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1

PLATYPUS: a PLA test pattern generation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLAs which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the constrained\\/unconstrained, simple\\/multiple folding program PLEASURE and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C developed at the University of California at Berkeley. PLATYPUS uses biased random test generation as a quick preprocess followed by a deterministic

Ruey-Sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1985-01-01

2

PLATYPUS: A PLA Test Pattern Generation Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLA's which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the folding program PLEASURE [12] and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C [11] developed at the University of California at Berkeley. A new algorithm is proposed based on complementation and the tautology check of a

Ruey-sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1986-01-01

3

Advanced automatic test pattern generation and redundancy identification techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the sophisticated strategies used in the automatic test pattern generation system SOCRATES, the authors present several concepts aiming at a further improvement and acceleration of the deterministic test pattern generation and redundancy identification process. In particular, they describe an improved implication procedure and an improved unique sensitization procedure. Both procedures significantly advance the deterministic test pattern generation and

Michael H. Schulz; Elisabeth Auth

1988-01-01

4

Testability-Driven Random Test-Pattern Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ESPRIT, an automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) system for testing single stuck-at faults in combinational logic. ESPRIT generates test patterns by performing fault simulation on random patterns derived from nonuniformly distributed input signal probabilities. The system computes input signal probabilities that minimize a testability cost function. Using ESPRIT, we have observed orders-of-magnitude reduction in the number of

Robert Lisanke; Franc Brglez; Aart J. De Geus; David Gregory

1987-01-01

5

Generating test patterns for VLSI circuits using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the development of a technique that uses genetic algorithms for the generation of test patterns that detect single stuck-at faults in combinational VLSI circuits. As the genetic algorithm evolves, an efficient set of test patterns are produced, by searching the solution space for patterns that detect the highest number of remaining faults in the fault list.

M. J. O'Dare; T. Arslan

1994-01-01

6

Advanced automatic test pattern generation techniques for path delay faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the sophisticated techniques applied in the automatic test pattern generation system SOCRATES, the authors present the extension of SOCRATES to test generation for path delay faults. In particular, they propose a ten-valued logic and describe the corresponding implication and path sensitization procedures in detail. After discussing an extended multiple backtrace procedure, which has been developed specifically to meet

Michael H. Schulz; Karl Fuchs; Franz Fink

1989-01-01

7

A Test-Pattern-Generation Algorithm for Sequential Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic test-pattern-generation algorithm for synchronous sequential circuits is presented. The algorithm, called Essential, takes advantage of a procedure for learning global implications. It uses static and dynamic dominance relationships among signals, the concept of the potential propagation path, and intelligent heuristics to guide and accelerate the decision-making process for deterministic automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). Essential is based on

Elisabeth Auth; Michael H. Schulz

1991-01-01

8

Hierarchical Test Pattern Generation Based on High-Level Primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that the exploitation of high-level primitives (HLPs) and, in particular, of the knowledge concerning their function in ATPG (automatic test pattern generation) leads to significant improvements in implication, unique sensitization, and multiple backtrace. Motivated by this observation and the necessity of covering all faults inside HLPs, the authors present the extension of the ATPG system SOCRATES to

Thomas M. Sarfert; Remo G. Markgraf; Erwin Trischler; Michael H. Schulz

1989-01-01

9

Test Pattern Generation for Realistic Bridge Faults in CMOS ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches have been used to balance the costof generating effective tests for IC's and the need toincrease the quality level of shipped IC's. The first approachfavors using high-level fault models to reducetest generation costs, and the second approach favorsthe use of low-level, technology-specific fault modelsthat lead to high test generation costs, but increaseddefect coverage in the tested circuits. In

F. Joel Ferguson; Tracy Larrabee

1991-01-01

10

Pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generators are neuronal ensembles capable of producing the basic spatiotemporal patterns underlying ‘automatic’ movements (e.g. locomotion, respiration, swallowing and defense reactions), in the absence of peripheral feedback. Different experimental approaches, from classical electrophysiological and pharmacological methods to molecular and genetic ones, have been used to understand the cellular and synaptic bases of central pattern generator organization and reconfiguration

Yuri I Arshavsky; Tatiana G Deliagina; Grigori N Orlovsky

1997-01-01

11

Automatic test pattern generation for logic circuits using the Boolean tree  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to develop an algorithm that can generate test patterns for combinational circuits and sequential logic circuits automatically. The new proposed algorithm generates a test pattern by using a special tree called a modified Boolean tree. In this algorithm, the construction of a modified Boolean tree is the most time-consuming step. Following the construction of a modified Boolean tree, a test pattern can be found by simply assigning a logic value 1 for even primary inputs and a logic value 0 for odd primary inputs of the constructed modified Boolean tree. The algorithm is applied to several benchmark circuits. The results showed the following: (1) for combinational circuits, the algorithm can generate test patterns 10-15% faster than the FAN algorithm, which is known as one of the most efficient algorithms to-date; (2) for sequential circuits, the algorithm shows more fault coverage than the nine valued algorithm.

Jeong Taegwon.

1991-01-01

12

Pattern Generator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet activity allows the learner to recognize patterns and extend them in a sequence of shapes, numbers, or letters. A student can choose from three levels of difficulty and then after determining the pattern, fills in the missing pieces from the right side of the board into their appropriate places in the pattern, shown on the left. There are four tabs for support: Learner, Activity, Help and Instructor and links to other related resources.

2005-01-01

13

Automated test pattern generation for the Cathedral-II\\/2nd architectural synthesis environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD implementation of a testability strategy for chips as designed with the Cathedral-II\\/2nd silicon compilation environment is presented. Emphasis will be on the software tools accomplishing the test assembly. These tools are fully integrated with synthesis, place and route and module generation programs. The hierarchy present in the design has been exploited to assemble the test patterns in an

Jos van Sas; Francky Catthoor; Peter Vandeput; Frank Rossaert; Hugo De Man

1991-01-01

14

An Algorithmic Branch and Bound Method for PLA Test Pattern Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for PLA (programmable logic-array) test-pattern generation based on a branch-and-bound algorithm that function monotonicity is presented. The algorithm makes irrevocable input assignments first, resulting in the efficient generation of compact test sets. In most cases there is no backtracking. An intelligent branching heuristic is presented. The algorithm handles extended fault models, including cross-point and delay faults. Heuristics which

Markus Robinson; Janusz Rajski

1988-01-01

15

TATOO: an industrial timing analyzer with false path elimination and test pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

TATOO is an industrial interactive timing analysis system evolved from recently developed false path elimination algorithms. These have been extended to perform more complex searches that facilitate the rapid survey of a network. An automatic test pattern generation mechanism which exercises the statically sensitizable paths has been developed. This forms a direct link to an electrical simulator. The critical path

Jacques Benkoski; Ronald B. Stewart

1991-01-01

16

Test Pattern Compression Based on Pattern Overlapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a test data compression method based on pattern overlapping. We report here improvements that have been done on the test pattern compaction and compression algorithm called COMPAS. This algorithm reorders and compresses test patterns previously generated in an ATPG in such a way that they are well suited for decompression by the scan chains in the embedded

Jiri Jenícek; Ondrej Novák

2007-01-01

17

Built-in Test Pattern Generation For High-Performance Cir cuits Using Twisted-Ring Counters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach for built-in pattern generation based on the reseeding of twisted-ring counters (TRCs). The proposed technique embeds a precomputed deterministic test set for the circuit under test (CUT) in a short test sequence produced by a TRC. The TRC is designed using existing circuit flip-flops and does not add to hardware overhead beyond what is required

Krishnendu Chakrabarty; Brian T. Murray; Vikram Iyengar

1999-01-01

18

Generating surface crack patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for generating surface crack patterns that appear in materials such as mud, ceramic glaze, and glass. To model these phenomena, we build upon existing physi- cally based methods. Our algorithm generates cracks from a stress field defined heuristi- cally over a triangle discretization of the surface. The simulation produces cracks by evolving this field over time.

Hayley N. Iben; James F. O'brien

2006-01-01

19

On Random Pattern Generation with the Selfish Gene Algorithm for Testing Digital Sequential Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selflsh gene (SG) algorithm difiers from the genetic algorithm (GA) because it evolves genes (characteristics) that provide higher fltness rather than evolving individu- als with higher fltness. We enhance the spectral method of sequential circuit test generation by using a SG algo- rithm. The objects of evolution are the Hadamard spectral matrix, non-lineardigital signal processing(DSP)flltering cutofi values, vector holding

Junwu Zhang; Michael L. Bushnell; Vishwani D. Agrawal

2004-01-01

20

Development of the automatic test pattern generation for NPP digital electronic circuits using the degree of freedom concept  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an improved algorithm for automatic test pattern generation (ATG) for nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits--the combinational type of logic circuits is presented. For accelerating and improving the ATG process for combinational circuits the presented ATG algorithm has the new concept--the degree of freedom (DF). The DF, directly computed from the system descriptions such as types of gates and their interconnections, is the criterion to decide which among several alternate lines` logic values required along each path promises to be the most effective in order to accelerate and improve the ATG process. Based on the DF the proposed ATG algorithm is implemented in the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, it is shown that the AFDS using the ATG algorithm makes Universal Card (UV Card) testing much faster than the present testing practice or by using exhaustive testing sets.

Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-08-01

21

Resistive shorts characterization in CMOS standard cells for test pattern generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an extended method of CMOS standard cells characterization for defect based voltage testing. Resistance of a short defect is taken into account while considering faulty behavior caused by this defect and finding the test vectors that detect this fault. Finally, all of found vectors are validated to check their effectiveness in fault covering and the optimal test sequence for all detectable faults is constructed. Experimental results for cells from industrial standard cell library are presented.

Wielgus, Andrzej; Potrykus, Bartosz

2013-07-01

22

Automatic linearity (IP3) test with built-in pattern generator and analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a built-in self-test (BIST) approach based on direct digital synthesizer (DDS) for functionality testing of analog circuitry in mixed-signal systems. Of particular interest, and a main contribution of This work, is the BIST-based hardware implementation and measurement of amplifier linearity (IP3) test using DDS. The approach described in This work has been implemented in Verilog and synthesized into

F. Dai; C. Stroud; D. Yang; Shuying Qi

2004-01-01

23

RTL design validation, DFT and test pattern generation for high defects coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a RTL design and test methodology allowing the identification of design errors and dificult to verih functional parts. Using novel RTL fault models (namely, for arithmetic and relational operators) and Testability Metrics, two approaches are combined: RTL DFT and TPG. RTL Design for Testability is illustrated through TPI (Test Point Insertion). RTL

M. B. Santos; F. M. Gonqalves; I. C. Teixeira; J. P. Teixeira

2001-01-01

24

Power supply noise and ground bounce aware pattern generation for delay testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power supply noise and ground bounce can significantly impact the circuit's performance. Existing delay testing techniques do not capture the impact of combined and uncorrelated power supply noise and ground bounce for critical path delay analysis. They capture the worst case power supply noise in order to obtain the worst case path delay. We show that such assumption is not

A. Todri; A. Bosio; L. Dilillo; P. Girard; S. Pravossoudovitch; A. Virazel

2011-01-01

25

Pattern generation for delay testing and dynamic timing analysisconsidering power-supply noise effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise effects such as power supply and crosstalk noise can significantly impact the performance of deep submicrometer designs. Existing delay testing and timing analysis techniques cannot capture the effects of noise on the signal\\/cell delays. Therefore, these techniques cannot capture the worst case timing scenarios and the predicted circuit performance might not reflect the worst case circuit delay. More accurate

Angela Krstic; Yi-min Jiang; Kwang-ting Cheng

2001-01-01

26

RTL Design Validation, DFT and Test Pattern Generation for High Defects Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a RTL design and test methodology allowing the identification of design errors and difficult to verify functional parts. Using novel RTL fault models (namely, for arithmetic and relational operators) and Testability Metrics, two approaches are combined: RTL DFT and TPG. The need to inject faults on implicit variables of the RTL description

Marcelino B. Santos; Fernando M. Gonçalves; Isabel C. Teixeira; João Paulo Teixeira

2002-01-01

27

An Optimized DFT and Test Pattern Generation Strategy for an Intel High Performance Microprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an optimized DFT architecture and its implementation strategy for an Intel high performance (>3 GHz) microprocessor. Major DFT features and ATPG techniques implemented are described and key results are presented to show the return-on-investments (ROI) in the high volume manufacturing (HVM) test environments.

David M. Wu; Mike Lin; Madhukar Reddy; Talal Jaber; Anil Sabbavarapu; Larry Thatcher

2004-01-01

28

Sequential Fault Modeling and Test Pattern Generation for CMOS Iterative Logic Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iterative Logic Arrays (ILAs) are widely used in the datapath parts of digital circuits, like general purpose microprocessors, embedded processors, and digital signal processors. Testing strategies based on more comprehensive fault models than the traditional combinational fault models have become an imperative need in CMOS technology. In this paper, first, we introduce a comprehensive, cell-level, sequential fault model suitable for

Mihalis Psarakis; Dimitris Gizopoulos; Antonis M. Paschalis; Yervant Zorian

2000-01-01

29

Pattern Generation on CADDS/2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The crucial progression from CAE/CAD integrated circuit and microstructure design to photolithography can be accomplished through the utilization of an assortment of pattern generation formats available on CADDS/2. ''The most critical part of the lithogra...

D. M. Anderson

1985-01-01

30

Creative Test Generators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief description of a test generating program which generates questions concerning the Fortran programming language in a random but guided fashion and without resorting to an item bank.'' (Author/AK)

Vickers, F. D.

1973-01-01

31

Creative Test Generators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief description of a test generating program which generates questions concerning the Fortran programming language in a random but guided fashion and without resorting to an item bank.'' (Author/AK)|

Vickers, F. D.

1973-01-01

32

Starter/generator testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sundstrand Aerospace and GE Aircraft Engines have studied the switched reluctance machine for use as an integral starter/generator for future aircraft engines. They have conducted an initial, low-power testing of the starter/generator, which is based on power inverters using IGBT-technology semiconductors, to verify its feasibility in the externally mounted version of the integral starter/generator. This preliminary testing of the 250-kW starter/generator reveals favorable results.

Anon

1994-10-01

33

Invertebrate central pattern generator circuits.  

PubMed

There are now a reasonable number of invertebrate central pattern generator (CPG) circuits described in sufficient detail that a mechanistic explanation of how they work is possible. These small circuits represent the best-understood neural circuits with which to investigate how cell-to-cell synaptic connections and individual channel conductances combine to generate rhythmic and patterned output. In this review, some of the main lessons that have appeared from this analysis are discussed and concrete examples of circuits ranging from single phase to multiple phase patterns are described. While it is clear that the cellular components of any CPG are basically the same, the topology of the circuits have evolved independently to meet the particular motor requirements of each individual organism and only a few general principles of circuit operation have emerged. The principal usefulness of small systems in relation to the brain is to demonstrate in detail how cellular infrastructure can be used to generate rhythmicity and form specialized patterns in a way that may suggest how similar processes might occur in more complex systems. But some of the problems and challenges associated with applying data from invertebrate preparations to the brain are also discussed. Finally, I discuss why it is useful to have well-defined circuits with which to examine various computational models that can be validated experimentally and possibly applied to brain circuits when the details of such circuits become available. PMID:20603355

Selverston, Allen I

2010-08-12

34

Test generation for large logic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for automatic test pattern generation for large logic networks is described. The network to be tested is assumed to comply with a set of ground rules for testability. The system includes features for automatic subdivision of the network into easily tested sub-networks, automatic test generation programs, and a post-processor which produces a highly efficient test program. Applications to

P. S. Bottorff; R. E. France; N. H. Garges; E. J. Orosz

1977-01-01

35

Next Generation Test Generator (NGTG) for digital circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process outlined in this paper describes the system developed to meet the goals of the Next Generation Test Generator program, funded by the Office of Naval Research. This system takes advantage of an unsupervised pattern classification algorithm (Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that is combined to form an optimizing control system. The GA generates a

Steven Singer; Larry Vanetsky

1997-01-01

36

AI Planner Assisted Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an AI planner assisted approach to generate test cases for system testing based on high level test objectives. We use four levels of test generation: the metaprocessor, the preprocessor, the AI planner, and the postprocessor levels. Test generation is based on an extended UML model of the system under test and a mapping of high-level test objectives

Anneliese K. Amschler Andrews; Chunhui Zhu; Michael Scheetz; Eric Dahlman; Adele E. Howe

2002-01-01

37

Pattern fidelity enhancement with OPC pattern generation on laser lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser pattern generators ALTA 3500 and 3700 are widely used for 0.18 micron and above technology nodes in photomask manufacturing. They have low butting, high throughput and high position accuracy, with some weaknesses such as, corner rounding, no proximity effect correction and poor CD linearity when compared to E-beam pattern generators. Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) software was thus created to extend the productivity of laser pattern generators. For contact holes serifs are typically added at the four corners to enhance pattern fidelity. However, the serifs or scattering bars can significantly increase the data size. In our study, we generated serifs for contact holes but applied different exposure strategies: (1) lumping serifs together with the main pattern; (2) exposing serifs and main pattern separately with same dosage; (3) exposing serifs and main pattern separately with different dosages. We examined the results of each approach in terms of contact hole quality, throughput, and inspection results.

Lee, Gaston; Chung, Yi-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Tsung; Cheng, Wen-Hwa; Lin, Ren-Jang; Wang, Tsung Si; Cheng, Yuan-Cheng; Chou, Wei-Jen

2006-06-01

38

Anticipation-based temporal pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network model of complex temporal pattern generation is proposed and investigated analytically and by computer simulation. Temporal pattern generation is based on recognition of the contexts of individual components. Based on its acquired experience, the model actively yields system anticipation, which then compares with the actual input flow. A mismatch triggers self-organization of context learning, which ultimately leads

DeLiang Wang; Budi Yuwono

1995-01-01

39

A periodic pattern generator for dental diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Periodic patterning of iterative structures is a fundamental process during embryonic organization and development. Studies have shown how gene networks are employed to pattern butterfly eyespots, fly bristles and vertebrate epithelial appendages such as teeth, feathers, hair and mammary glands. Despite knowledge of how these features are organized, little is known about how diversity in periodic patterning is generated

Gareth J Fraser; Ryan F Bloomquist; J Todd Streelman

2008-01-01

40

Test case generator for GUITAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

As GUIs become more popular, the need for GUI testing tools becomes greater. Many current GUI test generation techniques require proprietary tools and can be hard to use to their fullest potential. This paper outlines a new test case generation strategy, which enables testers to automatically produce cases in a widely used format. We hope that this strategy will encourage

Daniel R. Hackner; Atif M. Memon

2008-01-01

41

Test Generation from LOTOS Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach is proposed for generating test cases from LOTOS specifications for protocol conformance testing. A set of transformation rules is applied to the specification, and the specification is mapped to an extended finite state machine called a chart. The flow of data in the chart is modeled by a data flow graph. Test cases are generated from the

Piyu Tripathy; Behçet Sarikaya

1991-01-01

42

Generating Tests from UML Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Although most industry testing of complex software is conductedat the system level, most formal research has focused on theunit level.Asaresult,mostsystemlevel testing techniques are only describedinformally. This paper presents a novel technique that adaptspre-de#ned state-based speci#cation test data generation criteria to generatetest cases from UML statecharts. UML statecharts provide a solidbasis for test generation in a form that can be

A. Jefferson Offutt; Aynur Abdurazik

1999-01-01

43

New downhole steam generator tested  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO)

Bleakley

1981-01-01

44

Impact of Multiple-Detect Test Patterns on Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the impact of multiple-detect test patterns on outgoing product quality. It introduces an ATPG tool that generates multiple-detect test patterns while maximizing the coverage of node-to- node bridging defects. Volume data obtained by testing a production ASIC with these new multiple- detect patterns shows increased defect screening capability and very good agreement with the bridging coverage estimated

Brady Benware; Chris Schuermyer; Sreenevasan Ranganathan; Robert Madge; Prabhu Krishnamurthy; Nagesh Tamarapalli; Kun-han Tsai; Janusz Rajski

2003-01-01

45

Handleiding Patroongenerator (Manual for a Pattern Generator).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principle and use of a pattern generation the real time power control of an RF station are described. This station is situated just behind the extraction line of an accelerator ring. The RF signal depends on the bundle. During injection, the power swi...

R. Leenheer

1991-01-01

46

System Generating Competence Patterns of Organizational Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, knowledge management systems (KM- systems) for handling organizational knowledge have been the subject of sizeable interest within the research fields of CSCW and IS. However, information technology (IT) for managing competence has been debated less extensively. This paper describes and evaluates the design of Competence Visualizer (CV), which is a KM-system generating competence patterns of organizationa l

Rikard Lindgren

47

Implicit test generation for behavioral VHDL models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a behavioral-level test patterngeneration algorithm for behavioral VHDL descriptions.The proposed approach is based on the comparison betweenthe implicit description of the fault-free behaviorand the faulty behavior, obtained through a new behavioralfault model. The paper will experimentally showthat the test patterns generated at the behavioral levelprovide a very high stuck-at fault coverage when appliedto different gate-level implementations of

Fabrizio Ferrandi; Franco Fummi; Donatella Sciuto

1998-01-01

48

HITEC: a test generation package for sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents HITEC, a sequential circuit test generation package to generate test patterns for sequential circuits, without assuming the use of scan techniques or a reset state. Several new techniques are introduced to improve the performance of test generation. A targeted D element technique is presented, which greatly increases the number of possible mandatory assignments and reduces the over-specification

Thomas Niermann; Janak H. Patel

1991-01-01

49

Hardware-Based Weighted Random Pattern Generation for Boundary Scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce WARP, a weighted test generation system that includes a canonical circuit for resolving weights to any desired precision. Either cellular automata registers (CARs) or linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) are used as a source of random patterns, and optionally, it is possible to permute and linearly combine random bits from the source to control inputs to the

Franc Brglez; Gershon Kedem; Clay Gloster

1989-01-01

50

Diffraction pattern on retina for eye testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to test the eye using a diffraction pattern that is formed on the retina. Usually, a test pattern is imaged onto the retina for examination. The use of a diffraction pattern may bring new merits that complement conventional imaging techniques.

Jutamulia, Suganda; Gheen, Gregory

1995-03-01

51

Intersecting circuits generate precisely patterned retinal waves.  

PubMed

The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that produce stage III waves and desynchronize ON and OFF RGC firing remain obscure. Using dual patch-clamp recordings, we find that ON and OFF RGCs receive sequential excitatory input from ON and OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), respectively. This input sequence is generated by crossover circuits, in which ON CBCs control glutamate release from OFF CBCs via diffusely stratified inhibitory amacrine cells. In addition, neighboring ON CBCs communicate directly and indirectly through lateral glutamatergic transmission and gap junctions, both of which are required for wave initiation and propagation. Thus, intersecting lateral excitatory and vertical inhibitory circuits give rise to precisely patterned stage III retinal waves. PMID:23830830

Akrouh, Alejandro; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

2013-07-03

52

ROLE OF INHIBITION IN RESPIRATORY PATTERN GENERATION  

PubMed Central

Postsynaptic inhibition is a key element of neural circuits underlying behavior, with 20-50% of all mammalian (non-granule) neurons considered inhibitory. For rhythmic movements in mammals, e.g., walking, swimming, suckling, chewing, breathing, inhibition is often hypothesized to play an essential rhythmogenic role. Here we study the role of fast synaptic inhibitory neurotransmission in the generation of breathing pattern by blocking GABAA and glycine receptors in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), a site essential for generation of normal breathing pattern, and in the neighboring Bötzinger Complex (BötC). The breathing rhythm continued following this blockade, but the lung inflation-induced Breuer-Hering inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was suppressed. The antagonists were efficacious, as this blockade abolished the profound effects of the exogenously applied GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or glycine, either of which under control conditions stopped breathing in vagus-intact or vagotomized, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rats. In vagotomized rats, GABAAergic and glycinergic antagonists had little, if any, effect on rhythm. The effect in vagus intact rats was to slow the rhythm to a pace equivalent to that seen after suppression of the aforementioned Breuer-Hering inflation reflex. We conclude that postsynaptic inhibition within the preBötC and BötC is not essential for generation of normal respiratory rhythm in intact mammals. We suggest the primary role of inhibition is in shaping the pattern of respiratory motor output, assuring its stability, and in mediating reflex or volitional apnea, but not in the generation of rhythm per se.

Janczewski, Wiktor A.; Tashima, Alexis; Hsu, Paul; Cui, Yan; Feldman, Jack L.

2013-01-01

53

Generation of humanoid walking pattern based on human walking measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walking pattern generation has been a crucial issue for humanoid robot. To generate more natural walking patterns, and determine parameters more reasonably, this paper presents a method for humanoid walking pattern generation based on human walking characteristics. The characteristics of human walking parameters were obtained by capturing and analyzing human walking data. Walking pattern parameters are determined by using these

Qiang Huang; Zhangguo Yu; Weimin Zhang; Xingguang Duan; Yuancan Huang; Kejie Li

2008-01-01

54

PLATEST: A PLA test generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of PLAs in VLSI chips makes it imperative to have detailed study of the physical failures and the test generation. In this paper, physical failure analysis is carried out for NMOS PLA using SPICE simulation and the effects on the output of the PLA are studied. This study would be helpful in fault diagnosis and in improved

T. S. Raghuram; M. M. Hasan

1991-01-01

55

New downhole steam generator tested  

SciTech Connect

Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

Bleakley, W.B.

1981-07-01

56

Downhole steam generator: field tests  

SciTech Connect

Excessive air pollution and heat losses up to 32% in the surface lines and out the stacks of conventional generators are reasons why conventional steam generation is efficient. These problems are addressed and overcome through the use of a direct-fired down-hole steam generator (DSG). By performing the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and steam is discharged directly into the heavy oil reservoir. This study documents a series of field tests of a direct-fired DSG showing its ability to produce and inject high quality steam into heavy oil reservoirs without the need for expensive stack scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), as well as sophisticated nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) control techniques. Results from the 6-in. diameter, 6-ft long, 7.1-mmBtu/hr DSG showed that corrosion can be controlled and production can be improved dramatically in actual field tests in California heavy oil reservoirs.

Eson, R.L.

1982-01-01

57

Research and Implementation of a High Speed Test Generation for Ultra Large Scale Combinational Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a high-speed test generation method for ultra large scale combinational circuits and full-scan circuits is presented. This method adopts the finite backtracking test pattern generation method to generate test pattern, and uses the parallel-pattern single-fault propagating method with n (machine word length) test vectors to validate the fault coverage. The test generation and fault simulation are integrated

Zhide Zeng; Jihua Chen; Hefeng Cao

1999-01-01

58

Delay Test Generation for Synchronous Sequential Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We address the problem of generating tests for delay faults in non-scan synchronous sequential circuits. Delay test generation for sequential circuits is a considerably more difficult problem than delay testing of combinational circuits and has received m...

