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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Levelling Australian Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of Australia's binary system of higher education, in which universities granted degrees and colleges of advanced education (CAE's) and teachers colleges issued diplomas and certificates, through the rapid growth of the past 20 years as Commonwealth funding has raised the level of teachers colleges and of CAE's, which now…

Pyke, L. H.

1975-01-01

2

Students' Views of Science: A Comparison between Tertiary and Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is relatively little research evidence that documents current students' views of science--particularly a comparison of secondary and tertiary science. Further, little is known about how students' views of science differ according to level of study. This study provides evidence of students' view of science from both school and university…

Hassan, Ghali

2011-01-01

3

Attitudes of Tertiary Students towards a Group Project in a Science Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on the attitude of tertiary students, in a science discipline, towards completing collaborative learning tasks. Two samples of students, enrolled in different units across different tertiary institutions, were considered. Students in sample 1 were required to work in small groups to produce an information poster on an allocated…

Bartle, Emma K.; Dook, Jan; Mocerino, Mauro

2011-01-01

4

Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

Newark School District, DE.

5

Issues of teaching science to nurses in the tertiary sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shift of nurse education from the hospitals to higher education institutions has resulted in a large pool of students within the Universities requiring basic science instruction. Most of these students are female, often mature age, with limited science backgrounds. This paper discusses the type of science education demanded by the nursing profession, the view of science as a subject held by these students, and the key role played by constructivist thinking in dealing with both of these.

Strube, Paul

1991-12-01

6

Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter at Secondary and Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the present study is to elicit students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can…

Ayas, Alipasa; Ozmen, Haluk; Calik, Muammer

2010-01-01

7

Academic Experiences in a Cross-National Tertiary Program: Language Immersion Amid the Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores Malaysian students' problems within their science and engineering tertiary courses in Japanese through their diary entries and semi-structured interviews. The study analyses how students implement management strategies to overcome their problems. Although many studies are available regarding students' academic activities in a…

Sakurai, Yusuke

2009-01-01

8

Cross?national differences in participating in tertiary science, technology, engineering and mathematics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many western countries attention is currently being given to the participation of students in tertiary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. This is a result of internationally competing economic ambitions, coupled with acute shortages on the STEM labour market, a declining interest among students for STEM education and a long?lasting under?representation of women. However, despite similarities concerning policy

Annemarie van Langen; Hetty Dekkers

2005-01-01

9

Cross-National Differences in Participating in Tertiary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many western countries attention is currently being given to the participation of students in tertiary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. This is a result of internationally competing economic ambitions, coupled with acute shortages on the STEM labour market, a declining interest among students for STEM…

van Langen, Annemarie; Dekkers, Hetty

2005-01-01

10

An Investigation of Tertiary-Level Learning in Some Practical Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experimental physics is seen as an essential part of tertiary physics education. Students are supposed to develop practical skills and advance from closed "cookbook" experiments to open experiment and design experiment procedures independently. As a consequence tertiary practical physics courses increase in the level of challenge throughout an…

Wang, Weili; Coll, Richard K.

2005-01-01

11

Attitudes toward Science among Australian Tertiary and Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that might be associated with students' attitudes towards science. The participants were 1745 students from secondary schools and universities across Australia. The results of factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Tukey's post hoc test and correlation analysis demonstrate that there…

Hassan, Ghali

2008-01-01

12

Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

2001-01-01

13

STUDENTS’ CONCEPTIONS OF THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER AT SECONDARY AND TERTIARY LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to elicit students’ understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study\\u000a ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered\\u000a to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can be deduced that the number\\u000a of

Alipasa Ayas; Haluk Özmen; Muammer Çalik

2010-01-01

14

Strategies for enhancing the learning of ecological research methods and statistics by tertiary environmental science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To undertake rigorous research in biology and ecology, students must be able to pose testable hypotheses, design decisive studies, and analyse results using suitable statistics. Yet, few biology students excel in topics involving statistics and most attempt to evade optional courses in research methods. Over the last few years, we have developed a tertiary-level unit to create a positive, inquiry-based,

D L Panizzon; A J Boulton

2004-01-01

15

A holistic approach to preparing disadvantaged students to succeed in tertiary science studies. Part II. Outcomes of the Science Foundation Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) is a year?long pre?degree programme designed to identify academically talented but underprepared black students who wish to pursue tertiary studies in science or applied science, and help them develop their potential in order to achieve this aim. In the model of the foundation programme adopted, we attempted to identify underlying skills, attitudes and resources that

Diane J. Grayson

1997-01-01

16

Preventing Problem Behaviors: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Level Prevention Interventions for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to compare changes in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence for kindergarten or first grade students identified as being at risk for serious behavior problems who received primary, secondary, or tertiary level preventive interventions. Of the 93 participants in this study, 73% were male; 86% were…

Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

2005-01-01

17

Biology and Society: A New Way to Teach Tertiary Science to Non-Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science education can be split into two categories: one to provide the basic concepts, knowledge and techniques that students need to follow careers as scientists and the other to provide scientific literacy that will enable students who do not necessarily desire careers in science to be able to understand the world around them. Clearly, courses…

da Silva, Karen Burke

2008-01-01

18

Biology and Society: A New Way to Teach Tertiary Science to Non-Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education can be split into two categories: one to provide the basic concepts, knowledge and techniques that students need to follow careers as scientists and the other to provide scientific literacy that will enable students who do not necessarily desire careers in science to be able to understand the world around them. Clearly, courses…

da Silva, Karen Burke

2008-01-01

19

Pattern of poisoning in a tertiary level hospital.  

PubMed

This cross sectional observational study was carried out in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over a period of 4 months from January 2012 to April 2012 to assess the clinico-epidemiological condition of different types of poisoning and to evaluate immediate hospital outcome. Suspected case of poisoning aged 12 years or above of either sex was included. Patients of paediatric age group, having other co-morbid condition and died before clinical evaluation were excluded. This study revealed that rural people (76.9%), aging 20-30 years (46.3%) were mostly affected in poisoning. Patients belong to low socioeconomic group (65.3%), illiterate (26.5%) and educated up to primary level (29.9%) were mostly identified. Regarding the occupation this study showed student (30.6%) and farmer (25.2%) were predominantly involved. In this series organophosphorus compound (63.9%) poisoning was in the top of the list followed by benzodiazepine (6.8%). Suicidal attempt (81.6%) was found as a motive of poisoning in maximum cases. Among the precipitating factors quarrel with spouse, girl or boy friend (46.9%) were significant in number. In this study outcome was measured as complete recovery (92.5%) and death (3.4%). PMID:23715343

Khan, N A; Rahman, A; Sumon, S M; Haque, M F; Hasan, I; Sutradhar, S R; Barman, T K; Rahman, S; Ferdous, J; Miah, A H; Alam, M K; Debnath, C R; Islam, M Z; Miah, O F

2013-04-01

20

?whina: a programme for M?ori and Pacific tertiary science graduate and postgraduate success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, M?ori (indigenous New Zealanders) and Pacific students tend not to attain the same levels of educational success\\u000a as P?keh? (New Zealanders of European descent). Addressing this problem is a particular challenge in the sciences. The kaupapa\\u000a (values-base) of Te R?p? ?whina (?whina) is to produce M?ori and Pacific professionals to contribute to M?ori and Pacific\\u000a development and

Marc Wilson; Maree Hunt; Liz Richardson; Hazel Phillips; Ken Richardson; Danna Challies

21

Dinoflagellate and calcareous nannofossil response to sea-level change in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sections  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic sections in south-central Alabama were studied to test palynological evidence of sea-level change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. New evidence from both calcareous nannofossils and dinoflagellate cysts places the regional disconformity in Alabama (Type 1 sequence boundary) virtually at the K-T boundary. This suggests that sea-level fall may have contributed to mass-extinction event. Dinoflagellate diversity varies between systems tract components of coastal onlap. This parameter is useful for interpreting sea-level change in this part of the section, because dinoflagellates did not participate in the mass extinction. The iridium spikes in the roadcut near Braggs are of earliest Danian age and correlate in relative magnitude with the lower values reported from directly above the K-T boundary in the Gubbio stratotype section. Iridium was concentrated in marine flooding surfaces in episodes of higher productivity of algal organic matter at the time when the iridium-enriched ocean encroached on the shelf during the first Cenozoic episode of sea-level rise.

Habib, D. (City Univ. of New York, Flushing (United States)); Moshkovitz, S. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel)); Kramer, C. (Hamilton College, Clinton, NY (United States))

1992-02-01

22

Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

Duron, Dolores; And Others

23

A Changing Paradigm in Language Planning: English-Medium Instruction Policy at the Tertiary Level in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…

Ali, Nor Liza

2013-01-01

24

Population and Colony-Level Determinants of Tertiary Sex Ratio in the Declining Barn Swallow  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio of adults (tertiary sex ratio, TSR) is a major feature of animal populations with consequences for their behaviour, genetic structure and viability. Spatial and temporal variation in TSR occurs within species but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. In this long-term study of a declining population of a socially monogamous, colonial, migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we first analyzed population-level variation in TSR (?=?proportion of males) of yearlings at sexual maturation in relation to ecological conditions as gauged by annual survival rate of adults. TSR was male-biased both among yearlings and older individuals, but male bias of yearlings was more pronounced after years with larger decline in adult survival. Thus, male offspring were less susceptible to the adverse ecological conditions that cause increased mortality. Dispersal and settling site decisions can have major consequences on fitness via the effects of local TSR on mating and sperm competition. Breeding barn swallows are highly philopatric while natal dispersal is high and, together with mortality, is the main determinant of colony TSR. We thus also investigated the mechanisms of breeding colony choice by yearlings and found that TSR of new-settlers in a given colony and year was negatively predicted by TSR of returning, early arriving older individuals in that year, but not by overall TSR at the colony in the previous year. This suggests that in our male-biased population new-settler males respond to local TSR upon arrival to choose the sites with larger breeding opportunities. Hence, variation in ecological conditions as reflected by adult survival can shift the TSR of individuals recruiting into a local population, with potentially various demographic consequences. However, breeding site choice based on TSR tends to homogenize TSR at a population level likely by facilitating settling of dispersing males in colonies with less male-biased TSR.

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Canova, Luca

2013-01-01

25

Performance of water delivery system at tertiary canal level: a case study of the Menemen Left Bank Irrigation System, Gediz Basin, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines water delivery performance of the Menemen Left Bank Irrigation System, which is the lower section of the Lower Gediz irrigation system, in the west of Turkey. Performance was evaluated at tertiary canal level, using the adequacy, efficiency, dependability and equity indicators. These indicators were calculated for the nine tertiaries for the 6-month irrigation seasons of 1999 and

H. B. Unal; S. Asik; M. Avci; S. Yasar; E. Akkuzu

2004-01-01

26

Costs of vaginal delivery and Caesarean section at a tertiary level public hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Public hospitals in developing countries, rather than the preventive and primary healthcare sectors, are the major consumers of healthcare resources. Imbalances in rational, equitable and efficient allocation of scarce resources lie in the scarcity of research & information on economic aspects of health care. The objective of this study was to determine the average cost of a spontaneous vaginal delivery and Caesarean section in a tertiary level government hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan and to estimate the out of pocket expenditures to households using these services. Methods This hospital based cost accounting cross sectional study determines the average cost of vaginal delivery and Caesarean section from two perspectives, the patient's and the hospital. From the patient's perspective direct and indirect expenditures of 133 post-partum mothers (65 delivered by Caesarean section & 68 by spontaneous vaginal delivery) admitted in the maternity general ward were determined. From the hospital perspective the step down methodology was adopted, capital and recurrent costs were determined from inputs and cost centers. Results The average cost for a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the hospital's side was 40 US$ (2688 rupees) and from the patient's perspective was 79 US$ (5278 rupees). The average cost for a Caesarean section from the hospital side was 162 US$ (10868 rupees) and 204 US$ (13678 rupees) from the patient's side. Average monthly household income was 141 ± 87 US$ for spontaneous vaginal delivery and 168 ± 97 US$ for Caesarean section. Three fourth (74%) of households had a monthly income of less than 149 US$ (10000 rupees). Conclusion The apparently "free" maternity care at government hospitals involves substantial hidden and unpredicted costs. The anticipated fear of these unpredicted costs may be major factor for many poor households to seek cheaper alternate maternity healthcare.

2010-01-01

27

Antibiotic prescription patterns at admission into a tertiary level intensive care unit in Northern India  

PubMed Central

Context: An audit of antibiotic prescribing patterns is an important indicator of the quality and standard of clinical practice. Aims: To study the (1) antibiotic prescription and consumption patterns at admission into the intensive care unit (ICU); (2) average costs of antibiotics prescribed; and (3) correlation of antibiotic usage and the costs incurred with age, severity of illness, and diagnosis. Settings and Design: A 13-bedded tertiary level ICU. A prospective, observational audit. Materials and Methods: Two hundred consecutive prescriptions on patients admitted to the ICU from August to October, 2008, were audited. The total number of drugs and antibiotics, the class, dose, route, and cost of antibiotics were noted and the Defined Daily Dose/100 bed-days (DDD/100 bed-days) of the 10 most frequently prescribed antibiotics were calculated. Statistical analysis used: Univariate analysis was performed using Epi Info software (version 8.0). Results: A total of 1246 drugs and 418 antibiotics were prescribed in the 200 patients studied, that is, an average of 6.23 (± SD 2.73) drugs/prescription and 2.09 (± SD 1.27) antibiotics/prescription. Antibiotics were prescribed on 190 patients (95%) at admission. There was a significant correlation between the number of patients prescribed three or more antibiotics and mortality rates (53% nonsurvivors vs. 33.5% survivors (P = 0.015). The average cost of the antibiotics was Rupees 1995.08 (± SD 2099.99) per patient and antibiotics expenditure accounted for 73.2% of the total drug costs. Conclusions: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to most ICU patients at admission and contribute significantly to the total drug costs. Antibiotic restriction policies and a multidisciplinary effort to reduce usage are urgently required.

Williams, Aparna; Mathai, Ashu S.; Phillips, Atul S.

2011-01-01

28

Relationship between science knowledge levels and beliefs toward science instruction held by preservice elementary teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of science background knowledge and attitudes toward teaching science were examined among preservice elementary teachers. The results indicated a low level of science knowledge, a negative relationship between science knowledge and attitude toward teaching science, and a marked lack of confidence toward teaching science among the prospective teachers. Some interesting paradoxes were also found. Recommendations concerning preservice preparation, inclusion

George Wenner

1993-01-01

29

A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

de Berg, Kevin

2012-01-01

30

Do we make a difference? Teaching and researching peace at tertiary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reflects upon the theories and methodologies that inform peace studies teaching and research practice. It explores the challenges faced by tertiary educators working within the narrowing confines of current university structures, and, by analysing the motives, process and methodologies that have shaped one particular program, suggests that a dynamic and adaptive approach to teaching is necessary to ensure

Rebecca Spence; Jonathan Makuwira

2005-01-01

31

First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

32

Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

2011-01-01

33

Change in messa di voce characteristics during 3 years of classical singing training at the tertiary level.  

PubMed

A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate changes in vocal quality as a result of singing training at a tertiary level conservatorium in Australia. Singers performed a messa di voce (MDV) at intervals of 6 months over the 3-year period of training. The study investigated the evolving acoustic features of the singers' voices exhibited during the MDV, including sound pressure level (SPL), short-term energy ratio (STER), duration, and vibrato parameters of the fundamental frequency (F0), SPL, and STER. The maximum SPL exhibited a marginal systematic increase over the training period, but the maximum STER did not systematically change. F0 vibrato extent increased significantly, whereas the extent of SPL and STER vibrato did not change significantly. PMID:23769004

Ferguson, Sam; Kenny, Dianna T; Mitchell, Helen F; Ryan, Maree; Cabrera, Densil

2013-06-12

34

Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to the exemplary science teachers' level of computer use suggesting that computer use is dependent on perceived abilities at using computers. The teachers' use of computer-related applications/tools during class, and their personal self-efficacy, age, and gender are highly related with their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction and gender related to their use of computer-related applications/tools during class and the students' use of computer-related applications/tools in or for their science class. In conclusion, exemplary science teachers need assistance in learning and using computer-related applications/tool in their science class.

Hakverdi, Meral

35

Research and Innovation in Physics Education: Transforming Classrooms, Teaching, and Student Learning at the Tertiary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that science and technology and the quality of scientifically trained manpower crucially determines the development and economic growth of nations and the future of humankind. At the same time, there is growing global concern about flight of talent from physics in particular, and the need to make physics teaching and learning effective and careers in physics

Pratibha Jolly

2009-01-01

36

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

37

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

38

An Ungraded Intermediate Level Science Program, Levels Four Through Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is intended for use in an ungraded science program encompassing grades 4, 5, and 6 in elementary schools in southwestern North Dakota. The guide and a companion volume, developed for grades 1, 2, and 3, represent an attempt to develop a model science program for grades 1-6. The total program is an indepth study of 64 basic…

Paulsen, Gordon L.

39

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for...

1996-01-01

40

Investigating the clinical usefulness of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a tertiary level, autism spectrum disorder specific assessment clinic.  

PubMed

The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; Constantino and Gruber in Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2005) is a commonly used screening tool for identifying children with possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the relationship between SRS scores and eventual diagnostic outcome for children referred to a tertiary level, autism specific assessment service. Forty eight children (mean age = 8.10; 92% male) underwent a comprehensive ASD assessment. Parent and teacher SRS scores were subsequently compared with diagnostic outcome. Sensitivity was high (91% for parent report; 84% for teacher report), however specificity was much lower (8% for parent report; 41% for teacher report). Results demonstrate a need for caution when interpreting SRS results based on current cut-off scores, particularly in children with previously identified social developmental problems. PMID:21516433

Aldridge, Fiona J; Gibbs, Vicki M; Schmidhofer, Katherine; Williams, Megan

2012-02-01

41

Relationship between stress, coping and nursing support of parents of preterm infants admitted to tertiary level neonatal intensive care units of Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a preterm infant is hospitalized, parents experience stress. Support by neonatal nurses is essential to relieve stress. This study investigated the interrelationships among stress, coping and nursing support of parents of preterm infants and the level of stress among mothers and fathers was compared. Descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using interview technique in tertiary level neonatal intensive care units

Sonia Rosaline Blanch D'Souza; Suja Karkada; Leslie Edward Lewis; Shrimathi Mayya; Vasudeva Guddattu

2009-01-01

42

Conveying level of science: Tests of iconic and comparative formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplement and food manufacturers are permitted to make certain health claims from emerging science on package labels, provided\\u000a that a qualifier which indicates the strength of science supporting the claim is used. The Food and Drug Administration has\\u000a proposed four levels of strength of science; however, the research to date has demonstrated that consumers cannot distinguish\\u000a between these four levels.

Karen Russo France; Paula Fitzgerald Bone

2009-01-01

43

Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

Hurley, Marlene M.

2006-01-01

44

Teaching College-Level Science and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, created by Dr. Sanjoy Mahajan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, focuses on the knowledge and skills necessary for teaching science and engineering in higher education. This course is designed for graduate students interested in an academic career, and anyone else interested in teaching. Readings and discussions include: teaching equations for understanding, designing exam and homework questions, incorporating histories of science, creating absorbing lectures, teaching for transfer, the evils of PowerPoint, and planning a course. The subject is appropriate for both novices and those with teaching experience.

Mahajan, Sanjoy, 1969-

2011-03-17

45

Multiple levels of inquiry in cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibsonian ecological psychology, symbolic information processing, and connectionist information processing are frequently construed as three competing paradigms or research traditions, each seeking dominance in experimental psychology and in cognitive science generally. There is an important element of truth in this perspective, and any adequate account of the development of experimental psychology over the past 30 years would have to examine

William Bechtel

1990-01-01

46

Biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic, and stratigraphic sequence analysis of Lower Tertiary marine sediments of Alabama for indicators of sea-level change  

SciTech Connect

Early Eocene to late Oligocene marine sedimentary units in southwestern Alabama were sampled at closely spaced intervals to derive a precise time-stratigraphic framework and to determine the paleoecological and mineralogical responses to fluctuations in sea level. Paleontologic control consisted of planktonic, smaller and larger benthonic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, dinoflagellates, and megafossils. Paleomagnetic reversals were delineated in two boreholes which, when supplemented by strontium isotope dates and the biostratigraphic control, provided a robust in situ chronostratigraphy for the Gulf Coast lower Tertiary. Paleoecologic trends in regression and transgression can be clearly correlated across major regional facies changes. Using the chronostratigraphy developed here, the second-, third-, and fourth-orders of Vail's global sea-level cycles can be recognized and demonstrate the influence of sea-level change on sedimentation. Stratigraphic systems tracts (SSTs) and bounding surfaces in outcrop were determined by lithologic variations and paleoecologic trends, and additionally by gamma logs in the cores. The lower sequence boundary occurs at a contact where an older, relatively fine-grained, deep-water, fossiliferous unit was abruptly succeeded by a coarse-grained, shallow-water, poorly fossiliferous unit. The transgressive surface occurs at the base of a fining- and deepening-upwards unit that was commonly glauconitic and very fossiliferous. Transgression culminated with a pulse of planktonic microfossils in a bed having reduced clastic sedimentation; on the log the surface of maximum starvation was marked by a gamma spike.

Thompson, P.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Baum, G.R. (ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage (United States))

1991-03-01

47

Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

Singh, Mamta K.

2009-01-01

48

High-level aminoglycoside resistance and beta-lactamase production in enterococci at a tertiary care hospital in India.  

PubMed

Enterococci, a family of important opportunistic pathogens, exhibits intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents in addition to acquired multidrug resistance. The present study was conducted to determine whether enterococci at a tertiary care hospital in India exhibit high-level aminoglycoside resistance and beta-lactamase production. Enterococci were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified phenotypically. High-level resistance (HLR) to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin was determined by disc diffusion tests. Beta-lactamase production was detected using three methods: iodometric, acidometric, and chromogenic beta-lactamase assays. Among the 86 enterococci isolated, 34 were found to have HLR to one or more aminoglycosides; HLR to kanamycin was most common. Vancomycin resistance was present in four of the isolates. Only one enterococcus produced beta-lactamase, and it was sensitive to ampicillin on routine disc diffusion testing. Beta-lactamase production among enterococci, though not very common, may be missed on routine susceptibility testing. Frequent occurrence of HLR to kanamycin makes amikacin a poor choice for inclusion in combination therapy with cell wall-active agents. PMID:19305061

Agarwal, Jyotsna; Kalyan, Rajkumar; Singh, Mastan

2009-03-01

49

Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme related to research question #2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? and topical sub-question #2) How do middle level science teachers structure instruction. The theme that emerged was needs of students. Analysis of the data revealed one theme related to research question #3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the relationship between science instruction and student learning? and topical sub-question #3) How do middle level science teachers view their role in relation to student learning? This theme is meaning making. Analysis of the data related to meaning making revealed two sub-themes of application and relationships. It is clear that middle level science teachers have a vision for inquiry-based science instruction, but implementation is inhibited by a variety of factors including curricular programming that is very broad and lacks depth, the scheduling of time and resources for science, and the absence of a clear model of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, only one participant referenced students investigating their own authentic questions and no participants reflected on the importance of students using evidence in their explanations of scientific phenomenon. Additionally, participants continually reflected on the needs of their students informing instructional practices, and it is wondered if there is a clear understanding among middle level teachers of how students learn science. Real world applications were recognized as important within science learning and the researcher questions whether teachers of science have adequate opportunities to explore real world application of science concepts throughout their careers in order to foster connections within the classroom. These findings support the need for strong, job-embedded professional development, the cultivation of learning communities dedicated to the investigation and implementation of inquiry-based science, the focusing of curricular programming to allow for in depth investigation of scientific concep

Weiland, Sunny Minelli

50

Natural background levels and threshold values for groundwater in fluvial Pleistocene and Tertiary marine aquifers in Flanders, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifers from the same typology can have strongly different groundwater chemistry. Deducing the groundwater quality of less well-characterized aquifers from well-documented aquifers belonging to the same typology should be done with great reserve, and can only be considered as a preliminary approach. In the EU’s 6th FP BRIDGE project “Background cRiteria for the IDentification of Groundwater thrEsholds”, a methodology for the derivation of threshold values (TV) for groundwater bodies is proposed. This methodology is tested on four aquifers in Flanders of the sand and gravel typology. The methodology works well for all but the Ledo-Paniselian aquifer, where the subdivision into a fresh and saline part is disproved, as a gradual natural transition from fresh to saline conditions in the aquifer is observed. The 90 percentile is proposed as natural background level (NBL) for the unconfined Pleistocene deposits, ascribing the outliers to possible influence of pollution. For the Tertiary aquifers, high values for different parameters have a natural origin and the 97.7 percentile is preferred as NBL. The methodology leads to high TVs for parameters presenting low NBL, when compared to the standard used as a reference. This would allow for substantial anthropogenic inputs of these parameters.

Coetsiers, Marleen; Blaser, Petra; Martens, Kristine; Walraevens, Kristine

2009-05-01

51

Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. PMID:23267748

Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D

2012-12-23

52

Examining primary school students’ attitudes towards science in terms of gender, class level and income level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is conducted to determine the relationship primary school students’ attitudes towards science between their demographic variables such as gender, class level and their families’ income levels. The sample of the study is composed of a total of 882 students. In this survey model study, “Science Attitude Scale” was used. According to the results of the analysis of students’

Gülcan Mihladiz; Meltem Duran; Alev Dogan

2011-01-01

53

Reciprocal Same-Level Peer Sharing (RSPS) in English Learning and Teaching (ELT) at the Tertiary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group-work and task-based instruction have been proved effective in language learning. In this paper a particular form of group-work, reciprocal same-level peer sharing (RSPS), is presented. RSPS, which reinforces or supplement regular instruction, requires students to share their learning, both the contents and their learning methods, with group members under the instructor's supervision. Other members provide feedback to the sharing,

I-Chung Ke

54

Investigation of Inquiry-Based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science

Weiland, Sunny Minelli

2012-01-01

55

A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For that to happen, science textbooks need to be more inviting, more user-friendly, and more interesting to the readers. This study concludes with recommendations for further research.

Trainer, Robyn

56

Efficacy of a multimodal intervention strategy in improving hand hygiene compliance in a tertiary level intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Context: The role of hand hygiene in preventing health care associated infections (HCAIs) has been clearly established. However, compliance rates remain poor among health care personnel. Aims: a) To investigate the health care workers’ hand hygiene compliance rates in the intensive care unit (ICU), b) to assess reasons for non-compliance and c) to study the efficacy of a multimodal intervention strategy at improving compliance. Settings: A mixed medical–surgical ICU of a tertiary level hospital. Design: A before–after prospective, observational, intervention study. Materials and Methods: All health care personnel who came in contact with patients in the ICU were observed for their hand hygiene compliance before and after a multimodal intervention strategy (education, posters, verbal reminders and easy availability of products). A self-report questionnaire was also circulated to assess perceptions regarding compliance. Statistical analysis was done using ?2 test or Fisher exact test (Epi info software). Results: Hand hygiene compliance among medical personnel working in the ICU was 26% and the most common reason cited for non-compliance was lack of time (37%). The overall compliance improved significantly following the intervention to 57.36% (P<0.000). All health care worker groups showed significant improvements: staff nurses (21.48–61.59%, P<0.0000), nursing students (9.86–33.33%, P<0.0000), resident trainees (21.62–60.71%, P<0.0000), visiting consultants (22–57.14%, P=0.0001), physiotherapists (70–75.95%, P=0.413) and paramedical staff (10.71–55.45%, P< 0.0000). Conclusions: Hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in the ICU is poor; however, intervention strategies, such as the one used, can be useful in improving the compliance rates significantly.

Mathai, Ashu S.; George, Smitha E.; Abraham, John

2011-01-01

57

Teaching for Higher Cognitive Level Learning in High School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to focus on teaching for higher-level cognitive learning, this study measured student perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their classroom learning and involved a team of six researchers. The study consisted of an intensive 10-week investigation of two above-average science teachers in a suburban high school in Perth, Western…

Fraser, Barry J.

58

GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

Solomon, J.

1995-07-01

59

Scaling System-Level Science: Scientific Exploration and IT Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study and creation of the infrastructure required to enable system-level science--the integration of diverse sources of knowledge about the constituent parts of a complex system with the goal of obtaining an understanding of the system's properties as a whole--is becoming increasingly important, spawning new knowledge in variety of fields at a rapid pace.

Ian T. Foster; Carl Kesselman

2006-01-01

60

Teaching for Higher Cognitive Level Learning in High School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to focus on teaching for higher-level cognitive learning, this study measured student perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their classroom learning and involved a team of six researchers. The study consisted of an intensive 10-week investigation of two above-average science teachers in a suburban high school in Perth, Western Australia.…

Fraser, Barry J.

