edward; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Gilmour, Iain

1991-01-01

433

A fast steering tertiary mirror for the SOAR Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOAR Telescope developed by NOAO and sited on Cerro Pachon, Chile is a 4.1-meter Ritchey-Chretien design incorporating active optics (AO). The AO system is composed of PC-hosted control software, a solid primary mirror supported by 120 electro-mechanical actuators, a lightweighted 600 mm secondary mirror supported by a six degree-of-freedom hexapod mechanism, and a lightweighted 600 mm tertiary mirror controllable

John T. Stein; Conrad Neufeld

2004-01-01

434

MTBE for octane improvement. [Methyl tertiary-butyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), which shows promise as an octane improver, has been introduced commercially in the US after successful commercialization in Italy and Germany. Comparisons are made of the fuel properties, single-cylinder engine performance, and road octane readings between gasoline and MTBE-gasoline blends. The study concludes that the compatibility of MTBE with gasoline will improve the road performance of

B. Taniguchi; R. T. Johnson

1979-01-01

435

RNA tertiary folding monitored by fluorescence of covalently attached pyrene.  

PubMed

The pathways by which large RNAs adopt tertiary structure are just beginning to be explored, and new methods that reveal RNA folding are highly desirable. Here we report an assay for RNA tertiary folding in which the fluorescence of a covalently incorporated chromophore is monitored. Folding of the 160-nucleotide Tetrahymena group I intron P4-P6 domain was used as a test system. Guided by the P4-P6 X-ray crystal structure, we chose a nucleotide (U107) for which derivatization at the 2'-position should not perturb the folded conformation. A 15-mer RNA oligonucleotide with a 2'-amino substitution at U107 was derivatized with a pyrene chromophore on a variable-length tether, and then ligated to the remainder of P4-P6, providing a site-specifically pyrene-labeled P4-P6 derivative. Upon titration of the pyrene-derivatized P4-P6 with Mg(2+), the equilibrium fluorescence intensity reversibly increased several-fold, as expected if the probe's chemical microenvironment changes as the RNA to which it is attached folds. The concentration and specificity of divalent ions required to induce the fluorescence change (Mg(2+) approximately Ca(2+) > Sr(2+)) correlated well with biochemical folding assays that involve nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, mutations in P4-P6 remote from the chromophore that shifted the Mg(2+) folding requirement on nondenaturing gels also affected in a predictable way the Mg(2+) requirement for the fluorescence increase. Initial stopped-flow studies with millisecond time resolution suggest that this fluorescence method will be useful for following the kinetics of P4-P6 tertiary folding. We conclude that a single site-specifically tethered chromophore can report the formation of global structure of a large RNA molecule, allowing one to monitor both the equilibrium progress and the real-time kinetics of RNA tertiary folding. PMID:10571996

Silverman, S K; Cech, T R

1999-10-26

436

HighLight: a file system for tertiary storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

HighLight, a file system combining secondary disk storage and tertiary robotic storage that is being developed as part of the Sequoia 200 Project, is described. HighLight is an extension of the 4.4BSD log-structured file system (LFS), which provides hierarchical storage management without requiring any special support from applications. The authors present HighLight's design and various policies for automatic migration of

John Kohl; Michael Stonebraker; Carl Staelin

1993-01-01

437

RESISTANCE OF SPIDERS TO CRETACEOUS–TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Throughout,Earth history a small number,of global catastrophic events leading to biotic crises have caused mass extinctions. Here, using a technique that combines taxonomic and numerical data, we consider the effects of the Cenomanian?Turonian and Cretaceous?Tertiary mass,extinctions on the terrestrial spider fauna in the light of new fossil data. We provide,the first evidence,that spiders suffered no decline at the family

David Penney; C. Philip Wheater; Paul A. Selden

2003-01-01

438

Rock magnetic signature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black magnetic microspherules, commonly found in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sediments and believed to be of an impact melt origin, were found to be responsible for a strong magnetic anomaly at the K-T boundary in Petriccio, Italy, and in almost all Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sediment cores investigated in which the K-T boundary was present. The enriched concentrations of magnetic