S. Devadas

1989-01-01

59

Automatic generation of microprocessor test programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic generation system for behavioral test programs of microprocessors is presented. The test environment which has a decisive influence on the test method and on the automatic generation is described. The test memory is composed of the program memory containing value configurations of input signals. Test principles are given. Three stages of test are applied to the microprocessor: conformity test, a scanning test, and a signal test. The automatic generation system generates the modules of the test program in assembler language, using the microprocessor description, and pedetermined test operands.

Bellon, Catherine; Liothin, A.; Sadier, S.; Saucier, Gabrielle; Velazco, Raoul; Grillot, Francois; Issenman, M.

60

Testing whether and when abstract symmetric patterns produce affective responses.  

PubMed

Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

2013-07-01

61

Online Walking Pattern Generation for Biped Humanoid Robot with Trunk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an online method generating walking patterns for biped humanoid robots having a trunk. Depending on the walking command, the motion patterns of the lower-limbs are created and connected to the prewalking patterns smoothly in online. For the stability of the biped robots, the trunk and the waist motion is generated by a walking stabilization control that is

Hun-ok Lim; Yoshiharu Kaneshimat; Atsuo Takanishi

2002-01-01

62

Examining the role of throughfall patterns on subsurface stormflow generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of throughfall input patterns on the hydrological response of forested hillslopes is not well understood. While field studies have contributed to our understanding of subsurface stormflow generation at the hillslope scale, such work is still of limited value because of the small number of places and events that have been characterized to date and the uniqueness of each study hillslope. In recent years, virtual experiments have been used to investigate the role of topography, soil depth, bedrock permeability and storm size, on the generation of lateral subsurface flow. However, these studies have generally assumed spatially uniform rainfall, and the interaction between vegetation and its effect on the spatial structure of input (canopy interception, throughfall) for hillslope hydrologic response has not yet been explored. Here we present a number of virtual experiments that explore the interplay among hydrological inputs (temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall) and hillslope properties (subsurface topography, soil depth), i.e. physical phenomena that are sources of space and/or time variability. We address specifically the relative importance of fine-scale throughfall patterns for hillslope hydrologic response. Topography and hydrologic field observations from an existing study hillslope were used to calibrate and test a 3D Richards equation-based finite element model. Throughfall patterns were based on published throughfall patterns in an even age stand of young conifers in the Pacific Northwest. These patterns were then varied across the hillslope during the virtual experiments. Our results showed that, surprisingly, the effect of spatial input variability of throughfall on lateral subsurface stormflow generation was minimal. For our tested case, the bedrock topography control on flow generation was much greater than the fine-scale spatial variability of the input. Using a spatially uniform area-averaged "throughfall" (i.e. open rainfall reduced by some assumed fraction, which is the simplest and most common form of throughfall representations) yielded minimal differences in subsurface stormflow response. Nevertheless, using open rainfall as spatially uniform input strongly overestimated lateral subsurface stormflow, and thus, the average impact of throughfall is important for input estimation at the hillslope-scale. Overall, the effects of fine-scale throughfall patterns on subsurface stormflow generation appear to be of secondary importance compared to effects of temporal distribution of rainfall, subsurface topography and variable soil depths.

Hopp, L.; McDonnell, J. J.

2011-10-01

63

70-MWt LMFBR steam generator test facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing 35-MWt Sodium Components Test Installation (SCTI) is being upgraded to 70 MWt. The first test article in the upgraded facility will be the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototype steam generator. The paper describes the upgraded facility design and test capabilities, the CRBR steam generator major design features, the test program for the steam generator, and the current

J. G. Johanson; R. J. Gimera

1976-01-01

64

Test Generation for Ground Bounce in Internal Logic Circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground bounce in internal circuitry is becoming an important design validation and test issue. In this paper a new circuit model for ground bounce in internal circuitry is proposed. Based on this model an algorithm for generating test patterns that maximize ground bounce in combinational logic is presented. Our algorithm is also applicable to other test problems such as delay

Yi-shing Chang; Sandeep K. Gupta; Melvin A. Breuer

1999-01-01

65

Patterns of change in personality test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the pattern of change occurring in personaltiy test scores for a sample of 130 college females. It was predicted that degree of change would be related to (1) ability measures, (2) original status in personality test scores, and (3) college majors. Although significant differences were found between 3 groups of Ss in degree of change, none of the predictions

Charles F. Elton

1969-01-01

66

Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

2012-01-01

67

Generating Spatiotemporal Joint Torque Patterns from Dynamical Synchronization of Distributed Pattern Generators  

PubMed Central

Pattern generators found in the spinal cord are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics giving to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitutes an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body's dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment). Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cord, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots.

Pitti, Alexandre; Lungarella, Max; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

2009-01-01

68

PSC steam generator hot flow test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PSC Steam Generator Hot Flow Test was a vibration test of one steam ; generator module installed in the PCRV. Modale number 7, at PCRV location B- 1-; 6, was instrumented with strain gages during fabrication of the steam generator. ; The test was conducted by flowing helium heated by compression of circulators in ; loop number 1 through

1973-01-01

69

Downhole Steam Generator - Field Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive air pollution and heat losses up to 32% in the surface lines and out the stacks of conventional generators are reasons why conventional steam generation is efficient. These problems are addressed and overcome through the use of a direct-fired down-hole steam generator (DSG). By performing the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon

Rod Eson

1982-01-01

70

Criteria for Generating Specification-Based Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents general criteria for generating test inputs from state-based specifications. Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Formal specifications of complex systems represent a significant opportunity for testing because they precisely describe what functions the software is supposed to provide in a form that can easily be

A. Jefferson Offutt; Yiwei Xiong; Shaoying Liu

1999-01-01

71

Parallel test generation and execution with Korat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present novel algorithms for parallel testing of code that takes structurally complex test inputs. The algorithms build on the Korat algorithm for constraint-based generation of structurally complex test inputs. Given an imperative predicate that species the desired structural constraints and a nitization that bounds the desired input size, Korat performs a systematic search to generate all test inputs (within

Sasa Misailovic; Aleksandar Milicevic; Nemanja Petrovic; Sarfraz Khurshid; Darko Marinov

2007-01-01

72

Generator acceptance test and inspection report  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.

Johns, B.R.

1997-07-24

73

Automated Test-Form Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

2011-01-01

74

Hierarchical test generation for VHDL behavioral models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this method, the VHDL model to be tested is represented by its process model graph (PMG). Test sets for individual processes of the model are precomputed and stored in the design library. The Hierarchical Behavioral Test Generator (HBTG) algorithm accepts the PMG and the precomputed tests as inputs, from which it hierarchically constructs a test sequence that tests the

Sanat R. Rao; Bi-Yu Pan; James R. Armstrong

1993-01-01

75

Traveling-Stripe Forcing Generates Hexagonal Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the response of Turing stripe patterns to a simple spatiotemporal forcing. This forcing has the form of a traveling wave and is spatially resonant with the characteristic Turing wavelength. Experiments conducted with the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction reveal a striking symmetry-breaking phenomenon of the intrinsic striped patterns giving rise to hexagonal lattices for intermediate values of the forcing velocity. The phenomenon is understood in the framework of the corresponding amplitude equations, which unveils a complex scenario of dynamical behaviors.

Míguez, D. G.; Nicola, E. M.; Muñuzuri, A. P.; Casademunt, J.; Sagués, F.; Kramer, L.

2004-07-01

76

Dynamic redundancy identification in automatic test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an automatic test generator can be significantly improved by identifying redundancy by simple techniques which do not involve search. The authors present a technique for identifying redundant faults. This technique works dynamically during test generation but is not based on a search process. It exploits dominance and test-covering relations among faults, which allow identification of additional redundant

M. Abramovici; David T. Miller; R. K. Roy

1989-01-01

77

Nonlinear ring resonator: spatial pattern generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider theoretically spatial pattern formation processes in a unidirectional ring cavity with thin layer of Kerr-type nonlinear medium. Our method is based on studying of two coupled equations. The first is a partial differential equation for temporal dynamics of phase modulation of light wave in the medium. It describes nonlinear interaction in the Kerr-type lice. The second is a free propagation equation for the intracavity field complex amplitude. It involves diffraction effects of light wave in the cavity.

Ivanov, Vladimir Y.; Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Iroshnikov, Nikita G.

2000-03-01

78

Next Generation Test Generator (NGTG) interface to Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) for digital circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although current methods for digital and analog circuit testing in the NAVY Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) environment are adequate, there are limitations and pitfalls. These can be due to inadequate transfer of information between the design and test of a circuit card resulting in untestable circuits. This can lead to expensive and time consuming test generation. Next Generation Test Generator

C. M. West

1997-01-01

79

Dynamic array generation and pattern formation for optical tweezers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generalised phase contrast approach is used for the generation of optical arrays of arbitrary beam shape, suitable for applications in optical tweezers for the manipulation of biological specimens. This approach offers numerous advantages over current techniques involving the use of computer-generated holograms or diffractive optical elements. We demonstrate a low-loss system for generating intensity patterns suitable for the trapping

Paul C Mogensen; Jesper Glückstad

2000-01-01

80

Error-budget paradigms and laser mask pattern generator evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the ALTA(R) series of laser mask pattern generators has increased the relative contribution of intensity errors on critical-dimension (CD) control to those from placement errors. This paradigm shift has driven a change in rasterization strategy wherein aerial image sharpness is improved at the cost of a slight decrease in the averaging of column-to-column placement errors. Print performance evaluation using small-area CD test patterns show improvements in stripe-axis local CD uniformity (CDU) 3? values of 15-25% using the new strategy, and systematic brush-error contributions were reduced by 50%. The increased importance of intensity errors, coupled with the improvement of ALTA system performance, has also made the mask-blank and process-induced errors a more significant part of the overall error budget. A simple model based on two components, a pattern-invariant footprint and one related to the exposure density ?(x, y), is shown to describe adequately the errors induced by these sources. The first component is modeled by a fourth-order, two-dimensional polynomial, whereas the second is modeled as a convolution of ?(x, y) with one or more Gaussian kernels. Implementation of this model on the ALTA 4700 system shows improvements in global CDU of 50%.

Hamaker, H. Christopher; Jolley, Matthew J.; Berwick, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

81

Reconfigurable DNA origami to generate quasifractal patterns.  

PubMed

The specificity of Watson-Crick base pairing, unique mechanical properties of DNA, and intrinsic stability of DNA double helices makes DNA an ideal material for the construction of dynamic nanodevices. Rationally designed strand displacement reactions can be used to produce dynamic reconfiguration of DNA nanostructures postassembly. Here we describe a 'fold-release-fold' strategy of multiple strand displacement and hybridization reactions to reconfigure a simple DNA origami structure into a complex, quasifractal pattern, demonstrating a complex transformation of DNA nanoarchitectures. PMID:22559073

Zhang, Fei; Nangreave, Jeanette; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

2012-05-10

82

Automated Aids to Test Data Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automated Aids to Test Data Generation investigation was initiated to provide a method for automating the composition and validation of scenarios used in the developmental testing of message-driven systems. Existing scenario development software and p...

W. H. Kukes

1985-01-01

83

Whisker Deafferentation and Rodent Whisking Patterns: Behavioral Evidence for a Central Pattern Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the absence of explicit stimulation, rats emit patterns of rhythmic whisking movements. Because of their stereotyped nature and their persistence after sensory denervation and cortical ablation, whisking movements have been assumed to reflect the output of a central pattern generator (CPG). How- ever, identification of a movement pattern as the product of a CPG requires evidence that its

Puhong Gao; Roberto Bermejo; H. Philip

2001-01-01

84

Enzyme kinetics. Systematic generation of valid King-Altman patterns.  

PubMed

One of the most generally applicable algorithms for the derivation of steady-state rate equations for complex enzyme reaction mechanisms is that of King and Altman. Several modifications of this algorithm have been suggested; however, each requires the generation of numerous valid and invalid patterns and the subsequent elimination of those that are invalid. A method is presented, employing topological theory of linear graphs, for the systematic generation of only those patterns which are valid. This method is readily adaptable to use on a digital computer. An independent method for the calculation of the number of valid patterns is also presented. This calculation can be used to substantiate the accuracy of the patterns obtained. This calculation is also adaptable to computerization. Examples are included to demonstrate both the generation of patterns and the calculation of their number for specific enzyme mechanisms. PMID:5016111

Lam, C F; Priest, D G

1972-03-01

85

Combining test case generation and runtime verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is typically an ad-hoc process where human testers manually write test inputs and descriptions of expected test results, perhaps automating their execution in a regression suite. This process is cumbersome and costly. This paper reports results on a framework to further automate this process. The framework consists of combining auto- mated test case generation based on systematically exploring

Cyrille Artho; Howard Barringer; Allen Goldberg; Klaus Havelund; Sarfraz Khurshid; Michael R. Lowry; Corina S. Pasareanu; Grigore Rosu; Koushik Sen; Willem Visser; Richard Washington

2005-01-01

86

Generating test cases for specification mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic specification mining observes program executions to infer models of normal program behavior. What makes us believe that we have seen sufficiently many executions? The typestate miner generates test cases that cover previously unobserved behavior, systematically extending the execution space and enriching the specification. To our knowledge, this is the first combination of systematic test case generation and typestate mining--a

Valentin Dallmeier; Nikolai Knopp; Christoph Mallon; Sebastian Hack; Andreas Zeller

2010-01-01

87

A model of the respiratory central pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a model of the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator (rCPG) to mimic the salient characteristics of its constituent medullary neurons. This model was designed as a network of Hodgkin-Huxley type medullary neurons under the hypothesis that synaptic and network effects predominate over ionic influences in determining the pattern of firing seen in individual neurons. After obtaining satisfactory

Behrang Amini; Akhil Bidani; Joseph B. Zwischenberger

2004-01-01

88

Intracellular activity in cricket neurons during generation of song patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

During production of song patterns by the semi-isolated CNS of Gryllus campestris, intracellullar recordings were made in fibers of the mesothoracic ganglion, including synaptic areas of identified wing opener and closer motor neurons. The normal calling song pattern and some transitional songs toward courtship and toward aggression were generated by the CNS in the absence of any phasic sensory timing

David R. Bentley

1969-01-01

89

The BACK algorithm for sequential test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test-generation algorithm called the BACK algorithm is proposed for sequential test generation. The BACK algorithm is a modified D-algorithm. Instead of forward fault propagation to generate sensitized paths, the BACK algorithm creates the sensitized paths backwards by justifying the required sensitized values. The BACK algorithm not only is easier to implement but also requires less run-time memory than the

Wu-Tung Cheng

1988-01-01

90

Structure Design and Optimization of 2-D LFSR-Based Multisequence Test Generator in Built-In Self-Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the optimization of very large scale integration testing systems, specifically the structure design and optimization of a built-in self-test (BIST) design based on two-dimensional (2-D) linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs). The 2-D LFSRs can generate both precomputed test patterns (for detecting random-pattern-resistant faults) and random patterns (for detecting random-pattern-detectable faults) and have the ad- vantages of high

Xinhui Zhang; Chien-In Henry Chen; Arvindkumar Chakravarthy

2008-01-01

91

Laser pattern-generation technology below 0.25 um  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected rapid reduction in mask minimum feature size from the 250 nm to the 100 nm wafer generation will drive laser pattern generators to deep UV wavelengths. Commercially available sources exist in the 250 nm wavelength region using nonlinear optical materials to frequency double longer wavelength laser lines. Nonlinear optical materials, such as SBBO and KBBF, exist for wavelengths

Paul C. Allen

1998-01-01

92

Consistency techniques for interprocedural test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for automated test data generation of imperative programs containing integer, boolean and\\/or float variables. It extends our previous work to programs with procedure calls and arrays. A test program (with procedure calls) is represented by an Interprocedural Control Flow Graph (ICFG). The classical testing criteria (statement, branch, and path coverage), widely used in unit

Nguyen Tran Sy; Yves Deville

2003-01-01

93

Constraint-Based Automatic Test Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for automati- cally generating test data. The technique is based on mutation analysis and creates test data that approximates relative ade- quacy. The technique is a fault-based technique that uses alge- braic constraints to describe test cases designed to find particular types of faults. A set of tools, collectively called Godzilla, has been implemented

Richard A. Demillo; A. Jefferson Offutt

1991-01-01

94

A dynamic approach of test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a dynamic approach to test data generation, in which the path selection stage is eliminated. In this approach, test data are derived on the basis of the actual execution of the program under test, of dynamic data flow analysis, and of function minimization methods. The approach starts by executing a program for an arbitrary program input. During

Bogdan Korel

1990-01-01

95

Neighborhood pattern-sensitive fault testing and diagnostics for random-access memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present test algorithms for go\\/no-go and diagnostic test of memories, covering neighborhood pattern-sensitive faults (NPSFs). The proposed test algorithms are March based, which have linear time complexity and result in a simple built-in self-test (BIST) implementation. Although conventional March algorithms do not generate all neighborhood patterns to test the NPSFs, they can be modified by using multiple data

Kuo-liang Cheng; Ming-fu Tsai; Cheng-wen Wu

2002-01-01

96

Steam generator tube denting simulation testing. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tube denting has been reported in steam generators in a number of commercial nuclear power plants in recent years. In order to aid in understanding of the mechanism leading to tube denting in the steam generators, a Bettis laboratory test program was initiated to attempt to reproduce tube denting and to investigate the effects of chemistry, design, and temperature. The

P. J. Battaglia; W. J. Singley

1978-01-01

97

Multiplicative Window Generators of Pseudorandom Test Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

New arithmetic two-dimensional generators of pseudo-random test vectors are presented. As an integral part of a recently proposed arithmetic built-in self test (ABIST) environment, all generation functions are executed by basic building blocks performing regular functions of data path architectures, yet the scheme is compatible with scan, parallel scan, partial scan and boundary scan designs. The need for extra hardware

Janusz Rajski; Jerzy Tyszer

1996-01-01

98

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

99

MYSID TWO-GENERATION TEST GUIDELINE  

EPA Science Inventory

McKenney, Charles L., Jr. In press. Mysid Two-Generation Test Guideline. OECD Expert Group on Invertebrate Testing for Endocrine Disruptors, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France. 17 p. (ERL,GB 1215). This guideline describes a two-generati...

100

Automatic Generation of Diagnostic March Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to automatically generating diagnostic memory tests of linear order ( ) is presented. The re- sulting March tests provide complete detection and distin- guishing of all single-cell and two-cell fault models. The a p- proach is based on state transition graph modelling, decom- position of functional memory faults into basic fault effec ts, and output tracing. For

Dirk Niggemeyer; Elizabeth M. Rudnick

2001-01-01

101

Digitally based pattern generator for an electron-beam welder  

SciTech Connect

A digitally based deflection generator for an electron-beam welder is presented. Up to seven patterns of any shape are stored in programmable read-only memory (PROM). The pattern resolution is 39% at frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 kHz and can be x-t, y-t, or x-y formed. Frequency and pattern selections may be chosen by the welder computer or manually selected on the front panel. The ability to repeatedly synchronize two waveforms of any shape and frequency enables an unlimited variety of welds.

Whitten, L.G. III

1981-02-19

102

Photorefractive moiré like pattern as optical numerical code generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present letter low frequency moiré fringe patterns are used as secure numerical code generator. These moiré patterns are experimentally obtained by the superposition of two sinusoidal gratings with slightly different pitches. The Bi12TiO20 photorefractive crystal sample is used as holographic medium An optical numerical base was defined with patterns representing 0,1 and -1 digits like bits. Then, the complete set of these optical bits are combined to form bytes, where a numerical sequence is represented. The results show that the proposed numerical code could be used as standard numerical identification in robotic vision or in transmition of security numerical keys.

de Oliveira, G. N.; de Oliveira, M. E.; dos Santos, P. A. M.

2012-09-01

103

Geothermal test generator unit: third electric generator in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helical rotary screw expander was developed as a geothermal fluid ; prime mover for driving a generator adapted for reverse operation from a ; relatively new type of air and gas compressor developed in Sweden as the Lysholm ; rotary-screw compressor. Test runs were made at Cerro Prieto and indicate a ; great potential for practical applications on a

1973-01-01

104

Laser pattern-generation technology below 0.25 um  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected rapid reduction in mask minimum feature size from the 250 nm to the 100 nm wafer generation will drive laser pattern generators to deep UV wavelengths. Commercially available sources exist in the 250 nm wavelength region using nonlinear optical materials to frequency double longer wavelength laser lines. Nonlinear optical materials, such as SBBO and KBBF, exist for wavelengths below 200 nm but they have not been commercialized. Second harmonic generation in intracavity or mode-locked, external resonant-ring laser configurations can be used to produce sub-200 nm radiation. Existing system architectures are shown to be easily modified to use pulsed sources with a high repetition rate. Advances in nonlinear optical materials, laser design, and system architecture will ensure that laser pattern generation will be an effective maskmaking technology for the next decade.

Allen, Paul C.

1998-06-01

105

Automatic Wrapper Generation for Metasearch Using Ordered Tree Structured Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A wrapper is a program which extracts data from a web site and reorganizes them in a database. Wrapper generation from web\\u000a sites is a key technique in realizing such a metasearch system. We present a new method of automatic wrapper generation for\\u000a metasearch using our efficient learning algorithm for term trees. Term trees are ordered tree structured patterns with

Kazuhide Aikou; Yusuke Suzuki; Takayoshi Shoudai; Tetsuhiro Miyahara

2004-01-01

106

Downhole steam generator subject of Sandia tests  

SciTech Connect

The first field test of a down-hole steam generator developed to inject hot steam directly into deeply buried heavy oil reservoirs began in mid-April near Long Beach, CA. The 23-ft-long, 6-in.-diameter generator, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, will produce up to 800 cu ft of 500 F steam a minute (1.2 MW thermal) at the bottom of a 2500-ft well. Goals of the test are to demonstrate the feasibility of operating the generator at realistic depths and to determine its overall performance and environmental impact. Development of the generator is part of the US Department of Energy's Project Deep Steam to identify techniques for recovering heavy oil from deeply buried (greater than 2500 ft) reservoirs.

Not Available

1981-05-01

107

Automatic music video generation based on temporal pattern analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music video (MV) is a short film meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. In this paper, we present a system that automatically generates MV-like videos from personal home videos based on observations that generally there are obvious repetitive visual and aural patterns in MVs. Based on a set of video and music analysis algorithms, the

Xian-Sheng HUA; Lie LU; Hong-Jiang ZHANG

2004-01-01

108

Biomimetic Central Pattern Generators for Robotics and Prosthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) can serve as the basis for building biomimetic controllers based on real biological principles. Here we describe a CPG made of electronic neurons and synapses for robotic applications and for possible use in a clinical neuroprosthetic device

Allen I. Selverston; Mikhail I Rabinovich; Ramon Huerta; Thomas Novotny; Rafi Levi; Yura Axshavsky; Alexander Volkovskii; Joseph Ayers; Reynaldo Pinto

2004-01-01

109

A Test Generation Method Using a Compacted Test Table and a Test Generation Method Using a Compacted Test Plan Table for RTL Data Path Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a test generation method using a compacted test table and a test generation method using a compacted test plan table for RTL data path circuits with DFT where hierarchical test generations are applicable. Moreover, a heuristic algorithm for a compacted test plan table generation is proposed. The proposed methods could shorten test lengths for some RTL data

Toshinori Hosokawa; Hiroshi Date; Michiaki Muraoka

2002-01-01

110

A Functional Decomposition Method for Redundancy Identification and Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new combinational circuit automatic test-pattern generation (ATPG)acceleration method called EST that detects equivalent search states, which are saved for later use. The search space is learned and characterized using E-frontiers, which are circuit cut-sets induced by theimplication stack contents. The search space is reduced by matchingthe current search state against previously-encountered search states(possibly from prior faults), and

Michael L. Bushnell; John Giraldi

1997-01-01

111

Torsional eye movements during psychophysical testing with rotating patterns.  

PubMed

Torsional eye movements were measured while subjects viewed a large, high contrast windmill pattern rotating at 53 degrees /s or a small (5 degrees diameter) dot pattern rotating at 115 degrees /s. Both stimuli generated rotational eye movements consisting of torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) superimposed on a slow torsional drift in the direction of pattern rotation. With the wide-field windmill stimulus, torsional drifts of up to 7 degrees over 20 s were found. The dot pattern produced drifts of up to 2 degrees over 5-20 s. In both cases, the slow-phase speeds during tOKN were low (0.5-1 degrees /s). We conclude that reductions in slip speed are minimal with rotating stimuli, so torsional eye speeds will have a minimal effect on investigations of rotational motion aftereffect strength and perceived speed. While the slow-phase tOKN gain is low, the slow drift in torsional eye position will have significant effects on psychophysical results when the tests rely on keeping selected regions of the stimulus confined to specific areas of the retina, as is the case for phantom or remote motion aftereffects. PMID:15551078

Ibbotson, M R; Price, N S C; Das, V E; Hietanen, M A; Mustari, M J

2004-11-16

112

Consistency techniques for interprocedural test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for automated test data generation of imperative programs containing . Our previous consistency techniques, the core idea behind the solving of path constraints, have been extended to handle procedural calls and operations with arrays. For statement (and branch) coverage, paths reaching the specified node or branch are dynamically constructed. The search for suitable paths

Nguyen Tran Sy; Yves Deville

2003-01-01

113

Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG) benchmark results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the results of running a version of the Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG3) on the ISCAS-89 sequential circuit benchmarks. First, they present a brief history of STG and briefly describe the algorithms used. They then describe the conditions under which the experiments were run and give the benchmark results. No particular problems were encountered when running

W.-T. Cheng; S. Davidson

1989-01-01

114

Alternating GUI Test Generation and Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Users of today's software perform tasks by interacting with a graphical user interface (GUI) front-end via sequences of input events. Due to the flexibility offered by most GUIs, the number of event sequences grows exponentially with length. One ubiquitous challenge of GUI testing is to selectively generate those sequences that lead to potentially problematic states. This paper presents ALT, a

Xun Yuan; Atif M. Memon

2008-01-01

115

Fast hologram pattern generation by wave field translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fast hologram pattern generation method to overcome accumulation problem of point source based method. Proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, 2D projection of wave field for 3D object is calculated by radial symmetric interpolation (RSI) method to the multiple reference depth planes. Then in the second step, each 2D wave field is translated toward SLM plane by FFT based algorithm. Final hologram pattern is obtained by adding them. The effectiveness of method is proved by computer simulation and optical experiment. Experimental results show that proposed method is 3878 times faster than analytic method, and 226 times faster than RSI method.

Lee, S.; Wey, H. C.; Nam, D. K.; Park, D. S.