61

Oceanic primary productivity and dissolved oxygen levels at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary: Their decrease, subsequent warming, and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six different geochemical and foraminiferal analyses were conducted on samples collected at closely spaced intervals across the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary (K\\/T) boundary exposed at Caravaca, Spain. A rapid reduction in the gradient between delta13C values in fine fraction carbonate and benthic foraminiferal calcite and a decrease in the abundance of phosphorus (a proxy for organic carbon) and calcium were recorded in sediments

Kunio Kaiho; Yoshimichi Kajiwara; Kazue Tazaki; Masato Ueshima; Nobuyori Takeda; Hodaka Kawahata; Tetsuya Arinobu; Ryoshi Ishiwatari; Akio Hirai; Macros A. Lamolda

1999-01-01

62

Tertiary Education in Portugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

63

Probing the Natural World, Level III, Student Guide: Environmental Science. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the student's edition of one of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) units for level III students (grade 9). The chapters contain basic information about environmental pollution and hazards, activities related to the subject, and optional excursions. A section on introductory notes to the student discusses how to use the book…

Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

64

"Doing Science" through Discourse-in-Interaction: Young Children's Science Investigations at the Early Childhood Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigates the interconnectedness of scientific inquiring at the early childhood level, as we explore the discourse-in-interaction processes occurring within small inquiry groups of 5- and 6-year-old children. The rationale behind this research is to explore the nature of science-related discourse, and to that end, this work…

Siry, Christina; Ziegler, Gudrun; Max, Charles

2012-01-01

65

Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

2012-01-01

66

A Three Level Autonomous Software System for Increased Science Return  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of smart science instruments for autonomous operation (on Earth or in space) has the potential to increase science return and reduce the risk of experiment failure. When researchers are confronted with unexpected data/results of the experimental test system, they must determine whether the experimental setup has failed, or scientific discovery is being made. These two classes of events could have the same time series signature. To directly address this issue, we have developed a three-level software system referred to as E3, which consists of an engineering level, an experiment level, and an executive level. Each level of the software system is designed in a modular fashion using model based feedback controllers. The same feedback control mechanism is used for each level; the model itself determines the level. To determine if failure of the experimental setup can explain the data/results, researchers run calibration tests for hardware (e.g., sensors and actuators) as well as verify that the software (e.g., controls and analog to digital conversion routines) is running as planned. If anomalies are found, then modifications are made to the experimental setup, or the anomaly is accepted as the new baseline state of the instrument. The engineering level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. To determine if scientific discovery, as opposed to failure, can explain the data/results, a researcher tries to explain the difference between the observed and expected results. These explanations are terms of the basic processes of nature to determine the rate limiting step(s) of a complex set of processes, where the flux could be due to heat transfer, mass transfer, momentum transfer, or chemical reaction processes. Once the differences are understood, modifications are made to the software control of the experiment, as well as to the model the researcher is building over the course of repeated experiments. The experiment level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. Regardless of whether the experimental setup, or the experiment protocol must be modified in order to maximize science return, it is desired to continue to gather scientific value for an experiment even when it is not going according to plan. In order to accomplish this task, the researcher may fix or float different parameters in the experiment, or modify the experimental conditions to continue to acquire data. The executive level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. The software system has been developed using a bioreactor - useful for modeling planetary atmospheres, as well as life-support systems. As an example, for the bioreactor studies, the engineering level regulates the performance of the experimental setup, including the bioreactor vessel, temperature control hardware (cooler, heater, lights), light controller (lights), ion-specific electrode hardware, as well as the sample loop hardware. The experiment level regulates the fixed parameters as defined by the researcher (e.g., pH and CO2, O2, etc.). The executive level regulates performance of both the engineering and experiment levels to determine which parameters to fix or float in order to maximize the science return.

Robinson, P. I.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Landheim, R.

2005-12-01

67

The Effects of Type of Classroom Science, Grade Level, Years Without Science Instruction, and Elective Science Courses on Performance Level for Selected High School Science Process Skill Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of selected science process skills in required and elective science classes in three high schools of a suburban Oregon school district was investigated. Science process skill knowledge in the areas of classifying, observing, interpreting data, identifying variables, modeling, and measuring was assessed by administration of an…

Cox, David Charles

68

The study of student misunderstandings in the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The, apparently widespread, reduction in the popularity of physical science courses, at both secondary and tertiary levels, has had a number of effects. Attempts by schools to provide a broadly attractive programme in the sciences seem to have reduced the amount of time spent on the physical sciences. Moreover, the introduction of applied and technological aspects, however desirable, within a

J. K. Gilbert

1977-01-01

69

The effects on interest, instruction, and achievement on the science question level of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of instruction in writing researchable questions, science topic interest, and achievement (science, reading, and mathematics) on science question level in seventh grade students were investigated experimentally. The hypotheses were: students instructed in researchable questioning in science would outperform students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; students interested in science topics would score higher on a measure of science question level, than when they are not interested; and high achieving students in mathematics, reading or science would outperform students who are not high achievers on a measure of science question level. Eight classes of normally achieving seventh graders (n = 106 students), from a middle school in west central Florida, were randomly assigned to two treatments. One group received instruction in writing researchable questions in science, the other group did not receive instruction. Each student in each of the eight classes completed "The Middle School Students' Science Topic Interest Rating Scale", developed for this study (test-retest reliability, rsbs =.84), rating each of the thirteen topics from one to three. All students selected two topics in which they were least interested, and two topics in which they were most interested. They then wrote researchable questions for each topic. All students took the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT) in reading, mathematics and science. The questions were rated using the four levels described by "The Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale", developed for this study (inter-rater reliability, rsbs =.96). The scores for each question were averaged for two raters then summed for each interest level for each student The means and standard deviations were computed for questions generated at a low level of interest, questions generated at a high level of interest, reading SAT scores, mathematics SAT scores, and science SAT scores. The data were analyzed for main effects and interaction effects using general linear modeling procedures. The variable modeled was question level. There was one within subjects factor, science topic interest, and four between subjects factors: instruction, science achievement, mathematics achievement and reading achievement. The results, consistent with the hypotheses, indicate that students who received instruction in researchable questioning outperformed those students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; when students were interested in a science topic their question level was significantly higher than when they were not interested; and students who were high achievers in mathematics, reading or science outperformed those students who were not high achievers on a measure of science question level.

Cuccio Schirripa, Santine

70

Prevalence of High and Low Level Mupirocin Resistance among Staphylococcal Isolates from Skin Infection in a Tertiary Care Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Mupirocin has been used for the treatment of skin infections and for the eradication of the nasal carriage of Methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The increased use of this antibiotic has been accompanied by its resistance, resulting in treatment failures. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalences of low and high level Mupirocin resistance among the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species which were obtained from pyogenic infections. Material and Method: Clinical samples such as wound swabs, tissues and pus which were submitted to the microbiology laboratory during a period of six months were screened for the growth of Staphylococcus species, which were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species by the routine microbiological procedures. All the isolates were tested for their Mupirocin susceptibilities by using 5 and 200 ?g discs and their resistance was confirmed from their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Result: Out of 400 samples, 150 samples grew Staphylococcus species, of which 113 were Staphylococcus aureus and 37 were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). Only 5(3.3%) mupirocin resistant Staphylococcus species: three high level and two low level strains were detected. The MICs for the two low level and three high level Mupirocin resistant strains were 256 mg/L and ?512mg/L each respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that the screening for mupirocin resistance, in terms of high-level and low-level resistance among the Staphylococcus species from patients with skin and soft tissue infections is warranted and that it is important for the clinicians in selecting the appropriate, empirical, topical, antimicrobial therapy. It also provides useful information about the prevalence of these resistant pathogens.

S., Jayakumar; M., Meerabai; A.S., Shameem Banu; Mathew, Renu; M., Kalyani; Lal Y., Binesh

2013-01-01

71

A substantive-level theory of highly regarded secondary biology teachers' science teaching orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been used as a heuristic for examining a specialized knowledge base for teaching. One proposed overarching component within the PCK model for science teaching is teaching orientations, defined as teachers' knowledge and beliefs about the purposes and goals for teaching science at a particular grade level. Nine different orientations to teaching science have been identified

Patricia Jean Friedrichsen

2002-01-01

72

From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the

Cynthia D. Ferrini

2001-01-01

73

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

74

Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is the second part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are made of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of the bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, a scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

75

Labs at Elementary Level Help Bring Science Alive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State and district science standards typically call for students to take part in hands-on labs and experiments in the elementary grades. The 1996 National Science Education Standards, which were written by the National Research Council and serve as a reference for many states, emphasize similar activities. Yet the use of even simple labs and…

Cavanagh, Sean

2008-01-01

76

Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 1-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are first-revision materials of the K-12 unified science program implemented in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are given of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and…

Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

77

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

2011-01-01

78

Staying in the Science Stream: Patterns of Participation in A-Level Science Subjects in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long-term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

79

Teaching Geologic/Earth Science Remote Sensing at the Collegiate and the Secondary School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes util satellite photography, satellite remote sensing, and high altitude aircraft photography for teaching environmental and ecological aspects of earth science at the secondary or college levels. (SL)

Fisher, John J.

1977-01-01

80

Communicating Ocean Science at the Lower-Division Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific Ocean Literacy for Youth, Publics, Professionals, and Scientists (POLYPPS) is an NSF-funded collaboration between the University of Hawai`i and the Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) - California, which is based at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California - Berkeley. One of the objectives of this project is to instutionalize ocean science communications courses at colleges and universities in Hawai`i. Although the focus of most of these communications courses has been on training graduate students and scientists, lower-division students interested in the ocean sciences are finding this background helpful. At the University of Hawai`i Maui College there are several marine science courses and certificate programs that require students to interact with the public through internships, research assistantships, and course-related service-learning projects. Oceanography 270, Communicating Ocean Science, is now offered to meet the needs of these students who engage with the public in informal educational settings. Other students who enroll in this course have a general interest in the marine environment and are considering careers in K-12 formal education. This course gives this group of students an opportunity to explore formal education by assisting classroom teachers and preparing and presenting problem-based, hands-on, inquiry activities. Employers at marine-related businesses and in the tourist industry have welcomed this course with a focus on communication skills and indicate that they prefer to hire local people with strong backgrounds in marine and natural sciences. A basic premise of POLYPPS is that science education must draw not only from the latest advances in science and technology but also from the cultural contexts in which the learners are embedded and that this will achieve increased understanding and stewardship of ocean environments. Students in Oceanography 270 integrate traditional Hawaiian knowledge into their activities and presentations with the advice of local practitioners who share their experiences for incorporating both Hawaiian ways of learning and environmental practices.

Coopersmith, A.

2011-12-01

81

A look at the Turkish and English Language in Turkey from the perspectives of tertiary undergraduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

As English became the established language of science, technology and trade its use as the medium of instruction at tertiary education has increased in Turkey. The accelerated and sustained dominance of English has mainly led to dissatisfaction with English language proficiency level of learners and concerns about the future of the native language. This study aims to to gain a

Dilara Demirbulak

2011-01-01

82

The effect of teacher education level, teaching experience, and teaching behaviors on student science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.

Zhang, Danhui

83

Rethinking the tertiary mathematics curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics curriculum at the tertiary level is located within a range of social and cultural theories, and is often constructed by academics seeking to promulgate a particular view of mathematics. We argue that such a curriculum should incorporate a real acknowledgement of the different ways in which students understand the nature of mathematics and its role in their professional lives.

Peter Petocz; Anna Reid

2005-01-01

84

Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

Plane, Jandelyn

2010-01-01

85

Exploring the motivation of female science students towards learning science at the secondary level (10th class)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research study was to measure the motivation of girls towards learning Science at the secondary school level. The data were collected from ten girls' schools, drawn from three towns of Karachi, Pakistan, through multi-stage random sampling in a cross-sectional survey. A 35-item questionnaire measuring six aspects of motivation toward learning science, that is, self-efficacy, active learning

Lal Zamrud

2008-01-01

86

Teachers' beliefs about science teaching and context factors: Implications for teaching and learning science at the middle school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research shows that teachers' beliefs have been virtually ignored in science education reform efforts spearheaded by the development of national, state, and local standards. Since the aim of science education reform is to improve scientific literacy for all students, increasingly, researchers are questioning the lack of attention to teachers' beliefs and are calling for more research to examine teachers' beliefs and the influence of school environmental factors on their classroom practices. The purpose of this study was to explore, investigate, and analyze data that might reveal middle school science teachers' beliefs about science teaching and how school environmental factors influence their classroom behavior. The mixed methods study was conducted in a large urban/suburban county in an eastern state in the United States. Data were collected through a Likert-style survey and interview and observation sessions. Ninety-one middle school science teachers completed the survey. Three teachers from the survey sample also participated in the interview and observation sessions. The findings from the quantitative and qualitative data indicated that most of the middle school science teachers in this study believed that science teaching should be student-centered, and science instruction should be based on an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning. They also believed that the state and county standards were the most important factors in helping teachers to use inquiry-based instructional strategies to teach science. In addition to the science standards, the middle school science teachers believed that peer and principal support were critical to their success as teachers, and that instructional materials and supplies were readily available to help them teach science. The findings from the study indicated that few school environmental factors affected the middle school teachers' classroom practices. However, time (to participate in more professional activities and to complete class work), student level of maturity to do inquiry, and students taking responsibility for their own learning were identified as school environmental factors teachers believed hindered their effectiveness as teachers. The research findings confirmed findings from earlier studies that some teachers' beliefs are inconsistent with their practices. Although most of the teachers responded or were observed using nontraditional practices, the inconsistency that was observed between some teachers' stated beliefs and their practices supports the idea that it may be difficult to achieve scientific literacy for all students. Since current science reform marks a sharp departure from the way science was taught in the past, more research is needed to help determine why this inconsistency continues to exist.

Pea, Celeste H.

87

Discovering Animal Ways, Elementary School Science, Level Three, Teaching Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pilot teaching unit is one of a series developed for use in elementary school science programs. This unit is designed to promote children's natural curiosity and to help those who show a reluctance to work with animals to overcome some of their fears. The student activities employ important scientific processes, such as observation,…

Hale, Helen E.

88

Science, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the core science curriculum standards which must be completed by all students as a requisite for graduation from Utah's secondary schools. Contained within are the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. Each course entry for grades 7-12 contains: course title, unit of…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

89

CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

2010-01-01

90

Personalization in science: Preliminary investigation at the middle school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

A science program in which students were encouraged to select their own project goal as well as the apparatus to accomplish this goal was developed and tried in two fifth-grade classes. The program was designed to foster children's logical thinking skills. The classes in the study had not previously experienced any individualized program. The advantages, disadvantages, problems, and questions that

Marcia C. Linn; Benjamin Chen; Herbert D. Thier

1976-01-01

91

Practical Considerations for Integrating Alternate Reality Gaming into Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, I present my experience with integrating an alternate reality gaming (ARG) framework into a pre-service science teacher education course. My goal is to provide an account of my experiences that can inform other science education practitioners at the tertiary and secondary levels that wish to adopt a similar approach in their…

Bellocchi, Alberto

2012-01-01

92

Educational Initiatives at the Tertiary Level for Black South Africans: Constraints, Changes, and Challenges. South African Information Exchange, Working Paper Number 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looking primarily at the issues of black students at South African universities and of access and bursaries, the seven articles contained in this document focus on access to tertiary education, the kind of support provided to students once they have gained access, and the roles for which people are being educated. Following an introduction by…

Samuel, John, Ed.; Micou, Ann McKinstry, Ed.

93

Classroom-Based Science Research at the Introductory Level: Changes in Career Choices and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in…

Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Boyd, Kimberly; Lopatto, David

2011-01-01

94

Planning Level Cost Estimating-Science, Art or Witchcraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a planning level cost estimate is a different process than development of estimates based on detailed plans and specifications. Because it is part of an iterative process, planning level estimating requires an approach that yields estimates...

T. M. Walski

1983-01-01

95

A Comparison of Social Science Textbook Readability and Students' Reading Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first phase of a study investigating textbook readability and students' reading levels used three traditional formulas to assess the readability levels of 51 primary textbooks from college introductory social science courses in 7 disciplines. The second phase investigated the relationship between the readability levels of students' texts,…

Townsend, Brenda S.; Wilkie, Carolyn J.

96

Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear  

SciTech Connect

An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

Burns, M.E. (ed.)

1988-01-01

97

A procedure for determining the level of abstraction of science reading material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to develop a method for scoring the level of abstraction (LOA) of science reading material and explore its relationship with other methods for assessing curriculum materials. LOA is defined as the ratio of the nonconcrete concepts to the total number of concepts in a written passage expressed as a percent. Using passages taken from life, earth, and physical science textbooks written at three different levels, data were collected to obtain preliminary agreement from science educators in the classification of concepts, determine interscorer reliability, and compare student and passage variables. Participants consisted of 24 science educators, 60 science teachers from elementary, middle, and high schools, and 425 urban students in Grades 5, 7, and 10. Instruments used were (a) the procedure to determine level of abstraction developed in this study, (b) the cloze procedure, and (c) Reading Level: Programs for Teachers. No significant correlations were found between (a) passage LOA and passage readability level, (b) student cloze scores and passage LOA, (c) passage LOA and teacher prediction of student success, and (d) student cloze scores and passage readability level. However, the lack of significant correlations between LOA and cloze scores combined with the fact that the LOA is based upon deep structure rather than surface structure of written material indicate the possible uniqueness of the LOA and highlight the importance of further investigation of the LOA in its relationship to student comprehension of written material.

Vachon, Myra K.; Haney, Richard E.

98

The effectiveness of take-home science kits at the elementary level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major reason for the lack of scientific and technological literacy in this country is the lack of emphasis on high-quality science education at the elementary school level. The National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology states in its report (1983) that formal study of science must be reinforced by a wide range of activities outside the school. Learning in the home appears to be an excellent way to enhance elementary school science programs. Students who study with their parents or whose parents are involved in school activities achieve more in school. This study describes and presents evaluation data for a program that encourages elementary school students and their parents to study science topics in a hands-on, inquiry fashion in their own homes. The analyses of the data indicate that the program is viewed very positively by both the students and their parents, that there are gender and grade-level differences in the students, and that the program seems to be more effective for girls, a group at risk for continuing in science.

Gennaro, Eugene; Lawrenz, Frances

99

Categorical principles, techniques and results for high-level-replacement systems in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give an introduction how to use categorical methods in a specific field of computer science: The field of high-level-replacement systems has its roots in the well-established theories of formal languages, term rewriting, Petri nets, and graph grammars playing a fundamental role in computer science. More precisely, it is a generalization of the algebraic

Hartmut Ehrig; Michael Löwe

1993-01-01

100

Gender and Grade Level Differences in Taiwan Students' Stereotypes of Science and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore student?held images of science and scientists according to gender and grade level and the reasons behind them. A drawing activity and interviews?about?instance on the theme of science and scientists were administered to a total of 297 students (153 male and 144 female students) from three elementary and three middle schools in Taiwan.

1998-01-01

101

Connecting Teachers and Students with Science and Scientists: The Science Learning Hub  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|National and international data is raising concerns about levels of student interest and engagement in science in school and student retention into tertiary study. For today's students the Internet plays an important role as a source of information and means for communication with peers. This paper reports on a Ministry of Research Technology and…

Cooper, Beverley; Cowie, Bronwen; Jones, Alister

2010-01-01

102

What Makes Science Relevant?: Student Perceptions of Multimedia Case Learning in Ecology and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The perception of science as boring is a major issue for teachers at all instructional levels. Tertiary classes especially suffer from a reputation for being dry, instructor-centered, and irrelevant to the lives of students. However, previous research has shown that science can be interesting to students if it is presented in such a manner as to…

Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark

2013-01-01

103

Tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

Byham, D. E.

1985-03-05

104

Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

2007-01-01

105

Community-Level Controversy Over a Natural Resource: Toward a More Democratic Science in Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we contribute to an understanding of science and scientific knowledge in support of the democratic ideal of including all stakeholders in community-level controversies over access to natural resources. By analyzing the actual discourse between scientists and citizens in a water-supply controversy, we move beyond “scientific” and “nonscientific” classification schemes to focus on the rhetorical strategies and different

Stuart Lee; Wolff-Michael Roth

2006-01-01

106

Probing the Natural World, Level III, Student Guide: In Orbit. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the student's text of one unit of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on the properties of sunlight, the use of spectrums and spectroscopes, the heat and energy of the sun, the measurement of astronomical distances, and the size of the sun. Activities are student-centered and…

Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

107

Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: In Orbit. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on the properties of sunlight, the use of spectrums and spectroscopes, the heat and energy of the sun, the measurement of astronomical distances, and the size of the sun. Optimal…

Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

108

Pupils' Reactions to Trial Editions of Nuffield 'O'-Level Science Materials in 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific attitudes and interests of fifth form students who had had at least two years of experimental Nuffield O-Level courses in biology, physics, and chemistry were compared with those of equivalent students studying traditional courses. The author-developed tests contained Likert-type items measuring interests in science, attitudes to the…

Meyer, G. R.

109

Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet consists of six sample lessons integrating population education into science instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in terms of content and teaching…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

110

Research in College Science Teaching: Cognitive Levels and Reasoning. ERIC/SMEAC Special Digest No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected research studies that explore the assumption that college science students operate at a formal cognitive level are presented in this information digest. Studies are reviewed that relate to the areas of: (1) formal thought (examining the relationship between measured formal thought and that required to understand formal college physical…

Helgeson, Stanley L.

111

Pedagogical Issues in Teaching Upper-Level Science Courses at a "Community University"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors teach upper-level science courses in cell biology, genetics, and biochemistry at a public, four-year "community university" that serves a demographically diverse population of traditional and nontraditional students. In this article, they describe some of the issues they have found to be particularly significant at their "community…

Deutch, Charles E.; Jurutka, Peter W.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

112

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Science Teachers' Imagination at the Microscopic Level in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the mental images at the microscopic level of matter created by 22 preservice science teachers in Oman. Participants were encouraged during a guided imagery session to construct mental images for a scenario written about the explanation of the reaction of sodium in water. They were then asked to describe what they envisioned…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

2009-01-01

113

Primary Level Science in Kenya: Constructing Meaning through English and Indigenous Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an ethnographic study of primary level science classes in Kenya where English is the government-mandated language of instruction. Finds that important ideas were conveyed more easily when teachers did not adhere to the policy of English-only instruction. Concludes that the importance of sociolinguistics in instructional processes should…

Cleghorn, Ailie

1992-01-01

114

An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

Cottingham, Susan M.

115

Teaching bit-level algorithm analysis to the undergraduates in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a number of elementary examples which could be used to teach the concept of bit-level algorithm analysis to the undergraduate students in Computer Science. Each of these example algorithms take one or more integer(s) as input in order to output the result. Without a bit-level analysis, the run-time complexities of these algorithms can not be estimated correctly.

Ranjan Chaudhuri

2004-01-01

116

CONVENTIONAL TERTIARY TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Tertiary treatment on effluent from the EPA-DC Pilot Plant's step aeration activated sludge system included two-stage or single-stage lime clarification, air stripping of ammonia, dual-media filtration, neutralization, and activated carbon adsorption. With a good secondary efflue...

117

Classroom-Based Science Research at the Introductory Level: Changes in Career Choices and Attitude  

PubMed Central

Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in student interest in considering different career choices such as graduate education and science in general. This is particularly notable, as previous research has described research internships as clarifying or confirming rather than changing undergraduates’ decisions to pursue graduate education. We hypothesize that our results differ from previous studies of the impact of engaging in research because the students in our study are still in the early stages of their undergraduate careers. Our work builds upon the classroom-based research movement and should be viewed as encouraging to the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education movement advocated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Science Foundation, and other undergraduate education stakeholders.

Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Lopatto, David

2011-01-01

118

Undergraduate studies in computer science and engineering: gender issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on gender issues in terms of participation, achievement and duration of studies at the Tertiary level of education in Computer Science and Engineering (CS&E). For this reason, 1957 degrees earned by Computer Engineers were studied. These diplomas cover a 21 year period of graduation at the Computer Engineering and Informatics Department (CEID), University of Patras, Greece. The

Aristidis Ilias; Maria Kordaki

2006-01-01

119

Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent

Patrice Helen Roberts

1999-01-01

120

Development of an instrument for measuring cognitive conflict in secondary-level science classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change even though there are still questions about its positive and negative effects on science learning. However, there is no reliable method by which to assess the cognitive conflict students experience in their learning. The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument for measuring secondary students' cognitive conflict levels as they learned science. The results of this study indicate that our instrument is a valid and reliable tool for measuring cognitive conflict levels. Factor analysis supported the model that cognitive conflict consists of four constructs: recognition of an anomalous situation, interest, anxiety, and cognitive reappraisal of the conflict situation. Implications for instruction and possibilities for future research are discussed.

Lee, Gyoungho; Kwon, Jaesool; Park, Sang-Suk; Kim, Jung-Whan; Kwon, Hyeok-Gu; Park, Hac-Kyoo

2003-08-01

121

Correlation Between Science Curriculum and Cognitive Level in Earth Science of Secondary School Students in the Philippines and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imperative to economic development is quality educati on. With the belief that science and technology is a twin vehicle towards the attainment of a country' s economic development, science education has always been the object of reform. The Philippines in its quest to alleviate the qualit y of life of its people, has done much effort to impr ove Science

DIGNA CABARDO PANINGBATAN; TAKESHI KOZAI; HIROAKI OZAWA; MAMORU MURATA; HIROSHI NISHIMURA

122

Conductance quantization: A laboratory experiment in a senior-level nanoscale science and technology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple, inexpensive, and robust undergraduate lab experiment that demonstrates the emergence of quantized conductance as a macroscopic gold wire is broken and unbroken. The experiment utilizes a mechanically controlled break junction and demonstrates how conductance quantization can be used to understand the importance of quantum mechanics at the nanoscale. Such an experiment can be integrated into the curriculum of a course on nanoscale science or contemporary physics at the junior and senior levels.

Tolley, R.; Silvidi, A.; Little, C.; Eid, K. F.

2013-01-01

123

FACTORS INFLUENCING PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IMAGINATION AT THE MICROSCOPIC LEVEL IN CHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the mental images at the microscopic level of matter created by 22 preservice science teachers in Oman.\\u000a Participants were encouraged during a guided imagery session to construct mental images for a scenario written about the explanation\\u000a of the reaction of sodium in water. They were then asked to describe what they envisioned in their own imagination. Participants

Sulaiman M. Al-Balushi

2009-01-01

124

Determination of pre-service elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the global environmental problems which threaten the earth and humanity is the Ozone Layer Depletion and the negative results that it causes. With this study, the aim is to determinate the knowledge level of pre-service elementary science teachers about the causes of the Ozone Layer Depletion, results and the precautions they will take. In this study, 30-item-questionaire has

Dilek Çelikler; Zeynep Aksan

2011-01-01

125

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

PubMed Central

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

126

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

127

Preparedness for Tertiary Chemistry: Issues of Placement and Performance of Academic Development Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The introduction of an outcomes-based curriculum in South Africa together with a new syllabus for physical sciences for grades 10-12, prompted the development of an instrument to monitor conceptual understanding in chemistry at the secondary-tertiary interface. This instrument was used to evaluate placement within different programmes at tertiary

Potgieter, M.; Davidowitz, B.; Mathabatha, S. S.

2008-01-01

128

Smart utilization of tertiary instructional modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning experience and learning skills. A combination of on-line and face-to-face learning approaches, embedded across each course, yields far higher levels

John Hamilton; Singwhat Tee

2010-01-01

129

A Comparative Study of Turkish Elementary and Science Education Major Students' Knowledge Levels at the Popular Biotechnological Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of popular biotechnological issues of Turkish science and elementary teacher candidates. A questionnaire was administered during 2006-2007 school term to 336 students pursuing their education in the departments of science and elementary education in two Turkish universities. The…

Turkmen, Lutfullah; Darcin, Emine Selcen

2007-01-01

130

A Comparative Study of Turkish Elementary and Science Education Major Students' Knowledge Levels at the Popular Biotechnological Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of popular biotechnological issues of Turkish science and elementary teacher candidates. A questionnaire was administered during 2006-2007 school term to 336 students pursuing their education in the departments of science and elementary education in two Turkish universities. The questionnaire covers six biotechnological issues such as biotechnology, agrobiotechnology, human health

Lutfullah Turkmen; Emine Selcen Darcin

131

Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

2007-01-01

132

Teaching English as a Second Language: A Handbook for Science. Curriculum Bulletin Number 75CBM5, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course guide is intended for classroom use by teachers of secondary level science to Spanish-speaking students of English as a second language (ESL). Both science instruction and acquisition of English scientific terminology are emphasized, within the framework of increasing overall student proficiency in English. The book is prefaced with a…

Azios, Maria Leticia; And Others

133

Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels in type 1 diabetics attending a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary cross - sectional study  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: To estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in type 1 diabetes and to evaluate the influence of duration of diabetes, diabetic control, and age on B 12 levels. Importance of Study: Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to be associated with autoimmune disorders. However, currently there is very limited and controversial data regarding the prevalence of B12 deficiency in type 1 diabetes in South Indian population. If our study demonstrates the presence of low serum B12 levels in type1 diabetes in our population, a recommendation for regular screening and supplementation of vitamin B12 could be considered in these patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross- sectional study. Ninety type 1 diabetic patients (44 males and 46 females) were randomly selected based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria from the diabetes registry at Bangalore Diabetes Centre. Serum vitamin B12 level and parameters for diabetic controls were estimated using fully automated methods. All statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: The study showed that 45.5% of the diabetics had low B12 using the manufacturer's cut – off of 180 pg/mL and 54% had low B12 using the published cut – off of 148 pmol/l (200pg/mL). There was no significant difference in B12 levels between males and females (mean difference = - 14.3: P > 0.05). The study did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and age, duration of diabetes, and diabetes control (the r values being – 0.18, - 0.11, and - 0.08 respectively and the P-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Results of our study shows the presence of low serum B12 levels in type 1 diabetics. These findings merits further research on a larger population to investigate into the cause of deficiency and the benefit of B12 supplementation in these patients.