Horst-Ulrich Worm; Subir K. Banerjee

1987-01-01

439

Heliophysics Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HELIOPHYSICS SUMMER SCHOOLS: NASA Living With a Star and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Visiting Scientist Programs sponsor the Heliophysics Summer Schools to build this new field of science. The series of summer schools, started in 2007, help graduate students and scientists learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from the Earth's troposphere to the depths of the Sun, and in time from the formation of the solar system to the distant future. The first three years of the school will result in three textbooks for use at universities worldwide. Subsequent years will both teach other generations of students and develop the complementary materials that support teaching of heliophysics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Heliophysics is a developing scientific discipline integrating studies of the Sun’s variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and climatic environments. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever-increasing rate. The first textbook, (Heliophysics I Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos, edited by Carolus J. Schrijver, Lockheed Martin and George L. Siscoe, Boston University) integrates such diverse topics for the first time as a coherent intellectual discipline. It emphasizes the physical processes coupling the Sun and Earth, allowing insights into the interaction of the solar wind and radiation with the Earth’s magnetic field, atmosphere and climate system. It provides a core resource for advanced undergraduates and graduates, and also constitutes a foundational reference for researchers in heliophysics, astrophysics, plasma physics, space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science and climate science. HELIOPHYSICS POSTDOCTORAL PROGRAM: Hosts and applicants are invited to apply to a new postdoctoral fellowship program designed to train the next generation of researchers in the emerging field of Heliophysics. Two major topics of focus for LWS are the science of space weather and of the Sun-climate connection. Preference will be given to applicants whose proposed research addresses one of these two foci; but any research program relevant to LWS will be considered. Since the goal of this fellowship program is to train Sun-Earth system researchers, preference will also be given to research projects that cross the traditional Heliophysics subdomains of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere/upper atmosphere, as well as Sun-climate investigations. Host institutions and mentoring scientists will play critical roles. Hosts may post information about their research on a central database for this program: www.vsp.ucar.edu/HeliophysicsScience.

Austin, M.; Schrjver, K.; Siscoe, G. L.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Longcope, D. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Guhathakurta, M.

2009-12-01

440

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

441

Tertiary amines enhance reactions of organic contaminants with aqueous chlorine.  

PubMed

Through various anthropogenic inputs, tertiary amines can readily contaminate wastewater and drinking water sources and can form chlorammonium species (R(3)N(+)-Cl) during aqueous chlorine disinfection. This study investigated the less understood concept that these chlorammonium species can potentially enhance organic contaminant loss and increase disinfection byproduct formation to a greater extent than aqueous chlorine. Tertiary amines' effectiveness was highly dependent on amine structure as trimethylamine (TMA) and 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (MES) enhanced organic contaminant loss, while others (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and creatinine (CRE)) were ineffective. MES addition up to 25 ?M led to increased organic contaminant chlorination by up to three orders of magnitude while observing pseudo-first order kinetic behavior and a linear amine dose response. TMA addition up to 0.5 ?M accelerated organic contaminant chlorination by almost two orders of magnitude, but occasionally deviated from pseudo-first order kinetics with incomplete organic contaminant degradation and a non-linear amine dose response - a result linked to TMA's rapid auto-decomposition over time. Byproduct formation was identical with and without amine addition, and thus the chlorination mechanisms are likely similar to aqueous chlorine. Results from this study improve the mechanistic understanding behind tertiary amine-enhanced chlorination. PMID:21968217

Shah, Amisha D; Kim, Jae-Hong; Huang, Ching-Hua

2011-11-15

442

General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.  

PubMed

A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, ?,?-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:24641574

Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

2014-04-16

443

Salt Contribution to RNA Tertiary Structure Folding Stability  

PubMed Central

Accurate quantification of the ionic contribution to RNA folding stability could greatly enhance our ability to understand and predict RNA functions. Recently, motivated by the potential importance of ion correlation and fluctuation in RNA folding, we developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model. Extensive experimental tests showed that the TBI model can lead to better treatment of multivalent ions than the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In this study, we use the model to quantify the contribution of salt (Na+ and Mg2+) to the RNA tertiary structure folding free energy. Folding of the RNA tertiary structure often involves intermediates. We focus on the folding transition from an intermediate state to the native state, and compute the electrostatic folding free energy of the RNA. Based on systematic calculations for a variety of RNA molecules, we derive a set of formulas for the electrostatic free energy for tertiary structural folding as a function of the sequence length and compactness of the RNA and the Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations. Extensive comparisons with experimental data suggest that our model and the extracted empirical formulas are quite reliable.

Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie

2011-01-01

444

Computer Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer science is the study of computational systems and their use in representing important problems in science and society. Major topics include computational science, software systems, network systems, theory of computation, machine learning, and human-computer interaction.

K-12 Outreach,

445

Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

Cooperative Learning, 1991

1991-01-01

446

Molecular Science Project, The  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Molecular Science Project is an NSF systemic-reform initiative. Molecular Science has developed digital instructional materials and tools for college-level chemistry courses. Instructors can select learning units and use them to supplement traditional instruction or as the sole source of instruction in electronic classrooms.

447

Science in Any Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Guided Language Acquisition Design (GLAD) teaching strategies can help English language learners (ELL) with science. GLAD is a model for planning science, social studies, and literature-based units. It includes a collection of innovative strategies designed to help all levels of ELL students' access core curriculum while…

Hansen, Laurie E.

2003-01-01

448

Science for Young Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why science education is necessary for primary grade pupils and provides examples of activities from the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, successfully used at this level. Discusses the possible contribution of research scientists to education, development of children's reasoning abilities and scientific literacy, and advantages of…

Karplus, Robert

1978-01-01

449

NSDL Science Refreshers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NSDL Science Refreshers provide quick and easy access to high-quality science content. These resources from trusted providers are selected and organized by grade level and subject area in order to save you time and effort in finding interactive tutorials, diagrams, articles, and other materials to enhance your content knowledge.

2010-02-25

450

ABC's of Nuclear Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the ABC's of Nuclear Science site gives high school students and perhaps even entry-level college students a good general overview of nuclear science. Through descriptions and illustrations, students get to explore nuclear structure; radioactivity; alpha, beta, and gamma decay; half-life; reactions; fusion; fission; cosmic rays; and antimatter.

Noto, Victor

2003-10-31

451

Science, Technology, Society: Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science-technology-society (STS) movement is emerging at the collegiate level. In elementary and secondary school science, social studies, and industrial arts classes, there is a growing awareness of the need for students to learn about technology and the methods by which it can be directed, made more appropriate, and controlled. This issue of…

Lux, Donald G., Ed.

1991-01-01

452

Laboratory Earth Under the Lens: Diachronic Evaluation of an Integrated Graduate-Level On-Line Earth System Science Course Series for K-12 Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational research strives to identify the pedagogies that promote student learning. However, the body of research identifying the characteristics of effective teacher preparation is "least strong for science," and is largely based on studies of the effectiveness of individual courses or workshops (NRC 2010). The National Research Council's "Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Strong Policy," (2010) provides a mandate for teacher education providers to conduct research on program-scale effectiveness. The high priority research agenda identified by the NRC is expected to elicit understanding of the aspects of teacher preparation that critically impact classroom student learning outcomes. The Laboratory Lens project is designed to identify effective practices in a teacher education program, with specific reference to the content domain of Earth science. Now in its fifth year, the Masters of Applied Science (MAS) program at UNL offers a variety of science courses, ranging from entomology to food science. The six-course Lab Earth series serves as the backbone of the Specialization for Science Educators within the MAS program, and provides comprehensive content coverage of all Earth science topics identified in the AAAS Benchmarks. "How People Learn," (NRC 2009) emphasizes that expert knowledge includes not only factual knowledge, but also the well-developed conceptual framework critical to the ability to, "remember, reason, and solve problems." A focus of our research is to document the process by which the transition from novice to expert takes place in Lab Earth's on-line teacher participants. A feature of our research design is the standardization of evaluation instruments across the six courses. We have used data derived from implementation of the Community of Inquiry Survey (COI) in pilot offerings to ensure that the course sequence is effective in developing a community of learners, while developing their content knowledge. A pre- and post- course Wilcoxan Signed Ranks Test is included in the battery of assessments to ensure that the courses achieve a statistically significant increase in participants' beliefs about their personal science teaching efficacy. The research design also includes the analysis of concept maps and content mastery assignments to assist in documentation of a teacher's transition from mastery of novice to expert knowledge. Content-based, course-specific pre and post knowledge surveys are included in the battery of assessments. In the analysis of on-line discussions, the project employs a textual analysis technique outlined in "The Rhetoric of Social Intervention," (RSI) (Opt and Gring 2009). RSI provides a promising analytical framework, especially when examining the development of understanding of scientific topics with societal implications, such as sustainability and climate change. The session provides a description of the integrated research design and data collection and analysis in the first year of this project.