2013-09-01

116

Improved methodology for generating controlled test atmospheres.  

PubMed

Improved methodology has been developed for generating controlled test atmospheres. Vaporization of volatile liquids is accomplished in a 28 mm (O.D.) glass J-tube in conjunction with a compressed air flameless heat torch, a pressure-sensitive switch, and a positive displacement piston pump. The vaporization system has been very reliable with a variety of test materials in studies ranging from a few days to several months. The J-tube vaporization assembly minimizes the possibility of thermal decomposition of the test material and affords a better margin of safety when vaporizing potentially explosive materials. PMID:7457377

Miller, R R; Letts, R L; Potts, W J; McKenna, M J

1980-11-01

117

THE IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING OF INTERACTION PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a method for identifying and assessing the significance of interaction patterns among various chemicals and chemical classes of importance to regulatory toxicologists. To this end, efforts were made to assemble and evaluate experimental data on toxicologically...

118

Quality of test specification by application of patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded system and software testing requires sophisticated methods, which are nowadays frequently supported by application of test patterns. This eases the test development process and contributes to the reusability and maintainability of the test specification. However, it does not guarantee the proper level of quality and test coverage in different dimensions of the test specification. In this paper the quality

Justyna Zander-Nowicka; Pieter J. Mosterman; Ina Schieferdecker

2008-01-01

119

Key central pattern generators of the spinal cord.  

PubMed

In the central nervous system (CNS), central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally considered as specialized networks that can produce oscillatory motor output in the absence of any oscillatory input. For instance, respiration and mastication are among the critical biological functions well known to be controlled by such specialized networks. Several other CPGs have also been found specifically in the spinal cord. Among them, the CPG for locomotion is probably the most extensively studied rhythm- and pattern-generating network of the CNS. Other, less completely understood CPGs have also been associated with the control of scratching, micturition, and ejaculation. This review provides a brief update on CPG organization and function in the spinal cord and focuses on similarities and differences between these networks and their pharmacological modulation. PMID:19326451

Guertin, Pierre A; Steuer, Inge

2009-08-15

120

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Generation of test atmospheres. 53.22 Section 53.22... § 53.22 Generation of test atmospheres. (a) Table B-2 specifies preferred methods for generating test atmospheres and suggested methods of...

2010-07-01

121

Generating requirements from systems models using patterns: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic research has produced many model-based specification and analysis techniques, however, most organisations continue\\u000a to document requirements as textual statements. To help bridge this gap between academic research and requirements practice,\\u000a this paper reports an extension to the RESCUE process in which patterns for generating requirements statements from i* system models were manually applied to i* models developed for a

Neil A. M. Maiden; Sharon Manning; Sara Jones; John Greenwood

2005-01-01

122

Simple central pattern generator model using phasic analog neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological neurons (called phasic or adapting neurons) display neural adaptation: their response to a constant input diminishes with time. A simple method of adding adaptive firing thresholds to existing analog (or graded-response) neural models is described. A half-center central pattern generator is modeled using two mutually inhibitory phasic analog neurons. Hopf bifurcation analysis shows that oscillatory solutions will arise if the mutual inhibition is sufficiently strong, and allows us to characterize the stability of the cycles which arise.

McMillen, David R.; D'eleuterio, Gabriele M.; Halperin, Janet R.

1999-06-01

123

Compatibility Testing via Patterns based Trace Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compatibility testing is necessary in a world of ever evolving software systems. With clients depending on unpublished yet observable behaviors of systems, the effectiveness of compatibility testing depends on uncovering and testing for such behaviors. This task gets harder with clean room implementations of new versions of systems. In this paper, we present a simple approach to test compatibility of

Venkatesh-Prasad Ranganath; Pradip Vallathol; Pankaj Gupta

2012-01-01

124

Travelling wave patterns in a model of the spinal pattern generator using spiking neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to produce travelling waves in a planar net of artificial spiking neurons. Provided that the parameters of the waves – frequency, wavelength and orientation – can be sufficiently controlled, such a network can serve as a model of the spinal pattern generator for swimming and terrestrial quadruped locomotion. A previous implementation using non-spiking, sigmoid

Alexander Kaske; Nils Bertschinger

2005-01-01

125

Heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in electroslag welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formulation is presented to calculate, in three dimensions, the important process parameters such as the voltage profiles, heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslag refining process operating with equivalent slag, electrode and other geometrical variables. Calculations show that the heat generation patterns are highly sensitive to the geometrical location of the electrode in the slag and that a relatively minor error in the alignment of the electrode can cause a major asymmetry in the heat generation pattern. The temperature fields in the slag and the metal phases are calculated in three dimensions and the roles played by various factors on the heat balance are assessed. The computation accounts for the transport of heat from the slag to the metal phase by the liquid metal drops, the energy loss due to electrolysis and the energy required for the heating of the cold slag charge. Using the computed values of the weld rate the possible decrease in the heat input due to a) the decrease of the plate gap and b) the use of multiple electrodes is calculated. The values of heat input obtained from independent experiments are compared with model predictions. Possible effects of imposing an external magnetic field during the welding are examined.

Debroy, T.; Szekely, J.; Eagar, T. W.

1980-12-01

126

Computer simulation of a central pattern generator via Kuramoto model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of oscillatory activity in motor command signals was demonstrated, and the possible existence of synchronous oscillatory activity within the sensorimotor system has been suggested. We adopted a set of 1000 coupled oscillators distributed on 10×10 square lattice as a model of a central pattern generator. Each lattice element contained 10 closer neighbor oscillators. We introduced a new method to estimate the equilibrium order parameter to characterize the degree of synchronization of the oscillator system. The numerical scheme was based on a model that is simple, but that contains the essential features of a broad class of cortical neurons. The adopted boundary conditions were based on known characteristics of the synaptic transmission. By means of numerical simulations of the Kuramoto, we simulated the dynamical behavior of a central pattern generator. Our results are in agreement with some experimental data from literature. So, we believe such a method can be used to model dynamic behavior of a central pattern generator with good computational efficiency.

Cruz, Frederico Alan O.; Cortez, Célia Martins

2005-08-01

127

Design patterns and object-oriented software testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that design decisions regarding the use of design patterns can increase reusability, portability and ease maintenance activities among others. The designer's choice of design patterns can also have a major influence on the testability and testing methodology employed by the tester. Depending on the design choices made, the tester can also use additional design patterns to

P. Dasiewicz

2005-01-01

128

Hierarchical testing designs for pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the theoretical foundations of a ``twenty questions'' approach to pattern recognition. The object of the analysis is the computational process itself rather than probability distributions (Bayesian inference) or decision boundaries (statistical learning). Our formulation is motivated by applications to scene interpretation in which there are a great many possible explanations for the data, one (``background'') is statistically dominant,

Gilles Blanchard; Donald Geman

2005-01-01

129

Semiconductor Measurement Technology: Microelectronic Test Pattern NBS-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microelectronic test pattern NBS-4 is a revision of test pattern NBS-3 which was designed primarily for evaluation of the resistivity-dopant density relationship in silicon. Major changes include the addition of optional BASE-CONTACT and GATE masks and th...

W. R. Thurber M. G. Buehler

1978-01-01

130

Wisconsin Test Facility Transmitting Antenna Pattern and Steering Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

During August and September 1971, the New London Laboratory, Naval Underwater Systems Center, performed pattern and steering measurements on the Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF) antennas. The pattern measurements were made at 13 locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin (covering approximately 120° of arc), while the far-field steering tests were taken in Maine and North Carolina. To be certain that the receiving

PETER R. BANNISTER; FREDERICK J. WILLIAMS; ALAN L. DAHLVIG; WILLIAM A. KRAIMER

1974-01-01

131

Rxiensing scan chains for test pattern decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for testing a system-on-a-. chip by using a compressed representation of the pattems on an extemal tester. The pattems for a certain core under test are decompressed by reusing scan chains of cores idle during that time. The method only requires a few additional gates in the wrapper, while the mission logic is untouched. Storage

Rainer Dorsch; Hans-Joachim Wunderlich

2001-01-01

132

Generation of fractal patterns for probing the visual memory.  

PubMed

The effective use of computer-generated pictures as a trial-unique probe for studying the visual memory is described. The shape of the pattern is determined by means of a fractal algorithm with pseudorandom parameters. This method enables us to easily obtain thousands of moderately complex and sufficiently diversified pictures in series from a given number which serves as the seed of a pseudorandom number generator. We can thereby create a new and unique set of pictures if a new seed is given, as well as retrieve exactly the same pictures in the same sequence as when the original seed is given. These properties eliminate the demand for the massive memory space in a computer otherwise needed to store the entire set of stimulus pictures. PMID:1660991

Miyashita, Y; Higuchi, S; Sakai, K; Masui, N

1991-10-01

133

A Hormone-Activated Central Pattern Generator For Courtship  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Mating occurs after a stereotyped twisting and oral exploration that result in the alignment of the male and/or female gonopores of one leech with the complementary gonopores of a partner. The neural basis of this behavior is presently unknown and currently impossible to study directly because electrophysiological recording techniques disrupt the behavior. Results Here we report that (Arg8)-conopressin G and two other members of the oxytocin/vasopressin family of peptide hormones induce in Hirudo verbana a sequence of behaviors that closely mimic elements of spontaneous reproductive behavior. Through a series of progressively more reduced preparations, we show that one of these behaviors, a stereotyped twisting that is instrumental to aligning gonopores in preparation for copulation, is the product of a central pattern generator that consists of oscillators in ganglia M5 and M6 (the ganglia in the reproductive segments of the leech), and also in ganglion M4, which was not previously known to play a role in reproductive behavior. We find that the behavior is periodic, with a remarkably long cycle period of around five minutes, placing it among the slowest behavioral rhythms (other than diurnal and annual rhythms) yet described. Conclusion These results establish the leech as a new model system for studying aspects of the neuronal basis of reproductive behavior. Highlights Oxytocin/vasopressin homologues induce pre-copulatory movements in a leech. These movements are generated by a central pattern generator. Segmental ganglia M4, M5, and M6 can each generate fictive behavior in isolation.

Hamilton, M. Sarhas; Huang, Tracy; Kristan, William B.; French, Kathleen A.

2010-01-01

134

Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

135

Central pattern generator for locomotion: anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological considerations.  

PubMed

This article provides a perspective on major innovations over the past century in research on the spinal cord and, specifically, on specialized spinal circuits involved in the control of rhythmic locomotor pattern generation and modulation. Pioneers such as Charles Sherrington and Thomas Graham Brown have conducted experiments in the early twentieth century that changed our views of the neural control of locomotion. Their seminal work supported subsequently by several decades of evidence has led to the conclusion that walking, flying, and swimming are largely controlled by a network of spinal neurons generally referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. It has been subsequently demonstrated across all vertebrate species examined, from lampreys to humans, that this CPG is capable, under some conditions, to self-produce, even in absence of descending or peripheral inputs, basic rhythmic, and coordinated locomotor movements. Recent evidence suggests, in turn, that plasticity changes of some CPG elements may contribute to the development of specific pathophysiological conditions associated with impaired locomotion or spontaneous locomotor-like movements. This article constitutes a comprehensive review summarizing key findings on the CPG as well as on its potential role in Restless Leg Syndrome, Periodic Leg Movement, and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation. Special attention will be paid to the role of the CPG in a recently identified, and uniquely different neurological disorder, called the Uner Tan Syndrome. PMID:23403923

Guertin, Pierre A

2013-02-08

136

Generation of arbitrary complex quasi-non-diffracting optical patterns.  

PubMed

Due to their unique ability to maintain an intensity distribution upon propagation, non-diffracting light fields are used extensively in various areas of science, including optical tweezers, nonlinear optics and quantum optics, in applications where complex transverse field distributions are required. However, the number and type of rigorously non-diffracting beams is severely limited because their symmetry is dictated by one of the coordinate system where the Helmholtz equation governing beam propagation is separable. Here, we demonstrate a powerful technique that allows the generation of a rich variety of quasi-non-diffracting optical beams featuring nearly arbitrary intensity distributions in the transverse plane. These can be readily engineered via modifications of the angular spectrum of the beam in order to meet the requirements of particular applications. Such beams are not rigorously non-diffracting but they maintain their shape over large distances, which may be tuned by varying the width of the angular spectrum. We report the generation of unique spiral patterns and patterns involving arbitrary combinations of truncated harmonic, Bessel, Mathieu, or parabolic beams occupying different spatial domains. Optical trapping experiments illustrate the opto-mechanical properties of such beams. PMID:24104114

Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Petrov, Dmitri; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Torner, Lluis

2013-09-23

137

Sequentially firing neurons confer flexible timing in neural pattern generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal networks exhibit a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns that include sequential activity, synchrony, and wavelike dynamics. Inhibition is the primary means through which such patterns are implemented. This behavior is dependent on both the intrinsic dynamics of the individual neurons as well as the connectivity patterns. Many neural circuits consist of networks of smaller subcircuits (motifs) that are coupled together to form the larger system. In this paper, we consider a particularly simple motif, comprising purely inhibitory interactions, which generates sequential periodic dynamics. We first describe the dynamics of the single motif both for general balanced coupling (all cells receive the same number and strength of inputs) and then for a specific class of balanced networks: circulant systems. We couple these motifs together to form larger networks. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase models which, themselves, have a certain structure and symmetry. We show that this structure endows the coupled system with the ability to produce arbitrary timing relationships between symmetrically coupled motifs and that the phase relationships are robust over a wide range of frequencies. The theory is applicable to many other systems in biology and physics.

Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard

2011-05-01

138

Embedded core test generation using broadcast test architecture and netlist scrambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, based on the concept of test pattern broadcasting (1), (2), we propose a new core-based testing method which gives core users the maximum level of test freedom. Instead of only using the test patterns delivered by core providers, core users are allowed to broadcast their own test patterns to the cores of a SoC (system on chip)

J. H. Jiang; Wen-ben Jone; Shih-chieh Chang; Swaroop Ghosh

2003-01-01

139

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

140

Adaptive test program generation: planning for the unplanned  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of automatically-generated test programs is the primary means for verifying complex hardware designs and random test program generators therefore play a major role in the verification process of micro-processors. The input for a test program generator is typically an abstract specification-a template-of the tests to be generated. Due to randomness, generators often encounter situations that were not anticipated when

Allon Adir; Roy Emek; Eitan Marcus

2002-01-01

141

Single synapse information coding in intraburst spike patterns of central pattern generator motor neurons.  

PubMed

Burst firing is ubiquitous in nervous systems and has been intensively studied in central pattern generators (CPGs). Previous works have described subtle intraburst spike patterns (IBSPs) that, despite being traditionally neglected for their lack of relation to CPG motor function, were shown to be cell-type specific and sensitive to CPG connectivity. Here we address this matter by investigating how a bursting motor neuron expresses information about other neurons in the network. We performed experiments on the crustacean stomatogastric pyloric CPG, both in control conditions and interacting in real-time with computer model neurons. The sensitivity of postsynaptic to presynaptic IBSPs was inferred by computing their average mutual information along each neuron burst. We found that details of input patterns are nonlinearly and inhomogeneously coded through a single synapse into the fine IBSPs structure of the postsynaptic neuron following burst. In this way, motor neurons are able to use different time scales to convey two types of information simultaneously: muscle contraction (related to bursting rhythm) and the behavior of other CPG neurons (at a much shorter timescale by using IBSPs as information carriers). Moreover, the analysis revealed that the coding mechanism described takes part in a previously unsuspected information pathway from a CPG motor neuron to a nerve that projects to sensory brain areas, thus providing evidence of the general physiological role of information coding through IBSPs in the regulation of neuronal firing patterns in remote circuits by the CNS. PMID:21865472

Brochini, Ludmila; Carelli, Pedro V; Pinto, Reynaldo D

2011-08-24

142

Validation Testing of Hydrogen Generation Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of testing performed by ORNL for Photech Energies, Inc. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the efficacy of Photech's hydrogen generation reactor technology, which produces gaseous hydrogen through electrolysis. Photech provided several prototypes of their proprietary reactor for testing and the ancillary equipment, such as power supplies and electrolyte solutions, required for proper operation of the reactors. ORNL measured the production of hydrogen gas (volumetric flow of hydrogen at atmospheric pressure) as a function of input power and analyzed the composition of the output stream to determine the purity of the hydrogen content. ORNL attempted measurements on two basic versions of the prototype reactors-one version had a clear plastic outer cylinder, while another version had a stainless steel outer cylinder-but was only able to complete measurements on reactors in the plastic version. The problem observed in the stainless steel reactors was that in these reactors most of the hydrogen was produced near the anodes along with oxygen and the mixed gases made it impossible to determine the amount of hydrogen produced. In the plastic reactors the production of hydrogen gas increased monotonically with input power, and the flow rates increased faster at low input powers than they did at higher input powers. The maximum flow rate from the cathode port measured during the tests was 0.85 LPM at an input power of about 1100 W, an electrolyte concentration of 20%. The composition of the flow from the cathode port was primarily hydrogen and water vapor, with some oxygen and trace amounts of carbon dioxide. An operational mode that occurs briefly during certain operating conditions, and is characterized by flashes of light and violent bubbling near the cathode, might be attributable to the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolyte solution.

Smith, Barton [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2007-12-01

143

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...output of the test atmosphere generation system shall be sufficiently...permeation device is used for generation of a test atmosphere, the...Test Atmospheres Test gas Generation Verification Ammonia...specified in table B-3 Do. Hydrogen chloride Cylinder 1...

2009-07-01

144

Precision measurement and nondestructive testing by means of digital phase shifting speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle pattern and speckle pattern shearing interferometry, which were developed in the last two decades, are becoming more and more important in the areas of precision measurement and nondestructive testing. The fringe pattern of speckle pattern interferometry depicts loci of displacements, whereas the fringe pattern of speckle pattern shearing interferometry depicts loci of displacement gradients. By applying phase shifting technique

L. X. Yang; W. Steinchen; M. Schuth; G. Kupfer

1995-01-01

145

Neuronal mechanisms of respiratory pattern generation are evolutionary conserved.  

PubMed

A brainstem region, the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), has been suggested to play a crucial role in the respiratory rhythm generation in lampreys. However, a detailed characterization of the pTRG region is lacking. The present study performed on isolated brainstem preparations of adult lampreys provides a more precise localization of the pTRG region with regard to both connectivity and neurochemical markers. pTRG neurons projecting to the vagal motoneuronal pool were identified in a restricted area of the rostral rhombencephalon at the level of the isthmic Müller cell I1 close to sulcus limitans of His. Unilateral microinjections of lidocaine, muscimol, or glutamate antagonists into the pTRG inhibited completely the bilateral respiratory activity. In contrast, microinjections of glutamate agonists enhanced the respiratory activity, suggesting that this region is critical for the respiratory pattern generation. The retrogradely labeled pTRG neurons are glutamatergic and surrounded by terminals with intense substance P immunoreactivity. Cholinergic neurons were seen close to, and intermingled with, pTRG neurons. In addition, ?-bungarotoxin binding sites (indicating nicotinic receptors) were found throughout the pTRG area and particularly on the soma of these neurons. During apnea, induced by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors within the same region, microinjections of 1 ?m substance P or 1 mm nicotine into the pTRG restored rhythmic respiratory activity. The results emphasize the close similarities between the pTRG and the mammalian pre-Bötzinger complex as a crucial site for respiratory rhythmogenesis. We conclude that some basic features of the excitatory neurons proposed to generate respiratory rhythms are conserved throughout evolution. PMID:23699521

Cinelli, Elenia; Robertson, Brita; Mutolo, Donatella; Grillner, Sten; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

2013-05-22

146

Analytical fault modeling and static test generation for analog ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static tests are key in reducing the current high cost of testing analog and mixed-signal ICs. A new DC test generation technique for detecting catastrophic failures in this class of circuits is presented. To include the effect of tolerance of parameters during testing, the test generation problem is formulated as a minimax optimization problem, and solved iteratively as successive linear

Giri Devarayanadurg; Mani Soma

1994-01-01

147

Consumption Patterns and Discrimination Ability in Taste Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to measure the discrimination ability of taste tests in a different way than previously researched. In this study, two different concepts were examined. The first was the difference between heavy and light users combined with the discrimination of taste tests. The research also investigated consumption patterns among users as well as package preference, product type, and loyalty

Talha Harcar; Ahmet Sekerkaya

2005-01-01

148

Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males in vivo (advertisement and amplectant call), as well as one call pattern (release call) that is common for juvenile males and females in vivo but rare for adult males. Female brains also produced fictive release call. The production of male calls is androgen dependent in Xenopus; to test the effects of androgens on the CPG, we examined fictive calling in the brains of testosterone-treated females. Both fictive male advertisement call and release call were produced. This suggests that all Xenopus possess a sexually undifferentiated pattern generator for release call. Androgen exposure leads to a gain-of-function, allowing the production of male-specific call types without prohibiting the production of the undifferentiated call pattern. We also demonstrate that the CPG is located in the brainstem and seems to rely on the same nuclei in both males and females. Finally, we identified endogenous serotonergic inputs to both the premotor and motor nuclei in the brainstem that may regulate vocal activity in vivo.

Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2008-01-01

149

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Generation of test atmospheres. 53.22 Section 53.22 Protection...NO2 § 53.22 Generation of test atmospheres. (a) Table B-2 to subpart B...preferred methods for generating test atmospheres and suggested methods of...

2013-07-01

150

Disparate SPF testing methodologies generate similar SPFs.  

PubMed

Regulatory agencies throughout the world have developed exclusive methodologies for assessing and classifying sunscreen product efficacy in their respective markets. Three prevalent methods, the Food and Drug Administration-Final Monograph (FDA-FM) method, the Australia/New Zealand (Aus/NZ) method, and the COLIPA International (International) method, contain procedural and statistical dissimilarities with undefined significance. The objective of our clinical trials was to evaluate the influence of these disparities on sun protection factor (SPF) values. Our clinical trials evaluated the SPF of 59 test materials, using two or all three of the aforementioned methods in simultaneous trials, providing two or three SPF values for each formulation. A total of 135 trials were conducted. The consequent mean SPF values generated per trial were used to compare methods in a correlation and variance analysis. The correlation coefficients for each method pair, International vs. FDA-FM, Aus/NZ vs. FDA-FM, and International vs. Aus/NZ, were each ?0.94. The difference in least square mean SPF for each method pair was 0.12, 0.62, and 0.81, respectively. Our juxtaposition of the mean SPFs produced by these methods clearly illustrate that any disparities between average SPF values produced by these methods are not clinically or statistically significant and that using one method should be sufficient for SPF labeling in all three respective markets. PMID:23931092

Garzarella, Katherine; Caswell, Michael

151

Fault patterns generated during extension of crystalline basement  

SciTech Connect

Considerable work has been done recently on fault patterns generated during extension of stratified sedimentary rocks but the geometry of extensional fault arrays in crystalline basement terranes is not well known. Brittle extension of Lewisian gneiss in NW Scotland resulted in formation of an orthogonal fault system with both NE and NW-trending fault sets of this system exhibiting apparent normal offset. Alteration halos and veins spatially associated with NE faults show that dilation, which presumably is perpendicular to the extension direction, occurred predominantly on NE faults, and that other fractures were held tight during deformation. NW-trending faults commonly terminate against NE faults and divide hangingwalls of NE faults into independent blocks. Mutual cross-cutting relationships suggest coeval activation of both NE-trending and NW-trending faults, but coeval activity need not mean that the region was undergoing in biaxial extension. Slip-lineations indicate that movement on only NE-trending faults was down-dip and coaxial, whereas movement on NW faults was oblique to strike-slip and non-coaxial. Parallelism of NW metamorphic fabrics with cross-faults suggests that this pre-existing anisotropy influenced localization of NW faults. Drastic NE to SW decreases in throw on NE-trending faults corresponds to an abrupt change from the predominance of strong NW-trending fabrics in basement to a more isotropic pattern south of the Laxford metamorphic front. Thus propagation of NE-trending faults may have been linked to ease of formation of NW cross-faults and strong anisotropy parallel to the extension direction may play a role in governing propagation of normal-fault systems in basement.

Laubach, S.E.; Marshak, S.

1985-01-01

152

Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)  

PubMed Central

The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets.

Schoneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2012-01-01

153

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia.  

PubMed

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies. PMID:22038326

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-10-30

154

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-12-01

155

Reliability Test Report. Modular Cryogenic Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reliability Testing of the LOX-30 Liquid Oxygen Plant was evaluated in accordance with MIL-STD-781. Reliability Tests were divided into Environmental Requirements, Reliability Growth and Reliability Demonstration Tests. Accept/reject criteria for the demo...

R. Ferret

1978-01-01

156

Systemic pattern of free radical generation during coronary bypass surgery.  

PubMed Central

Diffuse impairment of ventricular function after cardiac surgery may be related to the generation during reperfusion of the myocardium of free radicals derived from oxygen. Fifteen patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery were studied by previously described assays for peroxidised lipids and for isomerised lipids which were used as indices of free radical activity. Serial blood samples were obtained from systemic arterial, mixed venous, and coronary sinus catheters before, during, and after the ischaemic period. The patients underwent coronary artery surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass with a membrane oxygenator, relative hypothermia 30-34 degrees C, and intermittent cross-clamping of the aorta. During the ischaemic periods there were no significant changes in the indices of free radical activity. During the reperfusion phase there was a significant increase in free radical indices in arterial and mixed venous blood. A small rise in free radical indices in coronary venous blood was not statistically significant. These data indicate that free radical activity is increased in patients shortly after the cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass. The pattern of distribution between the different sampling sites suggests that much of the observed increase in isomerised and peroxidised lipids originates from tissues other than the myocardium.