Koshy, Ann Sarah; Kumari, S. Jaya; Ayyar, Vageesh; Kumar, Prasanna

2012-01-01

134

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

135

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

136

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

137

Teachers' beliefs about science teaching and context factors: Implications for teaching and learning science at the middle school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research shows that teachers' beliefs have been virtually ignored in science education reform efforts spearheaded by the development of national, state, and local standards. Since the aim of science education reform is to improve scientific literacy for all students, increasingly, researchers are questioning the lack of attention to teachers' beliefs and are calling for more research to examine teachers'

Celeste H. Pea

2005-01-01

138

Clinico-epidemiological profile and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcal septicemia from a tertiary care hospital in east Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background: Emergence of high-level aminoglycoside and glycopeptide resistance has significantly contributed to the mortality, particularly in serious enterococcal infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR) and vancomycin resistance in enterococcal isolates recovered from patients with bacteremia. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 blood culture isolates of enterococci were recovered from septicemic patients. Routine antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and screening for ampilcillin, high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) and high-level vancomycin resistance was done by agar screen method. Results: Out of 110 isolates, Enterococcus faecium accounted for 53% of these isolates, followed by Enterococcus fecalis (33%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (8%), Enterococcus raffinosus (4%) and Enterococcus dispar (2%). Resistance to ampicillin, HLGR, HLSR and HLAR was detected in 58%, 62%, 58% and 54% of the isolates, respectively. No isolate was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: This study illustrates the high prevalence of HLAR in enterococci from patients with septicemia in our region, which emphasizes the need to predict synergy between beta-lactams and aminoglycosides for management of enterococcal infections.

Jain, Sarika; Kumar, Ashwani; Kashyap, Bineeta; Kaur, Iqbal R

2011-01-01

139

Interdisciplinary education to integrate pathology and epidemiology: towards molecular and population-level health science.  

PubMed

In recent decades, epidemiology, public health, and medical sciences have been increasingly compartmentalized into narrower disciplines. The authors recognize the value of integration of divergent scientific fields in order to create new methods, concepts, paradigms, and knowledge. Herein they describe the recent emergence of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE), which represents an integration of population and molecular biologic science to gain insights into the etiologies, pathogenesis, evolution, and outcomes of complex multifactorial diseases. Most human diseases, including common cancers (such as breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma) and other chronic diseases (such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, psychiatric diseases, and some infectious diseases), are caused by alterations in the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and interactome of all of the above components. In this era of personalized medicine and personalized prevention, we need integrated science (such as MPE) which can decipher diseases at the molecular, genetic, cellular, and population levels simultaneously. The authors believe that convergence and integration of multiple disciplines should be commonplace in research and education. We need to be open-minded and flexible in designing integrated education curricula and training programs for future students, clinicians, practitioners, and investigators. PMID:22935517

Ogino, Shuji; King, Emily E; Beck, Andrew H; Sherman, Mark E; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward

2012-08-30

140

Students' Perspectives on Worldwide "Greening" of Tertiary Education Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several scholars have suggested the introduction of an environmental literacy requirement into the curricula of Non-Environmental Science disciplines in tertiary institutions of the world as a "greening" strategy for fostering global environmental stewardship necessary for enhancing understanding and collaboration in tackling the major…

Aighewi, Isoken T.; Osaigbovo, Ulamen A.

2010-01-01

141

Should applicants to Nottingham University Medical School study a non-science A-level? A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. METHODS: The subjects of this retrospective cohort

Janet Yates; Jennifer Smith; David James; Eamonn Ferguson

2009-01-01

142

High Interest - Low Vocabulary Science Books, Reading Level Grades 1-4 (Prepared for the Remedial Reading Teacher).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklist is intended for elementary school science students with high interest and low vocabulary skills. The Spache Readability Scale, Dale-Chall formula, sentence structure, paragraph flow, illustration, and diagram analysis or publishers stated grade level were used to determine grade level designations. The included interest level varies…

Gott, Margaret E., Comp.; Wailes, James R., Comp.

143

Carleton College Science Education Resource Center (SERC) - Starting Point Entry Level Geoscience Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Starting Point collection consists of resources to support teaching entry-level undergraduate geoscience of all types. The collection includes modules on instructional methods. At the Starting Point website, examples demonstrate ways of using these methods in geoscience courses and laboratories, and provide additional information and resources. The collection includes resources that span the needs of faculty and graduate students in designing, developing, and delivering entry-level undergraduate courses in the geosciences. It consists primarily of instructional materials and activities, annotations and materials supporting the use of instructional materials and activities, information on instructional methods and issues in teaching customized for geoscientists, primary sources, review articles, summaries and bibliographies pertaining to pedagogy, assessment, issues in teaching, course development and management, and learning science.

144

Plasma adiponectin, IL-6, hsCRP, and TNF-? levels in subject with diabetic foot and their correlation with clinical variables in a North Indian tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Aim: Pro- and anti-inflammatory processes are crucial in different phases of wound healing and their disturbances interfere with tissue homeostasis after the manifestation of ulcers, leading to chronic non-healing wounds. However, data on the association between infl ammation and acute foot syndrome are scarce. Materials and Methods: Circulating levels of acute-phase reactants and cytokines were measured in diabetic patients with ulcer (n = 162) and without ulcer (n = 162) in a case control study. Results: Of the patients, 85.1% had type 2 diabetes. Subjects with diabetic foot ulcer showed lower median plasma level of adiponectin [8.4 (7.1–9.2) ng/ml vs. 13.4 (12.1–14.2) ng/ml], and higher median plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) [32.5 (9.4–44.8) ng/ml vs. 6.7 (4.6–14.6) ng/ml], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) [12.6 (11.2–13.6) mg/ml vs. 8.4 (7.1–9.2) mg/ml], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) [99.4 (79.9–121.5) ng/ml vs. 4.9 (4.5–5.6) ng/ml]. A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) (r = ?0.088, P < 0.264) and retinopathy (r = 0.249, P < 0.001) for adiponectin. For IL-6, it was between grade of ulcer (r = 0.250, P < 0.001), BMI (r = ?0.161, P < 0.04), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = ?0.155, P < 0.049), triglycerides (r = ?0.165, P < 0.035), retinopathy (r = ?0.166, P < 0.035), nephropathy (r = ?0.199, P < 0.011), and smoking (r = ?0.164, P < 0.036). For hsCRP: grade of ulcer (r = 0.236, P < 0.002), BMI (r = ?0.155, P < 0.048), LDL-C (r = ?0.174, P < 0.026), triglycerides (r = ?0.216, P < 0.005), retinopathy (r = ?0.165, P < 0.037), nephropathy (r = ?0.028, P < 0.007), and smoking (r = ?0.164, P < 0.036), while total cholesterol (r = ?0.209, P < 0.007) and neuropathy (r = 0.141, P < 0.072) for TNF-?. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that diabetic subjects with various grades of diabetic foot ulcer showed a higher IL-6, hsCRP, TNF-?, and lower adiponectin plasma levels in comparison with diabetes without foot ulcer, independent of the concomitant infections. It would be interesting to fi nd out whether an activation of immune system precedes the development of foot ulcer and whether anti-infl ammatory therapies might be effective in improving the outcome in such patients.

Zubair, Mohammad; Malik, Abida; Ahmad, Jamal

2012-01-01

145

Measuring Student Improvement in Lower- and Upper-Level University Climate Science Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do university students know about climate? What do they learn in a climate course? On the second-to-last day of a course about global climate change, only 48% of our upper-level science students correctly answered a multiple-choice question about the greenhouse effect. The good news: improvement. Only 16% had answered correctly on the first day of class. The bad news: the learning opportunities we've provided appear to have missed more than half the class on a fundamental climate concept. To evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on student learning about climate, we have developed a prototype assessment tool, designed to be deployed as a low-stakes pre-post test. The items included were validated through student interviews to ensure that students interpret the wording and answer choices in the way we intend. This type of validated assessment, administered both at the beginning and end of term, with matched individuals, provides insight regarding the baseline knowledge with which our students enter a course, and the impact of that course on their learning. We administered test items to students in (1) an upper-level climate course for science majors and (2) a lower-level climate course open to all students. Some items were given to both groups, others to only one of the groups. Both courses use evidence-based pedagogy with active student engagement (clickers, small group activities, regular pre-class preparation). Our results with upper-level students show strong gains in student thinking (>70% of students who missed a question on the pre-test answered correctly on the post-test) about stock-and-flow (box model) problems, annual cycles in the Keeling curve, ice-albedo feedbacks, and isotopic fractionation. On different questions, lower-level students showed strong gains regarding albedo and blackbody emission spectra. Both groups show similar baseline knowledge and lower-than-expected gains on greenhouse effect fundamentals, and zero gain regarding the relative importance of different greenhouse gases. A larger percentage of upper-level students (compared to lower-level students) arrive with correct knowledge comparing different greenhouse gases, and explanations of annual cycles in the Keeling curve, but both groups show similar gains with instruction. Instructors can use feedback from these pre-post assessment results to iteratively modify and test the learning opportunities they provide. We aim to continue development and further validation of this tool such that it can be used in many university-level climate courses.

Harris, S. E.; Taylor, S. V.; Schoonmaker, J. E.; Lane, E.; Francois, R. H.; Austin, P.

2011-12-01

146

An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

Mlenga, Francis Howard

147

Level of Internet Use Among Science Teachers Involved in a Professional Development Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the level of instructional use of Internet among science teachers involved with an in-service professional development project. An instrument on Level of Use of innovation was modified for the study. A criterion sample of teachers to be interviewed via telephone was randomly selected from a pool of 347 K-12 teachers. Somers' d and contingency coefficients were determined to see whether any relationship exists between a teacher's Level of Use and the following categories: (a) amount of experience with the Internet; (b) availability of resources support and access to the Internet in classroom and at home; (c) number of teacher and student users at school, (d) gender; and (e) type of school. Results of step-wise multiple regression indicate that classroom access, instructional experience of using Internet with students, availability of resource support and number of teacher users at school are the best predictors of teacher's Level of Use. Chi square test for comparisons between groups of completers and noncompleters of On-Line West Virginia K-12 RuralNet courses also revealed that a lack of classroom access to Internet and lack of resource/technical support at school contributed significantly to lower level of use among noncompleters.

Wiesenmayer, Randall L.; Koul, Ravinder

1999-06-01

148

Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex,

Richard L. Williams; Larry D. Yore

1985-01-01

149

Science and engineering students’ use of diagrams during note taking versus explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of diagrams in learning and communication is generally considered efficacious and an important skill to cultivate, especially among science students. At the same time, previous research has revealed many problems in student diagram use, including a lack of spontaneity in such use, but the extent to which these problems persist into the tertiary level had not been investigated.

Emmanuel Manalo; Yuri Uesaka; Sarah Pérez-Kriz; Masashi Kato; Tatsushi Fukaya

2012-01-01

150

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary Female Student Teachers' Choice of Science as a Major at College Level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there has been an unprecedented expansion in education in the last 2 decades. This reflects the broad recognition that education contributes to national development. This expansion has not been matched with equal access and opportunity to education. The education of females still lags behind that of males in most developing countries, and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular (Hyde, 1989). Fewer girls than boys study science at both secondary and college levels. The study took place in Zimbabwe at Mkoba Teachers' College. Two groups of elementary female student teachers participated in the study, namely science majors and nonscience majors. Ten science majors and nine nonscience majors took part in individual interviews. For focus group interviews, there were three groups of six each from science and nonscience majors. The study was conducted between May 2004 and July 2004. Out-of-school experiences, culture, and attitudes toward science emerged as factors affecting female student teachers' choice of science as a major. A number of implications have been discussed as well as suggestions for further research. Limitations of the study have been analyzed as well.

Mlenga, Francis

151

Attitudes and beliefs, about inquiry science, of middle level and secondary science teachers in northwest Arkansas and northwest Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A This study attempted to close gaps in the literature with regards to implementation of inquiry practices in secondary science classrooms. In addition, the areas and ways in which practice ties to beliefs and experiences in the area of inquiry were examined. This study introduces an instrument that could be used to assess teachers' attitudes and beliefs about inquiry teaching

Jean E. Dockers

2010-01-01

152

Attitudes and beliefs, about inquiry science, of middle level and secondary science teachers in northwest Arkansas and northwest Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A This study attempted to close gaps in the literature with regards to implementation of inquiry practices in secondary science classrooms. In addition, the areas and ways in which practice ties to beliefs and experiences in the area of inquiry were examined. This study introduces an instrument that could be used to assess teachers' attitudes and beliefs about inquiry teaching practices and potential barriers to teaching science using an inquiry approach. Because the efficacy of reform efforts rests largely with teachers, their voices need to be included in the design and implementation of inquiry---based curriculum. This study helps to clarify the need for future research to examine inquiry as a pedagogical approach. If we desire pre-service teachers to teach using an inquiry approach when they have their own classrooms, they must know how to plan, implement, and assess inquiry science lessons, not just have experienced "inquiry lessons" as a student. One unique finding in this study was in the area of licensure and teaching style. Other studies found that in general traditionally licensed teachers felt better prepared to teach. This study found that participants who were alternatively certified incorporated characteristics of inquiry less often than those with traditional certification. This indicates that more research is needed in the area of certification and the affect it may have on quality of instruction for specific content areas like science.

Dockers, Jean E.

153

Using High Level Literacy Techniques to Teach Astronomy to Non-Science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a discussion of an introductory-level college astronomy class which significantly relied on reading and writing assignments to deliver basic content knowledge and provide a basis for deeper analysis of the material. As opposed to the traditional problem-set method of homework, students were required to read popular articles from magazines and newspapers related to the content presented in class and then prepare responses. Responses ranged from methodological analysis to using the readings to create original science journalism. Other forms of assessment indicated that students benefitted from this type of course design. We propose that given the background of students in this type of course, the course design is better suited to engage students in the material and provides a better assessment of student achievement.

Garland, C. A.; Ratay, D. L.

2005-12-01

154

PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' KNOWLEDGE AND TEACHING COMFORT LEVELS FOR APPLIED AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AREA OBJECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy beliefs, context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task; an important determinant when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their likelihood for success in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess selected Texas pre-service agricultural science teachers' knowledge

Shannon Degenhart; Tim Pannkuk; Gary J. Wingenbach

155

Comparing Scientists' Views of Nature of Science within and across Disciplines, and Levels of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to understand how Thai scientists from four disciplines viewed nature of science (NOS). The sixteen participating scientists were chosen from the areas of chemistry, physics, biology/life sciences, and geology/earth sciences and were separated into novice and expert groups. The scientists' understandings about NOS…

Tira, Praweena

2009-01-01

156

Engaging in Science through Astrobiology Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a steady decline in the number of Australian students studying science at the senior high school level. By the time students reach this point in their education, when they can choose whether or not to continue to study science, many have already decided that science is not for them. It is possible that students in the junior high school years may be gaining a false view of the world of science due to the disparity between the way that science is portrayed in schools and "real" science. A study is being undertaken to explore whether engaging in real science through outreach activities may increase students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and whether such activities may heighten students' interest in science and potentially lead to an increase in the number of students studying science at the tertiary level. The study examines three astrobiology-related outreach programs, two in Australia and one in the US. The features of the programs are described and results from the Australian research carried out to date are presented.

Fergusson, J.; Oliver, C.; Walter, M.

2011-12-01

157

Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual-preference effect. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with a multisensory approach on either grade-level or above-grade level science content (p < 0.0001). The findings supported using a multisensory approach when teaching science concepts that are new to and difficult for students (Martini, 1986).

Roberts, Patrice Helen

158

Effect of using repurposed science-rich feature films with varying levels of student activity in middle grades science instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provided an initial investigation into the use of repurposed content-rich entertainment videos (versus traditional educational videos) presented in either an active or passive educational setting. Eight classes of seventh grade general science students (n = 361) were randomly assigned to one of four video treatment groups: (1) repurposed content-rich entertainment video in a passive setting, (2) repurposed content-rich entertainment video in an active setting, (3) traditional educational video in a passive setting, and (4) traditional educational video in an active setting. The subject matter of the videos focused on basic chemistry, scientific method, and the nature of life. The repurposed content-rich entertainment groups watched a StarTrek the Next Generation episode, and the traditional educational video groups watched videos from NASA and the Understanding Science Corporation. Students completed a knowledge-based pretest and an initial attitude survey prior to the treatment. During the treatment, all participants watched the videos, discussed the science content, and answered directed questions. Active setting groups discussed and answered questions during the video, while the passive setting groups discussed and answered questions after the video. The treatment period lasted approximately 135 minutes. Immediately following treatment, participants received a knowledge-based posttest and an attitude survey. Three weeks after treatment, retention tests and follow-up surveys were administered. Test and survey data were analyzed using single factor and repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc tests. Significant gains (p < 0.05) in test scores were found for repurposed content-rich entertainment video over traditional educational video groups. No significant differences were found in test scores between the active and passive setting groups. When the variables were combined, additional effects were noted. Specifically, significant differences were noted over time with the passive educational group performing lower than the passive repurposed group on mean test scores. No significant differences were noted for attitude change toward science in comparing repurposed content-rich entertainment video group and traditional educational video group. A significant difference was found in how the subjects' attitudes changed for the active (increasing then decreasing) versus the passive watching groups (decreasing then increasing). The results of the study indicate that the use of content-rich entertainment video may provide an effective alternative for science education.

Cavanaugh, Terence William

159

A Graduate-Level Professional Development Program in Science for In-Service Middle and High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on learning and cognition has produced new insights into designing effective professional development programs for mathematics and science teachers. This research suggests that ``teacher learning programs must become more collegial and in-depth, longer in duration, and tailored to the experience levels of the learners, be they novice or expert teachers" (Stiles & Mundrey 2002). Guided by this research, DePaul University in Chicago has developed an interdisciplinary Masters of Science in Science Education (MSSE) degree program for urban middle school and high school teachers. The program has a strong contemporary earth and space science component, including a course in astrobiology. The MSSE program is designed to strengthen the teachers' science content knowledge and skills, improve their classroom practice, and ultimately enhance their students' learning in science. We will share a variety of strategies we have employed in the design, development, and implementation of the program. We will also discuss what we have learned about the professional development needs of Chicago teachers as well as the research tools we have used to assess the effectiveness of our program. An overarching principle of the program is the integration of science content knowledge with classroom practice and with research on how students learn.

Beck-Winchatz, B.; Narasimhan, L.; Jabon, D.

2008-06-01

160

The teacher's role in college level classes for non-science majors: A constructivist approach for teaching prospective science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This interpretive research set out to investigate the characteristics of an exemplary college science instructor who endeavors to improve teaching and learning in a physical science course for prospective teachers. The course was innovative in the sense that it was designed to meet the specific needs of prospective elementary teachers who needed to have models of how to teach science in a way that employed materials and small group activities. The central purpose for this study is to understand the metaphors that Mark (a pseudonym), the chemistry instructor in the course, used as referents to conceptualize his roles and frame actions and interactions in the classroom. Within the theoretical frame of constructivism, human cognitive interests, and co-participation theories, an ethnographic research design, described by Erickson (1986), Guba and Lincoln (1989), and Gallagher (1991), was employed in the study. The main sources of data for this study were field notes, transcript analysis of interviews with the instructor and students, and analyses of videotaped excerpts. Additional data sources, such as student journals and the results of students' responses to the University/Community College Student Questionnaire which was developed by a group science education researchers at Florida State University, were employed to maximize that the assertions I constructed were consistent with the variety of data. Data analyses and interpretation in the study focused on identifying the aspects which the instructor and the researcher might find useful in reflecting to understand what was happening and why that was happening in the classroom. The analysis reveals how the instructor used constructivism as a referent for his teaching and the learning of his students. To be consistent with his beliefs and goals that prospective teachers should enjoy their journey of learning chemistry, Mark, the driver in the journey, used the roles of controller, facilitator, learner, and entertainer as referents for actions to create conducive learning environments. He was able to switch his actions based on which of the constituent metaphors he used as a referent to frame his actions and interactions, and thereby, to create an exciting environment for learning.

Abbas, Abdullah Othman

1997-12-01

161

Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students'…

Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

1994-01-01

162

Key Issue: Recruiting Mathematics and Science Teachers at the High School Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High attrition rates amongst secondary mathematics and science teachers disrupts studentsâ learning, concerns parents, and magnifies the stressors to which remaining teachers are subjected. The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality provides a list of strategies for recruiting high school teachers: implement strategies that provide meaningful incentives for prospective teachers; specifically target those teachers with the experience and education to meet the needs of the school; build a relationship and craft a strategy with input from local institutions of higher education; view the strategies as part of a larger effort to recruit and retain high-quality teachers for every subject at every grade level; take advantage of the local supply of potential teachers; use the internet to increase the reach of recruitment efforts; provide high-quality opportunities for people in other professions to transfer into teaching; be selective in accepting candidates from alternative preparation programs; and broaden the diversity of prospective teachers. These tips are broken down into six steps, and examples are provided of programs with remarkably effective recruitment strategies.

2009-04-22

163

U11: Socio Economic Impacts of Sea Level Change: What Does Society Need from Science (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there are numerous efforts underway to create better data sets, models and scenarios that would be relevant to understanding potential impacts associated with local sea level change, many of these scientific efforts will fall short of providing what local decision makers actually require in order to make informed, risky and expensive decisions. The range of impacts associated with both gray and green infrstructure require understanding of regionally specific ecosystem services and local economies. This is currently a wholly underfunded and insufficiently addressed area. Much of what we do know about what would actually be useful to support local decision making comes to us from the natural disaster research community where there has been a much stronger emphasis on social science. I will review several efforts that are currently underway that attempt to articulate just what it is that defines a 'resilient community'. I will speak to several of the more effective case studies and attempt to elucidate what the salient lessons are from that body of work that have direct application to coastal climate adaptation.

Davidson, M. A.

2010-12-01

164

Testing the Waters in Teaching: A Qualitative Study on Graduate-Level Intern Science Teachers' Motivations for Entry into Teaching in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching profession has difficulties in recruiting high-quality science teachers in many countries and many beginning science teachers would leave after their first year of teaching. As Taiwan has recently been able to recruit many graduate-level science students into teachers' training programs, it is important to investigate if these…

Wang, Hsiou-Huai

2011-01-01

165

A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

Yilmaz, Ismail

2012-01-01

166

A Comparison of Level of Understanding of Eighth-Grade Students and Science Student Teachers Related to Selected Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate and compare level of understanding of eighth-grade students and student teachers in their final year in the science education department related to concepts of solution, gas, and chemical change. A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used for this investigation. Open-ended questions and group…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

2005-01-01

167

Using SPS at the Community College Level to Develop a Science Road Show to Present to K-12 Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a science road show at the community college level will be addressed following the model implemented at Northeast Texas Community College. The use of the local SPS chapter in performing the show will be addressed along with guidelines for developing grant support.

Dowdy, Jess T.

2008-03-01

168

The effects of cooperative learning in a physical science course for elementary\\/middle level preservice teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have shown the effectiveness of cooperative learning in a variety of settings in grades K-12, relatively few have focused on higher education. This study compared two physical science laboratory sections in a course for elementary\\/middle level preservice teachers. One section was taught in the traditional method, and the other was instructed using the Learning Together technique of

Bruce Burron; M. Lynn James; Anthony L. Ambrosio

1993-01-01

169

A Comparison of Level of Understanding of Eighth-Grade Students and Science Student Teachers Related to Selected Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to investigate and compare level of understanding of eighth-grade students and student teachers in their final year in the science education department related to concepts of solution, gas, and chemical change. A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used for this investigation. Open-ended questions and group…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

2005-01-01

170

Attitude and Achievement in Ninth Grade Physical Science of Low Need Level Students: A Reexamination of the Matching Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the benefits of matching instruction with students' needs were examined. Three personality variables were used for the purpose of matching: Maslowian need level; locus of control; and cognitive style. This study used the ninth-grade physical science students (N=301) participating in the previous study to (1) examine…

Crawley, Frank E.; Trout, John S.

171

Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran,

Robbie Evelyn Foxx

2001-01-01

172

Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 13-21 and Semester Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the third part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are presented for the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

173

Elementary Science Supplement to the Syllabus. Level I (Ages 4 through 7).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to complement existing elementary science programs, the materials in this first volume of New York's Elementary Science Supplement to the Syllabus emphasize a direct experience, hands-on approach for children of ages 4 through 7. Major sections include: (1) guidelines for program activities (explaining the organizational format of the…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

174

High School Science Reform: Taking SS&C to a Higher Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses important tenets of the Scope Sequence and Coordination (SS&C) project and presents the SS&C high school project designed specifically to achieve the National Science Education Standards. Specifies the scope, sequence, and coordination of the natural sciences in grades 9 through 12 in support of general goals taken from the National…

Aldridge, Bill G.

1995-01-01

175

Elementary Science Supplement to the Syllabus. Level II (Ages 7 through 9).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to complement existing elementary science programs, the materials in this second volume of New York's Elementary Science Supplement emphasize an experiential, hands-on approach for children aged 7-9. Major sections include guidelines for program activities, (the format of this publication); correlating syllabus and program, (including a…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

176

Science Seeker: A New Model for Teaching Information Literacy to Entry-Level Biology Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to integrate library instruction seamlessly into an introductory biology course, two librarians collaborated with a biology faculty member to create a three-part series of instruction sessions known as the Science Seeker. The Science Seeker taught students about the structure of scientific information by tracing the path that discoveries…

Petzold, Jacquelyn; Winterman, Brian; Montooth, Kristi

2010-01-01

177

An analysis of integrated science and language arts themes in software at the elementary school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many demands on the elementary classroom teacher today, such that teachers often do not have the time and resources to instruct in a meaningful manner that would produce effective, real instruction. Subjects are often disjointed and not significant. When teachers instruct using an integrated approach, students learn more efficiently as they see connections in the subjects. Science and language arts, when combined to produce an integrated approach, show positive associations that can enable students to learn real-life connections. In addition, with the onset of technology and the increased usage of technological programs in the schools, teachers can use technology to support an integrated curriculum. When teachers use a combined instructional focus of science, language arts, and technology to produce lessons, students are able to gain knowledge of concepts and skills necessary for appropriate academic growth and development. Given that there are many software programs available to teachers for classroom use, it is imperative that quality software is used for instruction. Using criteria based upon an intensive literature review of integrated instruction in the areas of science and language arts, this study examines science and language arts software programs to determine whether there are science and language arts integrated themes in the software analyzed. Also, this study examines whether more science and language arts integrated themes are present in science or language arts software programs. Overall, this study finds a significant difference between language arts software and science software when looking at integrated themes. This study shows that science software shows integrated themes with language arts more often than does language arts software with science. The findings in this study can serve as a reference point for educators when selecting software that is meaningful and effective in the elementary classroom. Based on this study, it is apparent that there is a need to evaluate software for appropriate use in the classroom in order to promote effective education.

Libidinsky, Lisa Jill

2002-09-01

178

Breakdown in the level of interest in science & technology among Japanese - from the data of public opinion survey -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss about the situation of the level of interest in Science & Technology (S&T) among Japanese. The interest was at its peak in 1976 over past 30 years. It generally fell until the most recent survey in 2004. Of particular interest is a breakdown of the respondents by age. In 1976, people in their 20s reported the highest level of interest in S&T. Over time, that group's interest has waned. Now it is the age group with the lowest level of interest in S&T. I'm going to suggest how to improve people's interest in S&T. The way is to promote Science Communication.

Watanabe, Masataka

2005-12-01

179

Employment Status of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates Varies by Level and Field of Degree  

NSF Publications Database

... less favorable than that of the late 1980s. Employment Status of Recent Science and Engineering ... by sector of employment and field of degree: 1993 Sector of employment Degree and field Total ...

180

Preliminary Survey of Education and Training Programmes at University Level in Information and Library Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seventy schools of library and information science in 13 countries responded to a 1972 questionnaire on educational and training programs. The survey was conducted to review the current position and trends in training and education for library and informa...

D. J. Foskett

1976-01-01

181

The Petasis Reaction: Microscale Synthesis of a Tertiary Amine Antifungal Analog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students prepare a tertiary amine antifungal analog in an upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. A microscale Petasis reaction is performed to generate a liquid compound readily characterized via IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The biological relevance of the product is highlighted, with the tertiary amine scaffold being an important…

Koroluk, Katherine J.; Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

182

The Petasis Reaction: Microscale Synthesis of a Tertiary Amine Antifungal Analog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students prepare a tertiary amine antifungal analog in an upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. A microscale Petasis reaction is performed to generate a liquid compound readily characterized via IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The biological relevance of the product is highlighted, with the tertiary amine scaffold being an important…

Koroluk, Katherine J.; Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

183

WIDENING ACCESS TO TERTIARY EDUCATION FOR WOMEN IN GHANA THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education - age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana has not

Olivia Adwoa; Tiwaah Frimpong

2007-01-01

184

Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

185

Using a Multi?Level Model and an Indicator System in Science Education to Assess the Effect of School Treatment on Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study exploits a large accumulation of empirical data and knowledge on school effectiveness in science teaching and methodological advances in analyzing hierarchical data. It offers an indicator system for monitoring science education in Israel at the elementary school level and uses this system and a multi level methodology for analyzing hierarchical data and refining answers to traditional questions

Ruth Zuzovsky; Murray Aitkin

1990-01-01

186

Overall science goals and top level AO requirements for the E-ELT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The E-ELT is the most ambitious of the ELTs that are planed. Its main characteristic is to be an adaptive telescope, i.e. AO is included in the telescope design. The science case for the E-ELT is largely driven by a diffraction limited image quality of the telescope. The science goals span from direct imaging and characterisation of exo-planets to studying the most distant objects in the universe. The science cases imply a long term deployment at the telescope of many AO flavours (ground-layer AO, single conjugated AO, laser tomography AO, multi-conjugated AO, multi-object AO, extreme AO). While some of these are covered by the telescope, others will require post-focal AO modules feeding the instruments.