Low, R.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.; Larson-Miller, C.; Bonnstetter, R.; Mandryk, C.

2012-12-01

453

Authentic science and school science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns about inappropriate views that students have about science and suggested remedies such as more philosophy of science courses for science teachers are similar to those advanced during the 1960s curriculum reform movement. However, evidence from the ‘60s and the ‘80s is that additional courses in the philosophy of science have little effect on science teachers’ classroom behaviour or

P. James Gaskell

1992-01-01

454

Writing: Is It Important in Science Classrooms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent times there has been much debate about the literacy levels of students in our schools. Federal and State Governments have provided extensive resources to improve the literacy standards of our tertiary, primary and secondary students. As part of this emphasis on literacy the role that writing plays in student learning has been…

Gregson, Robyn; Aubusson, Peter

2005-01-01

455

Poly(Tertiary Phosphines and Arsines). XI. Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Some Metal Complexes of Poly(Tertiary, Phosphines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proton noise-decoupled pulsed Fourier transform phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of metal complexes of the di(tertiary phosphine) (CH3)2PCH2CH2P(C6H5)2, the symmetrical tri(tertiary Phosphines) R'P(CH2CH2PR2) (R and R' = methyl or phenyl), the unsymmetrical tri(...

R. B. King J. C. Cloyd

1974-01-01

456

Science education policy for emergency, conflict, and post-conflict: An analysis of trends and implications for the science education program in Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative admission in higher institutions of learning, (b) curriculum reform, (c) professional development of teachers, (d) school security and safety, (e) science and technology education, and (f) increased funding for emergency education. The study proposes a model of "Schools as Islands of Peace and Hope" with science education as the tool for post-conflict economic recovery, as a blue print for emergency education policy framework.

Udongo, Betty Pacutho

457

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of Understanding Science is to provide a fun, accessible, and free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. The process of science is exciting, but standard explanations often miss its dynamic nature. Science affects us all everyday, but people often feel cut off from science. Science is an intensely human endeavor, but many portrayals gloss over the passion, curiosity, and even rivalries and pitfalls that characterize all human ventures. Understanding Science gives users an inside look at the general principles, methods, and motivations that underlie all of science.

2009-01-01

458

Poly(Tertiary Phosphines and Arsines)- XII. Some Metal Complexes of Methylated DI- and Tri (Tertiary Phosphines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal complexes of the di(tertiary phosphine) (CH3)2PCH2Ch2P(C6H5)2 of the types (diphos) MCl2 (M=Ni, Co, Pd, and Pt), (diphos)M(CO)4 (M=Cr, Mo, and W), ((diphos)2-RhCl2)(+), and (diphosFe2(CO)2(C5H5)2 have been prepared by standard methods. Metal complex...

R. B. King J. A. Zinich J. C. Cloyd

1974-01-01

459

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious literature of ideas or low-grade entertainment?; 22. Science in British literary fiction; 23. Science on stage: the politics and ethics of science in cultural and educational contexts.

Russell, Nicholas

2009-10-01

460

What Beliefs and Intentions Concerning Science and Mathematics and the Teaching of Those Subjects Do Reform-Prepared Specialist Elementary/Middle Level Teachers Bring to the Workplace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of survey research that collected responses of graduates (N=113, Fall 1999 through Fall 2001) from a reform-based mathematics and science teacher preparation program. All graduates' responses were compared to smaller subsamples of employed new elementary and middle school teachers with responses of a larger sample…

McGinnis, J. Randy; Parker, Carolyn