Davies, S W; Underwood, S M; Wickens, D G; Feneck, R O; Dormandy, T L; Walesby, R K

1990-01-01

157

Test Data Generation from UML State Machine Diagrams using GAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic test data generation helps testers to validate software against user requirements more easily. Test data can be generated from many sources; for example, experience of testers, source program, or software specification. Selecting a proper test data set is a decision making task. Testers have to decide what test data that they should use, and a heuristic technique is needed

Chartchai Doungsa-ard; Keshav P. Dahal; M. Alamgir Hossain; Taratip Suwannasart

2007-01-01

158

Regressive Model Approach to the Generation of Test Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of system safety assurance is the application of large test sets. To aid in the development of test cases, researchers have investigated automated test generation systems which decrease the time and cost of acquiring new tests. Many automated systems currently exist, but few address the generation of trajectories of data. A trajectory is defined as a series of

Brian J. Taylor; Bojan Cukic

2009-01-01

159

Regressive model approach to the generation of test trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of system safety assurance is the application of large test sets. To aid in the development of test cases, researchers have investigated automated test generation systems which decrease the time and cost of acquiring new tests. Many automated systems currently exist, but few address the generation of trajectories of data. A trajectory is defined as a series of

Brian J. Taylor; Bojan Cukic

2000-01-01

160

Using UML Collaboration Diagrams for Static Checking and Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from program source code, graphical models of software (such as control flow graphs), and specifications\\/requirements. UML collaboration diagrams represent a significant opportunity for testing because they precisely describe how the functions the software provides are connected in a

Aynur Abdurazik; A. Jefferson Offutt

2000-01-01

161

Resistive bridge fault modeling, simulation and test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistive bridging faults in combinational CMOS circuits are studied in this work. Circuit-level models are abstracted to voltage behavior for use in voltage-level fault simulation and test generation. Fault simulation is done using different test sets in order to study their effectiveness. Test generation is done to detect the highest possible bridging resistance for each fault. Different test sets, power

Vijay R. Sar-dessai; D. M. H. Walker

1999-01-01

162

An efficient architecture for accumulator-based test generation of SIC pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of robustly detectable sequential faults has been extensively studied. A number of researchers have provided theoretical as well as experimental results designating that the application of single input change (SIC) pairs of test patterns is favorable for sequential fault testing. In this paper a novel implementation for the generation of SIC pairs is presented. The proposed implementation is

I. Voyiatzis; C. Efstathiou

2008-01-01

163

Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test  

SciTech Connect

The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process to the top of the seam. The growth patterns during this time were remarkably similar to those observed on the Hoe Creek III test. Cavity growth observed later in the test, after the CRIP maneuver and when the horizontal production was in use, showed more lateral extent within the seam similar to patterns that were observed on the Hanna UCG tests. This type of growth resulted in improved process efficiency, at least for the early post-CRIP period. Calculations using a thermal-mechanical growth model are consistent with both types of growth observed. In particular, when stringers that were present in the seam are included in the model calculations, the more favorable growth patterns observed in the test are predicted. It is concluded that non-coal layers within the seam have the potential to significantly affect cavity growth and thus their presence should be accounted for when designing a process. 11 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

Hommert, P.J.

1984-01-01

164

Testing transition delay faults in modified Booth multipliers by using C-testable and SIC patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we design a novel modified Booth multiplier and generate test patterns for transition delay faults (TDF) at cell-level and gate-level descriptions of the multipliers. Regular structures of these multipliers make single stuck-at faults (SAF) at both description levels be C-testable. Single TDF of the multipliers are also detectable with constant test pairs since the second vector for

Hsing-Chung Liang; Pao-Hsin Huang

2007-01-01

165

Automatic generation of test vectors for SCR-style specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the basis for integrating the Software Cost Reduction (SCR) specification method with the T-VEC (Test VECtor) test vector generator and specification analysis system. The SCR model is mapped to the T-VEC model to support automatic test vector generation for SCR specifications. The T-VEC system generated test vectors for an example SCR specification that was translated into the

Mark R. Blackburn; Robert D. Busser; Joseph S. Fontaine

1997-01-01

166

The chaining approach for software test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is very labor intensive and expensive and accounts for a significant portion of software system development cost. If the testing process could be automated, the cost of developing software could be significantly reduced. Test data generation in program testing is the process of identifying a set of test data that satisfies a selected testing criterion, such as statement

Roger Ferguson; Bogdan Korel

1996-01-01

167

Patterning control budgets for the 32-nm generation incorporating lithography, design, and RET variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important outcome of the 90nm and 65nm device generations was the realization that new methods for predicting and controlling patterning were required to ensure successful transfer for all design rule compliant features through the required process window. This realization led to a strong increase in the use of CD-based and process window aware post-optical proximity correction (OPC) verification in production mask tapeouts. Accurate post-OPC verification is a necessity but many patterning issues could have been detected and removed earlier in the product development lifecycle. Of course, the 45nm and 32nm device generations are only expected to further strain the ability of device manufacturers to predict process control requirements, robust patterning design rules and first-time right reticle enhancement technology (RET) recipes. Therefore, improvements to the traditional process, OPC and design rule prediction/evaluation steps are needed. In this paper we propose a patterning and CD control prediction methodology which incorporates not only the traditional dose, defocus and mask variation parameters but also implements RET parameter variations such as layout edge discretization, model inaccuracy, metrology error and assist feature placement. This methodology allows a more accurate prediction of process control requirements, worst case CD control layout geometries and RET subsystem accuracy/control requirements. Lithography engineers have long operated with specific (if not always fully understood) dose and focus control success requirements. To efficiently determine real worst design situations, we utilize a new methodology for quickly verifying the RET-ability of a lithography process + design rule set + OPC correction recipe based on coupling iterative layout generation with OPC testing. Our aim in this paper is to provide additional engineering rigor to the traditional experience-based OPC success requirements by looking at the total Litho + RET + metrology patterning problem and analyzing the individual component control needs.

Lucas, Kevin; Cork, Chris; Cobb, Jonathan; Ward, Brian; Drapeau, Martin; Zhang, Charlie; Allgair, John; Kling, Mike; Rieger, Mike

2007-03-01

168

Synaptic patterning of left-right alternation in a computational model of the rodent hindlimb central pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing, maintaining, and modifying the phase relationships between extensor and flexor muscle groups is essential for\\u000a central pattern generators in the spinal cord to coordinate the hindlimbs well enough to produce the basic walking rhythm.\\u000a This paper investigates a simplified computational model for the spinal hindlimb central pattern generator (CPG) that is abstracted\\u000a from experimental data from the rodent spinal

William Erik Sherwood; Ronald M. Harris-Warrick; John Guckenheimer

2011-01-01

169

A walking pattern generation method of humanoid robot MAHRU-R  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an omni-directional walking pattern generation method for a humanoid robot MAHRU-R. To walk stably without\\u000a falling down, a humanoid robot needs the walking pattern. Our previous walking pattern method generated the walking pattern\\u000a with linear polynomials of the zero moment point (ZMP). It implemented the simple walking like forward\\/backward walking, side\\u000a step walking and turning. However, this

Seokmin Hong; Yonghwan Oh; Bum-Jae You; Sang-Rok Oh

2009-01-01

170

Using genetic algorithms to generate test plans for functionality testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like in other fields, computer products (applications, hardware, etc.), before being marketed, require some level of testing to verify whether they meet their design and functional specifications -- called functionality test. The general process of performing functionality test consists in the production of a test plan that is then executed by humans or by automated software tools. The main difficulty

Francisca Emanuelle Vieira; Francisco Martins; Rafael Silva; Ronaldo Menezes; Márcio Braga

2006-01-01

171

A Combinatorial Test Suite Generator for Gray-Box Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In black-box testing, the system being tested is typically characterized as a number of inputs, where each input can take one of a number of values. Thus each test is a vector of input settings, and the set of possible tests is an N dimensional space, where N is the number of inputs. For example, an instance of a simulation

Anthony Barrett; Daniel Dvorak

2009-01-01

172

Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvilinear structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vector scan pattern generator, optimized for smooth curvilinear as well as rectilinear primitive shapes, has been designed and constructed. The pattern generator uses high-speed hardware to implement a set of second-order, quadratic equations to drive digital to analog converters and high-speed array processors to calculate the coefficients for these equations. The digital pattern generator package contains the high-speed digital,

Erik H. Anderson; V. Boegli; L. P. Muray

1995-01-01

173

Pattern Electroretinogram and Psychophysical Tests of Visual Function for Discriminating Between Healthy and Glaucoma Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the pattern electroretinogram (pattern ERG) to that of standard automated perimetry (SAP), short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), and frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry for discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods 83 eyes of 42 healthy recruits and 92 eyes of 54 glaucoma patients (based on optic disc appearance) from the University of California, San Diego, Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study were tested with pattern ERG for glaucoma detection (PERGLA, Lace Elettronica, Pisa, Italy), SAP, SWAP, and FDT within 9 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and compared for pattern ERG amplitude and SAP, SWAP and FDT mean deviation and pattern standard deviation (PSD). Sensitivities and specificities were compared and agreement among tests was described. Results The area under the ROC curve for pattern ERG amplitude was 0.744 (95% Confidence Interval = 0.670, 0.818). The ROC curve area was 0.786 (0.720, 0.853) for SAP PSD, 0.732 (0.659, 0.806) for SWAP PSD and 0.818 (0.758, 0.879) for FDT PSD. At 95% specificity, sensitivities of SAP and FDT PSD were significantly higher than that of pattern ERG amplitude; at 80% specificity, similar sensitivities were observed among tests. Agreement among tests was slight to moderate. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of the pattern ERG amplitude was similar to that of SAP and SWAP, but somewhat worse than that of FDT. Nevertheless, the pattern ERG may hold some advantage over psychophysical testing because of its largely objective nature.

Tafreshi, Ali; Racette, Lyne; Weinreb, Robert N.; Sample, Pamela A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Bowd, Christopher

2009-01-01

174

The Full Function Test Explosive Generator  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

2009-12-13

175

Testing large flats with computer generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the optical test of a large flat based on a spherical mirror and a dedicated CGH. The spherical mirror, which can be accurately manufactured and tested in absolute way, allows to obtain a quasi collimated light beam, and the hologram performs the residual wavefront correction. Alignment tools for the spherical mirror and the hologram itself are encoded in the CGH. Sensitivity to fabrication errors and alignment has been evaluated. Tests to verify the effectiveness of our approach are now under execution.

Pariani, Giorgio; Tresoldi, Daniela; Spanò, Paolo; Bianco, Andrea

2012-09-01

176

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation...

2013-04-01

177

Test data generation for arithmetic subsystem of CPUs MIPS64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problem is test data generation for arithmetic subsystem testing of CPUs MIPS64. A method is proposed to solve this problem. The method uses a formal description of processor functionality. A language for this description is proposed also. This language permits automatic test data generation. I. PROBLEM A computer system works correctly if all its compo- nents work correctly.

Evgeni Kornikhin

178

Interaction test data generation using Harmony Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the adoption of Harmony Search Algorithm based strategy, called HSS, for generating interaction test data. In a nutshell, HSS generates a set of test data (as a complete test suite) that covers the t-way interaction at least once in a greedy manner (i.e. here, t indicates the interaction strength). The main feature of HSS is the fact

AbdulRahman A. Alsewari; Kamal Z. Zamli

2011-01-01

179

Experimental results from an automatic test case generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint-based testing is a novel way of generating test data to detect specific types of common programming faults. The conditions under which faults will be detected are encoded as mathematical systems of constraints in terms of program symbols. A set of tools, collectively called Godzilla, has been implemented that automatically generates constraint systems and solves them to create test cases

Richard A. DeMillo; A. Jefferson Offutt

1993-01-01

180

Generation of Earth's First-Order Biodiversity Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first-order biodiversity pattern on Earth today and at least as far back as the Paleozoic is the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), a decrease in richness of species and higher taxa from the equator to the poles. LDGs are produced by geographic trends in origination, extinction, and dispersal over evolutionary timescales, so that analyses of static patterns will be insufficient

Andrew Z. Krug; David Jablonski; James W. Valentine; Kaustuv Roy

2009-01-01

181

Generation of Earth's First-Order Biodiversity Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first-order biodiversity pattern on Earth today and at least as far back as the Paleozoic is the latitudinal di- versity gradient (LDG), a decrease in richness of species and higher taxa from the equator to the poles. LDGs are produced by geographic trends in origination, extinction, and dispersal over evolutionary timescales, so that analyses of static patterns will be

Andrew Z. Krug; David Jablonski; James W. Valentine; Kaustuv Roy

2009-01-01

182

Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as plugins and on new scripting capabilities.

Michael Bruce-Lockhart; Theodore S. Norvell; Pierluigi Crescenzi

2009-01-01

183

Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added…

Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

2009-01-01

184

Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

2009-01-01

185

Automatic test generation using genetically-engineered distinguishing sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault-oriented sequential circuit test generator isdescribed in which various types of distinguishing sequencesare derived, both statically and dynamically,to aid the test generation process. A two-phase algorithmis used during test generation. The first phaseactivates the target fault, and the second phase propagatesthe fault effects (FE's) from the flip-flops withassistance from the distinguishing sequences. Thisstrategy improves the propagation of FE's to

Michael S. Hsiao; Elizabeth M. Rudnick; Janak H. Patel

1996-01-01

186

Combined solar and wind powered generator with spiral surface pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combination solar and wind power generator. It includes a wind generator, responsive to the flow of air currents, for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy; the wind generator including a plurality of air engaging vanes having at least first and second surfaces, the first and second surfaces forming a cavity internal to the air engaging vanes,

Hickey

1991-01-01

187

Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes.

Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M.

2008-01-01

188

Next-Generation PowerPCTM Microprocessor Test Strategy Improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first PowerPC microprocessor in the new G3 generation of designs, the MPC750, incorporates new test strategy approaches to improve the product test quality, reliability, and debug, and to reduce the total time to market

Carol Pyron; Javier Prado; James Golab

1997-01-01

189

Penetration tests in next generation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SIP proxy server is without any doubts centerpiece of any SIP IP telephony infrastructure. It also often provides other services than those related to VoIP traffic. These softswitches are, however, very often become victims of attacks and threats coming from public networks. The paper deals with a system that we developed as an analysis and testing tool to verify if the target SIP server is adequately secured and protected against any real threats. The system is designed as an open-source application, thus allowing independent access and is fully extensible to other test modules.

Rezac, Filip; Voznak, Miroslav

2012-05-01

190

Using Model Checking to Generate Fault Detecting Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique which generates from Abstract State Machines specifications a set of test sequences capable to uncover\\u000a specific fault classes. The notion of test goal is introduced as a state predicate denoting the detection condition for a particular fault. Tests are generated by forcing\\u000a a model checker to produce counter examples which cover the test goals. We introduce

Angelo Gargantini

2007-01-01

191

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 ...10 § 53.42 Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. ...doublets and triplets) in a test particle atmosphere shall not exceed 10 percent....

2013-07-01

192

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53...42 Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating...shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

2009-07-01

193

Electromigration radionuclide generator: working principles and testing  

SciTech Connect

An electromigration radionuclide generator can be built in which the daughter product is separated from the parent one because of differences in ion migration rates in an electric field. Two types are described in which the daughter after separation is eluted either as a result of hydrostatic pressure of by electrical migration. The barium 140-lanthanum 140 pair has been used to examine the working characteristics (yield, radiochemical purity, specific activity, and so on), and it has been found that the decisive effect comes from the distance between the peaks; the prospects for using the method to make short-lived radionuclides are considered.

Gedeonov, A.D.; Bulatenkov, Yu.V.

1988-09-01

194

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry for mechanical testing of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, performance and principles of computerised control of an optical micro-electro-mechanical device combining microtensile device and electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) to test both elastic and plastic properties of thin metallic, dielectric as well as multilayered freestanding films are presented. A piezo-actuated microtensile set up is synchronised with an ESPI to measure film elongation up to 70?m in length

L. Augulis; R. Augulis; J. Bonneville; P. Goudeau; C. Templier

2004-01-01

195

Circulant Synthesis of Central Pattern Generators With Application to Control of Rectifier Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While regulations around an equilibrium point or a reference trajectory have been the focus of recent feedback control theories, generation of autonomous oscillations with a specific pattern plays a crucial role in important control applications such as robotics. The central pattern generator (CPG) is the fundamental neuronal mechanism underlying rhythmic movements of animals, and may provide a new paradigm for

Zhiyong Chen; Tetsuya Iwasaki

2008-01-01

196

Walking pattern generation method with feedforward and feedback control for humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new walking pattern generation method for humanoid robots. This paper uses the linear inverted pendulum model (LIPM) which is composed of zero moment point (ZMP) and center of mass (CoM). Based on LIPM, the proposed method consists of feedforward control and feedback control for walking pattern generation of humanoid robots. The linear quadratic regulator(LQR) as a

Seokmin Hong; Yonghwan Oh; Doik Kim; Syungkwon Ra; Bum-Jae You

2009-01-01

197

D0 Experimental Area Emergency Backup Power and Generator Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DO experimental area has a generator designated as emergency power. This generator provides power for critical loads and starts automatically upon loss of commercial power. This note concerns the testing of this generator. A list of loads is attached to this note. One of the loads on the emergency power grid is a 10KVA Uninterruptable Power Supply(UPS). The UPS

D. Markley

1991-01-01

198

Next-generation antimicrobial susceptibility testing.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the most-significant health care problems of the new millennium, and the clinical microbiology laboratory plays a central role in optimizing the therapeutic management of patients with infection. This minireview explores the potential value of innovative methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms that could provide valuable alternatives to existing methodologies in the very near future. PMID:23486706

van Belkum, Alex; Dunne, W Michael

2013-03-13

199

Automatic Test Data Generation for Multiple Condition and MCDC Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently search based software engineering (SBSE) has evolved as a major research field in the software engineering community. SBSE has been applied successfully to many software engineering activities ranging from requirement engineering to software maintenance and quality assessment. One area where SBSE has seen much application is test data generation. Search based test data generation techniques have been applied to

Kamran Ghani; John A. Clark

2009-01-01

200

Environment behavior models for scenario generation and testing automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests an approach to automatic scenario generation from environment models for testing of real-time reactive systems. The behavior of the system is defined as a set of events (event trace) with two basic relations: precedence and inclusion. The attributed event grammar (AEG) specifies possible event traces and provides a uniform approach for automatically generating, executing, and analyzing test

Mikhail Auguston; James Bret Michael; Man-tak Shing

2005-01-01

201

Reflective electron beam lithography: lithography results using CMOS controlled digital pattern generator chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 10 nm logic (16 nm half pitch) technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) technology targeting high-volume 10 nm logic node performance. REBL uses a novel multi-column wafer writing system combined with an advanced stage architecture to enable the throughput and resolution required for a NGL system. Using a CMOS Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) chip with over one million microlenses, the system is capable of maskless printing of arbitrary patterns with pixel redundancy and pixel-by-pixel grayscaling at the wafer. Electrons are generated in a flood beam via a thermionic cathode at 50-100 keV and decelerated to illuminate the DPG chip. The DPG-modulated electron beam is then reaccelerated and demagnified 80-100x onto the wafer to be printed. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development progress of the REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 10 nm logic technology node. Since that time, the REBL team has made good progress towards developing the REBL system and DPG for direct write lithography. REBL has been successful in manufacturing a CMOS controlled DPG chip with a stable charge drain coating and with all segments functioning. This DPG chip consists of an array of over one million electrostatic lenslets that can be switched on or off via CMOS voltages to pattern the flood electron beam. Testing has proven the validity of the design with regards to lenslet performance, contrast, lifetime, and pattern scrolling. This chip has been used in the REBL demonstration platform system for lithography on a moving stage in both PMMA and chemically amplified resist. Direct imaging of the aerial image has also been performed by magnifying the pattern at the wafer plane via a mag stack onto a YAG imaging screen. This paper will discuss the chip design improvements and new charge drain coating that have resulted in a functional DPG chip and will evaluate the current chip performance on the REBL system. Print results for line/space and device test patterns at the 100nm node will be presented.

Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff Fuge; Freed, Regina; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Bevis, Chris; Carroll, Allen; Brodie, Alan; Tong, William M.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

2013-03-01

202

On-Chip Impulse Response Generation for Analog and Mixed-Signal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for testing analog and mixed-signal linear cir- cuit components based on their impulse response (IR) sig- natures is presented in this paper. A simple DFT structure is proposed to enable the on-chip generation of the impulse response signatures from the corresponding step responses of the circuit components. The proposed technique circum- vents the need to apply pseudorandom patterns

Abhishek Singh; Chintan Patel; Jim Plusquellic

2004-01-01

203

Gamete imprinting: setting epigenetic patterns for the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of genomic DNA methylation patterns, including those important for development, begins in the germ line. In particular, imprinted genes are differentially marked in the developing male and female germ cells to ensure parent-of-origin-specific expression in the offspring. Abnormalities in imprints are associated with perturbations in growth, placental function, neurobehavioural processes and carcinogenesis. Based, for the most part, on

Jacquetta M. Trasler

2006-01-01

204

Generation of Polynomial Discriminant Functions for Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical method of determining weights for crossproduct and power terms in the variable inputs to an adaptive threshold element used for statistical pattern classification is derived. The objective is to make it possible to realize general nonlinear decision surfaces, in contrast with the linear (hyperplanar) decision surfaces that can be realized by a threshold element using only first-order terms

Donald F. Specht

1967-01-01

205

FPGA-based fractional Brownian motion signal-patterns for optial paket generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal-pattern generation with different distributions and statistical parameters is an important issue for optical communications performance evaluation. This generation must include the signals' scaling or time-dependence degree representation. This paper proposes a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based architecture to generate signals with fractional Brownian motion (fBm) patterns. The proposed implementation enables real-time performance experiments for optical communications using an Altera's

G. Loss; R. Coelho

2006-01-01

206

An experimental study on the influence of fluid flow pattern on microbubble generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical properties of generated microbubbles induced by different fluid flow patterns were investigated\\u000a experimentally. Image processing method has been used to find microbubble size distribution and to determine\\u000a bubbles’ roundness as well. Three types of flow patterns were produced by changing microbubble generator\\u000a configuration in order to improve bubbles’ size distribution. These different geometrical configurations\\u000a of designed microbubble generator were

N. M. Nouri; A. Sarreshtehdari; E. Maghsoudi; A. Moosaie

2008-01-01

207

The generation of phytoplankton patchiness by mesoscale current patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elken et?al. (1994) suggested that phytoplankton patchiness can be generated by mesoscale eddies in light-limited, nutrient-replete\\u000a environments. This hypothesis is explored using two ecological models of different physical complexity. The model results\\u000a support the idea that the coupling of mesoscale eddy circulation and phytoplankton growth leads to differential growth rates\\u000a and thus generates variability in phytoplankton distributions. The specific circulation

Katja Fennel

2001-01-01

208

Progress of LMFBR steam generator testing'in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve assurancy of reliable performance, a concerted program of steam generator testing has been underway in the US since the early 1970's, performing both work oriented to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and work applicable to future plant steam generators. The approach in this program comprises a combination of small-scale and large-scale tests, special feature tests

F. E. Tippets; J. A. Ford; E. A. Wright; H. W. Buschman

1980-01-01

209

Interference pattern generation in evanescent electromagnetic waves for nanoscale lithography using waveguide diffraction gratings  

SciTech Connect

The generation of interference patterns of evanescent electromagnetic waves with an essentially subwavelength period using dielectric waveguide diffraction gratings is considered. Using simulations within the framework of the electromagnetic theory, the possibility of obtaining high-quality interference patterns due to enhancement of evanescent diffraction orders under resonance conditions is demonstrated. The contrast of the interference patterns in the case of TE polarisation of the incident wave is close to unity. The field intensity in the near-field interference maxima exceeds the intensity of the incident wave by 25-100 times. The possibility of generation of the interference patterns of evanescent waves corresponding to higher diffraction orders is shown. The use of higher orders reduces the requirements to the fabrication technology and allows generation of interference patterns with a high spatial frequency, using diffraction gratings with a low spatial frequency. Examples of generating interference patters with periods six times smaller than those of the used diffraction gratings are presented. (nanolithography)

Bezus, E A; Doskolovich, L L; Kazanskii, N L [Institute for Image Processing Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31

210

32 nm imprint masks using variable shape beam pattern generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32, 22 and 16 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is a unique method that has been designed from the beginning to enable precise overlay for creating multilevel devices. A photocurable low viscosity monomer is dispensed dropwise to meet the pattern density requirements of the device, thus enabling imprint patterning with a uniform residual layer across a field and across entire wafers. Further, S-FIL provides sub-100 nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multi-element, high quality projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of templates. For sub-32 nm device manufacturing, one of the major technical challenges remains the fabrication of full-field 1x templates with commercially viable write times. Recent progress in the writing of sub-40 nm patterns using commercial variable shape e-beam tools and non-chemically amplified resists has demonstrated a very promising route to realizing these objectives, and in doing so, has considerably strengthened imprint lithography as a competitive manufacturing technology for the sub 32nm node. Here we report the first imprinting results from sub-40 nm full-field patterns, using Samsung's current flash memory production device design. The fabrication of the template is discussed and the resulting critical dimension control and uniformity are discussed, along with image placement results. The imprinting results are described in terms of CD uniformity, etch results, and overlay.

Selinidis, Kosta; Thompson, Ecron; Schmid, Gerard; Stacey, Nick; Perez, Joseph; Maltabes, John; Resnick, Douglas J.; Yeo, Jeongho; Kim, Hoyeon; Eynon, Ben

2008-06-01

211

Swimming and other centrally generated motor patterns in newt embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Embryos of the newtTriturus vulgaris released from their egg membranes show a variety of centrally programmed behavioural responses that are broadly stimulus specific.2.Touching the body evokes swimming in which alternating waves of bending pass down the body and propel the animal forwards. In paralysed embryos, this stimulus evokes an appropriate pattern of motor root discharge that alternates on the two

S. R. Soffe; J. D. W. Clarke; Alan Roberts

1983-01-01

212

Generating arbitrary chemical patterns for multipoint dosing of single cells.  

PubMed

Living cells reside within anisotropic microenvironments that orchestrate a broad range of polarized responses through physical and chemical cues. To unravel how localized chemical signals influence complex behaviors, tools must be developed for establishing patterns of chemical gradients that vary over subcellular dimensions. Here, we present a strategy for addressing this critical need in which an arbitrary number of chemically distinct, subcellular dosing streams are created in real time within a microfluidic environment. In this approach, cells are cultured on a thin polymer membrane that serves as a barrier between the cell-culture environment and a reagent chamber containing multiple reagent species flowing in parallel under low Reynolds number conditions. Focal ablation of the membrane creates pores that allow solution to flow from desired regions within this reagent pattern into the cell-culture chamber, resulting in narrow, chemically distinct dosing streams. Unlike previous dosing strategies, this system provides the capacity to tailor arbitrary patterns of reagents on the fly to suit the geometry and orientation of specific cells. PMID:23427919

Hoppe, Todd J; Moorjani, Samira G; Shear, Jason B

2013-03-12

213

Generation and patterning of Si nanoparticles by femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties of nanoparticles are highly sensitive in respect to particle shapes, sizes, and localization on a sample. This demands for a fully controlled fabrication process. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to generate and transfer nanoparticles from a bulk target towards a collector substrate is a promising approach. This process allows a controlled fabrication of spherical nanoparticles with a very smooth surface. Several process parameters can be varied to achieve the desired nanoparticle characteristics. In this paper, the influence of two of these parameters, i.e. the applied pulse energy and the laser beam shape, on the generation of Si nanoparticles from a bulk Si target are studied in detail. By changing the laser intensity distribution on the target surface one can influence the dynamics of molten material inducing its flow to the edges or to the center of the focal spot. Due to this dynamics of molten material, a single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian beam shape generates multiple spherical nanoparticles from a bulk Si target. The statistical properties of this process, with respect to number of generated nanoparticles and laser pulse energy are investigated. We demonstrate for the first time that a ring-shaped intensity distribution on the target surface results in the generation of a single silicon nanoparticle with a controllable size. Furthermore, the generated silicon nanoparticles presented in this paper show strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Theoretical simulations as well as optical scattering measurements of single silicon nanoparticles are discussed and compared.