Markus, Kissler-Patig

187

"Actually, I 'May' Be Clever Enough to Do It". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories towards Science and University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated…

Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

2013-01-01

188

"Actually, I 'May' Be Clever Enough to Do It". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories towards Science and University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated…

Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

2013-01-01

189

Comparison of anxiety levels of students in introductory earth science and geology courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in geology and earth science courses were not anxious about taking these courses as measured by the State-Triat Anxiety Inventory. Students in each course were split into two grade groups. It was shown that students whose grades were in the higher group had low anxiety, which continued to be reduced during the course. Students in the lower grade group had high anxiety, which increased during the course. There was no difference between anxiety scores of males and females. In general, students who planned to elect additional courses had lower state anxiety and higher grades than students who did not plan to elect additional courses in geology and earth science.

Westerback, Mary E.; Gonzalez, Clemencia; Primavera, Louis H.

190

PARENTAL BONDING AND PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AMONG TERTIARY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental bonding is an important predictor that gives a lot of insight into parent-child relationship. Studies have demonstrated the importance of parent child relationship for adjustment, ranging from attachment during infancy, indiscipline style during childhood and adolescence to parenting style during adulthood. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between parental bonding and parent-child relationship among tertiary level students in

TAM CAI LIAN; YEOH SI HAN

191

Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Early Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a conceptual framework for the provision of early intervention services, applying the concept of primary, secondary, or tertiary levels of prevention. This prevention perspective is built on the premise that the manifestation, severity, or extended impact, respectively, of a specified condition, namely developmental delay, can be prevented. This premise has implications for direct intervention with children and

RUNE J. SIMEONSSON

1991-01-01

192

Analysis of Student Beliefs in a Tertiary Preparatory Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year approximately 800 students enrol in the tertiary preparatory course TPP7181 at the University of Southern Queensland. Successful completion of this course will allow students to enrol in either further preparatory level mathematics courses or undergraduate study. For many of the students enrolled in this course, the study of mathematics…

Carmichael, C.; Taylor, J. A.

2005-01-01

193

Analysis of student beliefs in a tertiary preparatory mathematics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year approximately 800 students enrol in the tertiary preparatory course TPP7181 at the University of Southern Queensland. Successful completion of this course will allow students to enrol in either further preparatory level mathematics courses or undergraduate study. For many of the students enrolled in this course, the study of mathematics was undertaken quite some time ago and usually in

Colin S Carmichael; Janet Ann Taylor

2005-01-01

194

An Examination of Tertiary Students' Desire to Found an Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the paper aims to identify and explain the behaviour and intentions of students in their decision to start entrepreneurial activities and establish an enterprise. Second, the paper aims to identify whether students in tertiary level institutions in Ireland display the personality traits of an…

Birdthistle, Naomi

2008-01-01

195

The effects of the level of inquiry of situated secondary science laboratory activities on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills and attitudes toward problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been over thirty years of studies on the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills, and attitudes toward problem solving and subsequent meta-analyses of these studies, little is conclusive because of the inability of researchers to adequately describe the various levels of inquiry-based science

Lisa Ann Dana

2001-01-01

196

The Relationship Between Computerized Problem-Based Instruction And Students' Cognitive Level of Learning in Secondary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have identified instructional strategies for increasing student achievement but fail to assess the efficacy of these interventions across varying levels of cognitively complex instructional content. Thus, instructional strategies that promote learning for intermediate and higher order cognitive content must be identified. Guided by a conceptual framework proposed by Katzlberger, the purpose of this mixed method quasi-experimental study was to determine the efficacy of computerized problem-based instruction (CPBI) across increasingly complex instructional content. The research questions examined the impact on students' learning resulting from CPBI across low, intermediate and high levels of learning complexity among 308 purposively sampled secondary science students. Paired sample t tests were used to confirm significant pre/post learning gains across experimental conditions and levels of content complexity. The results of independent sample t-tests documented significantly greater gains for the CPBI intervention within the intermediate level of cognitive complexity; however, no statistically significant differences were observed for the student scores within the lower and higher levels of complexity. Qualitative data from a survey administered pre/post intervention were coded to assess differences in preference for, and the perceived value of CPBI. Chi square analyses of the recoded data documented significantly higher perceived preference and value for CBPI within the intervention group. This research study can positively impact social change by informing decision making related to selecting instructional strategies that promote learning at different levels of cognitive complexity within science curriculum.

Nourse, Stacia

197

Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

1981-01-01

198

Grade Level and Science Achievement: US Performance in Cross-National Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how international differences in age-grade distributions and grade effects contribute to science scores among 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. As shown in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, countries vary substantially in the grade distribution of 15-year-olds. The costs…

Dalton, Benjamin

2012-01-01

199

An analysis of integrated science and language arts themes in software at the elementary school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many demands on the elementary classroom teacher today, such that teachers often do not have the time and resources to instruct in a meaningful manner that would produce effective, real instruction. Subjects are often disjointed and not significant. When teachers instruct using an integrated approach, students learn more efficiently as they see connections in the subjects. Science and

Lisa Jill Libidinsky

2002-01-01

200

Investigating the Transition into Third Level Science--Identifying a Student Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into student transition to and experience of first-year undergraduate study has been ongoing for many years. The corresponding research within the discipline of science has been less prolific and that which has been published tends to focus on using external factors such as previous grades, finances, travel time "etc." as predictors for…

Lovatt, James; Finlayson, Odilla

2013-01-01

201

Barriers and Supports for Continuing in Mathematics and Science: Gender and Educational Level Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents three studies that provide an in-depth examination of STEM-related supports and barriers. These studies constructed an instrument to identify male and female perceptions of the barriers and supports for pursuing coursework and/or careers in mathematics and sciences domains; to pilot test and refine that instrument; and then…

Fouad, Nadya A.; Hackett, Gail; Smith, Philip L.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Haag, Susan; Spencer, Dee

2010-01-01

202

Classroom management at the university level: lessons from a former high school earth science teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just a few days before my career as a fledgling science teacher began in a large public high school in New York City, a mentor suggested I might get some ideas about how to run a classroom from a book called The First Days Of School by Harry Wong. Although the book seemed to concentrate more on elementary students, I

C. Lazar

2009-01-01

203

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

204

Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is a unique compendium and synthesis of the cumulative knowledge of more than 100 years of discovery and study of North American tertiary mammals. The potentially most valuable contribution of this book is the detailed information of the distribution in time and space of each species at fossil localities, recorded in a uniform scheme, so that each chapter provides the same level of information. Thirty six chapters are devoted to a particular family or order, written by leading North American authorities, including discussion of anatomical features, systematics, and paleobiology. Three introductory chapters summarize information on the geological time scale, Tertiary vegetation, and Pleistocene events, and four summary chapters integrate systematic and biogeographic information for higher taxa. This book will serve as a unique data base for continuing studies in faunal diversification and change, and for questions such as how changing biogeography and climates influenced the evolution of mammalian communities. It will be an invaluable addition to the libraries of paleontologists and zoologists.

Janis, Christine M.; Scott, Kathleen M.; Jacobs, Louis L.

2005-03-01

205

How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or are considering doing so, however, are not just concerned with “getting the science right” or getting the most credible and relevant information. They immediately, and sometimes primarily, are concerned with the reactions of coastal residents, developers, and business interests to the prospects of potentially difficult and substantial changes in coastal land use, their property rights, and the potential loss of their homes and establishments. How to engage the public constructively in developing adaptation strategies is a largely unmet challenge for most coastal managers. Similarly, they have not been trained in how to effectively communicate an issue that is ripe with the potential for loss, danger, and social and legal conflict - more so than they already face. Better physical science on sea-level rise alone will not meet these needs. Meanwhile, the social sciences have only begun to study public attitudes toward local impacts and adaptation responses. This paper will summarize key insights available at this time and point to important research and education/training needs to better assist practitioners faced with developing and implementing coastal adaptation strategies.

Moser, S. C.

2010-12-01

206

Outcomes of a science teacher development program for middle-level interdisciplinary teams: Relationships among teachers' beliefs, school contexts, and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Alliance, a teacher development program conducted by George Mason University and the American Association for the Advancement of Science with National Science Foundation funding (ESI-9355753) from 1994 to 1998, provided professional development for interdisciplinary teaching teams to enhance middle-level science instruction. Teachers experienced the same kinds of constructivist, hands-on, inquiry-based learning environments that they were expected to create for

Arlene H. Olkin

2004-01-01

207

Barriers and Supports for Continuing in Mathematics and Science: Gender and Educational Level Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents three studies that provide an in-depth examination of STEM-related supports and barriers. These studies constructed an instrument to identify male and female perceptions of the barriers and supports for pursuing coursework and\\/or careers in mathematics and sciences domains; to pilot test and refine that instrument; and then to explore gender differences in perceptions of supports and barriers

Nadya A. Fouad; Gail Hackett; Philip L. Smith; Neeta Kantamneni; Mary Fitzpatrick; Susan Haag; Dee Spencer

2010-01-01

208

Level-2 Milestone 3244: Deploy Dawn ID Machine for Initial Science Runs  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the delivery, installation, integration, testing, and acceptance of the Dawn system, ASC L2 milestone 3244: Deploy Dawn ID Machine for Initial Science Runs, due September 30, 2009. The full text of the milestone is included in Attachment 1. The description of the milestone is: This milestone will be a result of work started three years ago with the planning for a multi-petaFLOPS UQ-focused platform (Sequoia) and will be satisfied when a smaller ID version of the final system is delivered, installed, integrated, tested, accepted, and deployed at LLNL for initial science runs in support of SSP mission. The deliverable for this milestone will be a LA petascale computing system (named Dawn) usable for code development and scaling necessary to ensure effective use of a final Sequoia platform (expected in 2011-2012), and for urgent SSP program needs. Allocation and scheduling of Dawn as an LA system will likely be performed informally, similar to what has been used for BlueGene/L. However, provision will be made to allow for dedicated access times for application scaling studies across the entire Dawn resource. The milestone was completed on April 1, 2009, when science runs began running on the Dawn system. The following sections describe the Dawn system architecture, current status, installation and integration time line, and testing and acceptance process. A project plan is included as Attachment 2. Attachment 3 is a letter certifying the handoff of the system to a nuclear weapons stockpile customer. Attachment 4 presents the results of science runs completed on the system.

Fox, D

2009-09-21

209

Associations between school-level environment and science classroom environment in secondary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of links between school environment and science classroom environment. Instruments to assess\\u000a seven dimensions of school environment (viz., Empowerment, Student Support, Affiliation, Professional Interest, Mission Consensus,\\u000a Resource Adequacy and Work Pressure) and seven dimensions of classroom environment (viz., Student Affiliation, Interactions,\\u000a Cooperation, Task Orientation, Order & Organisation, Individualisati n and Teacher Control) in secondary school

Jeffrey P. Dorman; Barry J. Fraser; Campbell J. McRobbie

1995-01-01

210

The Science Shortfall: An Analysis of the Shortage of Suitably Qualified Science Teachers in Australian Schools and the Policy Implications for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Declining enrollment in the physical sciences at university is causing concern among higher education institutions, governments and industry. In response, renewed attention is being paid to the tertiary science background of school teachers, given their key role in both preparing and enthusing students for tertiary science study. A recent study,…

Harris, Kerri-Lee; Farrell, Kelly

2007-01-01

211

Biopolitical science.  

PubMed

This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

Arnhart, Larry

2010-03-01

212

Exposure to methyl tertiary-butyl ether from oxygenated gasoline in Stamford, Connecticut  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, state health officials in Connecticut invited the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to assist in an investigation of exposure to methyl tertiary-butyl ether in oxygenated gasoline in Stamford, Connecticut. Venous blood samples were collected from 14 commuters and from 30 other persons who worked in the vicinity of traffic or automobiles, and the samples were analyzed for methyl tertiary-butyl ether, tertiary-butyl alcohol, benzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, and toluene. The highest levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether in blood were measured among gasoline service station attendants (median = 15 {mu}g/l, range = 7.6-28.9 {mu}g/l). Blood levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether were highly variable among persons who worked in car-repair shops (median = 1.73 {mu}g/l, range = 0.17-36.7 {mu}/l) and were generally lowest among commuters (median = 0.11 {mu}g/l, range = <0.05-2.60 {mu}g/l). Blood levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether were correlated strongly with personal-breathing-zone samples of methyl tertiary-butyl ether and blood levels of other volatile organic compounds. This exposure information should prove useful to a future risk analysis of this high-volume chemical. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

White, M.C.; Johnson, C.A.; Ashley, D.L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

213

Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

214

How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study;…

Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

2012-01-01

215

Low-Cost Science and Technology Materials at Kindergarten Level (Examples of National Institutions of Democratic People's Republic of Korea, People's Republic of China and Brasilia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing attention is being paid today to the place of science in general education at the preprimary, primary, and secondary levels. Educational authorities and specialists in many countries throughout the world agree about the important role that science should and can play in the context of education, but specific aims and objectives must be…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

216

Force and Energy: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as the second in a series, this teacher's manual is designed to assist junior high school teachers in developing general level or non-academic science programs which focus on the relationship between science and society. Seven episodes comprise three sections: energy systems, hydroelectricity, and meeting society's energy needs. Each…

Orpwood, Graham W. F.; Roberts, Douglas A.

217

Tax incentives for the tertiary oil operator  

SciTech Connect

There are 3 basic tax incentives for the tertiary oil operator. First of all, under the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980, tertiary operators are now allowed to deduct tertiary injectants, one of which is a deduction for income tax purposes. Under the percentage depletion rules, tertiary operators are given certain rate and quantity advantages that are not otherwise allowable to oil and gas producers. This work examines the deduction for tertiary injectants. Prior to the passage of the Windfall Profit Tax Act, these expenditures were required to be capitalized and depreciated over the life of the project for income tax purposes. IRC Section 193 now allows certain qualified tertiary injectants to be deducted front end. The study also reviews the percentage depletion incentives under IRC Section 613A.

Cast, J.R.

1981-01-01

218

Multi-Level Modeling of Dyadic Data in Sport Sciences: Conceptual, Statistical, and Practical Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this article is to present a series of conceptual, statistical, and practical issues in the modeling of multi-level dyadic data. Distinctions are made between distinguishable and undistinguishable dyads and several types of independent variables modeled at the dyadic level of analysis. Multi-level modeling equations are explained in a…

Gaudreau, Patrick; Fecteau, Marie-Claude; Perreault, Stephane

2010-01-01

219

Decision-making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the conceptual foundations of PBS at the universal level have been widely described and presented in the literature, secondary and tertiary interventions have been presented through very limited examples. This paper defines the key features of secondary and tertiary interventions and presents a decision-making process to guide schools through a continuum of strategies at these levels. The continuum is

Terrance M. Scott; Michael Rosenberg; Peter J. Alter; Chris Borgmeier

2010-01-01

220

Decision-making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Although the conceptual foundations of PBS at the universal level have been widely described and presented in the literature, secondary and tertiary interventions have been presented through very limited examples. This paper defines the key features of secondary and tertiary interventions and presents a decision-making process to guide schools through a continuum of strategies at these levels. The continuum is

Terrance M. Scott; Michael Rosenberg; Peter J. Alter; Chris Borgmeier

2010-01-01

221

Science Education. Oryx Science Bibliographies, Volume 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides 337 annotated references covering: science teaching at the preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and high school levels; science education as it relates to various science disciplines; science education for special populations; sexual stereotyping in science education; teacher education for science teachers; and how…

Schroeder, Eileen E., Comp.; Tyckoson, David A., Ed.

222

The impact of an introductory college-level biology class on biology self-efficacy and attitude towards science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-efficacy theory was first introduced in a seminal article by Albert Bandura in 1977 entitled "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Since its original introduction, self-efficacy has been a major focus of academic performance, anxiety, career development, and teacher retention research. Self-efficacy can be defined as the belief an individual possesses about their ability to perform a given task. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy should be measured at the highest level of specificity due to the fact that different people are efficacious in different areas. Interested in students' efficacy toward biology, Ebert-May, Baldwin, & Allred (1997) created and validated a survey to measure students' biology self-efficacy. Their survey was modeled after the guidelines for science literacy, and loaded to three sub-factors; methods of biology, generalization to other science courses, and application of the concepts. As self-efficacy theory has been related to effort expenditure and persistence (Bandura, 1977; 1997), one might think it would have some effect on students' attitudes toward the topic at hand. The current research investigated what changes in biology self-efficacy occurred after an introductory biology course with an inquiry based laboratory learning environment. In addition, changes in students' attitudes towards science were explored and how self-efficacy might affect them.

Thomas, Megan Elizabeth

223

Change in science teaching behaviors: Evaluating the impact of a collaborative learning network at the level of practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the results of research designed to explore the impact of a science and technology collaborative network called the Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN) on the teaching practices of Kansas City, Kansas elementary and middle school science teachers. Research questions were developed around the theory that collaborative networks provide teachers the kind of support they need to create contexts conducive to change. Hence, research questions first dealt with determining whether teachers, who had participated in the network for two years, reported changes in their teaching practices. Subsequent questions asked teachers to describe these changes and to describe the role KanCRN played in the change process. Analysis, during the first phase of the investigation, was based on the KanCRN Teacher Practice Survey Data. Data analysis revealed that change in teacher practice had occurred. The second phase of the investigation sought to build a descriptive picture of the role KanCRN played in the change process. Interview data revealed that teachers described changes in their teaching practices concurrent with those specified by science education reform documents. KanCRN teachers also noted personal changes in pedagogical skill, and science content knowledge. These changes served as a catalyst for the behavioral changes cited. Moreover, teachers expressed changes in their views of the nature of science that also transferred to the types of classroom teaching behaviors now employed. Teachers credited network participation as the force behind the change. Teachers cited (a) challenging pedagogical and technological training, (b) interactive real world experiences with science content, (c) progressive technological tools and materials, and (d) personal guidance from mentors who respected and valued teachers as knowledgeable professionals critical for promoting change. One conclusion drawn from this study is that collaborative networks are capable on influencing the types of teaching behaviors used by elementary and middle school teachers. However, network offerings must employ a combination of adaptable features that meet the individual learning needs of the teachers as well as the individual contextual they serve. Another major conclusion drawn from this study is that to be successful agents of change, collaborative networks must allow teachers to behave in ways atypical of most change efforts. First, participation in collaborative networks must be participatory. Moreover, teachers must be able to participate as they deem fit. There can be no predetermined prescription for level of participation. Second, network facilitators or activities should not be intent on bringing a teacher to a particular standard of behavior. Finally, teachers must be allowed to construct the network elements intended to change their practice. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Carroll, Teresa Mae

224

Lower serum leptin levels in female students of the nutritional sciences with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: Evidence has accumulated that in both acutely ill and recovered patients with either anorexia or bulimia nervosa circulating leptin levels (LL) are lower than in controls matched for body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2). It is unknown if these lower leptin levels represent a state or trait marker. Aim of the study: We aimed to confirm the lowered leptin

Joachim Frey; Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold; Stefanie A. Elis; Simone Duncker; Frederike Rose; Werner F. Blum; Helmut Remschmidt; Frank Geller; Johannes Hebebrand

2003-01-01

225

Evolution of the Farallon subduction from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Tertiary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Figure 3 from 'Reconstructing Farallon Plate Subduction Beneath North America Back to the Late Cretaceous' by Liu et al, published in Science [2008, 322(5903), 934]. This figure shows the map view evolution of the Farallon subduction from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Tertiary.

Liu, Lijun; Spasojevic, Sonja; Gurnis, Michael

226

Primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of phototherapy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of the cellular effects of phototherapy into primary, secondary and tertiary types is an aid to understanding variation in the predictability of the events that follow its application. Primary effects are generally restricted to the absorption of photons by cytochromes and catalytic interactions with these and other intracellular molecules. If suprathreshold, they stimulate cell activity, initiating secondary anabolic effects in those cells affected by the photons. These events can also be initiated by nonphotonic stimuli. Some of the secondary effects, such as growth factor secretion, can produce effects in cells that did not absorb photons. It is proposed that this group of effects be classified as tertiary. Primary effects are strongly predictable, secondary effects less so, being dependent on cell sensitivity, while tertiary effects are the least predictable, being affected by variation in both the internal and external environment and by intercellular interactions. The investigation of primary and secondary effects of phototherapy can be used to determine which irradiation parameters are ineffective in vitro and therefore cannot be effective in vivo. Since tertiary effects predominate in vivo only clinical testing can demonstrate which parameters are most likely to be effective, and with what level of predictability. It is essential that all relevant exposure conditions be recorded and disseminated if experimental work is to be of clinical value. It is also essential that all relevant information about the target of phototherapy, be it molecule, organelle, cell, healthy volunteer or patient, be recorded and disseminated.

Dyson, Mary

2006-03-01

227

The effects of cooperative learning in a physical science course for elementary/middle level preservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many studies have shown the effectiveness of cooperative learning in a variety of settings in grades K-12, relatively few have focused on higher education. This study compared two physical science laboratory sections in a course for elementary/middle level preservice teachers. One section was taught in the traditional method, and the other was instructed using the Learning Together technique of cooperative learning. Comparisons between the two laboratory sections assessed any differences in student achievement and collaborative skills. In addition, the cooperative learning group completed a questionnaire that assessed their perception of the effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to more traditional methods of instruction, and their attitudes toward the laboratory section. Although no significant differences were observed in achievement, the cooperative learning group exhibited significant gains in collaborative skills. By the end of the course, cooperative learning students indicated a high comfort level for the laboratory.

Burron, Bruce; James, M. Lynn; Ambrosio, Anthony L.

228

The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

Riley, Joseph P., II

229

Tertiary Education Fees Public Opinion Poll, Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The public reaction to the proposal that the Australian government should reintroduce fees for tertiary education was surveyed in 1985. The influence of the proposal on the way people would vote in a federal election was also investigated. The fee would be between $900 and $1,500 per year for full-time tertiary education. As part of a McNair…

McNair Anderson Associates Pty., Ltd., (Australia).

230

Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary

Ning, Huiping

2011-01-01

231

Overview of the tertiary oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) was originally proposed by the University of Kansas as a mechanism by which expertise existing in the areas of petroleum engineering and geology at the university could be brought to bear directly on the problems relating to the declining oil reserve in Kansas, and the Project was established by the Kansas legislature in 1974 for this purpose. TORP was principally established because it was realized that the continued viability of the oil industry in the state would soon be dependent in large measure on implementation of tertiary oil recovery technology. The following specific objectives were established: (1) evaluate potential of tertiary oil recovery processes in Kansas, (2) conduct research/ development on tertiary oil recovery processes applicable in the state; (3) disseminate information about the technology to the Kansas oil industry; (4) interact with oil industry representatives and provide technical assistance on field tests; and (5) educate students in tertiary oil recovery technology.

Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

1981-01-01

232

Safer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

Roy, Ken

2011-01-01

233

Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

Baker, Daniel

2001-01-01

234

Alternative Scheduling Models and Their Effect on Science Achievement at the High School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study will evaluate alternative scheduling methods implemented in secondary level schools. Students were selected based on parent selection of programs. Traditional scheduling involves numerous academic subjects with small increments of time in each class and block scheduling focuses on fewer academic subjects and more instructional time.…

Dostal, Jay Roland

2010-01-01

235

America's high?level nuclear waste repository: a case study of environmental science and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of high?level commercial nuclear wastes, the so?called spent fuel, is one of the most politically and ethically complex environmental issues. A series of actions taken over past decades has resulted in plans to dispose of spent fuels in geologic repositories. This decision has ignited numerous controversies, especially concerning where the repositories should be located. This siting controversy has

John Lemons; Charles Malone; Bruce Piasecki

1989-01-01

236

Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

Dixon, Sharon J.

2005-01-01

237

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge to Science and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often subsiding and densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Faced with a trade-off between imposing the very high costs

H. Plag

2009-01-01

238

Science PhD Career Preferences: Levels, Changes, and Advisor Encouragement  

PubMed Central

Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or “alternative careers.” There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

Sauermann, Henry; Roach, Michael

2012-01-01

239

Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65

Luis W. Alvarez; Walter Alvarez; Frank Asaro; Helen V. Michel

1980-01-01

240

Print exposure and performance on the exit level science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: A correlational study of secondary students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pleasure reading habits and the science achievement of secondary students. The goal of this quantitative and non-experimental study was to examine the relationship between students' pleasure reading habits and their 11th-grade science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores. Pleasure reading habits were measured via relative levels of exposure to print, using the Title Recognition Test and Author Recognition Test, considered valid and reliable measurements of relative exposure to print. Science achievement was measured through the spring 2007 science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. The sample population included 454 students enrolled in one large suburban high school in north Texas. Data analysis results revealed statistically significant correlations between exposure to print and science achievement.

Radloff, Michael Everett

241

Decision-Making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the conceptual foundations of PBS at the universal level have been widely described and presented in the literature, secondary and tertiary interventions have been presented through very limited examples. This paper defines the key features of secondary and tertiary interventions and presents a decision-making process to guide schools…

Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; Rosenberg, Michael; Borgmeier, Chris

2010-01-01

242

Self-Selection and Selection Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: By law, students in Hungary, if they wish to study at the tertiary level, must,submit a formal application (every year in February) and then must take an entrance,exam,(in June\\/July). When,they pass this exam,they are eligible to be- gin their studies (in September). This procedure,divides the transition to tertiary education,into two stages: self-selection (applying) and,selection (passing the exam). Some of

Péter Róbert

2003-01-01

243

Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Lymphatic Malformations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Examine lymphatic malformation lymphoid aggregates for the expression of tertiary lymphoid organ markers. Determine how lymphoid aggregate density relates to lymphatic malformation clinical features. Methods and Results Retrospective cohort study. Tissue and clinical data were reviewed from 29 patients in the Vascular Anomaly Database who represented the spectrum of head and neck lymphatic malformations and had >5 years of follow-up. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphatic malformation tissue was immunohistochemically stained with antibodies for tertiary lymphoid organ markers, which included follicular and mature myeloid dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, segregated B and T-cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and lymphoid homing chemokines (CXCL13, CCL21). Lymphoid aggregate density (count/mm2) was quantified by 2 independent, blinded reviewers. Lymphoid aggregate density and lymphatic malformation clinical features were characterized using analysis of variance. Larger lymphatic malformation tissue lymphoid aggregates stained consistently for tertiary lymphoid organ markers. In oral cavity and neck specimens from the same patients (n?=?9), there were more tertiary lymphoid organ in oral cavity than in neck specimens (p?=?0.0235). In lymphatic malformation neck tissue, de Serres stage 4 lymphatic malformations displayed the highest tertiary lymphoid organ density. No significant association was seen between tertiary lymphoid organ density and other clinical features. Conclusion This study demonstrates that some lymphoid aggregates within lymphatic malformations represent tertiary lymphoid organs. There was an association between tertiary lymphoid organ density and lymphatic malformation location. Further study is required to define the role of lymphoid neogenesis and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in lymphatic malformation pathogenesis.

Kirsh, Andrew L.; Cushing, Sharon L.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Schwartz, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

244

Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?  

PubMed

This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance. PMID:21546599

Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

2011-05-01

245

Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

Udwin, Martin

246

Forces. 'O' Level Teacher's Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Udwin, Martin

247

Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

Mandizha, George

248

What type and level of science content knowledge of elementary education students affect their ability to construct an inquiry-based science lesson?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various governmental and professional organizations recommend that teachers use, an inquiry-based approach to science\\u000a education, most teachers do not use this pedagogy. Lack of content knowledge and\\/or insufficient skills in planning inquiry-based\\u000a lessons may contribute to teachers’ reluctance to utilize this methodological approach. This study explores the relationship\\u000a between science content knowledge and inquiry-based lesson planning ability. The authors

Gail R. Luera; Richard H. Moyer; Susan A. Everett

2005-01-01

249

Students' Perspectives on Worldwide ``Greening'' of Tertiary Education Curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several scholars have suggested the introduction of an environmental literacy requirement into the curricula of Non-Environmental Science disciplines in tertiary institutions of the world as a “greening” strategy for fostering global environmental stewardship necessary for enhancing understanding and collaboration in tackling the major environmental risks facing our global village today. However, there is no study on students’ opinion on this issue. This study was therefore initiated to 1) evaluate the opinion of undergraduate students on the introduction of a worldwide environmental literacy into the curricula of Non-Environmental science majors as a graduation requirement; and 2) identify any possible demographic differences in opinions among the student subjects polled. We sought the opinion of 800 undergraduates from African, North American and European universities on the subject and 99% responded. The result showed that a majority (67%) of them supported the worldwide environmental literacy requirement and those already trained were significantly ( P < 0.0001) more likely to support it than those untrained. Students from developing countries were significantly ( P < 0.0001) more likely to support it than those from developed countries; similarly students in the Arts’ disciplines were more likely to support it than Non-Arts’ students as a group. However, no significant differences were observed between students from Francophone versus Anglophone countries; Social Sciences versus Non-Social Sciences majors and between Education versus Non-Education majors. Some similarities were observed between the opinion of university-age students in this study and 15-year old secondary school students from two major international surveys (Research on Science Education-ROSE, and Program for International Student Assessment-PISA) on science education; further studies comparing these two categories of students is suggested. The need for all professionals to be literate about the science of their surroundings was the most identified reason for supporting the literacy requirement by the students polled. The results of this study thus provide evidence of support by students in the on-going paradigm shift towards “greening” the curricula of tertiary institutions and thus reinforces its implementation by leaders of academe and policy makers worldwide.

Aighewi, Isoken T.; Osaigbovo, Ulamen A.

2010-11-01

250

Tertiary aralkyl urethanes and isocyanates derived therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Production of tertiary aralkyl isocyanates, such as tetramethyl xylylene diisocyanates, by thermal cracking of corresponding urethanes formed by addition of corresponding olefins and carbamic acid esters at moderate temperatures and in the presence of acid catalyst.

Singh, B.; Chang, L.W.; Forgione, P.S.

1984-03-27

251

Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary Benzylic Alcohols  

PubMed Central

Vinyl, aryl and alkynyl organometallics add to ketones containing a stereogenic sulfoxide. Tertiary alcohols are generated in diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure form. Reductive lithiation converts the sulfoxide into a variety of useful functional groups.

Antczak, Monika I.; Cai, Feng; Ready, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

252

Tertiary oil recovery: potential application and constraints  

SciTech Connect

The technology of tertiary oil recovery methods is described and potential economic and environmental constraints to future commercial application are identified. Oil recoverable by tertiary techniques represents a domestic resource of between 11- and 42-billion barrels. Estimates of additional oil supplies from tertiary methods by the year 2000 range from 1 to 8 million barrels per day, depending on the price of oil and the rate of technological development. The principal constraints to large-scale application of tertiary methods at the present time include environmental, economic and technological concerns. Regulatory action associated with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 currently delay the expansion of thermal recovery operations in California and may discourage future projects. The high production costs of tertiary projects also hamper process implementation. Further testing and research is necessary to develop the technology of tertiary recovery methods and prove these techniques successful on a field-wide scale. To enable tertiary oil recovery to play a significant role in augmenting domestic energy supplies, further research and development is necessary. More accurate methods of determining reservoir structure and residual oil saturations are required, as well as means for assuring the technical feasibility and success of a tertiary method in different reservoir types. Technical process limitations must also be resolved. The severity of potential environmental impacts and constraints identified in this report should be determined. These concerns include the air pollutant emissions from steam generation in thermal processes; acceptable methods of brine disposal; damage due to runoff or accidental discharge of oil-rich chemicals into surface waters; the impacts of fluid injection on deep aquifers and the prevailing geological structure; and an adequate supply of high quality fresh water.

Geffen, C. A.

1978-06-01

253

A framework for leveling informatics content across four years of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) curriculum.  

PubMed

While there are several published statements of nursing informatics competencies needed for the Bachelor of Science in nursing (BSN) graduate, faculty at schools of nursing has little guidance on how to incorporate the teaching of such competencies into curricula that are already overloaded with required content. The authors present a framework for addressing nursing informatics content within teaching plans that already exist in virtually all BSN programs. The framework is based on an organization of curriculum content that moves the learner from elementary to complex nursing concepts and ideas as a means to level the content. Further, the framework is organized around four broad content areas included in all curricula: professional responsibility, care delivery, community and population-based nursing, and leadership/management. Examples of informatics content to be addressed at each level and content area are provided. Lastly a practice-appraisal tool, the UVIC Informatics Practice Appraisal - BSN is presented as a means to track student learning and outcomes across the four years of a BSN program. PMID:23388314

Frisch, Noreen; Borycki, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

254

Computational Prediction of RNA Tertiary Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RNAs have been found to be involved in the biological processes. The large RNA usually consists of two basic elements: RNA hairpins and duplex. Due to the experimental determination difficulties, the few RNA tertiary structures limit our understanding of the specific regulation mechanisms and functions. Therefore, RNA tertiary structure prediction is very important for understanding RNA biological functions. Since RNA often folds hierarchically, one of the possible RNA structure prediction approaches is through the hierarchical steps. Here, we focus on the prediction method of RNA tertiary hairpin and duplex structures in which assembles the small tertiary structure fragments from well-defined RNA structural motifs. In a benchmark test with known experiment structures, more than half of the cases agree with the experimental structure better than 3 å RMSD over all the heavy atoms. The prediction results also reproduce the native like complementary base pairs of the secondary structures. Most importantly, the method performs the atomic accuracy of tertiary structures by about several minutes. We expect that the method will be a useful resource for RNA tertiary structure prediction and helpful to the biological research community.

Zhao, Yunjie; Gong, Zhou; Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

2012-02-01

255

A Delphi study: Practitioners' perceptions of how the science curriculum is differentiated for academically gifted students at the middle school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and compare the perceptions of selected district science educators and teachers of middle school science students regarding the following issues: (1) Current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (2) Strengths of the current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (3) Weaknesses of the current methods of differentiating science instruction for gifted middle school students. (4) The types of training/experience needed to prepare teachers to effectively differentiate science instruction for gifted middle school students. (5) The steps need to develop an effective differentiated science program at the middle school level. (6) Trends for the future development of differentiated science programs at the middle school level. The panel of educators was identified using the Delphi technique and asked to participate in the study by responding to the research questions. The responses to the first round were condensed into two lists of discrete statements, and in the second round, each group of panelists was asked to rank each statement on a Likert scale. A third round was sent to each group of panel members showing the median and interquartile ranges of the second round. Panelists could adjust their responses based on the results of the second round. The analysis of the data was computed using the computer program Statistics Package for the Social Sciences. Based on the data obtained, the following results and conclusions were determined. The coordinators and the teachers both considered training of teachers, strategies for differentiation, and future trends to be the most important considerations. The areas with the most differences were those dealing with the current methods of differentiating science instruction at the middle school level. There were several limitations identified in this study. Among them were the makeup of the sample of panelists and different definitions of the same term(s). If we are to address the needs of middle school students who are academically gifted in science, teachers and coordinators need to communicate more about expectations in the classroom and what is really happening.

Kelley, Jean Mary

256

What Type and Level of Science Content Knowledge of Elementary Education Students Affect Their Ability to Construct an Inquiry-Based Science Lesson?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although various governmental and professional organizations recommend that teachers use an inquiry-based approach to science education, most teachers do not use this pedagogy. Lack of content knowledge and/or insufficient skills in planning inquiry-based lessons may contribute to teachers' reluctance to utilize this methodological approach. This…

Luera, Gail R.; Moyer, Richard H.; Everett, Susan A.

2005-01-01

257

On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different aspects of this work.

Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

2010-05-01

258

Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

259

Process for Developing a Turn-on Science Program for Native Indian Students at the Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The project aims to illustrate the extent of Native Indian scientific achievements and to correlate this information with the science concepts taught in schools; to make some practical suggestions to teachers and prospective teachers, in order to make science education more meaningful to Native Indian students; to propose a model of the process…

Kalra, R. M.

260

Development, Implementation, and Preliminary Evaluation of an Integrated Advanced Physical Science Laboratory Block Program at the High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study concerns the development and preliminary evaluation of a series of "laboratory blocks" of correlated laboratory investigations which integrate traditional subject areas of physical science and introduce key areas of modern science. Concurrent with the development of laboratory blocks have been the design of an inexpensive set of…

Amend, John Robert

261

Selection as Contract To Teach at the Student's Level. Experiences from a South African Mathematics and Science Foundation Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the fairness, effectiveness, and efficiency of selecting students is reported in the context of selecting educationally disadvantaged black students in South Africa for a one-year mathematics- and science-based student-centered compensatory university preparatory program. A formula comprised of weighted mathematics, science, and…

Zaaiman, Hermien; van der Flier, Henk; Thijs, Gerard D.

2000-01-01

262

Science for Real Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

263

Science for Real Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

264

The Influence of the Eighth Grade Science Teacher's Gender, Classroom Laboratory Emphasis, Level of Understanding of Science and Career Interest on Eighth Grade Girls' Science and Engineering Career Interests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine: (1) whether eighth-grade science teachers serve as sex role models and therefore enhance eighth-grade students' science and engineering (SE) career interests; and (2) if the SE career interests of eighth-grade girls are related to the sex and selected teacher effectiveness characteristics of their eighth-grade…

Donovan, Edward P.

265

Cooperative tertiary interaction network guides RNA folding  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Non-coding RNAs form unique three-dimensional structures, which perform many biochemical and regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting and native PAGE. Double and triple mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on native state stability. Instead, formation of core and peripheral structural motifs are cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native topology of the ribozyme. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses non-native structures and makes the search for the native state more efficient. We suggest that cooperativity in non-coding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures that promote a unique fold despite a rugged energy landscape.

Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, Robert M.; Woodson1, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

266

Second opinions and tertiary referrals in neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective\\u000a   The number of neurological second opinions (SO) and tertiary referrals (TR) is increasing. The main purpose of this study\\u000a was to assess whether a day-care admission made a meaningful contribution to standard neurological outpatient care, for a\\u000a wide range of second opinions and tertiary referrals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   All new patients attending an academic neurological day-care clinic in a

L. Wieske; D. Wijers; E. Richard; M. D. I. Vergouwen; J. Stam

2008-01-01

267

[Study on the genotoxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether].  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether(MTBE), a new gasoline additive, is added to gasoline as an octane enhancer and used to reduce automotive emissions. Using Ames test, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay and cell micronucleus test, the authors evaluated the genotoxicity of domestic produced MTBE. MTBE did not show any mutagenic potential in Ames assay(TA98, TA100 strains) with or without rat liver-derived metabolic activation system (S-9). Rat primary hepatocyte UDS assay showed that MTBE could damage DNA. In NIH3T3 cell micronucleus test, MTBE showed negative results. It could be concluded that MTBE has some genotoxicity at DNA level. PMID:11939044

Zhou, W; Ye, S

1998-09-30

268

Building the e-Science Grid in the UK: Middleware, Applications and Tools deployed at Level 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the period September 2002-April 2003 the UK Grid Engineering Task Force and staff at Regional e- Science Centres and CCLRC deployed the Globus Toolkit GT2 at 14 sites and on approximately 80 compute resources to set up the first production-quality e-Science Grid for the UK. This work is proving to be exemplary of what can be achieved using heterogeneous

Rob Allan; David Baker; David Boyd; Dharmesh Chohan; Simon Cox; Hakki Eres; Ron Fowler; Nathalie Furmento; Jonathan Giddy; Terry Harmer; Mark Hayes; Nick Hill; Jon Hillier; Jens Jensen; Andy Keane; Marko Krznaric; William Lee; Mark McKeown; Alistair Mills; Steven Newhouse; Stephen Pickles; Robin Pinning; Andy Richards; Asif Saleem; John Watt

2003-01-01

269

Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

Lehner, Ed

2007-04-01

270

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan.  

PubMed

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-05-03

271

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed.

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-01-01

272

Tertiary Flow Injection Thrust Vectoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tertiary flow injection thrust vectoring system adds to the secondary injection system disclosed in patent No. 3,144,752. The system involves the feature of a small amount of mass injection upstream of the secondary injection port to distort the prima...

C. E. Kepler

1965-01-01

273

An Effective Preparation for Tertiary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of Auckland offers a one-year pre-degree Tertiary Foundation Certificate (TFC) Programme, for up to 200 students who are under-prepared for university study. The students may come straight from school without having gained a university entrance qualification, or they may be students returning to education who lack the confidence to…

Parnell, Sheena; Statham, Moira

2007-01-01

274

ZERODUR for lightweight secondary\\/tertiary mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZERODUR, the glass ceramic, with CTE values near zero, has excellent performance up to 8.2 m primary mirrors as well as for lightweight (LW) mirrors for Secondaries and Tertiaries. The high homogeneity of major properties of ZERODUR is an important prerequisite for the LW production and application. The production of CNC grinding and subsequent lightening via acid etching for additional

Hans F. Morian; Reiner Mackh

1998-01-01

275

Enhanced oil recovery. Secondary and tertiary methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary recovery methods discussed are pressure maintenance, waterflooding, and immiscible gas injection. Tertiary methods considered are hydrocarbon miscible flooding, CO miscible flooding, polymer-augmented waterflooding, micellar-polymer flooding, cyclic steam injection, steam drive, and in situ combustion. Oil recovery by nuclear stimulation is also considered. Other topics covered are material and research requirements of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), environmental aspects of EOR,

Schumacher

1978-01-01

276

Tertiary Nothofagus macrofossils from Cethana, Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Tertiary species of Nothofagus from the Early Eocene-Oligocene deposit at Cethana represent the first reports of fossil species which are not closely related to the extant Australian species N. moorei and N. cunninghamii. N. cethanica sp. nov. is most closely related to the extant New Zealand species N. fusca and N. truncata and gives further evidence of the

Robert S. Hill

1984-01-01

277

Nothofagus macrofossils from the Tertiary of Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves assignable to Nothofagus from two fossil deposits in Tasmania represent the first macrofossils of this genus from the Tertiary in southeastern Australia. One fossil species, N. johnstonii, is closely related to the extant Australian species N. cunninghamii while the other fossil species, N. tasmanica, has very close affinites with the extant Australian species N. moorei. All four of these

Robert S. Hill

1983-01-01

278

Fosterton Northwest - A Tertiary Combustion Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tertiary dry forward combustion project has been in operation for 4 yr in the Fosterton Northwest Unit, NW. Roseray Sand Pool, located in SW. Saskatchewan. The favorable reservoir characteristics, including a small size and closed boundaries, were expected to result in a test which would provide basic data on the performance of the combustion displacement process in a waterflooded

J. E. Marberry; S. K. Bhatia

1974-01-01

279

Foam for secondary and tertiary recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foamed oil-external micellar dispersion was used in enhanced oil recovery. The dispersion was composed of ammonium petroleum sulfonate, an alcohol, water, and a hydrocarbon. Laboratory tests using sandpacks (43 darcies, 40 percent porosity) were carried out for secondary and tertiary recoveries. Primary amyl alcohol and residue crude oil (7 cp) were the alcohol and hydrocarbon in the micellar dispersion.

Gogarty

1973-01-01

280

Uranium geochemistry in groundwater from tertiary sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved U concentrations and activity ratios (ARs) of the U isotopes in the 238 U decay series were measured in ground and surface waters as part of an investigation to delineate the water quality in a proposed uranium mining area of northwest Nebraska. In oxidizing groundwaters from 67 wells completed in the Tertiary sediments, increasing U concentrations in the direction

Roy F. Spalding; A. Douglas Druliner; Lowell S. Whiteside; Arthur W. Struempler

1984-01-01

281

Primary, secondary, and tertiary metabolite kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the propensity of nascently formed metabolites towards sequential metabolism within formation organs, theoretical and experimental treatments that achieve mass conservation must recognize the various sources contributing to primary, secondary, and tertiary metabolite formation. A simple one-compartment open model, with first-order conditions and the liver as the only organ of drug disappearance and metabolite formation, was used to illustrate

Marie V. St-Pierre; Xin Xu; K. Sandy Pang

1988-01-01

282

Clusters, Innovation and Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to investigate the integration between research findings produced at the University and Community College levels and local SMEs (small and medium enterprises) as it impacts regional innovation systems and in particular the prospect of cluster formation. The paper explores certain factors that have been identified in…

Madgett, Paul; Belanger, Charles H.; Mount, Joan

2005-01-01

283

Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in a Public Tertiary Institution in Singapore: Ambivalent and Non-Ambivalent Relationships between Job Satisfaction and Demographic Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing lecturer turnover rates and fewer qualified recruits choosing a career in academia threaten the integrity of the tertiary education system in Singapore. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between lecturers' job satisfaction levels in a public tertiary institution and selected demographic variables. The study…

Paul, Emily Pakivathy; Phua, Seok Kheng

2011-01-01

284

Exploring Omani pre-service science teachers' imagination at the microscopic level in chemistry, and their use of the particulate nature of matter in their explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore learners' imagination at the microscopic level of matter and their use of the Particulate Theory of Matter. As for the imagination component, twenty-two Omani pre-service science teachers were encouraged individually during a guided imagery session to construct images for the interactions among micro-species such as molecules, atoms, and electrons. The findings determined

Sulaiman Mohamed Al-Balushi

2003-01-01

285

Rehabilitation outcomes following traumatic spinal cord injury in a tertiary spinal cord injury centre: a comparison with an international standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective descriptive analysis of data of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in a tertiary SCI centre.Objectives:To identify the characteristics of the rehabilitation outcomes of patients with different levels of traumatic SCI and to compare the results with data reported in the American Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine.Setting:A newly established tertiary SCI centre in Tai Po Hospital, Tai

S C C Chan; A P S Chan; SCC Chan

2005-01-01

286

Two stage production of ether from tertiary alcohol  

SciTech Connect

A two stage process is described for the production of ether comprising the steps of: (a) feeding a tertiary alcohol to a first distillation column reactor into a feed zone; (b) concurrently in said first distillation column reactor (i) contacting said tertiary alcohol with an acid ion exchange resin catalyst as a component in distillation structure in a distillation reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 165 to 200 F thereby dissociating said tertiary alcohol to the corresponding tertiary olefin and water, characterized in that sufficient water is maintained in said distillation reaction zone to inhibit the reaction of the tertiary olefin with itself to form dimers and (ii) separating said tertiary olefin and said water by fractional distillation; (c) withdrawing said tertiary olefin from said first distillation column reactor as overheads; (d) withdrawing said unreacted tertiary alcohol and water from said first distillation column reactor as bottoms; (e) feeding said tertiary olefin to a second distillation column reactor into a feed zone; and (f) concurrently in said second distillation column reactor (i) contacting said tertiary olefin diluted with an inert alkane in the mole ratio of 1:5 to 1:100 and a C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohol feed with an acid ion exchange resin catalyst as a component in distillation structure in a distillation reaction zone thereby reacting at least a portion of said alcohol and said tertiary olefin to form a reaction mixture containing an alkyl tertiary alkyl ether, unreacted alcohol and unreacted tertiary olefin, and (ii) separating said alkyl tertiary alkyl ether and said unreacted alcohol from said unreacted tertiary olefin by fractional distillation.

Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, B.S.

1993-07-27

287

An Investigation of Item Bias in Science and Technology Subtests and Mathematic Subtests in Level Determination Exam (LDE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the items in Science and Technology and Mathematics subtests of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades in the 2009 LDE, which was performed to select the students for the secondary schools, exhibited item bias with regard to student gender. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method was used in order to determine the differential item…

Karakaya, Ismail

2012-01-01

288

The Relationship of Developmental Level with Science Performance: A Case for an Alternative to IQ Grouping of Mildly Retarded Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether grouping children into special classes on the basis of IQ scores is educationally defensible was investigated using 492 educable mentally retarded (EMR) students, 12-15 years of age, during two field tests (1971-73). The curriculum used was the Me and My Environment biological sciences program. The following three test instruments were…

Steele, Joe M.

289

Political Science in the New Social Studies: Comparison of Content Materials; Secondary Level, Developed by the Social Studies Curriculum Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis attempts to analyze one particular aspect of the development activities of some fifty social studies projects, namely, the role of political science and its materials within the projects. The paper is divided into four chapters. The first seeks to give a brief analysis of the curriculum development projects in recent years in terms of:…

Cassidy, Fr. Thomas

290

Teaching the Physically Disabled in the Mainstream Science Class at the Secondary and College Levels. Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-chapter resource book provides both general and specific state-of-the-art information on the various technologies and strategies available to educators of physically handicapped students in "regular" junior/senior high school and college science classrooms. It provides information about accommodating students with physical impairments so…

Keller, E. C., Jr.; And Others

291

Effects of Expectation Level on Achievement in High School Physical Science Courses (ISIS) Employing a Quasi Mastery Teaching Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of a modified mastery learning system on achievement in an individualized high school physical science course are examined. Results indicate that a medium performance standard was superior to both high and low standards for promoting achievement in both difficult and easily learned materials. (JN)|

Burkman, Ernest; Brezin, Michael

1981-01-01

292

Migraine disability, healthcare utilization, and expenditures following treatment in a tertiary headache center  

PubMed Central

Headache is among the most common disabling pain complaints. While many patients are managed in primary care or referral neurology practices, some patients have refractive situations that necessitate referral to a tertiary headache center. Increasing frequency of headache is strongly associated with increasing disability and workplace absenteeism as well as increased healthcare utilization. Previous studies have demonstrated that headache care in a dedicated tertiary center is associated with a decrease in headache frequency and improvement in other characteristics that persist over extended periods of time. Previous studies have not examined the impact of this treatment on subsequent healthcare utilization and associated expenditures. In this study we examined the changes in healthcare utilization and expenditures as well as the impact on disability and workplace productivity with treatment in a tertiary headache care center that used initial treatment settings of inpatient and outpatient care and considered the difference between those with episodic migraine and those with chronic migraine and its complications. Tertiary care was found to produce positive reductions in disability, healthcare utilization, and expenditures. These results suggest that earlier tertiary-level intervention may avoid the complications of migraine that occur in some patients and the increasing costs and utilization of care associated with higher disability.

Lyss, Heidi; Nissan, George R.

2013-01-01

293

International Education: A Tertiary-Level Industry Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent developments in the international education industry are notable in three respects. First, international student mobility has more than doubled in the last two decades or so. Second, programme mobility encompassing distance education has also led to new forms of cross-border education. Third, institution mobility through such commercial…

Naidoo, Vikash

2006-01-01

294

Assessing student learning in gender inclusive tertiary mathematics and physics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to discuss the merits and limitations of an alternative assessment method implemented within an inclusive educational programme at the tertiary level of university education. The study is based on data gathered during a three day assessment period in which 24 Swedish University students (12 female and 12 male students) presented their study results from

Inger Wistedt

1998-01-01

295

Contribution of mantle convection to shifting South American coastlines during the Tertiary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what degree does mantle convection drive sea-level change and subsequently coastline change around South America in the Tertiary? The westward movement of the South American plate implies the overriding of the Phoenix and Farallon slabs. Temperature and density anomalies of subducted slabs are preserved in the mantle and can be inferred from seismic tomography images. The currently subducting Nazca

G. E. Shephard; D. Müller; A. J. Hale; S. Spasojevic; L. Liu; M. Gurnis

2009-01-01

296

Financing Higher Education in Africa: Makerere, the Quiet Revolution. Tertiary Education Thematic Group Publication Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is part of a series examining the state of higher education in Africa at the end of the 20th century. It tells the dramatic story of how Makerere University in Uganda has addressed the pervasive problem of how to provide quality education at the tertiary level without undue financial dependence on the state. It describes the main…

Court, David

297

Tertiary ICT Education in the East African Community (EAC): Human Capital and Curriculum Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liberalization of education has fostered an unprecedented demand especially at the tertiary level. In several deliberations, human capital ultimately emerges as the decisive factor governing the success of any endeavor of scale and substance. In the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) era, as indeed in any other era, the needs of all people cannot be completely fulfilled. Even now

Rodrigues J Anthony; Wafula J Muliaro

298

TRACING THE PATH OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on substance use and abuse among students of tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 700 students belonging to different levels of studies was taken from the various higher institutions in the State using proportional allocation. Initial descriptive statistics show that the median and modal ages of respondents are 23 years and 20 years respectively

Rasheed Kola Ojikutu; Ismaila A. Adeleke

2010-01-01

299

Self Care Activities, Diabetic Distress and other Factors which Affected the Glycaemic Control in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India.  

PubMed

Background: Interventions which were made to promote a better self-management have produced improvements in the glycaemic control in patients with Diabetes mellitus. An improved glycaemic control is known to prevent the long term complications. Method: This study was conducted at the Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, which is a rural tertiary health care centre. 546 patients were included in our study and they were assessed for the glycaemic control (HbA1c), diabetes distress (DDs), and self care activities. Results: Of the total 546 patients, 49% had a poor glycaemic control, as was indicated by HbA1c levels of >7%. The factors which are significantly associated with a poor glycaemic control are age (p=0.03 ), sex (p= 0.0415), literacy (p=0.0422), duration of the disease (p=0.0006), diabetic distress (p=0.0001) and self care activities like diet ( p=0.0001), medication (p=0.0001) and exercise (p=0.0001), whereas there was no significant effect of the BM I (p=0.094) on the glycaemic control. Conclusion: This study revealed the factors that could predict the glycaemic control in the diabetic patients who attended our tertiary care teaching hospital. The barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored, to improve their health outcomes. PMID:23814728

Sasi, Sekhar Tvd; Kodali, Madhavi; Burra, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Muppala, Baby Shalini; Gutta, Parvathi; Bethanbhatla, Murali Krishna

2013-03-22

300

Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians (SACAI): An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of the Science of Alcohol for Upper Elementary and Middle Level Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum provides American Indian youth with a framework for learning about the effects of alcohol on the body and the community. The curriculum stresses the development of scientific thinking skills and was designed for upper elementary and middle level students. The guide consists of four units: How Does Alcohol Circulate through the…

American Indian Science and Engineering Society, Boulder, CO.

301

Relational Joins for Data on Tertiary Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the steady decrease in secondary storage prices, the data storage requirements of many organizations cannot be met economically using secondary storage alone. Ter- tiary storage offers a lower-cost alternative but is viewed as a second-class citizen in many systems. For instance, the typical solution in bringing tertiary-resident data un der the control of a DBMS is to use operating

Jussi Myllymaki; Miron Livny

1997-01-01

302

Potential impact of tertiary oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary oil recovery is America's energy ace-in-the-hole and the technology developed here over the past decade could well offer the rest of the world a big incremental boost in its future oil supplies. While U.S. producers are carefully engineering fields that have finished secondary phases of oil production, international operators are commencing pressure maintenance projects by water and gas injection,

Kastrop

1975-01-01

303

Triplets: experience in a tertiary centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo review triplet pregnancies managed within a single tertiary centre.MethodA retrospective review of triplet pregnancies from 2004 to 2010 at Leeds General Infirmary.ResultsThere were 17 sets of triplets: 9 trichorionic; 5 monochorionic diamniotic with a singleton and 3 monochorionic. 1 patient accepted reduction, 1 pregnancy spontaneously reduced and 1 abrupted at 22 weeks. 1 patient developed twin to twin transfusion

M Rathod; E Ferriman

2010-01-01

304

The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass extinctions are recognized through the study of fossil groups across event horizons, and from analyses of long-term trends in taxonomic richness and diversity. Both approaches have inherent flaws, and data that once seemed reliable can be readily superseded by the discovery of new fossils and\\/or the application of new analytical techniques. Herein the current state of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T)

N. MACLEOD; P. F. RAWSON; P. L. FOREY; F. T. BANNER; M. K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL; P. R. BOWN; J. A. BURNETT; P. CHAMBERS; S. CULVER; S. E. EVANS; C. JEFFERY; M. A. KAMINSKI; A. R. LORD; A. C. MILNER; N. MORRIS; E. OWEN; B. R. ROSEN; A. B. SMITH; P. D. TAYLOR; E. URQUHART; J. R. YOUNG

1997-01-01

305

Biocatalytic synthesis of optically active tertiary alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic preparation of optically pure tertiary alcohols under sustainable conditions has received much attention. The\\u000a conventional chemical synthesis of these valuable building blocks is still hampered by the use of harmful reagents such as\\u000a heavy metal catalysts. Successful examples in biocatalysis used esterases, lipases, epoxide hydrolases, halohydrin dehalogenases,\\u000a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes, terpene cyclases, -acetylases, and -dehydratases. This mini-review provides

Robert Kourist; Uwe T. Bornscheuer

2011-01-01

306

The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

Deboer, George E.

307

Differential Item Functioning by Gender on a Large-Scale Science Performance Assessment: A Comparison across Grade Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth-grade and eighth-grade science items on a state performance assessment were compared for differential item functioning (DIF) due to gender. The grade 5 sample consisted of 8,539 females and 8,029 males and the grade 8 sample consisted of 7,477 females and 7,891 males. A total of 30 fifth grade items and 26 eighth grade items were…

Holweger, Nancy; Taylor, Grace

308

Medical treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). The increase may be due to a) primary hyperparathyroidism which is caused by adenoma of one or more parathyroid glands or hyperplasia of all four glands, b) secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be caused by deficiency in vitamin D or uremia, and 3) tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which most often is the result of a long-standing, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, which has turned autonomous once the cause of the secondary hyperparathyroidism has been removed. Many new treatment options have been introduced in recent years. Cinacalcet is calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Newer analogues of vitamin D such as paricalcitol have also been introduced, which may have an advantage over traditional compounds such as alphacalcidol and calcitriol. PMID:21524244

Vestergaard, Peter; Thomsen, Susanna vid Strym

2011-04-01

309

Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction  

SciTech Connect

Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65 million years ago. Reasons are given to indicate that this iridium is of extraterrestrial origin, but did not come from a nearby supernova. A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations. Impact of a large earth-crossing asteroid would inject about 60 times the object's mass into the atmosphere as pulverized rock; a fraction of this dust would stay in the stratosphere for several years and be distributed worldwide. The resulting darkness would suppress photosynthesis, and the expected biological consequences match quite closely the extinctions observed in the paleontological record. One prediction of this hypothesis has been verified: the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other. Four different independent estimates of the diameter of the asteroid give values that lie in the range 10 +- 4 kilometers.

Alvarez, L.W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

1980-06-06

310

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

311

An investigation of components of the studio model and supplemental online materials, on student achievement and attitudes in science at the high school level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase of the student population, and meeting the demands driven by society public schools are scrambling to find ways to enhance learning and improve student achievement (Lee, 1993). Schools are examining and investing more time in the development of new approaches needed to strengthen, reach, and spark the interest of students both in and outside of classroom. One direction public schools are taking is to incorporate technology and more peer-directed group activities into instruction. Technological advancements today have enhanced the learning process by providing alternatives that stimulate the interest of the learner. Having these technology options available, allows the student to move at his or her own pace giving them time to reflect and make connections between what they already know and what they have learned in class. Using the conceptual framework of the Studio Model, which was developed in the 1980s at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for undergraduate and graduate level science courses, this study investigated the nature and extent to which the components in the Studio Model (cooperative collaboration and online materials) can be extended to the high school science level. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was selected for this study. Classes were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups, an experimental "Studio Model" condition in which students worked cooperatively and had access to online materials, an "Augmented Only" condition in which students had access to online materials only, a "Cooperative Only" condition in which students worked in cooperative groups only, and a "Control" condition in which students neither had access to online materials nor worked cooperatively. The data was collected for this study using 77 ninth-grade students studying Earth Science. Students were trained for a period of 20 weeks in the procedures of their particular treatment. To determine the effects of each treatment on student achievement three separate tests (aptitude, pretest and posttest) were administered over a seven-month period. Twelve interviews were also carried out at the end of the eight weeks to determine whether the students' attitude about science had changed since the beginning of the year. This study provides evidence supporting the usage of the Studio Model to raise student achievement and student attitudes about science at the high school level.