Zywietz, Urs; Reinhardt, Carsten; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.; Birr, Tobias; Chichkov, Boris N.

2013-10-01

214

Gas Generation Testing of Neptunium Oxide at Elevated Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Elevated temperature gas generation tests have been conducted using neptunium dioxide produced on a laboratory scale using the HB-Line Phase II flowsheet. These tests were performed to determine what effect elevated temperatures would have on the neptunium dioxide in comparison to neptunium dioxide tested at ambient temperature. The headspace gas compositions following storage at elevated temperatures associated with normal conditions of transport (NCT) have been measured. These test results show an increase in hydrogen generation rate at elevated temperature and significant removal of oxygen from the headspace gas. The elevated temperature gas generation tests described in this report involved heating small test vessels containing neptunium dioxide and measuring the headspace gas pressure and composition at the end of the test period. Four samples were used in these tests to evaluate the impact of process variables on the gas generation rate. Two samples were calcined to 600 degrees Celsius and two were calcined to 650 degrees Celsius. Each test vessel contained approximately 9.5 g of neptunium dioxide. Following exposure to 75 per cent relative humidity (RH) for five days, these samples were loaded in air and then heated to between 105 and 115 degrees Celsius for about one month. At the conclusion of the test period, the headspace gas of each container was analyzed using a micro-gas chromatograph installed in the glovebox where the experiments were conducted. The pressure, volume, and composition data for the headspace gas samples were used to calculate average H2 generation rates.

Duffey, JM

2004-01-30

215

Implementation of model-based intelligent next-generation test generator using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work, investigated the use of Neural Network technology to simulate faults and to generate input\\/output patterns used to diagnose electronic circuits via pattern classification. There are several types of circuits (i.e., digital, analog, hybrid (digit-analog), RF, and microwave). This study focused on digital circuits while maintaining the posture of considering other types in the future with similar solutions. The

Steven Singer

1996-01-01

216

VHDL Fault Simulation and Automatic Test Pattern Generation Requirements Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the requirements for a design automation tool that performs fault simulation and fault grading using the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The goal is to develop a tool which can autom...

B. W. Johnson D. T. Smith T. A. DeLong

1996-01-01

217

Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)|

Gleason, John M.

1988-01-01

218

C2 continuous gait-pattern generation for biped robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method to generate C2 continuous gait motion for biped robots. The method is based on the enhanced inverted pendulum mode, which can easily handle angular momentum around the center of gravity. Using our method, it is possible to plan motion paths for biped robots without discontinuity in the acceleration even during switching from

Shunsuke Kudoh; Taku Komura

2003-01-01

219

Test and Evaluation of Improved Azimuth Pulse Generator (Apg).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Azimuth pulse generators and a digital-to-synchro converter were subjected to tests at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center to ascertain their compliance with engineering requirements and to determine their performance in supplying antenna...

O. D. Carlson

1970-01-01

220

Automatic Computer Program Generation for Automatic Testing Systems (ATS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report of an investigation of automatic computer program generation for Automatic Test Equipment. The feasibility of replacing human programmers by an automatic process is demonstrated through description and design of a language and a processor...

N. S. Prywes

1975-01-01

221

7 Tests for (Pseudo)Random Number Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we will present some statistical tests for (pseudo-)random number generators. As mentioned earlier, there\\u000a is no “universal” test for randomness, only finitely many necessary conditions can be tested. We will orient us particularly\\u000a on the list of tests that has been applied to evaluate the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard; as is known, the winner has\\u000a been the

Daniel Neuenschwander

222

Prototype steam generator test at SCTI\\/ETEC. Acoustic program test plan. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an integrated test plan covering programs at General Electric (ARSD), Rockwell International (RI) and Argonne National Laboratory (CT). It provides an overview of the acoustic leak detection test program which will be completed in conjunction with the prototype LMFBR steam generator at the Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory. The steam generator is installed in the Sodium Components Test

D. A. Greene; A. Thiele; T. N. Claytor

1981-01-01

223

Design, Fabrication and testing of quantum well thermoelectric generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being designed, fabricated and tested to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy ship machinery. TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity directly and without any moving parts. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of 16.4

Velimir Jovanovic; Saeid Ghamaty; Norbert B. Elsner

2006-01-01

224

Automatic Generation of Floating-Point Test Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For numerical programs, or more generally for programs with floating-point data, it may be that large savings of time and storage are made possible by using numerical maximization methods instead of symbolic execution to generate test data. Two examples, a matrix factorization subroutine and a sorting method, illustrate the types of data generation problems that can be successfully treated with

Webb Miller; David L. Spooner

1976-01-01

225

Semiscale steam-generator tube-rupture test results. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semiscale Program and Test facility are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. The system is a small-scale model of the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear generating plant. An experimental program designed to provide data from steam generator tube rupture

Dimenna

1983-01-01

226

MINET validation study using steam generator test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three steam generator transient test cases that were simulated using the MINET computer code are described, with computed results compared against experimental data. The MINET calculations closely agreed with the experiment for both the once-through and the U-tube steam generator test cases. The effort is part of an ongoing effort to validate the MINET computer code for thermal-hydraulic plant systems

G. J. Van Tuyle; J. G. Guppy

1984-01-01

227

Once-through testing of the CRBRP prototype steam generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prototype steam generator for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) was designed, built, and tested by Rockwell International. A portion of these tests, performed by the Energy Technology Engineering Center during early 1983, had the specific objective of supporting the design of a hockey-stick-type steam generator for use in the once-through cycle mode, including demonstration of steady-state operation,

K. Kim; M. J. Gabler; R. D. Carlson

1987-01-01

228

Generation of field patterns through model-based parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the performance of any antenna is altered when placed on an aircraft, the need to accurately characterize the antenna system including the platform effects is critical. The process of experimentally identifying the platform effects of an antenna is difficult and time consuming, since it involves a very large number of measurements of the radiated/scattered fields. This paper identifies a new model based estimation technique that will reduce the number of measurements needed to characterize the antenna system. The model which is determined from a set of field measurements captures the essence of the behavior of the antenna system. Additional field pattern data is then attainable from the model. The new technique is demonstrated on two systems and the results are compared with Prony's estimation technique.

Schmidt, Alexander M.; Karle, Thomas A.; Pflug, Donald R.

1999-06-01

229

Automatic Test Data Generation for Data Flow Testing Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automatic test case generation is a major problem in software testing. Evolutionary structural testing is an approach to automatically\\u000a generate test cases that uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is guided by the data flow dependencies in the program to search\\u000a for test data to cover the def-use association. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach is a swarm intelligence technique

Narmada Nayakand; Durga Prasad Mohapatra

2010-01-01

230

Magnetic Field Generation in Collisionless Shocks; Pattern Growth and Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from three-dimensional particle simulations of\\u000acollisionless shocks with relativistic counter-streaming ion-electron plasmas.\\u000aParticles are followed over many skin depths downstream of the shock. Open\\u000aboundaries allow the experiments to be continued for several particle crossing\\u000atimes. The experiments confirm the generation of strong magnetic and electric\\u000afields by a Weibel-like kinetic streaming instability, and demonstrate that the

J. Trier Frederiksen; C. B. Hededal; T. Haugbølle; A. Nordlund

2003-01-01

231

A Novel Wideband Subarray Technique for Shaped Pattern Generation and Adaptively Interference Rejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a simple and efficient technique for the wideband shaped beam and sector beam pattern generation with their adaptive interference rejection is proposed. A microcontroller controlled and time delay based beam forming network for simultaneously generating multiple beams, shaped beam and sector beam is conceptualized. The antenna patterns considered here is formed by linear array of isotropic elements grouped as subarray. The shaped and sector beam synthesis procedure is practically simplified by simultaneous adding the constituents beams from the subarrays, was theoretically established by Woodward and Lawson (Proc. IEE. 95(1):362 370, 1948). Apart from the shaped beam generation a technique for adaptive interference rejection in shaped patterns using combination of time delay and phase shifter is discussed. This topic promises good prospect for wideband pattern generation and interference rejection.

Alfred, Q. Md.; Chakravarty, T.; Singh, G.; Sanyal, S. K.

2008-03-01

232

Maskless projection lithography for the fast and flexible generation of grayscale protein patterns.  

PubMed

Protein patterns of different shapes and densities are useful tools for studies of cell behavior and to create biomaterials that induce specific cellular responses. Up to now the dominant techniques for creating protein patterns are mostly based on serial writing processes or require templates such as photomasks or elastomer stamps. Only a few of these techniques permit the creation of grayscale patterns. Herein, the development of a lithography system using a digital mirror device which allows fast patterning of proteins by immobilizing fluorescently labeled molecules via photobleaching is reported. Grayscale patterns of biotin with pixel sizes in the range of 2.5 ?m are generated within 10 s of exposure on an area of about 5 mm(2) . This maskless projection lithography method permits the rapid and inexpensive generation of protein patterns definable by any user-defined grayscale digital image on substrate areas in the mm(2) to cm(2) range. PMID:22411542

Waldbaur, Ansgar; Waterkotte, Björn; Schmitz, Katja; Rapp, Bastian E

2012-03-13

233

Improving random test sets using the diversity oriented test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measure that characterizes the diversity of a test set from the perspective of the input domain of the program under test. By using a metaheuristic algorithm, randomly generated test sets (RTS) are evolved towards Diversity Oriented Test Sets (DOTS), which thoroughly cover the input domain. DOTS are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation to assess how testing

Paulo M. S. Bueno; W. Eric Wong; Mario Jino

2007-01-01

234

Central Pattern Generation and the Motor Infrastructure for Suck, Respiration, and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the current report is to review experimental findings on centrally patterned movements and sensory and descending modulation of central pattern generators (CPGs) in a variety of animal and human models. Special emphasis is directed toward speech production muscle systems, including the chest wall and orofacial complex during…

Barlow, Steven M.; Estep, Meredith

2006-01-01

235

Generating Pathological Gait Patterns via the Use of Robotic Locomotion Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore the feasibility of modeling normal and pathological human gait using a relatively simple five-element model. We use a robust, nonlinear control scheme to regulate the gait patterns of the model. Simulated gait patterns are generated through the use of five constraint relationships that depend on four gait parameters. Two pathological conditions due to muscle weaknesses

Anton Ephanov; Yildirim Hurmuzlu

236

Design of a Central Pattern Generator for Bionic-robot Joint with Angular Frequency Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an artificial central pattern generator (CPG) for bionic-robot joint control. The neural oscillator adopted to produce rhythmic pattern is specially designed from original sin-cosine oscillator model. An amplitude neural estimator consisted of two neurons is presented to provide sensor feedback to CPG control. The artificial CPG can adapt itself to the physical system parameters variety by rhythmic

Daibing Zhang; Dewen Hu; Linchen Shen; Haibin Xie

2006-01-01

237

From Central Pattern Generator to Sensory Template in the Evolution of Birdsong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Central nervous networks, be they a part of the human brain or a group of neurons in a snail, may be designed to produce distinct patterns of movement. Central pattern generators can account for the development and production of normal vocal signals without auditory feedback in non-songbirds. Songbirds need auditory feedback to develop and…

Konishi, Masakazu

2010-01-01

238

Historical Identity Development Patterns and Contemporary Multicultural Identity in First, Second and Third Generation Counseling Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the historical and contemporary identity development patterns of first, second, and third generation students to determine the attributes students bring with them and how they develop through their experiences in a multicultural counselor training program. The paper examines patterns between groups, followed by a discussion of…

Byrd, Nola Butler

2009-01-01

239

Central Pattern Generation and the Motor Infrastructure for Suck, Respiration, and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of the current report is to review experimental findings on centrally patterned movements and sensory and descending modulation of central pattern generators (CPGs) in a variety of animal and human models. Special emphasis is directed toward speech production muscle systems, including the chest wall and orofacial complex during…

Barlow, Steven M.; Estep, Meredith

2006-01-01

240

Evolution and Development of a Central Pattern Generator for the Swimming of a Lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design of neural control architectures for locomotion using an evolutionary approach. Inspired by the central pattern generators found in animals, we develop neural controllers that can produce the patterns of oscillations necessary for the swimming of a simulated lamprey. This work is inspired by Ekeberg's neuronal and mechanical model of a lamprey [11] and follows experiments

Auke Jan Ijspeert; Jérôme Kodjabachian

1999-01-01

241

New photomask pattern generation method based on i-line stepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

New pattern generation system, Photomask Repeater, based on i-line stepper has been developed. This system can transfer device patterns from master masks onto a photomask plate with 22mm field size. To print a chip larger than the 22mm field, stitching technology has been developed. Critical dimension error in the region where fields are stitched is the key issue of this

Suigen Kyoh; Shun-Ichiro Tanaka; Soichi Inoue; Iwao Higashikawa; Ichiro Mori; Katsuya Okumura; Nobuyuki Irie; Kikuo Muramatsu; Yuki Ishii; Nobutaka Magome; Toshikazu Umatate

2000-01-01

242

Photorefractive Moiré-like pattern generation and holographic grating spacing evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental procedure for producing real-time Moiré-like patterns generation is demonstrated. The evaluation of the high frequency photorefractive sinusoidal grating spacing is shown to illustrate the technique capability. Moiré-like patterns are produced by the superposition of two rotated dynamic sinusoidal phase gratings by small angles in the photorefractive crystal Bi12TiO20.

dos Santos, P. A. M.; da Silva Nunes, L. C.

2001-07-01

243

Online Biped Walking Pattern Generation for Humanoid Robot KHR-3(KAIST Humanoid Robot - 3: HUBO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an algorithm about online walking pattern generation method, sensory feedback controllers for walking of humanoid robot platform KHR-3 (KAIST Humanoid Robot-3: HUBO) and experimental results. The walking pattern trajectories have continuity, smoothness in varying walking period and stride, and it has simple mathematical form which can be implemented easily. The gait trajectory algorithm is composed of two

Ill-Woo Park; Jung-Yup Kim; Jun-Ho Oh

2006-01-01

244

Turbulence anisotropy and coherent structures in electromagnetically generated vortex patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical investigations addressing influence of the localised electromagnetic forcing on turbulent thermal convection of a weakly electrically conductive fluid in a wall-bounded rectangular enclosure are performed over a wide range of working parameters (104<=Ra<=5×105, Pr = 7). An asymmetrical electromagnetic forcing (EMF) is applied originating from combined effects of the imposed magnetic fields (originating from an array of 5×7 permanent magnets with |b0|max = 1 T each, located beneath the lower thermally active wall) and electric fields (originating from two electrodes supplied with dc current of different intensities, 0<=I<=10 A). Subgrid turbulent stress is modelled by electromagnetically extended Smagorinsky model and subgrid turbulent heat flux is represented by a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis. Simulations revealed two interesting findings: the electromagnetic forcing generated significant overall heat transfer increase (more than 500% for lower values of Ra) compared to its neutral case, and, the turbulence anisotropy was reduced in the central part of the enclosure.

Kenjereš, S.

2011-12-01

245

Statistical tests of the IBM PC pseudorandom number generator.  

PubMed

The widespread use of IBM personal computers in biomedical research and medical practice is evidenced by a variety of journal articles. Many of the application programs are written in the BASIC language, they model a stochastic process, and they depend on the Microsoft random number generator. Unfortunately, the Microsoft generator has exhibited a number of flaws including, for some seeds, a lack of uniformity of generated sequences of numbers, and serial correlation within such sequences. This paper provides evidence of these problems for several seeds, and provides suggestions for acceptable seeds which ensure that the generated sequences of numbers pass two fundamental statistical tests for randomness. PMID:2582745

Gleason, J M

1989-09-01

246

Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

2007-05-25

247

Suggested signal generator-simulator for adaptive antenna test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design synthesis and analysis procedures for nonadaptive antennas as well as for the adaptive type are highly developed and continuously being improved. For the adaptive antennas, range and field testing are still essential but are more complicated because of the larger number of significant variables. A suggested configuration for a bench-type compact signal generator-simulator for the development and test of

SAMUEL SENSIPER

1976-01-01

248

An implementation of computer aided test generation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program which aids the engineer in developing functional test sequences for digital devices is described. A general overview is given along with specific simulation techniques used. The program has several features unique to the implementation of conventional test generation aids.

Robert W. Rozeboom; Jeri Jane Crowley

1976-01-01

249

A Universal Statistical Test for Random Bit Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new statistical test for random bit generators is presented which, in contrast to presently used statistical tests, is universal in the sense that it can detect any significant deviation of a device's output statistics from the statistics of a truly random bit source when the device can be modeled as an ergodic stationary source with finite memory but arbitrary

Ueli M. Maurer

1992-01-01

250

Diagnoses of AC Generator Insulation Condition by Nondestructive Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented from comparison of nondestructive and destructive tests on several synchronous generator stators ranging from 800 to 33,000 kva. It is shown that the breakdown voltage of the weakest point in a winding can be forecast nondestructively by insulation resistance tests at increasing voltages. A new method of stating dielectric-absorption effect is suggested and its value as a

A. W. W. Cameron

1952-01-01

251

Once-through testing of the CRBRP prototype steam generator  

SciTech Connect

The prototype steam generator for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) was designed, built, and tested by Rockwell International. A portion of these tests, performed by the Energy Technology Engineering Center during early 1983, had the specific objective of supporting the design of a hockey-stick-type steam generator for use in the once-through cycle mode, including demonstration of steady-state operation, startup and shutdown in a once-through mode, and stable operation at low power. Eighteen steady-state performance tests were performed at power levels from 33 to 70 MWt, which represented 20 to 42 percent full power per tube of a commercial design. Pretest predictions are compared with test results. Startup and shutdown operations under a full-liquid condition in the steam generator are described. Steam generator tube inlet orifices, removed during the CRBRP test program, were not replaced for these tests. Therefore, dynamic instability was encountered during certain tests, and the results are compared with the DYNAM code for predicting flow instability conditions. Sodium and steam temperature maldistributions cause by testing at off-design conditions for this unit are also discussed.

Kim, K.; Gabler, M.J.; Carlson, R.D.

1987-01-01

252

Testing random number generators for Monte Carlo applications.  

PubMed

Central to any system for modelling radiation transport phenomena using Monte Carlo techniques is the method by which pseudo random numbers are generated. This method is commonly referred to as the Random Number Generator (RNG). It is usually a computer implemented mathematical algorithm which produces a series of numbers uniformly distributed on the interval [0,1). If this series satisfies certain statistical tests for randomness, then for practical purposes the pseudo random numbers in the series can be considered to be random. Tests of this nature are important not only for new RNGs but also to test the implementation of known RNG algorithms in different computer environments. Six RNGs have been tested using six statistical tests and one visual test. The statistical tests are the moments, frequency (digit and number), serial, gap, and poker tests. The visual test is a simple two dimensional ordered pair display. In addition the RNGs have been tested in a specific Monte Carlo application. This type of test is often overlooked, however it is important that in addition to satisfactory performance in statistical tests, the RNG be able to perform effectively in the applications of interest. The RNGs tested here are based on a variety of algorithms, including multiplicative and linear congruential, lagged Fibonacci, and combination arithmetic and lagged Fibonacci. The effect of the Bays-Durham shuffling algorithm on the output of a known "bad" RNG has also been investigated. PMID:8470994

Sim, L H; Nitschke, K N

1993-03-01

253

Online trajectory generation in an amphibious snake robot using a lamprey-like central pattern generator model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a control architecture for controlling the locomotion of an amphibious snake\\/lamprey robot capable of swimming and serpentine locomotion. The control architecture is based on a central pattern generator (CPG) model inspired from the neural circuits controlling locomotion in the lamprey's spinal cord. The CPG model is implemented as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators on board of

Auke Jan Ijspeert; Alessandro Crespi

2007-01-01

254

Hemispatial PCA dissociates temporal from parietal ERP generator patterns  

PubMed Central

Event-related potentials (31-channel ERPs) were recorded from 38 depressed, unmedicated outpatients and 26 healthy adults (all right-handed) in tonal and phonetic oddball tasks developed to exploit the perceptual challenge of a dichotic stimulation. Tonal nontargets were pairs of complex tones (corresponding to musical notes G and B above middle C) presented simultaneously to each ear (L/R) in an alternating series (G/B or B/G; 2-s fixed SOA). A target tone (note A) replaced one of the pair on 20% of the trials (A/B, G/A, B/A, A/G). Phonetic nontargets were L/R pairs of syllables (/ba/, /da/) with a short voice onset time (VOT), and targets contained a syllable (/ta/) with a long VOT. Subjects responded with a left or right button press to targets (counterbalanced across blocks). Target detection was poorer in patients than controls and for tones than syllables. Reference-free current source densities (CSDs; spherical spline Laplacian) derived from ERP waveforms were simplified and measured using temporal, covariance-based PCA followed by unrestricted Varimax rotation. Target-related N2 sinks and mid-parietal P3 sources were represented by CSD factors peaking at 245 and 440 ms. The P3 source topography included a secondary, left-lateralized temporal lobe maximum for both targets and nontargets. However, a subsequent hemispheric spatiotemporal PCA disentangled temporal lobe N1 and P3 sources as distinct factors. P3 sources were reduced in patients compared with controls, even after using performance as a covariate. Results are consistent with prior reports of P3 reduction in depression and implicate distinct parietal and temporal generators of P3 when using a dichotic oddball paradigm.

Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jurgen; Shankman, Stewart A.; Griggs, Carlye B.; Leite, Paul; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Bruder, Gerard E.

2008-01-01

255

Gray scaling in high performance optical pattern generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a comparison of different gray scaling techniques used in optical mask making. It shows that high address resolution and high throughput can be combined with the lithographic performance necessary for the most advanced applications. In the semiconductor industry, Moore's law continues to describe the ever-increasing demand for better performance in terms of clock-frequency and circuit density. One effect is shrinking design grids to cope with the tighter requirements on resolution, CD control, and aggressive OPC. For mask making this means that the address resolution of the mask writing equipment must be improved for every tool generation. The address resolution in the mask writer can be increased in two ways; either by decreasing the physical grid, or by introducing a virtual grid by using gray scaling. In the former case, the throughput, a performance parameter of utmost importance for reasonable mask costs and cycle times, will suffer a high penalty. In the latter case, however, a fine address grid is created, while keeping a large physical grid for high throughput. In earlier publications, a single pass raster scan gray scaling technique has been shown to reduce image quality in terms of image log-slope. This paper shows that the effects are kept to a minimum in the SLM-based DUV Sigma7300 mask writer, which uses partial coherent imaging and multiple writing passes. Analysis shows that the reduction in image log-slope due to gray scaling is less than 8%. In addition, the systematic averaging of four displaced writing passes makes the loss isotropic and independent of grid position. A detailed error analysis shows that a small address grid is more important for composite CD uniformity than the loss in image log-slope.

Martinsson, Hans; Sandstrom, Tor

2005-11-01

256

Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zero-moment point  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method of a biped walking pat- tern generation by using a preview control of the zero- moment point (ZMP). First, the dynamics of a biped robot is modeled as a running cart on a table which gives a convenient representation to treat ZMP. After reviewing conventional methods of ZMP based pattern generation, we formalize the problem

Shuuji Kajita; Fumio Kanehiro; Kenji Kaneko; Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Kensuke Harada; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa

2003-01-01

257

Piecewise-Linear Pattern Generator and Reflex System for Humanoid Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflexes have been viewed as integrated motions with the centrally generated motors commands to produce adaptive movement. In this paper, a walking pattern generator for humanoid robots based on piecewise linear functions and inspired by passive walking is considered. To deal with lateral and frontal disturbances, sensory feedback is realized based on the inverse pendulum model. The reflex system that

Riadh Zaier; Shinji Kanda

2007-01-01

258

Optical testing of cylindrical surfaces with computer-generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands for highly accurate cylinders require more high-precision testing techniques. The existing methods of testing cylindrical surfaces can not ensure the highly-accuracy, efficiency, convenience and the overall cost. In order to acquire highly accurate cylindrical surfaces conveniently at a low cost, a new Fizeau interferometric optical testing utilizing CGH which is fabricated onto a wedge-shaped substrate is designed. In this test, a slit filter is placed in the center of the cylindrical curvature to filter out the undesired diffraction orders which occur when the beam hits the CGH. Meanwhile, the front side of the wedge-shaped substrate is as the reference flat, and the CGH is written onto the inclined surface, so that the real fringe pattern can not be affected by its reflected beam. Moreover, the design of cylindrical surfaces under test tilting and off-center relative to the diffraction surface of the CGH results that the required rays for interference can be obtained effectively from the pinhole filter in the interferometer. Furthermore, high-accuracy CGH in this test can be processed by conventional microlithography equipments. Corresponding to a cylindrical surface with 60mm in diameter and f-number of 1/7, the test has been successfully designed and optimized in Zemax whose testing accuracy is prior to 0.0019?. Better interference pattern can be obtained because all the other disturbing rays image outside of aperture in a radius of 2mm. Experiment shows the method is efficient and predominant.

Wang, Wei; Guo, Pei-ji

2013-08-01

259

TestU01: A C library for empirical testing of random number generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

a collection of utilities for the empirical statistical testing of uniform random number generators (RNGs). It provides general implementations of the classical statistical tests for RNGs, as well as several others tests proposed in the literature, and some original ones. Predefined tests suites for sequences of uniform random numbers over the interval (0,1) and for bit sequences are available. Tools

Pierre L'ecuyer; Richard J. Simard

2007-01-01

260

Test Case Generation for Class-Level Object-Oriented Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss a new testing process to generate test cases for object-oriented programs. We focus on classes with mutable objects. The test case construction process is guided by formal object-oriented specifications. In our approach, testers first analyze the formal specification of a class to partition the state space of the class and identify a test model that

T. H. Tse; Zhinong Xu

1996-01-01

261

Mixing via thermocapillary generation of flow patterns inside a microfluidic drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating produced by a focused laser has been shown to provide a range of manipulation tools on droplets in microfluidic situations, through the generation of thermocapillary flows whose net result is to produce a force on the drop. In particular, droplets of water in oil that are produced in microchannels can be blocked in a special test section. Here, the manipulation of the flow within the droplet is explored through spatial and temporal modulation of the laser pattern used to block the drop. When a stationary pattern of two laser spots is used, the flow preserves the mirror symmetry inside the drop, as happens in the case of two alternating spots if the frequency of the switching is higher than the response rate of the fluid. Lower frequency switching produces a time periodic flow that breaks the mirror symmetry and which leads to efficient mixing inside the droplet. The mixing that is produced by this alternating flow is studied both experimentally and using numerical simulations of particle trajectories from measured velocity fields. This mixing can be optimized for certain parameter ranges, namely by varying the distance between the spots and the forcing frequency.