Faro, Salvatore T.

312

Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community\\/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community\\/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment\\/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and

Van Winkle

1980-01-01

313

BioValley College Network (BCN): trinational network to intensify the teaching of natural science at gymnasia level.  

PubMed

The BioValley College Network (BCN, www.biovalley-college.net) was created in autumn 2003, namely to improve the cross-linkage of the gymnasia/cantonal schools located in the regions South Baden, Alsace and Basel on the one hand, and with research and the economy in the field of Life Sciences in the BioValley (Regio Basiliensis) on the other. Therefore, BCN is an example of a Public Private Partnership. Today 13 high school teachers (2 from Germany, 3 from France and 8 from Switzerland) are active members of the BCN Board and more than 100 high school teachers are passive members of the network. PMID:23394240

Hermann, Janine

2012-01-01

314

Science education in the long shadow of michael polanyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Science teaching in Australia has been dogged by a lack of independence from the top-down pressures of the tertiary institutions\\u000a and overseas, particularly British, influences. In a future paper we will examine the influence of Professor Harry Messel\\u000a of Synney University and his Philosophy of Science as exemplified by the Wyndham Science Course for secondary schools in NSW.\\u000a \\u000a Science teaching

Roger T. Cross; Ronald F. Price

1989-01-01

315

Osmium Isotopic Composition of the Sumbar Cretaceous- Tertiary Boundary, Turkmenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turekian (1982) propagated the use of the osmium isotopic composition as a cosmic indicator for the origin of the high osmium (and iridium) layers at the K/T boundaries. He did not consider the osmium isotopic signature of the terrestrial mantle, which also has a chondritic evolution of the Re-Os system. Osmium cannot serve alone as an infallible indicator of the impact theory, but interesting results can be obtained from their investigation. Different K/T boundary section have been analyzed so far for ^187Os/^186Os. An overview of the values is presented in the table. Boundary Clay layer Os ratio Reference Stevns Klint fish clay 1.66 Luck and Turekian, 1983 Woodside Creek 1.12 Lichte et al., 1986 Raton Basin 1.23 Kraehenbuehl et al., 1988 Raton Basin (several) 1.15-1.23 Esser and Turekian, 1989 Sumbar (0-1 cm) 1.16 This work We obtained a complete marine section of the K/T boundary in southern Turkmenia (decribed by Alekseyev, 1988). It shows a very high Ir concentration (66 ppb) at the boundary layer and a remarkable Ir enrichment over crustal rocks continuing up to 30 cm above the boundary. Our aim of this investigation is to analyze several samples from above and below the boundary for the ^187Os/^186Os ratio to obtain a complete picture of the isotopic evolution of the section. We want to evaluate mixing of Os with chondritic ratios with Os from upper crustal rocks. Another goal is to investigate a mobilization of Os. So far only one sample has been analyzed with NTI-MS after fire assay digestion of the sample. The sample 0 to 1 cm has an ^187Os/^186Os ratio of 1.162 +- 13, which is quite low. We expect an even lower value for the boundary clay (0 cm) itself not taking into account a contribution of radiogenic osmium from the decay of terrestrial rhenium. This might put this K/T boundary section closest of all to the present day chondritic value (approx. 1.05). Further analysis will be presented at the meeting. References Alekseyev A. S., Nazarov M. A., Barsukova L. D., Koselov G. M., Nizhegorodova I. V. and Amanniyazov K. N. (1988) The Cretaceous- Paleogene boundary in southern Turkmenia and its geochemical characteristics. Int. Geol. Rev. 30, 121-135. Esser B. K. and Turekian K. K. (1989) Osmium isotopic composition of the Raton Basin Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval. 70, 717. Kraehenbuehl U., Geissbuehler M., Buehler F. and Eberhardt P. (1988) The measurement of osmium isotopes in samples from a Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) section of the Raton Basin, USA. Meteoritics 23, 282. Lichte F. E., Wilson S. M., Brooks R. R., Reeves R. D., Holzbecher J. and Ryan D. E. (1986) New method for the measurement of osmium isotopes applied to a New Zealand Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary shale. Nature 322, 816-817. Luck J. M. and Turekian K. K. (1983) Osmium-^187/Osmium-^186 in manganese nodules and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 222, 613- 615. Turekian K. K. (1982) Potential of ^187Os/^186Os as a cosmic versus terrestrial indicator in high iridium layers of sedimentary strata. Geol. Bull. Am. Spec. Pap. 190, 243-249.

Meisel, T.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Nazarov, M. A.

1992-07-01

316

Tertiary Paleogeography and Tectonic History, Central Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents images and text depicting the paleogeography and tectonic evolution of central Arizona during the Tertiary period. Emphasis is on an evolving Oligocene to Miocene drainage system that documents the existence of the Mogollon Rim, the southern physiographic boundary of the Colorado Plateau. The goal of this page is to demonstrate the evolution of stream systems in relation to complex, dynamic, tectonic events in the Southwest including the Laramide orogeny, Cenozoic core complexes, Basin and Range faulting, and Cenozoic volcanism. This is done through photographs, stratigraphic columns and cross-sections of area geology.

Blakey, Ronald

317

Stereoinversion of tertiary alcohols to tertiary-alkyl isonitriles and amines.  

PubMed

The SN2 reaction (bimolecular nucleophilic substitution) is a well-known chemical transformation that can be used to join two smaller molecules together into a larger molecule or to exchange one functional group for another. The SN2 reaction proceeds in a very predictable manner: substitution occurs with inversion of stereochemistry, resulting from the 'backside attack' of the electrophilic carbon by the nucleophile. A significant limitation of the SN2 reaction is its intolerance for tertiary carbon atoms: whereas primary and secondary alcohols are viable precursor substrates, tertiary alcohols and their derivatives usually either fail to react or produce stereochemical mixtures of products. Here we report the stereochemical inversion of chiral tertiary alcohols with a nitrogenous nucleophile facilitated by a Lewis-acid-catalysed solvolysis. The method is chemoselective against secondary and primary alcohols, thereby complementing the selectivity of the SN2 reaction. Furthermore, this method for carbon-nitrogen bond formation mimics a putative biosynthetic step in the synthesis of marine terpenoids and enables their preparation from the corresponding terrestrial terpenes. We expect that the general attributes of the methodology will allow chiral tertiary alcohols to be considered viable substrates for stereoinversion reactions. PMID:24025839

Pronin, Sergey V; Reiher, Christopher A; Shenvi, Ryan A

2013-09-12

318

Communicating Science: Translation and Tangibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until last summer, I thought communicating science was just a matter of translation. When my friends' eyes glazed over as I explained, for example, how a productivity crisis and planktrophism could have caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, I thought they simply needed these terms translated. While cutting through potentially difficult terminology is a key part of communicating science to the public, I now know that it is only the first of two parts. The second part is making one's subject matter tangible. Finding that out was my most important lesson last summer as an AGU-sponsored fellow in the Mass Media Fellowship program run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Understanding this journalistic two-step has helped me become a better science communicator and comprehend more fully why the Earth sciences fascinate me in the first place.

Johnson, Brian

2009-02-01

319

[Secondary and tertiary prevention of urological tumors].  

PubMed

The amount and quality of available data on secondary and tertiary prevention of urological tumors are to a large extent unsatisfactory. In the areas of nutrition and supplementary diet the consumption of tomatoes and especially tomato products could have a beneficial effect on the course of the disease for patients with prostate cancer, whereas there is evidence that the consumption of foodstuffs containing calcium (milk and milk products) and linolenic acid as well as a fat-rich diet accelerate tumor progression. Despite as yet unsatisfactory data, men with urothelial tumors or prostate cancer should abstain from smoking and undertake sports activities. For medicinal measures the administration of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and bone-promoting substances for patients with prostate cancer are under discussion. The effectiveness of the substances zoledronate and denosumab has been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. The authors recommend that the scientifically neglected field of tertiary prevention of urological tumors should in future be included as a core factor of scientific investigations. PMID:21947262

Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

2011-10-01

320

Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2010-01-01

321

Using Citizen Science beyond Teaching Science Content: A Strategy for Making Science Relevant to Students' Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel…

Jenkins, Lynda L.

2011-01-01

322

Cretaceous-Tertiary Growth of the Tibetan Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the Cretaceous-Tertiary geologic evolution of Tibet has increased dramatically during the past decade, and is summarized here along with our tectonic interpretations. The Qiangtang terrane of central Tibet was uplifted above sea level before or during Early Cretaceous continental collision with the Lhasa terrane to the south. This collision resulted in (1) major shortening and exhumation along the intervening Bangong suture zone, (2) growth of a regional east-plunging culmination in the Qiangtang hinterland, (3) peripheral foreland basin development in the Lhasa terrane, and (4) far-field tectonism in central Asia. Driving the Lhasa- Qiangtang collision was the northward subducting Neo-Tethys oceanic slab to the south, which was shallowing in dip throughout the Early Cretaceous based on a northward sweep in magmatism. Magmatism swept southward at ~105 Ma, marking rollback of the Neo-Tethys slab. Between 105 Ma and 50 Ma, thrusting in response to continued Lhasa-Qiangtang convergence propagated southward into the northern Lhasa terrane and a northward-directed retroarc thrust belt was active in the southern Lhasa terrane. The Lhasa terrane is estimated to have been shortened by ~50% during this time interval. Given evidence for minimal denudation in large parts of Tibet since the Early Cretaceous, the pre-50 Ma shortening must have resulted in substantial crustal thickening and elevation gain. During the Indo-Asian collision, the upper crust of the Lhasa terrane underwent minimal shortening. Syncollisional thrusting is more prevalent in the Qiangtang terrane than in the Lhasa terrane, but accommodated only ~25% shortening. In contrast, thrust belts in north-central Tibet accommodated 40- 50% shortening from ~50 Ma to 30 Ma. We speculate that the gravitational potential energy associated with a preexisting thick crust in southern and central Tibet was sufficient to inhibit upper crustal shortening in this area and to transmit collisional stresses to lower elevation regions in the north and south (to form the Himalayan thrust belt) during the early Tertiary. Following cessation of thrusting in north-central Tibet, the Bangong and Indus-Yarlung sutures underwent simultaneous thrust reactivation during the Oligo-Miocene, which in turn was followed by southward emplacement/extrusion of the Main Central Thrust sheet in the Himalaya. These timing relationships suggest that Tertiary shortening in Tibet and the Himalaya may have been mechanically linked and that the Himalayan thrust belt is merely the southern part of a much larger, composite orogenic wedge system. Given that the magnitude of Tibetan shortening is sufficient to explain present-day crustal thickness, the Cenozoic insertion of >670 km of Indian crust must have driven lower Tibetan crust into the mantle and/or away from the collision zone.

Kapp, P.; Decelles, P. G.; Ding, L.

2006-12-01

323

Survivor Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Survivor Science is a week-long activity that grabs the attention of even the most learning resistant middle level student. Originally planned as an authentic assessment tool, it could also be used to introduce a multitude of units and is easily adapted to any scientific discipline that is taught.|

Costello, Kathy

2004-01-01

324

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

Shaw, G. W.; And Others

1989-01-01

325

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life sciences investigate the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on earth. Students are naturally drawn to examine living things, and as they progress through the grade levels, they become capable of understanding the theories and models that scientists use to explain observations of nature.

K-12 Outreach,

326

Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

2013-01-01

327

Projecting State-Level Teacher Supply and Demand: Improving an Imperfect Science To Enhance Policy Decision-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the issues underlying teacher supply and demand as they apply to Connecticut public schools. The first section, "Refining the Model for Estimating State-Level Public School Educator Demand," looks at: the demand model; enrollment projections; teacher attrition; unfilled positions; migration between assignment areas and…

Beaudin, Barbara Q.; Thompson, Judith S.; Prowda, Peter M.

328

Science. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records (Secondary Level): Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed by experienced migrant education teachers incorporating Sight and Sound Program concepts, this volume presents predrafted individual short-term Plan/Records for secondary level chemistry, biology, and physics, plus step-by-step directions for their use by Oregon resource teachers, classroom teachers, and aides. The approach assumes that…

Flores, Merced, Comp.

329

ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking

J. P. FITTS; P. D. KALB; A. J. FRANCIS; M. FUHRMANN; C. J. DODGE; J. B. GILLOW

2004-01-01

330

Organic facies characteristics of the Sivas Tertiary Basin (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sivas Tertiary Basin is located on top of the Late Cretaceous Neotethys ophiolitic nappes which were abducted onto both the Pontic belt and the Tauric platform. Organic facies characters of Tertiary units in this basin have been determined by means of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, rock-eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance data and organic petrography investigation. The total organic carbon

Mehmet Altunsoy; Orhan Özçelik

1998-01-01

331

Alternatives in Education: A Liberal Policy for Australian Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's "strange confusion in tertiary education" is discussed with regard to the difficulty of defining distinctions between universities and colleges of advanced education (CAE's), diplomas and degrees. The author proposes that all tertiary institutions be called universities and all degrees and diplomas abolished and replaced by…

Young, Peter

1975-01-01

332

Improved GRACE science results after adjustment of geometric biases in the Level1B K-band ranging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission relies on the inter-satellite K-band microwave ranging\\u000a (KBR) observations. We investigate systematic errors that are present in the Level-1B KBR data, namely in the geometric correction.\\u000a This correction converts the original ranging observation (between the two KBR antennas phase centers) into an observation\\u000a between the two satellites’ centers of mass. It

Martin Horwath; Jean-Michel Lemoine; Richard Biancale; Stéphane Bourgogne

2011-01-01

333

How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or

S. C. Moser

2010-01-01

334

Tertiary nuclear burning - neutron star deflagration  

SciTech Connect

A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an octet particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such tertiary nuclear burning (here primary is H-He and secondary is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or dark' matter. 26 references.

Michel, F.C.

1988-04-01

335

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, is highly mobile in groundwater, dissolving and traveling faster than the other petroleum constituents which tend to biodegrade and adsorb to soil particles. This unit will introduce the problem of pollutants as they move through the various soil layers and contaminate the groundwater and challenge the students to investigate the effects of MTBE spills in the environment by researching the available literature on fuel oxygenates and learning their mode of transport through the soil. Experimentally determined data, obtained in lab activities, will facilitate building models of the contamination process of the groundwater. Mathematics modeling will involve the use of spreadsheet analysis of real-world-data obtained online.

336

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01

337

A 'Strangelove' ocean in the earliest Tertiary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic skeletons have been noted to exhibit no changes corresponding to the 3-percent decrease in the delta-C-13 values of planktic skeletons that is systematically observed across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. This decrease is presently interpreted as a consequence of the elimination of the surface-to-bottom carbon isotope gradient in ocean waters, at a time when carbon fractionation by a photosynthetic/respiratory mechanism became ineffective. It is suggested that a concurrent release of CO2 from a virtually barren 'Strangelove' ocean to the atmosphere may have led to a greenhouse-effect global warming. An additional consequence may have been the accumulation of nutrients in ocean waters as a result of mass mortality and decreased productivity.

Hsue, K. J.; McKenzie, J. A.

338

Ligand effects in the formation of tertiary carbanions from substituted tertiary aromatic amides.  

PubMed

Reaction of 2-isopropyl-(N,N-diisopropyl)-benzamide 5 with tBuLi in ether results in ortho deprotonation and the formation of a hemisolvate based on a tetranuclear dimer of (5-Li(o))(2)?Et(2)O. The solid-state structure exhibits a dimer core in which the amide oxygen atoms fail to stabilize the metal ions but are instead available for interaction with two metalated monomers that reside peripheral to the core. Reaction of 5 with tBuLi in the presence of the tridentate Lewis base PMDTA (N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) takes a different course. In spite of the tertiary aliphatic group at the 2-position in 5, X-ray crystallography revealed that a remarkable benzylic (lateral) deprotonation had occurred, giving the tertiary benzyllithium 5-Li(l)?PMDTA. The solid-state structure reveals that amide coordination and solvation by PMDTA combine to distance the Li(+) ion from the deprotonated ?-C of the 2-iPr group (3.859(4) Å), thus giving an essentially flat tertiary carbanion and a highly distorted aromatic system. DFT analysis suggests that the metal ion resides closer to the carbanion center in solution. In line with this, the same (benzylic) deprotonation is noted if the reaction is attempted in the presence of tridentate diglyme, with X-ray crystallography revealing that the metal is now closer to the tertiary carbanion (2.497(4) Å). Electrophilic quenches of lithiated 5 have allowed, for the first time, the formation of quaternary benzylic substituents by lateral lithiation. PMID:21647989

Smith, Alison Campbell; Donnard, Morgan; Haywood, Joanna; McPartlin, Mary; Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H; Clayden, Jonathan; Wheatley, Andrew E H

2011-06-03

339

Exploring Omani pre-service science teachers' imagination at the microscopic level in chemistry, and their use of the particulate nature of matter in their explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore learners' imagination at the microscopic level of matter and their use of the Particulate Theory of Matter. As for the imagination component, twenty-two Omani pre-service science teachers were encouraged individually during a guided imagery session to construct images for the interactions among micro-species such as molecules, atoms, and electrons. The findings determined several factors that contributed in shaping participants' mental images at the microscopic level of mater. Some of these factors related to previous experience, mental abilities, and the nature of microscopic interactions. This study argued that participants lacked a homogeneous and reliable mental model of the atom that was required to carry out advanced cognitive processes for mental exploration of chemical phenomena. In addition, the imagination of three female participants was further analyzed to explore their information processing of the microscopic imagined actions. They were chosen because they created different atomic models from each other. These models were: space-filling balls model, humanized model, and Latin characters model. Each participant's created mental images of microscopic actions were discussed based on her atomic model. The findings suggested that the nature of each participant's model partially influenced her microscopic imagined actions. The second component of this study tested the effect of different textual, pictorial, and reflective cues on participants' use of the microscopic level, the accuracy of their explanations and the originality of their inventions. The cues, either microscopic or macroscopic, were administered in a researcher-designed test to 152 Omani pre-service science teachers. The findings revealed that students did not use the PTM theory unless they were cued. The particulate level of the explanations of those who received a microscopic guided imagery textual cue was significantly higher than those who received a macroscopic cue. Also, the accuracy of explanations of participants who received a microscopic pictorial cue was significantly higher than those who received the macroscopic picture. In addition, a microscopic reflective cue improved the microscopic level of 43 participants' explanations. However, the microscopic textual cue did not have a significant effect on the accuracy of explanations, or on the originality of inventions.

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman Mohamed

340

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat\\/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5

Duncan E. Hutcheon; W. ten Hove; J. Boyle; J. D. Arnold

1996-01-01

341

Crime Prevention and the Science of Where People Are  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crime prevention initiatives are often conceptualized working at primary-secondary-tertiary (PST) levels. Primary prevention efforts address the underlying social, economic, and physical environmental conditions that generate crime; secondary prevention efforts focus on people, places, and social conditions that are at high risk of crime; whereas tertiary prevention efforts are directed toward already existing and specific crime problems. This article discusses the

Martin A. Andresen; Greg W. Jenion

2008-01-01

342

ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.  

SciTech Connect

Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with soil and plant roots to better understand the mechanisms responsible for uptake. This effort will lead to improvements in phytoremediation, an innovative and cost-effective approach to the cleanup of large volumes of soil with low concentrations of contaminants. In a third effort, we are investigating molecular interactions of contaminants in high-level waste tanks with potential grouting materials for remediation of the West Valley, NY site to assess their suitability and long-term performance.

FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

2004-03-01

343

Tertiary Excess of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Hypophosphatemia Following Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia due to inappropriate urinary phosphate wasting is a frequent metabolic complication of the early period following kidney transplantation. Although previously considered to be caused by tertiary hyperparathyroidism, recent evidence suggests a primary role for persistently elevated circulating levels of the phosphorus-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factors 23 (FGF23). In the setting of a healthy renal allograft, markedly increased FGF23 levels from the dialysis period induce renal phosphate wasting and inhibition of calcitriol production, which contribute to hypophosphatemia. While such tertiary FGF23 excess and resultant hypophosphatemia typically abates within the first few weeks to months post-transplant, some recipients manifest persistent renal phosphate wasting. Furthermore, increased FGF23 levels have been associated with increased risk of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death outside of the transplant setting. Whether tertiary FGF23 excess is associated with adverse transplant outcomes is unknown. In this article, we review the physiology of FGF23, summarize its relationship with hypophosphatemia after kidney transplantation, and speculate on its potential impact on long term outcomes of renal allograft recipients.

Seeherunvong, Wacharee; Wolf, Myles

2010-01-01

344

Earth Science in GCSE Science Syllabuses and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds variable coverage of Earth Science topics in the United Kingdom among General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) double-award science syllabuses and examination papers. Concludes that the levels of error in the examination papers were high and that Earth Science questions showed lower levels of demand and higher levels of recall than…

King, Chris; Brooks, Mike; Gill, Robin; Rhodes, Alan; Thompson, David

1999-01-01

345

The relationship of attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept to achievement in chemistry at the secondary school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a crisis in science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that the nation's students, on average, still rank near the bottom in science and math achievement internationally. This crisis is the background of the problem for this study. This investigation studied learner variables that were thought to

Gerald Richard Kirk

2000-01-01

346

Teaching-Focused Science Academics Supervising Research Students in Science Education: What's the Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academics who specialise in improving the teaching of "hard" sciences like chemistry, biology, maths and physics are increasing in number and influence at Australian universities. Those in academia who have channelled their energies into teaching are delighted with this development. It means that many committed tertiary teachers can now look…

Rowland, Susan

2012-01-01

347

Teaching-Focused Science Academics Supervising Research Students in Science Education: What's the Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Academics who specialise in improving the teaching of "hard" sciences like chemistry, biology, maths and physics are increasing in number and influence at Australian universities. Those in academia who have channelled their energies into teaching are delighted with this development. It means that many committed tertiary teachers can now look…

Rowland, Susan

2012-01-01

348

Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students’ lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that\\u000a students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science\\u000a education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to\\u000a their lives or

Lynda L. Jenkins

2011-01-01

349

Evaluating Science Information with Thinking Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Books & Films," the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), reviews books for young readers in the sciences to identify winners of these categories: Children's Science Picture Book, Middle Grades Science Book, and Young Adult Science Book. At each age level five finalists are selected for the annual…

Grady, Cynthia

2010-01-01

350

Assessing uncertainty in outsourcing clinical services at tertiary health centers.  

PubMed

When tertiary health centers face capacity constraint, one feasible strategy to meet service demand is outsourcing clinical services to qualified community providers. Clinical outsourcing enables tertiary health centers to meet the expectations of service timeliness and provides good opportunities to collaborate with other health care providers. However, outsourcing may result in dependence and loss of control for the tertiary health centers. Other parties involved in clinical outsourcing such as local partners, patients, and payers may also encounter potential risks as well as enjoy benefits in an outsourcing arrangement. Recommendations on selecting potential outsourcing partners are given to minimize the risks associated with an outsourcing contract. PMID:17624877

Billi, John E; Pai, Chih-Wen; Spahlinger, David A

351

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument level 1 science data validation plan for geolocated radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From spacecraft platforms, the clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers are designed to measure broadband Earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometer) and Earth-emitted long wave (5.0 - greater than 100 micrometer) radiances as well as emitted longwave radiances in the 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. In ground vacuum facilities, the thermistor bolometers and in-flight blackbody and tungsten lamp calibration systems are being calibrated using radiometric sources tied to the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS'90). Using the in-flight calibration systems, the bolometers will be calibrated periodically before and after spacecraft launch to verify the stability of the bolometers responses and to determine response drifts/shifts if they occur. The in-flight systems calibration analyses along with validation analyses will be used to determine the flight data reduction coefficients (instrument gains and offsets) which will be used to convert the bolometer measurements into calibrated radiances at the top-of-the-atmosphere (approximately 30 km). If a bolometer response shifts or drifts more than 0.5% in the longwave region or more than 1.0% in the shortwave region, and if the validation studies verify the bolometer response change, the flight data reduction coefficients will be corrected. A coastline detection method, using strong contrasting longwave ocean-land scenes, will be used to assess error limits on the geographical locations of the radiances. The detection method was successfully used to assess upper limits (6 km) on the geolocation errors for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) bolometric measurements of longwave radiances. For CERES, the detection method may be extended to shortwave radiances. In this paper, elements of the CERES instrument level 1 validation plan radiometric strategies are presented as well as the geolocation validation approaches.

Lee, Robert B.; Childers, Brooks A.; Smith, G. L.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thomas, Susan

1996-11-01

352

Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the Serrania del Interior and its associated Monagas foreland structures. Part of the latest (Middle Miocene to Recent) phase is the formation of a large arch that corresponds to the Margarita-Testigos-Grenada zone which perhaps was subject to mild lithospheric compression during the Plio-Pleistocene.

Ysaccis B., Raul

1998-12-01

353

International benchmarking of tertiary trauma centers: productivity and throughput approach  

PubMed Central

Background Care process in tertiary trauma centers consists of a chain of care phases in different departments from the emergency department (ED) to post-operative rehabilitation. The historical evolution of healthcare systems and organizations has led to variations in trauma patient processes in different countries. The present study is aimed at revealing differences in the throughput and productivity of trauma patient processes between German (UKB) and Finnish (HUS) tertiary trauma centers. Problems related to the comparison of different healthcare systems were also identified. The share of patients discharged was used as a control measure. Results The biggest differences between the hospitals were found in the use of resources in the ED and in post-operative care. Despite problems in defining comparable patients and resources, ED productivity was significantly higher in UKB. Post-operative care was, on average, 41% shorter in HUS. However, the share of patients discharged was significantly higher in UKB (96.5% vs. 68.9%). Differences were also found in the pre-operative length of stay of patients with proximal femoral fractures (UKB: 0.97 days, HUS: 1.57 days). The productivity of the operating unit was quite similar in the hospitals. In terms of ED mortality, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions The results of the present study showed significant differences in the use of resources and throughput times in trauma patient processes between Finnish and German hospitals. However, due to system-level differences between German and Finnish healthcare, the results cannot be directly transformed into development proposals for the organizations. On the other hand, in spite of certain differences regarding the healthcare systems, the demographic data of the trauma patients and medical procedures are comparable. Based on the present study, the ED process of severe trauma, pre-operative care, and operating unit processes were the most comparable parts of trauma care between the hospitals. The study also showed that the international benchmarking approach could be used to reveal bottlenecks in system-level policies and practices.

2011-01-01

354

THE SCIENCE EDUCATION WEBSITE: MAKING JUDGEMENTS ABOUT SCIENCE UNDERSTANDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involved developing a lively, interactive, visually interesting website for university students enrolled in the subjects: Primary Science Education and Science Education for Young Children. This site allows students to view experiments through video, therefore expanding opportunities to develop their science concepts and to gain practice in identifying children's level of science understanding. Flexible delivery of all or part

Ruth Hickey; Neil Anderson

355

Suffering for one's art: Performance related musculoskeletal disorders in tertiary performing arts students in music and dance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports the results of an intake questionnaire assessing point prevalence of performance related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) and pain in 151 tertiary level performing arts students in music and dance. Forty percent reported having received a medical diagnosis for a condition related to playing their instrument or performing their dance style. The most common diagnoses for music students were

Dianna T. Kenny; Justine Cormack; Rosemary Martin

2009-01-01

356

Skeletal Point Stresses in Circumferentially Notched Tension Bars Undergoing Tertiary Creep Modelled with Physically Based Constitutive Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive equations are proposed in which the stress level dependence of creep rate is described by a sinh function, and two damage state-parameters are used to model the tertiary softening caused by: (i) grain boundary cavity nucleation and growth, and (ii) the multiplication of mobile dislocations. These constitutive equations are applicable to polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys and are used together with

A. M. Othman; D. R. Hayhurst; B. F. Dyson

1993-01-01

357

Washington-Oregon Tertiary: Evidence for influence of Eustatic controls on coastal sedimentation  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sediments deposited along coastal Washington-Oregon extend from onshore to the base of the continental slope and beyond (Nitinat and Astoria deep sea fans). At least five Tertiary depocenters have been identified on the outer continental shelf, where maximum sedimentary section thicknesses of over 8,000 m (26,000 ft) are indicated. Stratigraphic sequences are strongly cyclical and evidence indicates that they are grounded by long-term regional hiatuses. Although previous interpretations attribute these stratigraphic sequences to four depositional/orogenic cycles, there is evidence that eustatic sea level changes may have had a major influence on Tertiary sedimentation along the Pacific Northwest Coast. Stratigraphic sequences are mostly marine, and contain larger fossil invertebrates, foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, and siliceous microplankton, which can be dated and correlated both to California provincial stages and to worldwide chronostratigraphic standards. Stratigraphic correlation charts plotted on an absolute time scale display remarkable concordance with the supercycles and eustatic curve of the Haq-Vail Cenozoic global cycle chart. Along coastal Washington-Oregon Eocene to early Oligocene, early through middle Miocene, and Pliocene-Pleistocene sea level maximae are represented by extensive marine deposits; although both the late Oligocene (Chattian-late Zemorrian) and the late Miocene (Tortonian-late Mohnian) regressions are marked by major regional unconformities. Recognition that depositional sequences in this region were at least in part eustatically controlled is important because it could greatly simplify future subsurface geologic interpretations.

Cousminer, H. (Dept. of the Interior-Minerals Management Service, Los Angles, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

358

Transient hyperthyroidism after total parathyroidectomy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Surgical removal of enlarged parathyroid glands is the treatment of choice in most cases of tertiary renal hyperparathyroidism. Complications of this surgical procedure are rare. We report two cases of patients who developed acute hyperthyroidism after total parathyroidectomy with parathyroid autotransplantation for refractory tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The patients had no history or biochemical or radiologic evidence of thyroid disease. They were not taking drugs affecting thyroid function. Thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, free T(3) and free T(4)) was measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery and again three months later. Total parathyroidectomy was successful in both patients. Circulating levels of parathyroid hormone were at the lower limit of normal values. Postoperative thyroid function tests demonstrated acute hyperthyroidism with a rapid increase in free T(3) and T(4) levels above normal and a drop in thyroid stimulating hormone below normal in both patients. The course of hyperthyroidism was short (normalization of fT(3) and fT(4) values within 14-21 days). Neither patient had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Transient hyperthyroidism may be an under-recognized complication of total parathyroidectomy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism. These patients should be monitored with thyroid function tests and assessed for clinical signs attributable to thyrotoxicosis. PMID:18726670

Lederer, Stephan R; Schiffl, Helmut

2008-01-01

359

Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase.  

PubMed

A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded ?-sheet, five ?-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose-synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs. PMID:23592721

Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H; Kubicki, James D; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G

2013-04-16

360

Tertiary tectonic in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A microplate model in the basement was proposed according to photointerpretation of satellite imagery and supported with microtectonic studies in the Tehuantepec's Isthmus. The microplate is located in the northwestern part of the [open quotes]Sierra de Chiapas,[close quotes] and structurally has lineaments that correspond with sinestral wrench faults oriented northeast-southwest and dextral faults oriented northwest-southeast. In the front of the microplate, these faults are joined in an arc form. The microplate began its movement forward to the north in the middle Tertiary. This movement originated in a regional compressional stress that was younger to the north. The stress changed the orientation of the anticline axis from northwest-southeast to west-east. In its western limit, the stress produces a sinestral shear stress that built a rotational deformation in the [open quotes]Sierra Atravesada,[close quotes] and represents a superimposed tectonic block over an ancient (laramide) orogeny. This system has also produced other secondary transtensional effects oriented northwest-southeast, represented along the [open quotes]Depression Central del Istmo.[close quotes] The microplate has formed a tensional system opening the [open quotes]Superior, Inferior, and Mar Muerto[close quotes] lagoons. The microplate is strongly related with the relief, seismic activity, and the tectonics of the salt of the Tehuantepec's Isthmus.

Lopez, F.A.

1993-02-01

361

Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase  

PubMed Central

A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded ?-sheet, five ?-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose–synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs.

Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D.; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

2013-01-01

362

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

Peru, D.A.

1989-04-04

363

Efficient approaches for retrieving protein tertiary structures.  

PubMed

The 3D conformation of a protein in the space is the main factor which determines its function in living organisms. Due to the huge amount of newly discovered proteins, there is a need for fast and accurate computational methods for retrieving protein structures. Their purpose is to speed up the process of understanding the structure-to-function relationship which is crucial in the development of new drugs. There are many algorithms addressing the problem of protein structure retrieval. In this paper, we present several novel approaches for retrieving protein tertiary structures. We present our voxel-based descriptor. Then we present our protein ray-based descriptors which are applied on the interpolated protein backbone. We introduce five novel wavelet descriptors which perform wavelet transforms on the protein distance matrix. We also propose an efficient algorithm for distance matrix alignment named Matrix Alignment by Sequence Alignment within Sliding Window (MASASW), which has shown as much faster than DALI, CE, and MatAlign. We compared our approaches between themselves and with several existing algorithms, and they generally prove to be fast and accurate. MASASW achieves the highest accuracy. The ray and wavelet-based descriptors as well as MASASW are more accurate than CE. PMID:22025763

Mirceva, Georgina; Cingovska, Ivana; Dimov, Zoran; Davcev, Danco

364

Genome Evolution of a Tertiary Dinoflagellate Plastid  

PubMed Central

The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata.

Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2011-01-01

365

Education Place: Houghton Mifflin Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education Place presents Houghton Mifflin's K-6 science textbook support resources, organized by grade level. Each of the seven modules offers broad coverage of concepts in physical science, Earth science, and life science through a series of topic units. Each unit includes engaging activities such as Family Newsletters, Unit Bibliographies, Vocabulary Games, eGlossaries, Cricket Connections, and Discover! Simulations, with teacher support.

2005-09-14

366

USING CONSTRUCTIVISM TO INFORM TERTIARY CHEMISTRY PEDAGOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many reports in the science education literature exhorting educators to teach from a constructivist view of learning. However, these reports typically fail to confront the difficulties associated with this stance. This review considers some of the implications and difficulties associated with a constructivist view of learning. The paper begins with an overview of paradigms and description of

Richard K. COLL; T. G. Neil TAYLOR

2001-01-01

367

Computer Managed Learning in Tertiary Education: An Organisational Development Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article describes how computer-managed learning (CML) for both on-campus and off-campus students was successfully introduced into a tertiary educational institution in conjunction with an organizational development (OD) strategy. (Author)|

Barker, Lindsay J.; And Others

1985-01-01

368

DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF TERTIARY AMINES IN WATER USING MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A direct synthesis of tertiary amines is presented that proceeds expeditiously via N-alkylation of amines using alkyl halides in alkaline aqueous medium. This environmentally benign reaction is accelerated upon exposure to microwave irradiation resulting in shortened reaction tim...

369

10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report...operator with respect to any enhanced oil recovery project for which...with DOE pursuant to paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this...

2013-01-01

370

10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. ...the project operator with respect to any enhanced oil recovery project for which a...

2009-01-01

371

10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. ...the project operator with respect to any enhanced oil recovery project for which a...

2010-01-01

372

"Actually, I May be Clever Enough to do it". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories Towards Science and University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated interviews, questionnaires (pre-and post-) and observations) from 14 target students have been collected. Using Late Modern identity theory as a lens, we have analysed students' identity narratives in order to establish their trajectories in relation to university in general, and towards science studies and science careers in particular. We find that the diversity of students' educational identity narratives can be characterized and their trajectories understood in terms of a Four Factor Framework comprising: general identity process orientations (reflecting, committing, exploring), personal values, subject self-concepts and subject interests. In various ways these constructs interact and set the range and direction of the students' searches for future education and careers. Our longitudinal study suggests that they have enough permanence to enable us to hypothesize more or less secured paths of individual students to tertiary science (or other areas of academia).

Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

2013-04-01

373

The Cretaceous/ Tertiary Boundary At Iridium Hill, Garfield County, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this virtual field trip to Iridium Hill, Montana is to investigate the disappearance of dinosaur fossils above the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary. The site provides rock outcrop photos of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations), stratigraphic sections and supporting text for this classic iridium-bearing locality. Topics include the K/T boundary, iridium concentrations, stratigraphy, sedimentology and, fluvial and lacustrine depositional environments.

Limited, Athro

374

Late tertiary volcanic stratigraphy of northern central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations of Late Tertiary volcanic stratigraphic columns in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras indicate that a common\\u000a lithostratigraphic sequence is present throughout northern Central America. The Late Tertiary volcanic sequences are divided\\u000a into three lithostratigraphic formations that roughly parallel the Pacific coastline. The Chalatenango Formation, composed\\u000a of rhyolitic tuffs and lavas, is of Middle to Upper Miocene age. It occurs

J. H. Reynolds

1980-01-01

375

Predicting loop-helix tertiary structural contacts in RNA pseudoknots  

PubMed Central

Tertiary interactions between loops and helical stems play critical roles in the biological function of many RNA pseudoknots. However, quantitative predictions for RNA tertiary interactions remain elusive. Here we report a statistical mechanical model for the prediction of noncanonical loop–stem base-pairing interactions in RNA pseudoknots. Central to the model is the evaluation of the conformational entropy for the pseudoknotted folds with defined loop–stem tertiary structural contacts. We develop an RNA virtual bond-based conformational model (Vfold model), which permits a rigorous computation of the conformational entropy for a given fold that contains loop–stem tertiary contacts. With the entropy parameters predicted from the Vfold model and the energy parameters for the tertiary contacts as inserted parameters, we can then predict the RNA folding thermodynamics, from which we can extract the tertiary contact thermodynamic parameters from theory–experimental comparisons. These comparisons reveal a contact enthalpy (?H) of ?14 kcal/mol and a contact entropy (?S) of ?38 cal/mol/K for a protonated C+•(G–C) base triple at pH 7.0, and (?H = ?7 kcal/mol, ?S = ?19 cal/mol/K) for an unprotonated base triple. Tests of the model for a series of pseudoknots show good theory–experiment agreement. Based on the extracted energy parameters for the tertiary structural contacts, the model enables predictions for the structure, stability, and folding pathways for RNA pseudoknots with known or postulated loop–stem tertiary contacts from the nucleotide sequence alone.

Cao, Song; Giedroc, David P.; Chen, Shi-Jie

2010-01-01

376

Referrals to tertiary psychotherapy services: A road to nowhere?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market?oriented changes within the NHS in the last 15 years have increasingly created difficulties with funding of referrals to tertiary psychotherapy health providers. The often?cumbersome, time?consuming and expensive bureaucratic procedures now required by the Primary Care Trusts to fund patients referred to tertiary care services leads to lengthy delays in the pathway from assessment to treatment. This paper describes a

Marco Chiesa

2008-01-01

377

Safer Science: Consumer "Science" in Chem Labs?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

English, mathematics, social science, and other nonscience classes are being held in science laboratories during unassigned laboratory time. However, science laboratories are unsafe places. They contain hazardous chemicals, energy utility sources (gas, electricity, and water), potentially harmful equipment, and more. Students and employees who participate in nonscience instruction in a laboratory may be unfamiliar with these potential dangers and therefore may be exposed to an unsafe working environment. This month's column addresses this issue and outlines some suggestions to help science teachers when confronted with this situation at the high school level.

Roy, Ken

2008-04-01

378

Seawater Sr isotopes at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr values increase abruptly by 28 × 10 -6 across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (KTB). This small, but rapid shift is superimposed on the larger scale structure of the seawater Sr isotope curve. The time scale of radiogenic Sr addition appears to be too rapid to reconcile with sources associated with volcanism, and we show that the amount of Sr required to produce even this small increase is too large to be derived from: (1) a KT bolide of the size constrained by the Ir anomaly, (2) continental crust ejecta from the impact of such a bolide, (3) soot from global wildfires initiated by an impact, or (4) any combination of these sources. The probable source of the radiogenic Sr is enhanced continental weathering, but the high rate of increase appears to rule out processes such as sea level regression, glaciation or tectonism. A plausible mechanism for rapid addition of radiogenic Sr to the oceans is enhanced weathering associated with globally distributed acid rain (pH ˜ 1) which is a proposed by-product of a bolide impact [51, EPSL Vol. 83].

Martin, E. E.; Macdougall, J. D.

1991-06-01

379

Science in science fiction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

Allday, Jonathan

2003-01-01

380

Levels of Learning in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factual learning should not be belittled; however, the factual information should fit into a sequence leading to concept understanding. This study indicates teachers can teach concepts more effectively if they first receive training. (Author)|

Humphreys, Donald

1977-01-01

381

LSST telescope primary/tertiary mirror hardpoints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes an 8.4-meter cast borosilicate primary/tertiary mirror (M1M3). This mirror system has stringent vibration and stiffness requirements because the LSST optical system does not include a fast steering mirror and the mission requires a short slew and settling time. The position stability of the M1M3 relative to the mirror cell is controlled by six displacement controlled actuators (subsequently referred to as "hardpoints") that form a large hexapod. This design is based largely on previous hardpoints implemented for borosilicate mirror positioning. Traditionally, all dynamic forces applied to these mirrors are reacted through their hardpoints. Consequently, the characteristics of these hardpoints critically affect the ability of the telescope to meet the stringent dynamic requirements without overstressing the mirror. The hardpoints must have a high stiffness of 120 N/um in the axial direction, while protecting the mirror by limiting the loads in all six degrees of freedom. The non-axial direction loads are limited by flexures. The axial loads are limited by a pneumatic breakaway mechanism. Since the hardpoints react the dynamic mirror loads, the axial breakaway force may limit the telescope's slewing accelerations. The travel of the breakaway mechanism must accommodate the transfer of the mirror from its active supports to its static supports. The hardpoint positioning mechanism must have sufficient travel and resolution to properly position the mirror relative to the mirror cell. Fulfilling these functions also requires numerous sensors, including a precision axial load cell which is paramount in determining the figure control actuator forces.

Devries, Joe; Neill, Douglas; Hileman, Ed

2010-07-01

382

The Life And Death Of Bob (a.k.a. Ngc 6397) In An Introductory College-level Astronomy Class For Non-science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the use of Bob (a.k.a NGC 6397) as a conceptual anchor for a semester of "Stars and Galaxies," an introductory college-level astronomy course for non-science majors. NGC 6397 is a Hubble Heritage image, and with a variety of stellar temperatures evident in the colors, it makes a great starter image for a stars and galaxies class. As the semester progresses and student knowledge grows, the same cluster can be used to explore the topics of sizes, temperatures, luminosities, masses, distances, magnitudes, spectral types, HR Diagrams, stellar evolution, determination of cluster age, white dwarfs, blue stragglers... Virtually the entire "stars" part of the "Stars and Galaxies" class can derive from this single example, which anchors student learning to a familiar object throughout the semester. Example discussion questions and personal response (voting) questions are provided, along with comments about the structure of class, assessments, Bob's funeral, and the educational soundness of this approach. We seek collaboration with astronomy educators who would like to adopt "Bob" so that we may gauge whether this approach is measurably different from a more traditional format. "The Life and Death of Bob" was awarded a Gold Star by the Institute for Global and Environmental Strategies in July, 2010, for inspiring uses of Hubble in education.

Renee'James, C.

2011-01-01

383

Role of tertiary structures on the Root effect in fish hemoglobins.  

PubMed

Many fish hemoglobins exhibit a marked dependence of oxygen affinity and cooperativity on proton concentration, called Root effect. Both tertiary and quaternary effects have been evoked to explain the allosteric regulation brought about by protons in fish hemoglobins. However, no general rules have emerged so far. We carried out a complementary crystallographic and microspectroscopic characterization of ligand binding to crystals of deoxy-hemoglobin from the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii (HbTb) at pH6.2 and pH8.4. At low pH ligation has negligible structural effects, correlating with low affinity and absence of cooperativity in oxygen binding. At high pH, ligation causes significant changes at the tertiary structural level, while preserving structural markers of the T state. These changes mainly consist in a marked displacement of the position of the switch region CD corner towards an R-like position. The functional data on T-state crystals validate the relevance of the crystallographic observations, revealing that, differently from mammalian Hbs, in HbTb a significant degree of cooperativity in oxygen binding is due to tertiary conformational changes, in the absence of the T-R quaternary transition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. PMID:23376186

Ronda, Luca; Merlino, Antonello; Bettati, Stefano; Verde, Cinzia; Balsamo, Anna; Mazzarella, Lelio; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Vergara, Alessandro

2013-02-01

384

Diagenesis of middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja well, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Well drilled in northern Puerto Rico to a depth of 2,705 m (8,872 ft.) penetrated over 550 m (1,800 ft.) of Tertiary carbonates. The limestone-dominated portion of the well consists mostly of shallow-water backreef carbonates. Metastable carbonates have been either calcitized, dolomitized or dissolved. The petrographic character of the Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, and those reported by Monroe (1980), the cathodoluminescence petrography, and the stable isotopic compositions indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments and dolomitization probably occurred in a meteoric-marine mixing zone. Given the history of numerous drainage systems that dissected the Tertiary carbonates throughout their depositional history and the repeated Cenozoic sea level oscillations, it is likely that alteration of metastable carbonates took place during lowstands. Interstratified fluvial deposits suggest the continued influence of meteoric fluids in local highlands.

Gonzalez, L.A.; Ruiz, H.M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-03-01

385

Seres Vivos. Nivel I. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Living Beings. Level 1. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in the elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the first grade science classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections,…

Senger, Graciela

386

California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

2012-01-01

387

Stop for Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This building-wide science enrichment program consists of a series of posters and accompanying questions designed to pique student interest in science concepts and their application to the world in which we live. Accompanying each poster are question sheets of increasing difficulty levels that students answer and submit at a designated location (collection box, office, etc.). Random prize drawings can be used to recognize/celebrate student participation. The purpose is to expose students to and create school-wide interest about science so students want to "STOP for Science" as displays are changed throughout the year. Although the focus is on enhancing building-wide science interest, content can also be linked directly to science classroom activities through use of accompanying teacher resource guides that provide science background, fun facts, typical questions and misconceptions, and several demonstrations or experiments related to the poster concepts.

2010-04-29

388

Making Political Science More Relevant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that political science teachers on the college level use their free summer months constructively by leading workshops for government officials and interested citizens on political science theory, research techniques, and practical political knowledge. (Author/DB)|

Kearney, Richard C.; Alberts, Lyle K.

1980-01-01

389

CBEâÂÂLife Sciences Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CBEâÂÂLife Sciences Education (CBE-LSE), a free, online quarterly journal from The American Society for Cell Biology, publishes peer-reviewed articles on life sciences education at the KâÂÂ12, undergraduate, and graduate levels.

American Soceity for Cell Biology (ASCB;)

2010-05-17

390

Sealable Science for Busy Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ideas for the collection of hands-on science materials and their storage in sealable plastic bags are presented. The advantages of using this method of preplanning and prepackaging science lessons at the elementary level are explored. (CW)|

Romance, Nancy R.; Vitale, Michael R.

1991-01-01

391

Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth  

PubMed Central

It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

2012-01-01

392

NASA Science For Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Science Education Program creates products using NASA's results in Earth Science, Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics research. The program sponsors educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education to provide opportunities for learners to investigate their world and their universe using unique NASA resources. There are links to a number of related education projects and workshops, and a solar system ambassadors program.

393

Science Operations for Onboard Autonomous Rover Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onboard autonomous science represents one means to balance the large amounts of scientific data that current and future rovers can acquire with the limited ability to download it to Earth. Several systems are under development to perform autonomous rover science. The use of such systems represents a departure from standard operations, which closely resemble batch tele-operation. It is important for the science operations team to understand the capabilities and limitations of the onboard system to effectively use the tool of autonomous onboard science to increase overall mission science return, however it is difficult for the science team to get a feel for the onboard system without hands on experience in an operational system setting. This past year, the OASIS (Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System) team has been working with the SOOPS (Science Operations On Planetary Surfaces) task to investigate how science returns for surface missions can be improved through the use of science autonomy. A limited version of OASIS was tested at the system level. The test involved a high-fidelity software simulation of a rover exploring a remote terrain using realistic operational interfaces. By using the simulation environment it is feasible to run many more experiments than testing with physical rover. Further, the simulation environment combined with the integrated operational system provides situational awareness for the science operations team along with greater flexibility and control over experiments to help answer "what if" questions that can lead to identifying the most effective ways to use the onboard system. In the tests, OASIS applied predetermined criteria provided by the scientists to prioritize which data collected during a traverse to send home, given specified bandwidth constraints. In addition, rock summary information (which requires very little bandwidth) was returned and provided as both a table and a map to the science team. We discuss the results of these experiments.

Estlin, T.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F.; McHenry, M.; Bornstein, B.; Gaines, D.; Burl, M.; Anderson, R. C.; Powell, M.; Shu, I.; Farr, T.; Nesnas, I.; Jain, A.; Judd, M.

2006-12-01

394

Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Organ Donation Among People Seeking Healthcare in Tertiary Care Centers of Coastal South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for end-stage organ diseases. The need for the transplants is higher than the availability. Prerequisites for the success of transplantation program include awareness and positive attitudes. Aim: To assess the perceptions and attitudes of the people seeking health care in tertiary care centers towards organ donation in Mangalore, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study included 863 people seeking general healthcare as outpatients. Materials and Methods: Face to face interviews were carried out using pretested tools which included the socio demographic data. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 11.5. Results: Overall, 59.6% participants showed the willingness to donate organs. Females (64.1%) and participants from upper socio economic status (62.7%) had higher willingness rates for organ donations. Hindus (63.6%) and Christians (63.3%) had higher willingness rates for organ donations than Muslims (38.2%). Also, 23.7% participants showed willingness to donate eyes and 33.6% wished to donate any organ after death. Most of the participants (67%) were aware that money should not be accepted for donating organs, and 58.1% were aware that it is an offence to accept any benefit for organ donations. Forty percent participants had perceived risks associated with organ donation. Regarding donor cards, 42.3% of the participants knew about it and 3.7% already possessed it. Conclusion: It is apparent from the study that though there was high level of awareness about organ donation, a high proportion of the participants did not have positive attitudes towards organ donation.

Mithra, Prasanna; Ravindra, Prithvishree; Unnikrishnan, B; Rekha, T; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kumar, Nithin; Papanna, Mohan; Kulkarni, Vaman; Holla, Ramesh; Divyavaraprasad, K

2013-01-01

395

Learning science and technology through cooperative education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative education, a form of experiential or work-integrated learning is common in tertiary educational institutions worldwide. However, in New Zealand few institutions provide work-integrated learning programs in science or technology, and the management and process of work-integrated learning programs is not that well understood. How well do such programs work? What infrastructure is needed to ensure learning actually occurs? Are

RICHARD K. COLL; CHRIS EAMES

396

Production of tertiary alkyl ether using improved zeolite catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reducing the formation of olefinic oligomer by-products and improving tertiary ether selectivity in the production of high octane alkyl tertiary alkyl ether employing acid zeolite beta catalyst particles having alpha value greater than 300, comprising: steaming or hydrothermally treating said zeolite catalyst particles at elevated temperature to provide treated acid zeolite beta catalyst particles having a reduced alpha value of less than 300; and contacting alkanol and a hydrocarbon feed stream rich in iso-olefins with said steamed or hydrothermally treated catalyst particles under iso-olefin etherification conditions sufficient to provide at least 70 weight percent conversion of said iso-olefins, whereby a product containing at least 95 weight percent of said alkyl tertiary alkyl ether is produced while the formation of olefinic oligomer-by-product is not more than 5 weight percent.

Bell, W.K.; Haag, R.O.

1993-07-06

397

Protein-like Tertiary Folding Behavior from Heterogeneous Backbones.  

PubMed

Because proteins play vital roles in life, much effort has been invested in their mimicry by synthetic agents. One approach is to design unnatural backbone oligomers ("foldamers") that fold like natural peptides. Despite success in secondary structure mimicry by such species, protein-like tertiary folds remain elusive. A fundamental challenge underlying this task is the design of a sequence of side chains that will specify a complex tertiary folding pattern on an unnatural backbone. We report here a sequence-based approach to convert a natural protein with a compact tertiary fold to an analogue with a backbone composed of ?20% unnatural building blocks but folding behavior similar to that of the parent protein. PMID:23937097

Reinert, Zachary E; Lengyel, George A; Horne, W Seth

2013-08-15

398

Tertiary paleomagnetism of the North Cascade Range, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained paleomagnetic data for the southern tip of the middle Tertiary Chilliwack Composite Batholith, located on the Canada-United States border about 125 km E of Vancouver, B.C. Thirty-four separately oriented samples were collected along a road traverse 1.5 km long located along State Highway 22, about 20 km NE of Marblemount, Washington. The mean direction after magnetic cleaning is: D, 182.8° I, -65.0° ?95, 1.5°. This corresponds to a paleomagnetic pole at 87.5°N, 267.5°E, close to other poles for Tertiary plutons from the North Cascades and only slightly displaced from Tertiary reference poles from the craton. We conclude that the North Cascades block has not been rotated or suffered major internal disruption since perhaps late Eocene time, in marked contrast to all the terranes that surround it.

Beck, Myrl E., Jr.; Burmester, R. F.; Schoonover, Ruth

1982-05-01

399

Is It Possible to Teach Music Composition Today? A Search for the Challenges of Teaching Music Composition to Student Composers in a Tertiary Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our aim is to identify the challenges of teaching music composition to today's students of composition at a tertiary or professional level. We undertake this by two different approaches: on one level, by establishing a context through reviewing literature on the teaching practices of three renowned teachers from the twentieth century; on a second…

Mateos-Moreno, Daniel

2011-01-01

400

Mass Higher Education and the Social Sciences in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to contribute to the debate on major changes in tertiary education in Europe over the last 15 years by focusing on mass higher education in Greece and the place of the social sciences in it. It examines the main objectives and effects of the significant educational reform, introduced by the Panhellenic Socialist Party in the early 1980s,

Maria Petmesidou

1998-01-01

401

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

402

Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane--an Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Images, diagrams, and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary and tertiary students…

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2010-01-01

403

The Science of Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author's first reaction to learning that the new science standards adopted in Minnesota included engineering was fear and apprehension. She couldn't picture what an engineering project would look like at the elementary level. As a K-5 elementary science specialist, it was now her job to figure out how to incorporate engineering in their…

Jensen, Jill

2012-01-01

404

Mountain Science. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second in a series of books that provide high-interest reading material for rural adults who read below the seventh-grade level. The book provides information on science, technology, and the environment for the people of Appalachia and other rural areas, helping to bring the concepts and meaning of science within their grasp. Many of…

Kimmons, Carol

405

Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

Cooperative Learning, 1991

1991-01-01

406

NSDL Science Refreshers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NSDL Science Refreshers provide quick and easy access to high-quality science content. These resources from trusted providers are selected and organized by grade level and subject area in order to save you time and effort in finding interactive tutorials, diagrams, articles, and other materials to enhance your content knowledge.

2010-02-25

407

How Science Works (HSW)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QCA specified that science should include "How Science Works" at Key Stage 4 (age 14-16) from 2006. Since then, different "versions" have been specified for inclusion from primary through to A-Level (Orrow-Whiting et al, 2007). HSW seems to act as an umbrella term for part of the curriculum that "focuses on the evidence to support or refute…

Roberts, Ros

2009-01-01

408

ABC's of Nuclear Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the ABC's of Nuclear Science site gives high school students and perhaps even entry-level college students a good general overview of nuclear science. Through descriptions and illustrations, students get to explore nuclear structure; radioactivity; alpha, beta, and gamma decay; half-life; reactions; fusion; fission; cosmic rays; and antimatter.

Noto, Victor

2003-10-31

409

The Science of Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's first reaction to learning that the new science standards adopted in Minnesota included engineering was fear and apprehension. She couldn't picture what an engineering project would look like at the elementary level. As a K-5 elementary science specialist, it was now her job to figure out how to incorporate engineering in their…

Jensen, Jill

2012-01-01

410

Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary hospital in southern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, a maker of severe maternal morbidity and near miss mortality is an inevitable surgical intervention to save a woman's life when uncontrollable obstetric haemorrhage complicates delivery. This study was conducted in order to determine the incidence, types, indications and maternal complications of emergency peripartum hysterectomy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. Methods The case records of all women who underwent emergency peripartum hysterectomy between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2011 were studied. Results There were 12,298 deliveries during the study period and 28 emergency peripartum hysterectomies were performed resulting in a rate of 0.2% or 1 in 439 deliveries. The modal age group of the patients was 26-30 years (35.7%), majority were of low parity (64.4%), while 17.9% attained tertiary level education. Half of the patients (50.0%) were unbooked while 14.3% were antenatal clinic defaulters. Extensive uterine rupture (67.8%) was the most common indication for emergency hysterectomy distantly followed by uterine atony with uncontrollable haemorrhage (17.9%). Subtotal abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 92.8% of the cases. The case fatality rate was 14.3% while the perinatal mortality rate was 64.3%. Conclusion Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is not uncommonly performed in our centre and extensive uterine rupture from prolonged obstructed labour is the most common indication. In addition, it is associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. There is need to enlighten women in our communities on the benefits of ANC and hospital delivery as well as the dangers of delivering without skilled attendance. Government should consider enacting legislation to discourage people or organisations who operate unlicensed maternity homes in our environment.

Abasiattai, Aniekan Monday; Umoiyoho, Aniefiok Jackson; Utuk, Ntiense Maurice; Inyang-Etoh, Emmanuel Columba; Asuquo, Otobong Peter

2013-01-01

411

[Treatment of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism--surgical viewpoints].  

PubMed

Nearly all patients with chronic renal failure exhibit some degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), defined as parathyroid hyperplasia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Despite improvements in the medical management of patients with sHPT continue to develop progressive bone disease manifested by osteitis fibrosa cystica, soft tissue calcification and myopathy, pruritus, bone and joint pain and calciphylaxis may accompany the bone disorder. When medical therapy fails, parathyroidectomy becomes necessary. This is not sufficiently explained by the failure to administer calcitriol to control serum phosphate and calcium concentration or to deliver sufficient dialysis. The continuous increase of the proportion of patients exhibiting severe uncontrolled HPT with increasing time of dialysis points to a more basic underlying biological problem; an even higher proportion of patients shows also nodular, rather than diffuse hyperplasia. It was commonly believed that after restoration of normal renal function with successful transplantation, the hyperplastic parathyroid glands would involute and return to normal function state. After renal transplantation some patients continue to have a HPT. This disease entity is recognized and termed as tertiary Hyperparathyroidism (tHPT). After establishing a diagnosis of hyperparathyroid bone disease, in patients with sHPT and tHPT a parathyroidectomy (PTX) frequently becomes necessary to decrease the mass of the hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. The surgical procedure remains controversial. Some surgeons prefer subtotal PTX, others prefer total PTX with autotransplantation of a small amount of tissue to the arm, because the transplanted tissue can be removed in the event of a recurrent HPT. Successful surgical intervention for sHPT and tHPT significantly reduces preoperative symptoms and leeds to restoration of bone disease and therefore supports PTX for patients with s and tHPT. In our experience total PTX with autograft has proven to be a satisfactory procedure. Subtotal PTX is also an effective procedure and the choice of operative technique should be left to the surgeon. PMID:10550338

Klempa, I

1999-10-01

412

Joffre viking tertiary carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

Vikor Resources Ltd. and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority are currently developing a CO/sub 2/ miscible flood project in the Joffre Viking Tertiary Oil Unit. The project is located in an area of the reservoir which had been produced to its economic limit under waterflood in the 1960s. The project consists of 4 water prepressure wells flanking 2 adjacent inverted 5-spot CO/sub 2/ injection patterns, which will be produced under a water alternating gas injection process. This study presents an overview of the CO/sub 2/ handling, injection and tertiary oil producton facilities, wells, and briefly discusses anticipated project performance.