Cordero, María Luisa; Rolfsnes, Hans Olav; Burnham, Daniel R.; Campbell, Paul A.; McGloin, David; Baroud, Charles N.

2009-07-01

262

Modular test generation and concurrent transparency-based test translation using gate-level ATPG  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a hierarchical test generation methodology for modular designs, employing exclusively gate-level ATPG. Based on the notion of modular transparency, the search space of the design is reduced to alleviate the complexity of gate-level test generation. Although ATPG is applied at the full circuit, faults in each module are targeted individually, while the surrounding modules are replaced by their

Yiorgos Makris; Alex Orailoglu; Praveen Vishakantaiah

2000-01-01

263

A three-phase sag generator for testing industrial equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diesel powered three-phase standby 480V, 15kW, 60Hz synchronous generator has been modified to give controlled three-phase voltage sags. These sags can be controlled in both depth and duration. A 486-based computer with a data acquisition system controls the generator and monitors the system under test. The custom software interface allows the user to select the depth and duration of

E. R. Jr. Collins; R. L. Morgan

1996-01-01

264

A Scale Model Aircraft and Antenna Pattern Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the program activity, coordinate systems, axes of rotation, and electromagnetic radiation patterns measured for flush mounted circularly polarized slot antennas installed in a 1/10th scale model of a Convair 880 aircraft. Pattern cove...

W. J. McCabe

1971-01-01

265

From social behavior to neural circuitry: steroid hormones rapidly modulate advertisement calling via a vocal pattern generator.  

PubMed

Across vertebrates, androgens are rapidly elevated within minutes in response to aggressive or reproductive stimuli, yet it is unclear what the causal relationship is between fast androgen elevation and the ongoing (minute-by-minute) expression of behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that rapid increases in plasma steroid levels induce similarly rapid increases in both vocal behavior and the neurophysiological output of a central pattern generator that governs vocal behavior. In Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), males call to attract females to their nesting sites, and both males and females vocalize in aggressive interactions. Previous field experiments with males showed that simulated territorial challenges produce rapid and concurrent elevations in ongoing calling behavior and circulating levels of the teleost-specific androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT), but not the glucocorticoid cortisol. The current field experiments showed that non-invasive (food) delivery of 11kT, but not cortisol, induced an elevation within 10 min in the ongoing calling behavior of males. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that intramuscular injections of either 11kT or cortisol, but neither testosterone nor 17-beta-estradiol, induced increases within 5 min in the output of the vocal pattern generator in males, whereas only cortisol had similarly fast effects in females. The field behavioral results support predictions generated by the challenge hypothesis and also parallel the 11kT-dependent modulation of the vocal pattern generator in males. The cortisol effect on the vocal pattern generator in both sexes predicts that glucocorticoids regulate vocalizations in non-advertisement contexts. Together, these experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that surges in circulating steroid levels play a causal role in shaping rapid changes in social behavior (vocalizations) through non-genomic-like actions on neural (vocal motor) circuits that directly encode behavioral patterning. PMID:16870192

Remage-Healey, Luke; Bass, Andrew H

2006-07-25

266

Efficiency test of pseudorandom number generators using random walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and computer simulations usually use long sequences of random numbers generated by deterministic rules, so-called pseudorandom number generators. Their efficiency depends on the convergence rate to the stationary distribution and the quality of random numbers used for simulations. Various methods have been employed to measure the convergence rate to the stationary distribution, but the effect of random numbers has not been much discussed. We present how to test the efficiency of pseudorandom number generators using random walks.

Kang, Mihyun

2005-02-01

267

Generator of predictive verification pattern using vision system based on higher-order local autocorrelation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although lithography conditions, such as NA, illumination condition, resolution enhancement technique (RET), and material stack on wafer, have been determined to obtain hotspot-free wafer images, hotspots are still often found on wafers. This is because the lithography conditions are optimized with a limited variety of patterns. For 40 nm technology node and beyond, it becomes a critical issue causing not only the delay of process development but also the opportunity loss of the business. One of the easiest ways to avoid unpredictable hotspots is to verify an enormous variety of patterns in advance. This, however, is time consuming and cost inefficient. This paper proposes a new method to create a group of patterns to cover pattern variations in a chip layout based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation (HLAC), which consists of two phases. The first one is the "analyzing phase" and the second is the "generating phase". In the analyzing phase, geometrical features are extracted from actual layouts using the HLAC technique. Those extracted features are statistically analyzed and define the "feature space". In the generating phase, a group of patterns representing actual layout features are generated by correlating the feature space and the process margin. By verifying the proposed generated patterns, the lithography conditions can be optimized efficiently and the number of hotspots dramatically reduced.

Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Maeda, Shimon; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mimotogi, Shoji; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Murakawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Eiichi

2012-03-01

268

A Sequential Test Generator with Explicit Elimination of Easy-to-Test Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the advantages of forward and reverse time approaches to generate the test vectors for a sequential circuit. The algorithm uses PODEM and nine-value logic model. Two new classes of faults called 0-step and 1-step testable faults are defined. The tests for these faults are generated based on known states. These faults are regarded as easy-to-test because the

Tsu-wei Ku; Wei-kong Chia

1991-01-01

269

Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal\\/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the

J. R. Impellezzeri; T. L. Camaret; W. H. Friske

1981-01-01

270

Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant steam generator: FEW tube test model post test examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) is part of an extensive testing program being carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal\\/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify

J. R. Impellezzeri; T. L. Camaret

1979-01-01

271

AEDC's Scene Generation Test Capability (SGTC) using Direct Write Scene Generation (DWSG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Scene Generation Test Capability (SGTC) is under development at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) which uses Direct Write Scene Generation (DWSG) as a tool to project realistic mission scenarios into sensors operating in a simulated space system environment. This capability can reduce the risk associated with developing advanced sensor systems. The second phase of this program, a Focal Plane Array Test Chamber (FPATC), is currently underway which expands the capabilities of the phase one Transportable Direct Write Scene Generator (TDWSG) reported previously. Projection wavelengths for the system include 0.514, 1.06, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers . Multiple chamber configurations will be used to accommodate different types of test articles. The FPATC is also transportable. User testing has begun in the TDWSG. This paper will present an overview of the current SGTC program.

Lowry, Heard S.; Elrod, Parker D.

1993-08-01

272

Optically definable reaction-diffusion-driven pattern generation of Ag-Au nanoparticles on templated surfaces.  

PubMed

We introduce a new lithographic method for the generation of 2D patterns of composite nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag and Au by taking recourse to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches. Micrometer-scale and submicrometer-scale patterned Ag foils of commercially available compact disks (CDs) and digital versatile disks (DVDs), respectively, were used as templates. The galvanic replacement reaction of Ag by HAuCl(4) in the presence of the dye coatings on the foils led to the formation of patterned NP composites of Ag and Au, in addition to the formation of AgCl. The resultant structures appeared in the form of cross patterns of particles with micrometer and submicrometer dimensions. The AgCl crystals thus formed could be removed by using either a saturated NaCl solution or aqueous ammonia. In addition, AgCl could be converted to Ag by electrochemical reduction, thus generating Ag-coated Au NPs. Interestingly, the digital writing on CDs led to the formation of tertiary imprints on the patterns, based on the original writing patterns. This provided an additional handle in generating hierarchical patterns using light in combination with a chemical reaction diffusion process and the nearly parallel line patterns originally present in commercial CDs. The reactions could be carried out in aqueous solution, and the method does not require any additional curing. Also, the density of patterned particles is scalable on the basis of the choice of the original line patterns as present in CDs and DVDs. PMID:21899314

Gogoi, Sonit Kumar; Borah, Sankar Moni; Dey, Krishna Kanti; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

2011-09-14

273

Integration and optimization of the DUV ALTA pattern generation system using a CAR process with the Tetra photomask etch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etec Systems, the Mask Business Group of Applied Materials, is in a unique position within the mask making industry - Etec has the opportunity to integrate individual parts of the overall mask manufacturing process to provide a more complete solution. Here we present the integration of the DUV ALTA laser pattern generator and the TetraTM photomask etch system with advanced CAR resist processes. Dry etch process effects of flow, overetch, and oxygen content (in a Cl2/O2/He plasma) are discussed for the baseline POR resist in terms of etch rate, selectivity, etch bias, CD uniformity and micro-loading; the optimized etch process space was then implemented for advanced CAR resists. Iso-dense bias, football pattern loading and other pattern transfer results influencing mask manufactureability are also presented. Within the synthesis and optimization of the pattern generation system, process, and dry etch sub 13 nm range process uniformity has been achieved. The integrated ALTA / Tetra / Advanced-CAR solution set is characterized on both Etec test patterns and customer demonstrations.

Buxbaum, Alex H.; Fuller, Scott E.; Montgomery, Warren; Ungureit, Michael E.

2003-12-01

274

Corrosion Testing of INCONEL Alloy 690 for PWR steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCONEL alloy 690, an austenitic, highchromium modification of INCONEL alloy 600, was developed to resist stresscorrosion\\u000a cracking and general corrosion in hightemperature aqueous environments associated with nuclear steam generators. Tests in\\u000a nitric acid and nitrichydrofluoric acid show that the high chromium content provides alloy 690 with very good resistance to\\u000a highly oxidizing environments. Extensive laboratory testing has shown the alloy

J. R. Crum; R. C. Scarberry

1982-01-01

275

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen\\/diesel system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test of an oxygen\\/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the

1983-01-01

276

Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition  

SciTech Connect

In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

Peters, T

2005-05-13

277

Two computer-generated holograms for testing convex aspheric surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing system based on computer-generated holograms(CGHs) can achieve high accuracy of aspherical measurement, this paper studies a new method for testing convex aspheric surface-two CGHs. This method has an advantage in resisting interference and needing no huge assistance surfaces. For a convex hyperboloidal mirror, such a testing system has been designed and optimized in Zemax with the testing accuracy of prior to 0.015?, and all of other disturbing rays image outside of aperture with a radius of 0.8mm. Finally, the system errors are analyzed in detail and the results show that this system can guarantee the testing accuracy of aspherics. In addition, this testing system can also measure off-axis aspherics and free-form surfaces.

Hong, Xiao-Miao; Guo, Pei-Ji; Ren, Jian-Feng

2011-06-01

278

Steam generator tube integrity program leak rate tests. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This interim report presents preliminary results on leak rate tests performed on through-wall defected Inconel 600 steam generator tubing. Tube defects included an EDM (electro-discharge machine) notch and IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracks) of various lengths. Tests were conducted at PWR operating temperatures with leakage of hot water/steam into air. A number of IGSCC cracks were unstable under the experiment conditions of these initial tests, continuing to grow until system capacity limitations resulted in decreased pressure differential. However, initial tesing also pointed to a need for reconfiguration of the test apparatus to sustain increased flow and, more importantly, alter the mode of control. The initial test configuration is based on flow control, with pressure differential across the specimen an independent variable. This often results in pressure increases too rapid to establish the initiation of crack instability. A reconfigured system based on pressure control with flow as an independent parameter is being recommended for future tests.

Clark, R.A.; Bickford, R.L.

1984-01-01

279

Contest: a concurrent test generator for sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of a concurrent fault simulator to automatic test vector generation. As faults are simulated in the fault simulator a cost function is simultaneously computed. A simple cost function is the distance (in terms of the number of gates and flip-flops) of a fault effect from a primary output. The input vector is then modified to

Vishwani D. Agrawal; Kwang-Ting Cheng; Prathima Agrawal

1988-01-01

280

Test Device for Under Water Tidal Flow Power Generation Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are different under water tidal flow turbines. The investigated turbine design in this paper is a vertical axis turbine with funnels on both sides to direct and control the flow of water onto the turbine. This paper introduces a prototype testing device to control and measure the power generation of the device at different opening angles for the funnel.

Ibrahim AL-BAHADLY; Paul PINFOLD

281

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to 'Type B' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for

L. H. Goldmann; H. S. Averette

1994-01-01

282

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisitope Themoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ‘‘Type B’’ shipments of radioactive materials. The licensed hardware is now in the U. S. Department of Energy licensing process that

Louis H. Goldmann; Henry S. Averette

1995-01-01

283

A Nationwide Pilot Architecture for Testing Next Generation Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe design and implementation of a next generation network (NGN) pilot which is a testbed used to test different services, features, protocols, etc that can be delivered or used in NGN. This Pilot is considered as a part of Iran telecommunications 5-year master plan which is going to migrate to NGN networks. The process of implementing

Mahmoud Pirhadi; Yazdan Nasr Harandi; Mojtaba Yaghoubi Waskasi; Abbas Iravani Tabrizipoor; Mansour Mirzabaghi

2006-01-01

284

A generative approach to a virtual material testing laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis presents a virtual material testing laboratory that is highly generic and flexi- ble in terms of both the material behaviour and experiments that it supports. Generic and flexible material behaviour was accomplished via symbolic computation, generative pro- gramming,techniques and an abstraction layer that effectively hides the material model specific portions of the numerical algorithms. To specify a

John Mccutchan

285

Testing and Evaluation of Second-Generation Heliostat Mirror Modules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testing and evaluation of the Second Generation Heliostat mirror modules are reported here. It was found that all of the previous design problems of mirror modules, such as silver corrosion, thermal defocus, and high glass stress, were eliminated by o...

V. P. Burolla W. R. Delameter

1982-01-01

286

Coverage directed test generation for functional verification using bayesian networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional verification is widely acknowledged as the bottleneck in the hardware design cycle. This paper addresses one of the main challenges of simulation based verification (or dynamic verification), by providing a new approach for Coverage Directed Test Generation (CDG). This approach is based on Bayesian networks and computer learning techniques. It provides an efficient way for closing a feedback loop

Shai Fine; Avi Ziv

2003-01-01

287

KIVA-I MHD Generator Modifications and Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFAPL-MHD Facility (KIVA-I) was used to conduct an extensive series of tests on the pegwall diagonally connected generator. Extensive knowledge was gained in the areas of conductivity, oxygen-to-fuel ratios, interelectrode connection angles, seed part...

L. W. Buechler R. A. Nimmo

1973-01-01

288

Testing and evaluation of second-generation heliostat mirror modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testing and evaluation of the second generation heliostat mirror modules are reported. It was found that all of the previous design problems of mirror modules, such as silver corrosion, thermal defocus, and high glass stress, were eliminated by one or more of these designs. The single most important conclusion to be drawn from this program is that laminated glass

V. P. Burolla; W. R. Delameter

1982-01-01

289

Generating English Sentences, Books 1-4 and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These volumes (with tests) on constructing effective English sentences are designed for secondary students who do not often hear standard dialects--e.g., the deaf, the disadvantaged, or the speakers of English as a second language. Transformational-generative grammar is used to describe the structures and operations that the student most needs.…

Stokoe, William C., Jr.; And Others

290

Automatic Test Generation for Java-Card Applets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-cards have introduced a new life cycle for smart card embedded applications. In the case of Java Card, they have raised the problem of embedded object-oriented applet validation. In this article, we describe a methodology for Java Card applet verification, and its application on a case study. This methodology is based on automatic test generation. We first take benefits of

Hugues Martin; Lydie Du Bousquet

2000-01-01

291

Generative Models of Segregation: Investigating Model-Generated Patterns of Residential Segregation by Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.  

PubMed

This paper considers the potential for using agent models to explore theories of residential segregation in urban areas. Results of generative experiments conducted using an agent-based simulation of segregation dynamics document that varying a small number of model parameters representing constructs from urban-ecological theories of segregation can generate a wide range of qualitatively distinct and substantively interesting segregation patterns. The results suggest how complex, macro-level patterns of residential segregation can arise from a small set of simple micro-level social dynamics operating within particular urban-demographic contexts. The promise and current limitations of agent simulation studies are noted and optimism is expressed regarding the potential for such studies to engage and contribute to the broader research literature on residential segregation. PMID:21379372

Fossett, Mark

2011-01-01

292

Generative Models of Segregation: Investigating Model-Generated Patterns of Residential Segregation by Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the potential for using agent models to explore theories of residential segregation in urban areas. Results of generative experiments conducted using an agent-based simulation of segregation dynamics document that varying a small number of model parameters representing constructs from urban-ecological theories of segregation can generate a wide range of qualitatively distinct and substantively interesting segregation patterns. The results suggest how complex, macro-level patterns of residential segregation can arise from a small set of simple micro-level social dynamics operating within particular urban-demographic contexts. The promise and current limitations of agent simulation studies are noted and optimism is expressed regarding the potential for such studies to engage and contribute to the broader research literature on residential segregation.

Fossett, Mark

2011-01-01

293

Implementation and characterization of a DUV raster-scanned mask pattern generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etec Systems, Inc., an Applied Materials company, has completed the implementation and characterization of a deep ultraviolet (DUV), multibeam, raster-scanned mask patterning and integrated process solution. The ALTA 4000 mask pattern generation system integrates a new data path, environmental control system, DUV optics, a 257nm DUV continuous-wave laser source, and an environmentally stable chemically amplified resist (CAR) process to deliver

Michael J. Bohan; H. Christopher Hamaker; Warren Montgomery

2002-01-01

294

Second harmonic generation in a low-loss orientation-patterned GaAs waveguide.  

PubMed

The technology of low-loss orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) waveguided crystals was developed and realized by reduction of diffraction scattering on the waveguide pattern. The propagation losses in the OP-GaAs waveguide were estimated to be as low as 2.1 dB/cm, thus demonstrating the efficient second harmonic generation at 1621 nm under an external pumping. PMID:23938493

Fedorova, K A; McRobbie, A D; Sokolovskii, G S; Schunemann, P G; Rafailov, E U

2013-07-15

295

Tests of an explosive-driven coaxial generator  

SciTech Connect

The results of four tests on an explosive-driven sweeping-wave coaxial generator are reported. The first shot of the series used a capacitor bank to supply the initial current. The remaining three shots used an explosive-driven sweeping-wave helical generator to boost the initial current. On the final shot, a peak current of 50 MA was reached in a 12 nH load, corresponding to a peak energy of 15 MJ. The peak power was 1.5 TW and the final current-doubling time was 12.5 ..mu..s. In addition to conventional Rogowsky loops, Faraday rotation sensors were employed to measure the current. Arrays of microballoon optical-fiber pins were used to measure the shape of the armature under the action of the magnetic forces in the generator. The coaxial generator should be capable of achieving still higher output energies if higher input energies are provided.

Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Benjamin, R.F.; Williams, A.H.; Goforth, J.H.; Freeman, B.L.; Veeser, L.R.; Felber, F.S.

1985-01-01

296

Implementation and characterization of a DUV raster-scanned mask pattern generation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etec Systems, Inc., an Applied Materials company, has completed the implementation and characterization of a deep ultraviolet (DUV), multibeam, raster-scanned mask patterning and integrated process solution. The ALTA 4000 mask pattern generation system integrates a new data path, environmental control system, DUV optics, a 257nm DUV continuous-wave laser source, and an environmentally stable chemically amplified resist (CAR) process to deliver superior productivity, improved resolution, and critical dimension (CD) control required for volume 130nm mask production. Additionally, to obtain the maximum benefit of this mask pattern generation system, Etec has completed development of an environmentally stable CAR process, which has been tailored to allow the maskmaking industry to continue to receive pre-coated mask blanks from commercial suppliers. This paper details the system architecture and presents system performance and characterization data. The characterization results of the integrated system and process solution are also presented. This integrated pattern generation and process solution continues the tradition of the production workhorse ALTA product line with the introduction of the ALTA 4000 scanned-laser mask pattern generation system.

Bohan, Michael J.; Hamaker, H. Christopher; Montgomery, Warren

2002-03-01

297

Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments  

SciTech Connect

This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

1991-01-01

298

Predictors of cognitive test patterns in autism families.  

PubMed

In a case-control study of cognitive performance, tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, and pragmatic language were administered to the parents and siblings of 90 community-ascertained probands with autism (AU group) and to the parents and siblings of 40 similarly ascertained probands with trisomy 21 Down syndrome (DS group). The two samples were comparable for age and parents' education; both groups were well-educated and had above-average intelligence. AU parents scored slightly but significantly lower on the WAIS-R Full Scale and Performance IQ, on two subtests (Picture Arrangement and Picture Completion), and on the Word Attack Test (reading nonsense words) from the Woodcock-Johnson battery. There were no differences between AU and DS siblings. As in earlier studies, AU parents, more often than DS parents, reported a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties; we were not able to replicate this in siblings. AU parents who reported such difficulties scored significantly lower on Verbal IQ, spelling, and the nonsense reading test. AU parents without a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties often had a Verbal IQ that exceeded Performance IQ by more than one standard deviation. AU siblings with early language-related difficulties had similar findings: lower Verbal IQ, poorer spelling, and poorer reading scores, compared to AU siblings without such a history. Parents with a positive history also scored worse on a measure of pragmatic language,the Pragmatic Rating Scale, but not on measures of social-related components of the broader autism phenotype. We propose that cognitive differences in a subset of autism family members are manifestations of the language-related component of the broader autism phenotype, and separate from the social-related component. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there are several genes that may interact to cause autism which segregate independently and have distinguishable manifestations in family members. The hypothesis would be further supported by finding different patterns of genetic loci linked to autism in families where one or both parents has language difficulties. PMID:10576540

Folstein, S E; Santangelo, S L; Gilman, S E; Piven, J; Landa, R; Lainhart, J; Hein, J; Wzorek, M

1999-10-01

299

Generation of enhancer trap lines in Arabidopsis and characterization of expression patterns in the inflorescence.  

PubMed

Eleven thousand, three hundred and seventy enhancer/promoter trap lines in Arabidopsis were generated via T-DNA transformation utilizing the binary vector pD991 that contains a minimal promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene. Overall 31% of the lines generated exhibit a staining pattern in the inflorescence. Flanking DNA has been cloned from 15 lines exhibiting inflorescence staining patterns by either thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR), inverse PCR (IPCR), or partial library construction. Seeds from these lines are available from the ABRC and NASC Arabidopsis stock centers and DNA pools are available from the ABRC. PMID:10230066

Campisi, L; Yang, Y; Yi, Y; Heilig, E; Herman, B; Cassista, A J; Allen, D W; Xiang, H; Jack, T

1999-03-01

300

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2009-10-01

301

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2010-10-01

302

Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to the control object, and generally, the damper has been designed by linear control theory as pole placement method, optimal control method or H infinity control method, and all the rest. On the other hand, on walking of animate beings like mammals or insects, both side feet have appropriate phase relations; moreover, it is possible to keep moving on irregular ground. That is, algorithms for the walking would be embedded into the animate beings to control the complicated and redundant bodies with ease and robustness. In biological study, the Central Pattern Generators in bodies playing a significant role in the walking have been learned over the last few decades, and some studies said that some animate beings are able to control their feet by using the generators without their brains in the walking. Moreover, mathematical models of the pattern generators have been proposed, and some researchers have been studying to realize walking of biped-robots using the pattern generators embedded in a computer. In this study, the algorithm is installed into a controller for the active mass damper; furthermore, validation of the controller is performed by numerical simulation.

Iba, Daisuke; Hongu, Junichi

2011-03-01

303

Test generation for comprehensive testing of linear analog circuits using transient response sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of testing analog components continues to be the bottleneck in reducing the time-to-market of mixed-signal ICs. In this paper, we present a test generation algorithm for implicit functional testing of linear analog circuits using transient response sampling. Each specification of the circuit under test (CUT) imposes bounds on individual parametric deviations under the single fault assumption. These bounds

Pramodchandran N. Variyam; Abhijit Chatterjee

1997-01-01

304

Fast Algorithms for Computer Generated Islamic Patterns of 8-ZOHREH and 8-SILI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interests and tendencies of motivations in generated computer graphics between researchers are increased in recent years.\\u000a There are many various methods for computer graphics in some applications such as architectural arts. In this paper we present\\u000a two new algorithms for computer generated Islamic Geometrical Patterns, which are 8-ZOHREH and 8-SILI. They are presented\\u000a as computer algorithms. These algorithms presented

Peyman Rasouli; Azam Bastanfard; Alireza Rezvanian; Omid Jalilian

2008-01-01

305

Elements of an advanced pattern generator for 130- to 100-nm maskmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to next-generation mask requirements, Etec Systems, Inc has developed a complete raster-based patterning solution to meet the production needs of the 130 nm IC device generation as well as those for early 100 nm production. In developing this new MEBES system, we have aimed at versatility, extendability, and compatibility with conventional high-contrast resists and redesigned it form the

Varoujan Chakarian; Charles A. Sauer; Bassam Shamoun; Frank Chilese; David Trost; Marek Zywno; Ulrich Hofmann; Robin Teitzel; Richard Prior; Frederick Raymond; Abe Ghanbari; Frank E. Abboud

2000-01-01

306

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

2000-09-12

307

EVALUATION OF TEST RESULTS ON THE TWO-TUBE (DUPLEX) TEST STEAM GENERATOR NO. 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-tube (duplex) steam generator constructed of 2 1\\/4% chromium-1% ; molybdenum alloy steel with an inert gas leak detection system was built and ; tested. The performance of this steam generator is compared with the performance ; of similar units constructed of stainless steel. An evaluation is made of the ; heat transfer data obtained on the unit during

1957-01-01

308

Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination  

SciTech Connect

The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. This paper describes the problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination, and the results of the post-test examination. Conditions of tube bowing and significant tube and tube support gouging was observed. An interpretation of the visual and metallurgical observations is also presented. The CRBRP steam generator has undergone design evaluations to resolve observed deficiences found in the FFTM.

Impellezzeri, J.R.; Camaret, T.L.; Friske, W.H.

1981-03-11

309

Dynamic walking pattern generation for a humanoid robot based on optimal gradient method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a method in which walking patterns based on the ZMP (zero moment point) are generated by a simple search algorithm; OGM (optimal gradient method). This approach has advantages in algorithmic simplicity and height generality. First, the designer gives prescribed time trajectories of both feet, hands and a reference of ZMP. Second, initial trajectories of a trunk are determined on

K. Nagasaka; H. Inoue; M. Inaba

1999-01-01

310

Stridulatory pattern generation in acridid grasshoppers: metathoracic interneurons in Stenobothrus rubicundus (Germar 1817)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stridulation was elicited in tethered gomphocerine grasshoppers of the species Stenobothrus rubicundus in order to identify interneurons of the stridulation pattern generator, and describe their morphological and physiological properties. Nine types of such neurons could be found and characterized; eight of those could additionally be compared to corresponding neuron types previously known from other species. As shown in detail for

Hartmut Schütze; Norbert Elsner

2001-01-01

311

Effects of scaphognathite nerve stimulation on the acutely deafferented crab ventilatory central pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Sensory axons from crab (Carcinus maenas) scaphognathites enter the thoracic ganglion primarily via the LNb branch of the levator nerve. The LNa branch of the levator nerve and the depressor nerve each contain relatively few sensory axons.2.Acutely deafferented ventilatory central pattern generators show a free running burst rate which is lower than that observed in intact crabs. Electrical stimulation of

J. L. Wilkens; R. A. DiCaprio

1994-01-01

312

Effectiveness of central pattern generator model on developed one legged hopping robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the validity of using Central Pattern Generator (CPG) model to develop one leg hopping robot which hops higher and rhythmically. Infrared Ranging (IR) sensor is mounted on a platform to measure the distance of hopping performance. The distances of IR sensor from the platform to the floor in both static and vertical jumping motion are measured. MATLAB

N. H. A. Rahim; A. M. Kassim; M. F. Miskon; A. H. Azahar

2011-01-01

313

Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

NORMAN, E.C.

2000-10-23

314

Diffractive elements for generating microscale laser beam patterns: a Y2K problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers are widely used in industrial fabrication for engraving, cutting and many other purposes. However, material processing at very small scales is still a matter of concern. Advances in diffractive optics could provide for laser systems that could be used for engraving or cutting of micro-scale patterns at high speeds. In our paper we focus on the design of diffractive elements which can be used for this special application. It is a common desire in material processing to apply 'discrete' as well as 'continuous' beam patterns. Especially, the latter case is difficult to handle as typical micro-scale patterns are characterized by bad band-limitation properties, and as speckles can easily occur in beam patterns. It is shown in this paper that a standard iterative design method usually fails to obtain diffractive elements that generate diffraction patterns with acceptable quality. Insights gained from an analysis of the design problems are used to optimize the iterative design method. We demonstrate applicability and success of our approach by the design of diffractive phase elements that generate a discrete and a continuous 'Y2K' pattern.

Teiwes, Stephan; Krueger, Sven; Wernicke, Guenther K.; Ferstl, Margit

2000-03-01

315

Wide-field depth-sectioning fluorescence microscopy using projector-generated patterned illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and cost-effective wide-field, depth-sectioning, fluorescence microscope utilizing a commercial multimedia projector to generate excitation patterns on the sample. Highly resolved optical sections of fluorescent pollen grains at 1.9 ?m axial resolution are constructed using the structured illumination technique. This requires grid excitation patterns to be scanned across the sample, which is straightforwardly implemented by creating slideshows of gratings at different phases, projecting them onto the sample, and synchronizing camera acquisition with slide transition. In addition to rapid dynamic pattern generation, the projector provides high illumination power and spectral excitation selectivity. We exploit these properties by imaging mouse neural cells in cultures multistained with Alexa 488 and Cy3. The spectral and structural neural information is effectively resolved in three dimensions. The flexibility and commercial availability of this light source is envisioned to open multidimensional imaging to a broader user base.

Delica, Serafin; Mar Blanca, Carlo

2007-10-01

316

An analog CMOS central pattern generator for interlimb coordination in quadruped locomotion.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a neuromorphic analog CMOS controller for interlimb coordination in quadruped locomotion. Animal locomotion, such as walking, running, swimming, and flying, is based on periodic rhythmic movements. These rhythmic movements are driven by the biological neural network, called the central pattern generator (CPG). In recent years, many researchers have applied CPG to locomotion controllers in robotics. However, most of these have been developed with digital processors and, thus, have several problems, such as high power consumption. In order to overcome such problems, a CPG controller with analog CMOS circuit is proposed. Since the CMOS transistors in the circuit operate in their subthreshold region and under low supply voltage, the controller can reduce power consumption. Moreover, low-cost production and miniaturization of controllers are expected. We have shown through computer simulation, such circuit has the capability to generate several periodic rhythmic patterns and transitions between their patterns promptly. PMID:18244582

Nakada, K; Asai, T; Amemiya, Y

2003-01-01

317

Investigation of the patterned surface modification on 3D vortex flow generation in a micropipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of patterned surface modification on 3D vortex flow generation in a micro capillary tube under a very low Reynolds number have been investigated. Microfabrication technology was successfully employed to pattern surface charges on the inner surfaces of a round capillary tube, which form non-uniform zeta potentials. This technique extends the heterogeneous surfaces from a flat surface to a curved surface. 3D vortices are visualized and measured at the vicinity of tube walls when an electric field is applied across the surfaces utilizing micro resolution PIV. It demonstrated that 3D vortices can also be generated by the patterned surface charges with the same polarity patches. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations using CFD-ACE+.

Zhang, P.; Qiu, H. H.

2008-11-01

318

Testing and evaluation of Second-Generation Heliostat mirror modules  

SciTech Connect

The testing and evaluation of the Second Generation Heliostat mirror modules are reported here. It was found that all of the previous design problems of mirror modules, such as silver corrosion, thermal defocus, and high glass stress, were eliminated by one or more of these designs. The single most important conclusion to be drawn from this program is that laminated glass mirror module designs are the most technically conservative; it is Sandia's recommendation that this concept be used for near-term applications. Two other Second Generation designs were found to have potential for reduced weight and improved performance, but one design required some significant design changes, and both require further outdoor testing to better estimate their lifetime potential.

Burolla, V.P.; Delameter, W.R.

1982-01-01

319

Bright spot pattern generation in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exciton photoluminescence pattern generation is investigated in multiple quantum wells. High-contrast outer rings and localized bright spots are generated using efficient field-assisted upconversion of laser light whose photon energy lies below the energy of the luminescing quantum well transition. Time-resolved images of the bright spot reveal that the ring transients are driven by carrier diffusion both from the laser excitation spot as well as from the bright spot. These dynamics are not explained simply by two-dimensional rate equations for generation and diffusion. The behavior must be understood as a result of three-dimensional transport in the vertically extended samples.

Mascarenhas, Angelo; Fluegel, Brian; Snoke, D. W.

2011-03-01

320

Exciton pattern generation in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exciton photoluminescence pattern generation is investigated in multiple quantum wells. High-contrast outer rings and localized bright spots are generated using efficient field-assisted upconversion of laser light whose photon energy lies below the energy of the luminescing quantum well transition. Time-resolved images of the bright spots reveal unexpected dynamics that are not explained by two-dimensional rate equations for generation and diffusion. This behavior can be understood as a result of three-dimensional transport in the vertically extended samples.

Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Bhusal, L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Snoke, D. W.; Karunasiri, G.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K.

2011-05-01

321

Calibration standard for laser beam profilers: method for absolute accuracy measurement with a Fresnel diffraction test pattern.  

PubMed

The absolute accuracy of a clip-level laser beam profiler is measured to the 0.3% level, by comparison of the profiler's reading to the known width of a Fresnel diffraction test pattern. A pair of opposed knife edges, illuminated by a quasi-uniform and quasi-plane wave, generates the pattern whose width is determined by the 50% cut points in translating the edge pair across a tightly focused beam. The convolution of the scanning aperture with the diffraction fringe pattern is modeled to remove the effect of the aperture size from the accuracy test and to give a means of measuring the aperture width. Discussions of the experimental aspects of this test method show it to be an acceptable calibration standard for optical profilers, of use to those working on the International Standards Organization draft standard for laser beam parameter measurements. PMID:21085295

Johnston, T F; Fleischer, J M

1996-04-01

322

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-04-26

323

Testing and evaluation of second-generation heliostat mirror modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The testing and evaluation of the second generation heliostat mirror modules are reported. It was found that all of the previous design problems of mirror modules, such as silver corrosion, thermal defocus, and high glass stress, were eliminated by one or more of these designs. The single most important conclusion to be drawn from this program is that laminated glass mirror module designs are the most technically conservative; it is recommended that this concept be used for near term applications.

Burolla, V. P.; Delameter, W. R.

1982-01-01

324

Tandem surface microfluidic lithography and activation to generate patch pattern biospecific ligand and cell arrays.  

PubMed

We report a rapid, inexpensive, and flexible methodology that combines microfluidic lithography and oxidative activation to pattern and chemically alter selective regions of SAMs on gold for subsequent chemoselective ligand immobilization. We demonstrate that PCC, a mild oxidant, can be used to convert hydroxyl-terminated SAMs to aldehydes and decorated with a variety of oxyamine-containing molecules. This strategy is compatible with cell culture and was employed to create a biospecific ligand platform for peptide-mediated, cell adhesion arrays. By using a number of different ligands and characterization tools, we showed that the generation of both cell patterning and ligand microarray patterning can be achieved. SAM formation, activation, ligand immobilization, and biospecific cell patterning are characterized by contact angle, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) (Supporting Information), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:19839568

Pulsipher, Abigail; Yousaf, Muhammad N

2010-03-16

325

Testing of the Mark 101 magnetic flux compression generator  

SciTech Connect

The Mark 101 explosive flux compression generator is a line-initiated, vacuum/magnetically insulated, helical generator. This device offered some unique challenges in transforming the theoretical design into a testable experiment. The two main reasons for this are that in theory an eight-turn, four-wire Mark 101 possesses a terminal dL/dt of approx.0.5 ..cap omega.. and operates with electric fields which are greater than the threshold for electron field emission. With this in mind, we designed an integral vacuum-jacket-generator configuration with a passive load inductance of less than or equal to0.5 ..mu..H. The generator contained approx.8 ..mu..H of initial inductance. The field emission required the stator to be entirely sealed within the vacuum jacket. The open, helical stator resulted in the presence of non-trivial leakage fields and voltages. To accommodate these fields, the vacuum chamber for the generator was segmented and axially insulated with rings of acrylic, similar to stacked-ring diodes. We made no attempt to break the azimuthal metal surfaces due to the physical difficulty this would incur. Diagnostics included an input current Rogowski loop, a load Rogowski loop, two dB/dt probes in the load, a Faraday fiber-optic current sensor, and two dB/dt probes in the region between the stator winding and the vacuum jacket to measure the leakage azimuthal and axial magnetic fields. The results of explosive tests are presented.

Freeman, B.L.; Fowler, C.M.; King, J.C.; Martinez, A.R.

1986-01-01

326

Multiprobe resistance monitoring of Blech pattern during electromigration testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromigration in a Blech pattern as well as in a modified Blech pattern (i.e. a Blech pattern with a no current carrying reservoir) has been studied by means of resistance measurements using multiple voltage probes. When the current density J is higher than the critical value Jc, the present method turned out to be very effective to measure the edge drift velocity. Experiments on the modified Blech pattern show two types of voids: one is formed at low current densities at the end of the reservoir (type A) and the other is formed at the intersection of the current stressed area and the reservoir at rather high current densities (type B). The measurements indicate that both type A and B voids are already formed at a very early stage in the experiment. Although the exact mechanism is not clear yet, the appearance of type B voids is related to strong inhomogeneous Joule heating. When the current density is close to Jc the resistance of most Al interconnect segments reaches saturation in a relatively short time. However, the resistance of segments at the pattern edge does not saturate within the time of the experiments. The experiments strongly suggest that plastic processes that saturate on a rather short time scale take place in the inner segments.

Shingubara, Shoso; Osaka, Tamotsu; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Takahagi, Takayuki; Verbruggen, Ad H.

1999-11-01

327

Corrosion testing of INCONEL alloy 690 for PWR steam generators  

SciTech Connect

INCONEL alloy 690, an austenitic, high-chromium modification of INCONEL alloy 600, was developed to resist stress-corrosion cracking and general corrosion in hightemperature aqueous environments associated with nuclear steam generators. Tests in nitric acid and nitric-hydrofluoric acid show that the high chromium content provides alloy 690 with good resistance to highly oxidizing environments over a wide range of high temperatures and oxygen concentrations, in the presence of crevices and lead or chloride contamination. Alloy 690 releases a negligible amount of material when exposed to high-velocity water at elevated temperatures. In constant extension rate tests, alloy 690 resists crack propagation in a deaerated 10 pct solution of sodium hydroxide better than alloy 600. Long-time tests also suggest greater resistance to intergranular attack in deaerated caustic solutions and to the oxidation of radioactive waste disposal involving nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution and vitrification.

Crum, J.R.; Scarberry, R.C.

1982-12-01

328

Behavior Patterns of Young Children and Their Offspring: A Two-Generation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a random cohort of residents in a 2-county area were used to determine the stability in 2 major dimensions of childhood behavior between 2 generations. The 1st generation was assessed at mean age 7, and their offspring were assessed at age 2 years. Measures were used in latent-variable structural equation models to test the hypotheses. Strong stability in

Patricia Cohen; Stephanie Kasen; Judith S. Brook; Claudia Hartmark

1998-01-01

329

A study on charge patterns for uninterruptible power supply system with distributed generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) with distributed generators (DGs) and started field testing with to reduce environmental effects and increase local energy production for local consumption. The purpose of this system is to supply the power without connecting to the utility gird. The DGs consist of photovoltaic (PV) -and wind generators (WG), and the main energy

H. Murai; T. Takeda; K. Hirose; Y. Okui; Y. Iwase; K. Yukita; K. Ichiyanagi

2009-01-01

330

An Empirical Comparison of Automated Generation and Classification Techniques for Object-Oriented Unit Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing involves two major activities: generating test inputs and determining whether they reveal faults. Automated test generation techniques include random generation and symbolic execution. Automated test classification techniques include ones based on uncaught exceptions and violations of operational models inferred from manually provided tests. Previous research on unit testing for object-oriented programs developed three pairs of these techniques: model-based random

Marcelo D'amorim; Carlos Pacheco; Tao Xie; Darko Marinov; Michael D. Ernst

2006-01-01

331

Spatiotemporal patterns of secretomotor neuron generation in the parvicellular neuroendocrine system1  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal patterns of parvicellular neurosecretory neuron generation (birthdates) were determined in the young adult male rat using a triple fluorescence labeling method. The six classic phenotypes were identified in histological sections with rabbit antisera to neurotransmitters (or related enzymes), nuclear bromodeoxyuridine was detected with a mouse monoclonal antibody, and an axonal projection to the median eminence was determined with the fluorescent retrograde tracer fast blue. The vast majority of triply labeled neurons are generated between embryonic days 12–14, during the time when magnocellular neurosecretory neurons are also generated. This pattern of neurogenesis is distinct from the well-known ‘outside-in’ pattern of hypothalamic neurogenesis, where the peak of lateral zone birthdates occurs on embryonic days 12 and 13, the peak of medial zone birthdates occurs on embryonic days 14 and 15, and the peak of periventricular zone birthdates occurs on embryonic days 16 and 17. Thus, neuroendocrine motoneurons may constitute ‘pioneer neurons’ for the various anatomically distinct regions of the periventricular zone. In addition, many intermixed neurons that express the same neurotransmitters as parvicellular neurosecretory neurons but do not send an axon to the median eminence, also appear to be generated sbetween embryonic days 12 and 14. What these results imply about mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine motor zone differentiation is discussed.

Markakis, Eleni A.; Swanson, Larry W.

2011-01-01

332

Generating pathological gait patterns via the use of robotic locomotion models.  

PubMed

In this article we explore the feasibility of modeling normal and pathological human gait using a relatively simple five-element model. We use a robust, nonlinear control scheme to regulate the gait patterns of the model. Simulated gait patterns are generated through the use of five constraint relationships that depend on four gait parameters. Two pathological conditions due to muscle weaknesses were simulated by modifying the control torques at the joints. We demonstrate that the model successfully approximates the qualitative and quantitative dynamic trends that were observed in normal and pathological human locomotion. PMID:12082217

Ephanov, Anton; Hurmuzlu, Yildirim

2002-01-01

333

Testing of DRAINMOD for Forested Watersheds with Non-Pattern ...  

Treesearch

... with pattern drainage (i.e. with parallel ditches) on relatively flat, high water table soils. These models conduct a water balance between the ditches to predict water ... A large ditch spacing and a shallow drain depth were assumed to simulate ... a surface flow routing component may further enhance the flow predictions on ...

334

Chicano Drug Abuse Patterns: Using Archival Data to Test Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The records of 274,709 clients admitted to federally funded drug treatment programs in California between 1975 and early 1981 were examined to determine Chicano drug abuse patterns. The study confirmed the disproportionate use of heroin and inhalants by Chicanos and indicated that phencyclidine was disproportionately used by Chicanos. (NQA)|

Hunsaker, Alan C.

1985-01-01

335

Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process

Hommert

1984-01-01

336

A survey of psychological test use patterns among forensic psychologists.  

PubMed

Clinical psychologists are frequently called on to testify in court regarding mental health issues in civil or criminal cases. One of the legal criteria by which admissibility of testimony is determined includes whether the testimony is based on methods that have gained "general acceptance" in their field. In this study, we sought to evaluate the psychological tests used in forensic assessments by members of the American Psychology-Law Society Division of the American Psychological Association, and by diplomates in the American Board of Forensic Psychology. We present test results from this survey, based on 152 respondents, for forensic evaluations conducted with adults using multiscale inventories, single-scale tests, unstructured personality tests, cognitive and/or intellectual tests, neuropsychological tests, risk assessment and psychopathy instruments, sex offender risk assessment instruments, competency or sanity-related instruments, and instruments used to evaluate malingering. In addition, we provide findings for psychological testing involving child-related forensic issues. PMID:16856789

Archer, Robert P; Buffington-Vollum, Jacqueline K; Stredny, Rebecca Vauter; Handel, Richard W

2006-08-01

337

Shrinky-Dink microfluidics: rapid generation of deep and rounded patterns.  

PubMed

We present a rapid and non-photolithographic approach to microfluidic pattern generation by leveraging the inherent shrinkage properties of biaxially oriented polystyrene thermoplastic sheets. This novel approach yields channels deep enough for mammalian cell assays, with demonstrated heights up to 80 microm. Moreover, we can consistently and easily achieve rounded channels, multi-height channels, and channels as thin as 65 microm in width. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this simple microfabrication approach by fabricating a functional gradient generator. The whole process--from device design conception to working device--can be completed within minutes. PMID:18094775

Grimes, Anthony; Breslauer, David N; Long, Maureen; Pegan, Jonathan; Lee, Luke P; Khine, Michelle

2007-11-20

338

Generation of initial stepping pattern of a biped robot with modular dynamic encoding algorithm for searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a modified version of dynamic encoding algorithm for searches (DEAS) is proposed and applied to generate walking patterns of a biped humanoid robot. For the controller of each joint motor to generate optimal trajectories, mDEAS is developed from the previous versions of exhaustive DEAS (eDEAS) and univariate DEAS (uDEAS). Modular DEAS (mDEAS) searches optimal coefficients of polynomials whose trajectories are assigned to joint motors. Since the number of the coefficients amounts up to 16, sharing search space and optimizing independently is expected to search efficiently. For validation of mDEAS, a simulation result about initial stepping is provided.

Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Jong-Wook

2007-12-01

339

Two-phase Flow Patterns in High Temperature Generator of Absorption Chiller / Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of information about vapor-liquid two-phase flow patterns determined using void signals in high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. Sensing void fraction has been hampered because lithium bromide aqueous solution of strong alkalinity is employed as working fluid at high temperature and high level of vacuum. New void sensor applicable to such difficult conditions was developed. The void Fractions at 48 locations in a high temperature generator were measured simultaneously in both cooling and heating operations. Analysis of void signals detected reveals that the most violent boiling occurs at the upper part of rear plate of combustion chamber and the first line of vertical tubes located in the flue. The flow patterns are strongly affected by the system pressure difference between the cooling and heating operations: there appear bubbly, slug and froth flows in the cooling operation, but only bubbly flow in the heating operation.

Furukawa, Masahiro; Kanuma, Hitoshi; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Takeishi, Masayuki

340

Evolving cellular automata for diversity generation and pattern recognition: deterministic versus random strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological systems evolve to fulfil their tasks with maximal efficiency. The immune system is a remarkable example, where the distinction between self and non-self is made by means of molecular interaction between self-proteins and antigens, triggering affinity-dependent systemic actions. Specificity of this binding and the infinitude of potential antigenic patterns call for novel mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Inspired by this problem, we develop a genetic algorithm where agents evolve their strings in the presence of random antigenic strings and reproduce with affinity-dependent rates. We ask what is the best strategy to generate diversity if agents can rearrange their strings a finite number of times. We find that endowing each agent with an inheritable cellular automaton rule for performing rearrangements makes the system more efficient in pattern-matching than if transformations are totally random. In the former implementation, the population evolves to a stationary state where agents with different automata rules coexist.

Argollo de Menezes, Marcio; Brigatti, Edgardo; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-08-01

341

Biological pattern generation: the cellular and computational logic of networks in motion.  

PubMed

In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and motor tasks, and we now need to understand whether there are coherent and overriding principles that govern the design and function of these modules. The discovery of central motor programs has provided crucial insight into the logic of one prototypic set of neural circuits: those that generate motor patterns. In this review, I discuss the mode of operation of these pattern generator networks and consider the neural mechanisms through which they are selected and activated. In addition, I will outline the utility of computational models in analysis of the dynamic actions of these motor networks. PMID:17145498

Grillner, Sten

2006-12-01

342

Anisotropic spin-wave patterns generated by spin-torque nano-oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-wave excitations due to spin-momentum transfer in ferromagnetic thin films will enable new types of information processing and memory storage. Here, we show how arrays of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) can be used to create anisotropic spin-wave interference patterns, which can be used for information processing. We consider STNO arrays contacting a thin ferromagnetic film. Contacts to the film (including the STNOs themselves) can be used to detect the spin-waves and then, when coupled to a simple circuit, can create new excitation patterns. The propagating spin-wave patterns can be generated by pulsing transponders. Arrangements of transponders create resonant (reverberating) spin-wave activity--that may be the basis of polychronous wave computation of the arithmetic and Boolean functions as well as information storage.

Macià, F.; Kent, A. D.; Hoppensteadt, F. C.

2011-04-01

343

Photorefractive holographic moiré-like patterns for secure numerical code generation.  

PubMed

In this Letter, low-frequency photorefractive holographic moiré fringe patterns are proposed as secure numerical code generators that could be useful for storage or data transmission. These dynamic moiré patterns are holographically obtained by the superposition of two or more sinusoidal gratings with slightly different pitches. The Bi(12)TiO(20) photorefractive crystal sample is used as holographic medium. An optical numerical base was defined with patterns representing the 0, 1 and -1 digits as bits. Then, the complete set of these optical bits is combined to form bytes, where a numerical sequence is represented. The results show that the proposed numerical code is simple, robust and extremely secure, then could be used efficiently as standard numerical identification in robotic vision or eventually in storage or transmission of secure numerical data. PMID:23503288

de Oliveira, G N; Oliveira, M E; dos Santos, P A M

2013-03-15

344

End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

1997-01-01

345

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1998-12-31

346

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

1998-01-01

347

Energy efficient walking with central pattern generators: from passive dynamic walking to biologically inspired control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like human walking, passive dynamic walking—i.e.walkingdownaslopewithnoactuationexcept gravity—is energy efficient by exploiting the natural dynam- ics. In the animal world, neural oscillators termed central pattern generators (CPGs) provide the basic rhythm for mus- cularactivityinlocomotion.WepresentaCPGmodel,which automatically tunes into the resonance frequency of the pas- sive dynamics of a bipedal walker, i.e. the CPG model exhib- its resonance tuning behavior. Each leg is

B. W. Verdaasdonk; H. F. J. M. Koopman; Frans C. T. Van Der Helm

2009-01-01

348

Emergent mechanisms in multiple pattern generation of the lobster pyloric network  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   By using a hard-wired oscillator network, multiple pattern generation of the lobster pyloric network is simulated. The network\\u000a model is constructed using a relaxation oscillator representing an oscillatory or quiescent (i.e. steady-state) neuron. Modulatory\\u000a inputs to the network are hypothesized to cause changes in the dynamical properties of each pyloric neuron: the oscillatory\\u000a frequency, the postinhibitory rebound property, and

Yoshinari Makino; Masanori Akiyama; Masafumi Yano

2000-01-01

349

Rate modification in the heartbeat central pattern generator of the medicinal leech  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Intracellular recordings from neurons in partially dissected leeches and isolated nerve cords were used to study the effects of temperature, sensory stimulation and locomotory activity on the output of the central pattern generator that drives heartbeat.2.The rate of motor burst production by the heartbeat oscillator changes on gradual heating or cooling with a Q10 averaging around 2.4. Abrupt cooling of

Edmund A. Arbas; Ronald L. Calabrese

1984-01-01

350

Five types of nonspiking interneurons in local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system.  

PubMed

We conducted a quantitative analysis of the different nonspiking interneurons in the local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system. Within each local circuit, these interneurons control the firing of the power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons that drive swimmeret movements. Fifty-four of these interneurons were identified during physiological experiments with sharp microelectrodes and filled with dextran Texas red, Neurobiotin, or both. Five types of neurons were identified on the basis of combinations of physiological and anatomical characteristics. Anatomical categories were based on 16 anatomical parameters measured from stacks of confocal images obtained from each neuron. The results support the recognition of two functional classes: inhibitors of power stroke (IPS) and inhibitors of return stroke (IRS). The IPS class of interneuron has three morphological types with similar physiological properties. The IRS class has two morphological types with physiological properties and anatomical features different from the IPS neurons but similar within the class. Three of these five types have not been previously identified. Reviewing the evidence for dye coupling within each type, we conclude that each type of IPS neuron and one type of IRS neuron occur as a single copy in each local pattern-generating circuit. The last IRS type includes neurons that might occur as a dye-coupled pair in each local circuit. Recognition of these different interneurons in the swimmeret pattern-generating circuits leads to a refined model of the local pattern-generating circuit that includes synaptic connections that encode and decode information required for intersegmental coordination of swimmeret movements. PMID:23615552

Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen; Weller, Cynthia; Wright, Terrence M; Mulloney, Brian

2013-04-24

351

Fasciola hepatica : the developmental patterns of redial generations in naturally infected Galba truncatula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study on 1,211 snails naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica in central France was carried out to determine the numbers of full-grown sporocysts from which infections derived, to specify the developmental patterns of redial generations (normal or abnormal) and to count live and free rediae. In the department of Haute Vienne (siliceous subsoils), most snails showed single-sporocyst infections, with normal

D. Rondelaud; P. Vignoles; G. Dreyfuss

2004-01-01

352

Estradiol interacts with an opioidergic network to achieve rapid modulation of a vocal pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens rapidly regulate neuronal activity within seconds-to-minutes, yet it is unclear how estrogens interact with neural\\u000a circuits to rapidly coordinate behavior. This study examines whether 17-beta-estradiol interacts with an opioidergic network\\u000a to achieve rapid modulation of a vocal control circuit. Adult plainfin midshipman fish emit vocalizations that mainly differ\\u000a in duration, and rhythmic activity of a hindbrain–spinal vocal pattern generator

Luke Remage-Healey; Andrew H. Bass

2010-01-01

353

The 3D linear inverted pendulum mode: a simple modeling for a biped walking pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 3D walking control of a biped robot we analyze the dynamics of a 3D inverted pendulum in which motion is constrained to move along an arbitrarily defined plane. This analysis yields a simple linear dynamics, the 3D linear inverted pendulum mode (3D-LIPM). Geometric nature of trajectories under the 3D-LIPM and a method for walking pattern generation are discussed. A

Shuuji Kajita; Fumio Kanehiro; Kenji Kaneko; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa

2001-01-01

354

Initial benchmarking of a new electron-beam raster pattern generator for 130-100 nm maskmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) to accelerate the continuing evolution to smaller linewidths is consistent with the commitment by Etec Systems, Inc. to rapidly develop new technologies for pattern generation systems with improved resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity, positional accuracy, and throughput. Current pattern generation designs are inadequate to meet the more advanced requirements for masks, particularly

Charles A. Sauer; Frank E. Abboud; Sergey V. Babin; Varoujan Chakarian; Abe Ghanbari; Robert Innes; David Trost; Frederick Raymond

2000-01-01

355

A method for testing association patterns of social animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association indices were originally developed to describe species co-occurrences, but have been used increasingly to measure associations between individuals. However, no statistical method has been published that allows one to test the extent to which the observed association index values differ from those of a randomly associating population. Here, we describe an adaptation of a test developed by Manly (1995,Ecology,76,

LARS BEJDER; DAVID FLETCHER; STEFAN BRÄGER

1998-01-01

356

Test Anxiety in UK Schoolchildren: Prevalence and Demographic Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Despite a large body of international literature concerning the antecedents, correlates of and treatments for test anxiety, there has been little research until recently using samples of students drawn from the UK. There is a need to establish some basic normative data for test anxiety scores in this population of students, in order…

Putwain, David W.