Ilsley, D.B.; Macintyre, K.J.; Stephenson, D.J.

1983-01-01

413

Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz† , Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M. (GSKNC)

2010-08-12

414

Tracing groundwater with low-level detections of halogenated VOCs in a fractured carbonate-rock aquifer, Leetown Science Center, West Virginia, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of low-level concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and estimates of groundwater age interpreted from 3H/3He and SF6 data have led to an improved understanding of groundwater flow, water sources, and transit times in a karstic, fractured, carbonate-rock aquifer at the Leetown Science Center (LSC), West Virginia. The sum of the concentrations of a set of 16 predominant halogenated VOCs (TDVOC) determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC–ECD) exceeded that possible for air–water equilibrium in 34 of the 47 samples (median TDVOC of 24,800 pg kg?1), indicating that nearly all the water sampled in the vicinity of the LSC has been affected by addition of halogenated VOCs from non-atmospheric source(s). Leakage from a landfill that was closed and sealed nearly 20 a prior to sampling was recognized and traced to areas east of the LSC using low-level detection of tetrachloroethene (PCE), methyl chloride (MeCl), methyl chloroform (MC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE). Chloroform (CHLF) was the predominant VOC in water from domestic wells surrounding the LSC, and was elevated in groundwater in and near the Fish Health Laboratory at the LSC, where a leak of chlorinated water occurred prior to 2006. The low-level concentrations of halogenated VOCs did not exceed human or aquatic-life health criteria, and were useful in providing an awareness of the intrinsic susceptibility of the fractured karstic groundwater system at the LSC to non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs. The 3H/3He groundwater ages of spring discharge from the carbonate rocks showed transient behavior, with ages averaging about 2 a in 2004 following a wet climatic period (2003–2004), and ages in the range of 4–7 a in periods of more average precipitation (2008–2009). The SF6 and CFC-12 data indicate older water (model ages of 10s of years or more) in the low-permeability shale of the Martinsburg Formation located to the west of the LSC. A two-a record of specific conductance, water temperature, and discharge recorded at 30-min intervals demonstrated an approximately 3-month lag in discharge at Gray Spring. The low groundwater ages of waters from the carbonate rocks support rapid advective transport of contaminants from the LSC vicinity, yet the nearly ubiquitous occurrence of low-level concentrations of halogenated VOCs at the LSC suggests the presence of long-term persistent sources, such as seepage from the closed and sealed landfill, infiltration of VOCs that may persist locally in the epikarst, exchange with low-permeability zones in fractured rock, and upward leakage of older water that may contain elevated concentrations of halogenated VOCs from earlier land use activities.

Plummer, L. Niel; Sibrell, Philip L.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Hunt, Andrew G.; Schlosser, Peter

2013-01-01

415

Science Books and Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Books and Films bills itself as "the authoritative guide to science resources, bringing you the expert information you need to make the best decisions when choosing science materials for your library, classroom, or institution." The subscriber section of the site allows access to more than 9,000 science reviews that can be shaped into personalized bibliographies by subject area, grade level, and author. For non-subscribers, articles from past years are offered, including the Best Books for Children, Best Books for Junior High and High School Readers, and Best Videos and Software.

416

Science Teaching and Learning Activities and Students' Engagement in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 study. The analysis employs a quantitative

Gillian Hampden-Thompson; Judith Bennett

2011-01-01

417

An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from leaf megafossils.  

PubMed

The end-Cretaceous mass extinctions, 65 million years ago, profoundly influenced the course of biotic evolution. These extinctions coincided with a major extraterrestrial impact event and massive volcanism in India. Determining the relative importance of each event as a driver of environmental and biotic change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) crucially depends on constraining the mass of CO(2) injected into the atmospheric carbon reservoir. Using the inverse relationship between atmospheric CO(2) and the stomatal index of land plant leaves, we reconstruct Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary atmospheric CO(2) concentration (pCO(2)) levels with special emphasis on providing a pCO(2) estimate directly above the KTB. Our record shows stable Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary background pCO(2) levels of 350-500 ppm by volume, but with a marked increase to at least 2,300 ppm by volume within 10,000 years of the KTB. Numerical simulations with a global biogeochemical carbon cycle model indicate that CO(2) outgassing during the eruption of the Deccan Trap basalts fails to fully account for the inferred pCO(2) increase. Instead, we calculate that the postboundary pCO(2) rise is most consistent with the instantaneous transfer of approximately 4,600 Gt C from the lithic to the atmospheric reservoir by a large extraterrestrial bolide impact. A resultant climatic forcing of +12 W.m(-2) would have been sufficient to warm the Earth's surface by approximately 7.5 degrees C, in the absence of counter forcing by sulfate aerosols. This finding reinforces previous evidence for major climatic warming after the KTB impact and implies that severe and abrupt global warming during the earliest Paleocene was an important factor in biotic extinction at the KTB. PMID:12060729

Beerling, D J; Lomax, B H; Royer, D L; Upchurch, G R; Kump, L R

2002-06-11

418

Trace Elements in Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Clay at Gubbio, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1980, Alvarez et al. reported high Ir concentrations for the Cretaceous-Tertiary (hereafter, K/T) boundary layer, suggesting an impact of extraterrestrial material as a possible cause of the sudden mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. Since then, high Ir abundances have been reported for K/T layers all over the world. Iridium enrichments were alternatively explained in terms of volcanic eruptions (Officer and Drake, 1982) or sedimentation (Zoller et al, 1982). Thus, abundances of Ir only cannot be critical in explaining the cause of the mass extinctions at the K/T boundary. In contrast to the fairly large number of Ir data for K/T boundary geological materials, only limited data are available for other siderophile elements. Relative abundances of siderophiles must be more informative in considering the causes of extinction, and provide further data on the type of extraterrestrial material of the projectile if siderophile abundances are in favor of an impact as the cause of the mass extinction at the K/T boundary. Thus, we analyzed additional K/T boundary materials for trace elements, including some of the siderophiles. A total of 7 samples collected from the K/T boundary near Gubbio, Italy (three from Bottaccione, four from Contessa) were analyzed. For comparison, we analyzed three additional samples, one from a Cretaceous sediment layer and the remaining two from a Tertiary layer. Four siderophile elements (Ir, Pt, Au, and Pd) were measured by RNAA and more than 25 elements, including 9 lanthanoids, were measured by INAA. The siderophiles listed above and Ni were found to be present in all of the boundary clay samples. They have C1-normalized abundances of 0.02 for Ni, Ir, and Pt, 0.04 for Pd, and Au was exceptionally depleted at 0.005. Both Ni and Ir show fairly small variations in abundances among the clay samples, whereas the other three elements show quite large variations, exceeding error limits. We believe that similar enrichments for these siderophiles in the K/T boundary clays were caused by an impact of extraterrestrial material having siderophiles that have not been largely fractionated. Similar abundance patterns of REE were confirmed not only for clay samples but also for the Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. This suggests that sedimentation continued in similar circumstances without a large disturbance at the K/T boundary. We confirmed excellent correlations among Ir, As, and Sb abundances in the K/T samples, suggesting that they had a similar solution chemistry when sedimentation occurred. Both As and Sb show similar abundances, even for the Cretaceous as well as the Tertiary sediments, while Ir does not. Neither Pd nor Pt shows any correlation with these elements or with each other. This suggests that Ir was trapped into the clay together with As and Sb, but not with Pd or Pt. It is highly unlikely that these siderophiles were supplied only from sea water, and were eventually greatly enriched in clay materials, with the relative elemental abundances coinciding with those in chondrites. Thus, our data strongly suggest that a large impact of extraterrestrial material (chondritic?) caused the enrichment of siderophiles at K/T boundary. Acknowledgment. We are indebted to M. Ozima and S. Amari for samples analyzed in this work. References Alvarez, L.W., Alvarez, W., Asaro, F., and Michel, H.V. (1980) Science 208, 1095-1108. Officer, C.B. and Drake, C.L. (1982) Science 219, 1383-1390. Zoller, W.H., Parrington, J.R., and Kotra, J.M.P. (1983) Science 222, 1118-1120.

Ebihara, M.; Miura, T.

1992-07-01

419

Science Shy, Science Savvy, Science Smart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science-shy public served by science-shy Congress could threaten national and global survival. People will come to understand science and technology when actively experiencing these disciplines as they exist in reality; where they have power and beauty, rather than in educational frameworks; where they are often neutered. Fortunately, "real…

Fort, Deborah C.

1993-01-01

420

Soapy Science. Teaching Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

Leyden, Michael

1997-01-01

421

Soapy Science. Teaching Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)|

Leyden, Michael

1997-01-01

422

Science Shorts: Spoilage Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's fresh or processed, all food eventually spoils. Methods such as freezing, canning, and the use of preservatives lengthen the lifespan of foods, and we--and the modern food industry--rely on these methods to maintain our food supply. This month's Science Shorts explores the concepts of food spoilage and prevention.

2005-01-01

423

Factors Influencing Science Content Accuracy in Elementary Inquiry Science Lessons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This study examined 81 in-classroom inquiry science lessons for preservice education majors and their cooperating teachers to determine the accuracy of the science content delivered in elementary classrooms. Our results showed that 74 % of experienced teachers and 50 % of student teachers presented science lessons with greater than 90 % accuracy. Eleven of the 81 lessons (9 preservice, 2 cooperating teachers) failed to deliver accurate science content to the class. Science content accuracy was highly correlated with the use of kit-based resources supported with professional development, a preference for teaching science, and grade level. There was no correlation between the accuracy of science content and some common measures of teacher content knowledge (i.e., number of college science courses, science grades, or scores on a general science content test). Our study concluded that when provided with high quality curricular materials and targeted professional development, elementary teachers learn needed science content and present it accurately to their students.

Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert

2013-06-01

424

Science education policy for emergency, conflict, and post-conflict: An analysis of trends and implications for the science education program in Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative admission in higher institutions of learning, (b) curriculum reform, (c) professional development of teachers, (d) school security and safety, (e) science and technology education, and (f) increased funding for emergency education. The study proposes a model of "Schools as Islands of Peace and Hope" with science education as the tool for post-conflict economic recovery, as a blue print for emergency education policy framework.

Udongo, Betty Pacutho

425

26 CFR 1.193-1 - Deduction for tertiary injectant expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provide tertiary enhanced recovery for which the...the same value on recovery that they would...as oil shale and condensate). (5) Injectant...single tertiary recovery process. (d...method for the enhanced recovery...

2009-04-01

426

26 CFR 1.193-1 - Deduction for tertiary injectant expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provide tertiary enhanced recovery for which the...the same value on recovery that they would...as oil shale and condensate). (5) Injectant...single tertiary recovery process. (d...method for the enhanced recovery...

2010-04-01

427

Teaching Science with the Social Studies of Science for Equity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating the social studies of science into science education would make explicit the cultures of science, which have been revealed by historians, philosophers, sociologists, and feminist science scholars. These cultures include the institutions of science, the interaction of science and the society in which it is practiced, and the internal culture of science. This pedagogy may be a route to increasing equity in science, by giving women and members of other under-represented groups an appreciation of the factors causing their alienation from the enterprise and the tools to change science for social justice. In this article, I present the theoretical basis of this position, along with the implementation strategies and preliminary assessment for a sophomore level biology course based on this perspective.

Lederman, Muriel

428

Candida tropicalis Fungemia in a Tertiary Care Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida tropicalis is a frequent cause of fungemia in hospitals in Latin America. Candida albicans (33%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida parapsilosis (27%), andCandida tropicalis (24%) in tertiary care hospital in Brazil. We identified and retrospectively reviewed 27 cases of C. tropicalis fungemia that occurred at Hospital de Cl??nicas de Porto Alegre from 1996 to 1999.

L. Z. Goldani; P. S. S. Mário

2003-01-01

429

Protein Tertiary Structure Prediction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins are essential for the biological processes in the human body. They can only perform their functions when they fold into their tertiary structure. Protein structure can be determined experimentally and computationally. Experimental methods are time consuming and high-priced and it is not always feasible to identify the protein structure experimentally. In order to predict the protein structure using computational

Hesham Awadh Abdallah Bahamish; Rosni Abdullah; Rosalina Abdul Salam

2009-01-01

430

Systemic Responsiveness in Tertiary Education: An Agenda for Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last several years the author conducted 126 interviews and held four focus groups with academic staff, administrators and others associated with Australian universities, about the problems and challenges they believed faced the system of tertiary education. Widespread concern and pessimism pervaded the interviews about the future of…

Tierney, William G.

2004-01-01

431

Teaching the Attributes of Venture Teamwork in Tertiary Entrepreneurship Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to demonstrate the characteristics of group work that are required to teach the attributes of real world venture teamwork in tertiary entrepreneurship programmes. Design/methodology/approach: One-tailed Spearman correlation analysis is used to assess the associations between students' grades in four group assessment tasks…

Kotey, Bernice

2007-01-01

432

Mechanism of Tertiary Oil Recovery by Aqueous Chemical Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tertiary recovery of oil by chemical flooding is a complex process involving both micro and macroemulsions. Relying on fundamental considerations of theory, operation and economics it is suggested that in situ emulsification of the immobile residual oil (and mobile secondary oil) in the petroleum reservoir and its transport as such to the producing well is feasible and has many

Krishna Kamath; Anthony Zammerilli; Joseph Comberiati; Billy Taylor; Franklin Slagle

1982-01-01

433

TEACHING ACADEMIC WRITING IN ENGLISH TO TERTIARY STUDENTS IN UKRAINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses teaching writing in English to tertiary students with English as their major. The distinction is drawn between teaching writing for practical purposes and teaching academic writing. The focus of the paper is on teaching academic writing that is considered as an effective means of developing students' communicative abilities in English and their creative approach to learning and

Oleg Tarnopolsky; Svitlana Kozhushko

434

Tertiary architecture of the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group II intron  

SciTech Connect

Group II introns are large ribozymes that act as self-splicing and retrotransposable RNA molecules. They are of great interest because of their potential evolutionary relationship to the eukaryotic spliceosome, their continued influence on the organization of many genomes in bacteria and eukaryotes, and their potential utility as tools for gene therapy and biotechnology. One of the most interesting features of group II introns is their relative lack of nucleobase conservation and covariation, which has long suggested that group II intron structures are stabilized by numerous unusual tertiary interactions and backbone-mediated contacts. Here, we provide a detailed description of the tertiary interaction networks within the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group IIC intron, for which a crystal structure was recently solved to 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure can be described as a set of several intricately constructed tertiary interaction nodes, each of which contains a core of extended stacking networks and elaborate motifs. Many of these nodes are surrounded by a web of ribose zippers, which appear to further stabilize local structure. As predicted from biochemical and genetic studies, the group II intron provides a wealth of new information on strategies for RNA folding and tertiary structural organization.

Toor, Navtej; Keating, Kevin S.; Fedorova, Olga; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Wang, Jimin; Pyle, Anna Marie (Yale); (Cornell)

2010-05-03

435

An extraterrestrial event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced samples from an uninterrupted calcareous pelagic sequence across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary reveal that the extinction of planktonic Foraminifera and nannofossils was abrupt without any previous warning in the sedimentary record, and that the moment of extinction was coupled with anomalous trace element enrichments, especially of iridium and osmium. The rarity of these two elements in the crust of

J. Smit; J. Hertogen

1980-01-01

436

Students' Experience of the Transition from School to Tertiary College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the experiences of a group of students as they transferred from school to tertiary college at age 16. Highlights the distinction drawn between the curriculum-related aspects and the personal/social aspects of the students' concerns. Discusses implications of the findings in the context of a recent HMI Report on the pastoral…

Prout, Gillian A.

1993-01-01

437

Pilot Plant for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater with Ozone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tertiary treatment of wastewater with ozone in a nominal 50,000 gal./day pilot plant at Blue Plains, Washington, D.C., is described. Plant performance for each feed is described in terms of COD reduction characteristics and the effects of pH, ozone concen...

C. S. Wynn B. S. Kirk R. McNabney

1973-01-01

438

Radioactive Dating of Tertiary Plant-Bearing Deposits.  

PubMed

Four potassium-argon determinations from Tertiary rocks in the interior of British Columbia have yielded dates ranging from 45 to 49 million years. This suggests contemporaneity of three separate localities within the Middle Eocene epoch. Abundant plant micro- and macrofossils support this conclusion and indicate a flora quite different from floras of comparable age in western United States. PMID:17742775

Rouse, G E; Mathews, W H

1961-04-01

439

Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Biotic Crisis in the Basque Country.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Zumaya section has been selected as a classic locality for the study of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary due to its richness in microfaune, macrofaune, and nannoflora. The sections present similar good conditions for the study of the K-T boundar...

M. A. Lamolda

1988-01-01

440

The Tertiary Programming Learning Environment: Is It Equitable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computing learning environment has not often been equitable for female students. For example, the number of females enrolled in tertiary computing courses is low compared with males and their retention is poor. In recent years, New Zealand educational institutions have experienced an increased enrolment of ‘new arrivals’ – students of diverse nationalities, cultures and educational backgrounds. The New Zealand

Barbara J. Crump; LÉonie J. Rennie

2004-01-01

441

Expenditure per student, tertiary (% of GDP per capita)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data set and map pertaining to expenditure per tertiary school student for all countries as a percentage of their GDP per capita. The World Bank specifies expenditure per student as a World Development Indicator (WDI) -- the statistical benchmark that helps measure the progress of development.

Bank, World

442

Molluscan biogeography and biostratigraphy of the Tertiary of southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zonation based on Mollusca for the Tertiary of southeastern Australia (Murray, Otway, Bass and Gippsland Basins) is proposed, consisting of a sequence of 18 informal assemblage zones ranging in age from Middle Paleocene to Late Pliocene. The assemblages are defined using the molluscan fauna of a typical locality which gives the name to the assemblage.Factors such as larval dispersal,

Thomas A. Darragh

1985-01-01

443

Pedagogical Practices of Reflection in Tertiary Dance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three different perspectives on reflection in education are embedded in the philosophical traditions of pragmatism, critical social theory and Kant. We aimed to describe the pedagogical practices of reflection, and to develop a descriptive model of the practices of reflection in tertiary dance education which can be used by dance educators to…

Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Wildschut, Liesbeth

2008-01-01

444

Tertiary paleoweatherings and silcretes in the southern Paris Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern border of the Paris Basin has undergone successive weathering events during the Tertiary. Fluviatile and lacustrine deposits are scattered, being mainly confined to several North-South trending grabens. These are generally devoid of fossils which would allow them to he dated. A discontinuous blanket of weathering products is the main record of this long period of continental evolution.These weathered

Médard Thiry; Régine Simon-Coinçon

1996-01-01

445

Magnetic Susceptibility Variations across the Cretaceous - Tertiary Boundary in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately four meters of carbonates were sampled across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in a little deformed platform sequence in Oman. The sample locality is in the Murka Formation (Roger et al., 1998) in the east flank of a N-S anticline west of Abat; geographically the area is near the south limit of the Oman Mountains, about 20 km west of Sur.

W. D. MacDonald; B. B. Ellwood; C. W. Wheeler; S. L. Benoist

2001-01-01

446

Asset Distribution and Tertiary Education Expenditure in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether initial asset distribution affects the composition of government expenditure on education. Using a cross-section of developing countries, it is found that a country's initial asset inequality is positively and significantly associated with the ratio of tertiary education expenditure to government education expenditure,…

Hwang, J.

2005-01-01

447

The Place of VET in the Tertiary Sector. Conference Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utilitarian spirit of Australian education has meant that since the nineteenth century the notion of tertiary education has embraced all post-school learning, delivered in sandstone universities or working men's institutes or on the job. This is not the definition the peak bodies TAFE (Technical and Further Education) Directors Australia (TDA)…

Beddie, Francesca

2010-01-01

448

Closing pathways: refugee-background students and tertiary education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes to policies and funding for tertiary education are exacerbating an already difficult situation for refugees aiming to earn university degrees. No one intended to create the barriers that the refugee-background community faces; government agencies continue attempts to improve educational outcomes for those who arrive as refugees. The root causes of this situation are the complexity of the refugee

Diane ORourke

2011-01-01

449

Incidence of congenital heart disease in tertiary care hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and Objectives: The present study was under taken to determine the spectrum, clinical profile and outcome of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, observational hospital based study conducted during January 2006 to December 2006. Out of 14461 admissions, 84 were cases of CHD. Only patients with

Shah GS; Singh MK; Pandey TR; Kalakheti BK; Bhandari GP

450

Tertiary architecture of the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group II intron  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are large ribozymes that act as self-splicing and retrotransposable RNA molecules. They are of great interest because of their potential evolutionary relationship to the eukaryotic spliceosome, their continued influence on the organization of many genomes in bacteria and eukaryotes, and their potential utility as tools for gene therapy and biotechnology. One of the most interesting features of group II introns is their relative lack of nucleobase conservation and covariation, which has long suggested that group II intron structures are stabilized by numerous unusual tertiary interactions and backbone-mediated contacts. Here, we provide a detailed description of the tertiary interaction networks within the Oceanobacillus iheyensis group IIC intron, for which a crystal structure was recently solved to 3.1 Å resolution. The structure can be described as a set of several intricately constructed tertiary interaction nodes, each of which contains a core of extended stacking networks and elaborate motifs. Many of these nodes are surrounded by a web of ribose zippers, which appear to further stabilize local structure. As predicted from biochemical and genetic studies, the group II intron provides a wealth of new information on strategies for RNA folding and tertiary structural organization.

Toor, Navtej; Keating, Kevin S.; Fedorova, Olga; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Wang, Jimin; Pyle, Anna Marie

2010-01-01

451

Principles of Optimally Placing Data in Tertiary Storage Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, technological advances have resulted in the wide availability of commercial prod- ucts offering near-line, robot-based, tertiary storage libraries. Thus, such libraries have become a crucial component of modern large- scale storage servers, given the very large stor- age requirements of modern applications. Al- though the subject of optimal data placement (ODP) strategies has received considerable at- tention for other

Stavros Christodoulakis; Peter Triantafillou; Fenia Zioga

1997-01-01

452

Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreak at a tertiary referral eye care clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred at a tertiary referral eye care clinic between late September and mid-November 1995. Before the outbreak, instruments were cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol and handwashing between patients was not routine. Infection control measures were implemented when the outbreak was recognized in mid-October. Control measures included triaging suspected cases to a separate waiting area,

V. Montessori; S. Scharf; S. Holland; D. H. Werker; F. J. Roberts; E. Bryce

1998-01-01

453

Secondary and Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism, State of the Art Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews the current surgical management of patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The focus is on innovative surgical strategies that have improved the care of these patients over the past 10 to 15 years. Modalities such as intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring and radioguided probe utilization are discussed.

Pitt, Susan C.; Sippel, Rebecca S.

2010-01-01

454

Far-Infrared Spectra of Tertiary Ammonium Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The far-infrared spectra of several tertiary ammonium salts have been studied in the solid state and in solution. The solution spectra do not reflect the symmetry of the ion aggregates that form in some solvents. The spectra are characterized by two broad...

G. Y. W. Kwong J. R. Kludt R. L. McDonald

1971-01-01

455

Automated extraction and classification of RNA tertiary structure cyclic motifs  

PubMed Central

A minimum cycle basis of the tertiary structure of a large ribosomal subunit (LSU) X-ray crystal structure was analyzed. Most cycles are small, as they are composed of 3- to 5 nt, and repeated across the LSU tertiary structure. We used hierarchical clustering to quantify and classify the 4 nt cycles. One class is defined by the GNRA tetraloop motif. The inspection of the GNRA class revealed peculiar instances in sequence. First is the presence of UA, CA, UC and CC base pairs that substitute the usual sheared GA base pair. Second is the revelation of GNR(Xn)A tetraloops, where Xn is bulged out of the classical GNRA structure, and of GN/RA formed by the two strands of interior-loops. We were able to unambiguously characterize the cycle classes using base stacking and base pairing annotations. The cycles identified correspond to small and cyclic motifs that compose most of the LSU RNA tertiary structure and contribute to its thermodynamic stability. Consequently, the RNA minimum cycles could well be used as the basic elements of RNA tertiary structure prediction methods.

Lemieux, Sebastien; Major, Francois

2006-01-01

456

Rekindling Warm Embers: Teaching Aboriginal Languages in the Tertiary Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the teaching of Aboriginal languages in the tertiary sector of Australia, looking at the stronger languages taught in the university sector versus those languages under revival that tend to be taught in the TAFE sector. The paper summarises the status of courses offered state by state, and sets the scene with some historical…

Gale, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

457

VERIFICATION OF A TERTIARY MODEL FOR GROWTH OF SALMONELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of predictive models for pathogen growth into user-friendly computer software applications (tertiary modeling) is important for their routine use in the food industry to assess food safety. Kinetic data for high-density (4.8 log CFU/g) growth of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 on st...

458

Physical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physical science is the science of matter and energy and their interactions and examines the physical world around us. Using the methods of the physical sciences, students learn about the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter and the relationships between matter and energy. Students are best able to build understanding of the physical sciences through hands-on exploration of the physical world.

K-12 Outreach,

459

Science Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

Odell, Bill

2005-01-01

460

Science Sacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

Freudenberg, Kimberlee

2012-01-01

461

Science Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and serves its readers as a forum for the presentation and discussion of important issues related to the advancement of science. The gopher site contains the current issue's table of contents, editorial, "This Week in SCIENCE" column, plus the classified ads and information for contributors.

1995-01-01

462

Early science education and astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inquiry-based science education is currently receiving a consensus as a pedagogy to teach science at primary and middle school levels, with the goal to reach all children and youngsters, no matter what their future professional choices will be. By the same token, it also greatly increases the fraction of the school population in which future technicians, engineers and sciences could

David Wilgenbus; Pierre Léna

2011-01-01

463

Science: Grades K-2. [Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document was developed to provide primary level school teachers in New York City with specific materials and suggestions for organizing effective learning experiences in the science area. The program is designed to emphasize both science knowledge and science processes. An introductory section presents ideas related to the overall philosophy…

Green, Muriel; And Others

464

Life Science For Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science is taught at all grade levels, yet there exists a deficiency in the amount of emphasis placed on science training for elementary teachers. As a result, teachers often feel inadequate in their knowledge of scientific areas and in their ability to develop science process skills in their students. As a result in this lack of training, a need exists

Catherine Devine

1990-01-01

465

Science Fiction: The Academic Awakening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides background information on science fiction for teachers of English at any level who are approaching science fiction for the first time. Contents are: an introduction by W.E. McNelly; "SF in the Classroom" by J. Williamson; "Second Thoughts on the Course in Science Fiction" by M.R. Hillegas; "Flatland and Beyond: Characterization…

McNelly, Willis E., Ed.

466

Science: Grades K-2. [Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed to provide primary level school teachers in New York City with specific materials and suggestions for organizing effective learning experiences in the science area. The program is designed to emphasize both science knowledge and science processes. An introductory section presents ideas related to the overall philosophy…

Green, Muriel; And Others

467

Colorado Model Content Standards: Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

Colorado Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

468

PBS Teacher: Science and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Search for science units, lessons and activities by subject and grade level (oceanography resources available). Several resources are correlated to the National Science Education Standards, and some include supporting materials such as video clips. Teacher professional development programs offered, in addition to schedules of PBS science-related programs.

469

Science Learning: Processes and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflecting a collaboration in terms of content areas, levels, and audience, this volume represents the efforts of science teachers and reading teachers to understand and help one another fine tune their craft. Chapters in the volume include: (1) "Metacognition, Reading and Science Education" (Linda Baker); (2) "Science and Reading: Many Process…

Santa, Carol Minnick, Ed.; Alvermann, Donna E., Ed.

470

Reading in the Science Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several practical methods are presented in this handbook designed to aid the science teacher in the incorporation of reading strategies into the science curriculum. Included are suggestions for assessing the reading levels of science students and textbooks students will be using in the classrooms. Examples and illustrations are provided to…

Bechtel, Judith; Franzblau, Bettie

471

Awareness of cancer risk factors among patients and attendants presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine awareness of cancer risk factors in the patients and attendants of Out-patient Clinics at a University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 315 respondents reporting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their level of awareness regarding risk factors of cancer.RESULTS: The respondents belonged to an urban population with the

Hadi Bhurgri; Saqib Ali Gowani; Ahmed Itrat; Saira Samani; Akbar Zuberi; Momin Saulat Siddique; Waris Qidwai; Yasmin Bhurgri

2008-01-01

472

Comparative Tertiary stratigraphy of the Rhine Graben, Bresse Graben and Molasse Basin: correlation of Alpine foreland events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Tertiary (Middle Eocene–Pliocene) of the Rhine–Bresse graben system and the western Molasse Basin demonstrates the occurrence of eleven correlative sequences (CRF I–XI). These show a close relationship between intra-basinal tectonics and depositional history. Their punctuated sediment accumulation can be related to phases of extra-Alpine taphrogenesis and Alpine orogenesis, and to coeval eustatic changes in sea-level.

W. Sissingh

1998-01-01