2007-01-01

357

Generating tactile afferent stimulation patterns for slip and touch feedback in neural prosthetics.  

PubMed

Current prosthetic limbs are limited by a lack of tactile feedback. Slip feedback is particularly important to inform grip. Object slip is marked by both a change in the normal grip force applied and a change in force tangential to the fingertips. In this study, we demonstrate that a new multi-axial tactile sensor composed of gold nanoparticle strain gauges is able to record slip and reconstruct the X, Y, and Z forces incident on the sensor's surface due to a slipping object. We entered the X, Y, and Z force components generated by the slip event into a noisy leaky integrate and fire model to simulate the firing responses of SA1 and FA1 afferents. We also recorded a uniaxial normal force input representative of tactile contact. A single set of SA1 model and FA1 model parameters generated realistic firing patterns for both the slip and normal force recordings. These results suggest that canonical SA1 and FA1 afferent models could be used to generate biomimetic electrical stimulation patterns for both slip and touch stimuli. When used to activate the tactile afferents of an amputee, these electrical stimulation patterns could create natural and distinguishable slip and touch percepts for closed loop control of an upper limb neural prosthesis. PMID:24111087

Rager, Danielle M; Alvares, Darren; Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J; Morley, John W; Lovell, Nigel H; Vickery, Richard M

2013-07-01

358

From Spinal Central Pattern Generators to Cortical Network: Integrated BCI for Walking Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Success in locomotor rehabilitation programs can be improved with the use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Although a wealth of research has demonstrated that locomotion is largely controlled by spinal mechanisms, the brain is of utmost importance in monitoring locomotor patterns and therefore contains information regarding central pattern generation functioning. In addition, there is also a tight coordination between the upper and lower limbs, which can also be useful in controlling locomotion. The current paper critically investigates different approaches that are applicable to this field: the use of electroencephalogram (EEG), upper limb electromyogram (EMG), or a hybrid of the two neurophysiological signals to control assistive exoskeletons used in locomotion based on programmable central pattern generators (PCPGs) or dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNNs). Plantar surface tactile stimulation devices combined with virtual reality may provide the sensation of walking while in a supine position for use of training brain signals generated during locomotion. These methods may exploit mechanisms of brain plasticity and assist in the neurorehabilitation of gait in a variety of clinical conditions, including stroke, spinal trauma, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy.

Cheron, G.; Duvinage, M.; De Saedeleer, C.; Castermans, T.; Bengoetxea, A.; Petieau, M.; Seetharaman, K.; Hoellinger, T.; Dan, B.; Dutoit, T.; Sylos Labini, F.; Lacquaniti, F.; Ivanenko, Y.

2012-01-01

359

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

360

Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi2Te3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

2006-04-01

361

Pattern Verification-Based Increment Memory Testing Method for Safety-Critical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for the dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure the system under test (SUT) satisfy the dependability requirement. Nowadays few of testing approach can efficiently cover the dependability of SUT. This paper proposes a new SCS testing method to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing, which integrates two strategies: the verification pattern and the

Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

2008-01-01

362

Increased thrombin generation after acute versus chronic coronary disease as assessed by the thrombin generation test.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the most common pathophysiologic substrate of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whereas plaque progression and arterial remodeling are critical components in chronic CAD, intracoronary thrombosis over plaque disruption is causally related to acute CAD. It was the objective of this study to investigate the differences between prior acute CAD and chronic CAD by a simple global coagulation assay measuring thrombin generation. A cross-sectional study involving 15 healthy controls, 35 patients with chronic stable CAD, and 60 patients after an episode of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was performed. Thrombin generation was measured between three and 11 months after the initial diagnosis (mean 6 months) by a commercially available fluorogenic assay (Technothrombin TGA). In each patient the lag phase, velocity index and peak thrombin were obtained from the thrombogram profile. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded, and the inflammatory markers, fibrinogen and hs-C-reactive protein were determined. Compared with stable CAD patients, showing normal thrombograms, those with previous AMI showed earlier lag phase (p < 0.05) and significant increase of both the velocity index (p < 0.001) and peak thrombin (p < 0.05), indicating faster and higher thrombin generation in the AMI group. Differences in thrombin generation between stable and acute CAD patients remained significant (p < 0.001) after adjusting for conventional CAD risk factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia). In conclusion, patients with a previous history of acute CAD showed earlier, faster and higher thrombin generation than stable chronic CAD patients. The thrombin generation test may be of clinical value to monitor hypercoagulable/vulnerable blood and/or guide therapy in CAD. PMID:18278189

Orbe, Josune; Zudaire, Maite; Serrano, Rosario; Coma-Canella, Isabel; Martínez de Sizarrondo, Sara; Rodríguez, Jose A; Páramo, Jose A

2008-02-01

363

Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits  

DOEpatents

An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit are disclosed. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 {micro}m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits. 7 figs.

Cole, E.I. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.; Barton, D.L.

1998-07-14

364

Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits  

DOEpatents

An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 .mu.m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits.

Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Barton, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

365

Automatic Test Data Generation for TTCN-3 using CTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing system complexity the need for solid testing increases. The Test and Testing Control Notation, version 3 (TTCN-3) is a standardized testing language to ease the specification of test suites. Test data play an important role during test execution in order to explore all aspects of the system under test. Although TTCN-3 supports good means for test data

Zhen Ru Dai; Peter H. Deussen; Maik Busch; Laurette Pianta Lacmene; Titus Ngwangwen; Jens Herrmann; Michael Schmidt

2005-01-01

366

On numerical turbulence generation for test-particle simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified method is presented to generate artificial magnetic turbulence that is used for test-particle simulations. Such turbulent fields are obtained from the superposition of a set of wave modes with random polarizations and random directions of propagation. First, it is shown that the new method simultaneously fulfils requirements of isotropy, equal mean amplitude and variance for all field components, and vanishing divergence. Second, the number of wave modes required for a stochastic particle behavior is investigated by using a Lyapunov approach. For the special case of slab turbulence, it is shown that already for 16 wave modes the particle behavior agrees with that shown for considerably larger numbers of wave modes.

Tautz, R. C.; Dosch, A.

2013-02-01

367

Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society. PMID:16255388

Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

2005-11-01

368

An Empirical Comparison of Automated Generation and Classication Techniques for Object-Oriented Unit Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing involves two major activities: generating test inputs and determining whether they reveal faults. Auto- mated test generation techniques include random gener- ation and symbolic execution. Automated test classica- tion techniques include ones based on uncaught exceptions and violations of operational models inferred from manu- ally provided tests. Previous research on unit testing for object-oriented programs developed three pairs of

Marcelo d'Amorim; Carlos Pacheco; Tao Xie; Darko Marinov; Michael D. Ernst

369

Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell–cell interactions with microscale resolution. Scope of the review We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Major conclusions Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell–cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell–cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. General significance Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future.

Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

2010-01-01

370

Coupled chaotic oscillators and their relation to a central pattern generator for artificial quadrupeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal locomotion employs different periodic patterns known as animal gaits. In 1993, Collins and Stewart recognized that gaits possessed certain symmetries and characterized the gaits of quadrupeds and bipeds using permutation symmetry groups, which impose constraints on the locomotion center called the central pattern generator (CPG) in the animal brain. They modeled the CPG by coupling four nonlinear oscillators and found that it was possible to reproduce all symmetries of the gaits by changing the coupling strength. Here we propose to extend this idea using coupled chaotic oscillators synchronized using the Pyragas method in order to characterize the CPG symmetries. We also evaluate the time series behavior when the foot is in contact with the ground: this has potential robotic applications.

Castellini, Horacio; Yudiarsah, Efta; Romanelli, Lilia; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

2005-04-01

371

Do respiratory neurons control female receptive behavior: a suggested role for a medullary central pattern generator?  

PubMed

Nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) consists of a column of neurons in the caudal medulla with crossed descending axons that terminate in almost all spinal segments. Many of these neurons transmit the drive for expiratory movements to the spinal cord. The same neurons are also known to participate, however, in other motor acts, such as vomiting and abdominal straining, for which it appears that the medullary circuits controlling the respiratory pattern are reconfigured. Plasticity in projections from the NRA to hindlimb motor nuclei provides evidence that some of these projections are involved in yet another motor act, female receptive behavior. Here, we present the hypothesis that the medullary circuits are also reconfigured to act as a central pattern generator for this behavior. In addition, we suggest that during estrus, plasticity is shown not only in spinal cord connections, but also in a selected membrane property of hindlimb motoneurons. PMID:14653155

Kirkwood, Peter A; Ford, Tim W

2004-01-01

372

Effects of Age and Working Memory Capacity on Pitch Pattern Sequence Test and Dichotic Listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of age and working memory capacity on dichotic listening and temporal sequencing. Double Dichotic Digit Test (DDT), Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPST) and Digit Span Test were administered on 40 healthy adults with hearing thresholds of not greater than 30 dB HL across octave frequencies from 250 to 4000 Hz. Twenty young (20–30 years old)

Siti Z. Mukari; C. Umat; Nor I. Othman

2010-01-01

373

Power Reduction in BIST by Exploiting Don't Cares in Test Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a significant number of electronic systems used in safety-critic al applications circuit testing is performed periodically. For these systems, power dissipation due to Built-In Self Test (BIST) can represent a significant percent- age of the overall power dissipation. One possible solution to address this problem consists of test pattern reordering with the purpose of reducing the amount of power

José C. Costa; Paulo F. Flores; Horácio C. Neto; José C. Monteiro; João P. Marques Silva

1998-01-01

374

Analysis of Item Response Patterns: Consistency Indices and Their Application to Criterion-Referenced Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major emphasis of this paper is in the examination of test item response patterns. Tatsuoka and Tatsuoka (1980) have developed two indices of response consistency: the norm-conformity index (NCI) and the individual consistency index (ICI). The NCI provides a measure of the degree of consistency between the response pattern of an individual and…

Harnisch, Delwyn L.

375

The Pattern Glare Test: a review and determination of normative values.  

PubMed

Pattern glare is characterised by symptoms of visual perceptual distortions and visual stress on viewing striped patterns. People with migraine or Meares-Irlen syndrome (visual stress) are especially prone to pattern glare. The literature on pattern glare is reviewed, and the goal of this study was to develop clinical norms for the Wilkins and Evans Pattern Glare Test. This comprises three test plates of square wave patterns of spatial frequency 0.5, 3 and 12 cycles per degree (cpd). Patients are shown the 0.5 cpd grating and the number of distortions that are reported in response to a list of questions is recorded. This is repeated for the other patterns. People who are prone to pattern glare experience visual perceptual distortions on viewing the 3 cpd grating, and pattern glare can be quantified as either the sum of distortions reported with the 3 cpd pattern or as the difference between the number of distortions with the 3 and 12 cpd gratings, the '3-12 cpd difference'. In study 1, 100 patients consulting an optometrist performed the Pattern Glare Test and the 95th percentile of responses was calculated as the limit of the normal range. The normal range for the number of distortions was found to be <4 on the 3 cpd grating and <2 for the 3-12 cpd difference. Pattern glare was similar in both genders but decreased with age. In study 2, 30 additional participants were given the test in the reverse of the usual testing order and were compared with a sub-group from study 1, matched for age and gender. Participants experienced more distortions with the 12 cpd grating if it was presented after the 3 cpd grating. However, the order did not influence the two key measures of pattern glare. In study 3, 30 further participants who reported a medical diagnosis of migraine were compared with a sub-group of the participants in study 1 who did not report migraine or frequent headaches, matched for age and gender. The migraine group reported more symptoms on viewing all gratings, particularly the 3 cpd grating. The only variable to be significantly different between the groups was the 3-12 cpd difference. In conclusion, people have an abnormal degree of pattern glare if they have a Pattern Glare Test score of >3 on the 3 cpd grating or a score of >1 on the 3-12 cpd difference. The literature suggests that these people are likely to have visual stress in everyday life and may therefore benefit from interventions designed to alleviate visual stress, such as precision tinted lenses. PMID:18565084

Evans, B J W; Stevenson, S J

2008-07-01

376

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, to complete the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication, and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas generator. Focus during this report period has been on testing the Gas Generator. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA. A substantial portion of this report period was devoted to Testing Preparations, i.e. test facility development, cold- flow testing, calibration testing, performing igniter ignition testing, and then commencement of the completely assembled Gas Generator Assembly Testing, in process at this writing.

Unknown

2001-10-30

377

Coherence of light and generation of speckle patterns in photobiology and photomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of diodes instead of lasers was recently suggested for phototherapeutic applications. This trend is due to economical and practical reasons and is based on the argument that lasers have no preference over diodes as light sources as the former lose their coherency upon penetrating biological tissues. This module supports this claim while providing a brief explanation to non professionals on the meaning of coherence of light as well as the physics behind the generation of speckle patterns, and the relation of these physical entities to photomedicine.

Zalevsky, Zeev; Belkin, Michael

2012-02-01

378

GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

379

Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs.  

PubMed

We have generated an ultrabroad mid-infrared continuum by using single-pass optical parametric generation (OPG) in orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs). The spectrum spans more than an octave, from 4.5 to 10.7 microm, measured 20 dB down from the peak. The 17.5 mm long, 0.5 mm thick, all-epitaxially-grown OP-GaAs sample with a 166.6-microm quasi-phase-matching period was pumped with 3.1-3.3 microm wavelength, 1 ps pulses up to 2 microJ in energy. The OPG threshold was observed at 55 nJ pump energy with the pump polarized along the [111] crystal direction. The slope efficiency near threshold was 51%, and the external conversion efficiency was as high as 15%. PMID:16419881

Kuo, P S; Vodopyanov, K L; Fejer, M M; Simanovskii, D M; Yu, X; Harris, J S; Bliss, D; Weyburne, D

2006-01-01

380

Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have generated an ultrabroad mid-infrared continuum by using single-pass optical parametric generation (OPG) in orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs). The spectrum spans more than an octave, from 4.5 to 10.7 µm, measured 20 dB down from the peak. The 17.5 mm long, 0.5 mm thick, all-epitaxially-grown OP-GaAs sample with a 166.6-µm quasi-phase-matching period was pumped with 3.1-3.3 µm wavelength, 1 ps pulses up to 2 µJ in energy. The OPG threshold was observed at 55 nJ pump energy with the pump polarized along the [111] crystal direction. The slope efficiency near threshold was 51%, and the external conversion efficiency was as high as 15%.

Kuo, P. S.; Vodopyanov, K. L.; Fejer, M. M.; Simanovskii, D. M.; Yu, X.; Harris, J. S.; Bliss, D.; Weyburne, D.

2006-01-01

381

Examining Runoff Generation Across Scale: A Test of Mixing Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As water moves through the landscape, it transports biogeochemical nutrients and contaminants to the stream channel. The physical processes that deliver water to the stream channel vary in both space and time. As a result, modelling of runoff generation and nutrient budgets remains a challenge. Mixing models are used to help define different sources or end-members of water (e.g. groundwater and soil waters) that mix together to make up stream water. The application of mixing models has focused on the analysis of runoff from headwater basins. However, as water moves downstream, changes in stream chemistry will indicate if the relative importance of end-member contributions changes with location. Furthermore, the geochemical definition of end-members could potentially vary with location. In this research we apply a mixing model to stream discharge taken from a series of forested basins at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec to evaluate both the changing importance of end-member contributions and the validity of their geochemical definitions across scale. In this study, a mixing-model is created from analysis of stream water chemistry collected from the largest basin (1.5 km2) located furthest downstream. The model is then applied to 8 additional locations located upstream that represent progressively smaller basin areas. For each basin, we test if the same mixing-model can reproduce the observed stream chemistry. The number of contributing end-members is estimated by the mixing-model analysis but their physical interpretation relies on independent field sampling of groundwater and soil waters. This study provides a cross-basin application of end-member-mixing-analysis. The results will be used in a cross-basin analysis of runoff generation.

James, A. L.; Roulet, N. T.

2004-05-01

382

Fasciola hepatica: the developmental patterns of redial generations in naturally infected Galba truncatula.  

PubMed

A retrospective study on 1,211 snails naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica in central France was carried out to determine the numbers of full-grown sporocysts from which infections derived, to specify the developmental patterns of redial generations (normal or abnormal) and to count live and free rediae. In the department of Haute Vienne (siliceous subsoils), most snails showed single-sporocyst infections, with normal (46.3%) or abnormal (33.9%) development of redial generations. Two-sporocyst infections were scarcer (a total of 10.6%), while snail co-infections with F. hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi (8.0%) were found since 1996. In the department of Indre (calcareous subsoils), single-sporocyst infections showing normal development of rediae were the most numerous (58.0%), while the frequency of single-sporocyst infections with abnormal development was strongly decreased (4.3%). Two-sporocyst infections (with normal development of generations) and co-infections with F. hepatica and P. daubneyi slightly increased in frequency. The redial burdens found in snails collected from the department of Indre were significantly higher than those noted in snails originating from the department of Haute Vienne, whatever the type of snail infection; and these increases in numbers especially concerned the rediae of the second and subsequent generations. The results might be explained by the lower calcium ion content (7-23 mg/l) present in waters from the department of Haute Vienne which would induce a slower growth of infected snails (the shell height of adults scarcely reached 8 mm) and, consequently, would create barely favourable conditions for the development of the first rediae of the first generation within snails. However, the quality of the diet provided as food for snails and its influence on the development of redial generations cannot be excluded. PMID:15338285

Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

2004-08-26

383

Elements of an advanced pattern generator for 130- to 100-nm maskmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to next-generation mask requirements, Etec Systems, Inc has developed a complete raster-based patterning solution to meet the production needs of the 130 nm IC device generation as well as those for early 100 nm production. In developing this new MEBES system, we have aimed at versatility, extendability, and compatibility with conventional high-contrast resists and redesigned it form the ground up. This MEBES system incorporates many technological innovations, such as anew 50 kV electron-beam (e-beam) column, a new raster graybeam writing strategy, a new stage, an integrated automated material handling system, on-board diagnostics, and environmental/thermal control. A discussion of architectural details of the new MEBES system designed to meet the tight requirements of 130-100 nm technology nodes is presented. This comprehensive patterning solution offers the best combination of benefits to the user in terms of versatility, overall system throughput, and extendability. Initial throughput and lithographic performance benchmarks are also presented and are very promising in predicting the ability to meet critical dimension uniformity requirements of 10nm or better, as predicted by the ITRS requirements.

Chakarian, Varoujan; Sauer, Charles A.; Shamoun, Bassam; Chilese, Frank; Trost, David; Zywno, Marek; Hofmann, Ulrich; Teitzel, Robin; Prior, Richard; Raymond, Frederick; Ghanbari, Abe; Abboud, Frank E.

2000-07-01

384

Laser ablative patterning of copoly(imide siloxane)s generating superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Low surface energy copoly(imide siloxane)s were generated via condensation polymerization reactions. The generated materials were characterized spectroscopically, thermally, mechanically, and via contact angle goniometry. The decrease in tensile modulus and opaque appearance of copoly(imide siloxane) films indicated phase segregation in the bulk. Preferential surface partitioning of the siloxane moieties was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and increased advancing water contact angle values (theta(A)). Pristine copoly(imide siloxane) surfaces typically exhibited theta(A) values of 111 degrees and sliding angles from 27 degrees to >60 degrees. The surface properties of these copoly(imide siloxane) films were further altered using laser ablation patterning (frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, 355 nm). Laser-etched square pillar arrays (25 microm pillars with 25 microm interspaces) changed theta(A) by up to 64 degrees. Theta(A) values approaching 175 degrees and sliding angles from 1 degree to 15 degrees were observed. ATR-IR spectroscopy and XPS indicated polymer chain scission reactions occurred as a result of laser ablation. Initial particle adhesion studies revealed that the copoly(imide siloxane)s outperformed the corresponding homopolyimides and that laser ablation patterning further enhanced this result. PMID:20446721

Wohl, Christopher J; Belcher, Marcus A; Chen, Lillian; Connell, John W

2010-07-01

385

Fast oscillations during gasping and other non-eupneic respiratory behaviors: Clues to central pattern generation.  

PubMed

The mammalian nervous system exhibits fast synchronous oscillations, which are especially prominent in respiratory-related nerve discharges. In the phrenic nerve, they include high- (HFO), medium- (MFO), and low-frequency (LFO) oscillations. Because motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies had never been recorded, an epiphenomenological mechanism for their existence had been posited. We have recently recorded phrenic motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies in unanesthetized decerebrate rats and showed that they exhibit dynamic coherence with the phrenic nerve, validating synchronous motoneuronal discharge as a mechanism underlying the generation of HFO. In so doing, we have helped validate the conclusions of previous studies by us and other investigators who have used changes in fast respiratory oscillations to make inferences about central respiratory pattern generation. Here, we seek to review changes occurring in fast synchronous oscillations during non-eupneic respiratory behaviors, with special emphasis on gasping, and the inferences that can be drawn from these dynamics regarding respiratory pattern formation. PMID:23545119

Ghali, Michael George Zaki; Marchenko, Vitaliy

2013-03-30

386

Control of traveling-wave oscillations and bifurcation behavior in central pattern generators.  

PubMed

Understanding synchronous and traveling-wave oscillations, particularly as they relate to transitions between different types of behavior, is a central problem in modeling biological systems. Here, we address this problem in the context of central pattern generators (CPGs). We use contraction theory to establish the global stability of a traveling-wave or synchronous oscillation, determined by the type of coupling. This opens the door to better design of coupling architectures to create the desired type of stable oscillations. We then use coupling that is both amplitude and phase dependent to create either globally stable synchronous or traveling-wave solutions. Using the CPG motor neuron network of a leech as an example, we show that while both traveling and synchronous oscillations can be achieved by several types of coupling, the transition between different types of behavior is dictated by a specific coupling architecture. In particular, it is only the "repulsive" but not the commonly used phase or rotational coupling that can explain the transition to high-frequency synchronous oscillations that have been observed in the heartbeat pattern generator of a leech. This shows that the overall dynamics of a CPG can be highly sensitive to the type of coupling used, even for coupling architectures that are widely believed to produce the same qualitative behavior. PMID:23214622

Landsman, Alexandra S; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

2012-10-23

387

Atomic layer deposition on phase-shift lithography generated photoresist patterns for 1D nanochannel fabrication.  

PubMed

A versatile, low-cost, and flexible approach is presented for the fabrication of millimeter-long, sub-100 nm wide 1D nanochannels with tunable wall properties (wall thickness and material) over wafer-scale areas on glass, alumina, and silicon surfaces. This approach includes three fabrication steps. First, sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns were generated by near-field contact phase-shift lithography (NFC-PSL) using an inexpensive homemade borosilicate mask (NFC-PSM). Second, various metal oxides were directly coated on the resist patterns with low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, the remaining photoresist was removed via an acetone dip, and then planar nanochannel arrays were formed on the substrate. In contrast to all the previous fabrication routes, the sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns produced by NFC-PSL are directly employed as a sacrificial layer for the creation of nanochannels. Because both the NFC-PSL and the ALD deposition are highly reproducible processes, the strategy proposed here can be regarded as a general route for nanochannel fabrication in a simplified and reliable manner. In addition, the fabricated nanochannels were used as templates to synthesize various organic and inorganic 1D nanostructures on the substrate surface. PMID:21047101

Güder, Firat; Yang, Yang; Krüger, Michael; Stevens, Gregory B; Zacharias, Margit

2010-11-03

388

Guided corona generates wettability patterns that selectively direct cell attachment inside closed microchannels.  

PubMed

We present a method to create plasma mediated linear protein patterns along the lengths of simple one-inlet-one-outlet straight polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by biasing the delivery of corona discharge at the capillary openings. Pattern widths ranging from 500-1,000 microm were generated in 2 mm wide microchannels with lengths of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 cm. Corona-treated surfaces enabled the spatial alignment of C2C12 myoblasts to the adhesive protein-coated regions, facilitating myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Although limited in precision, this protein patterning technique offers the advantages of simplicity and low cost, making it attractive for educational and research environments that lack access to extensive microfabrication facilities. The results also provide a cautionary note to those using corona discharge to increase wettability of microchannels; the surface modification may not be uniform, even within single microchannels being treated depending on settings and positioning of the corona device tips. PMID:20495872

Dixon, Angela; Takayama, Shuichi

2010-10-01

389

Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals.

Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

2008-01-01

390

Ontology-based Test Generation for MultiAgent Systems (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates software agents testing, and in par- ticular how to automate test generation. We propose a novel approach, which takes advantage of agent interaction on- tologies that dene content semantic of agent interactions to: (i) generate test inputs; (ii) guide the exploration of the input space during generation; and, (iii) verify messages exchanged among agents with respect to

Cu D. Nguyen; Anna Perini; Paolo Tonella

2008-01-01

391

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NONPOLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this report period were to continue and complete testing of the Gas Generator hardware, to complete and submit a Draft Final Report, and after incorporation of adjustments required, to then submit the Final Report. Focus during this report period was initially on testing the Gas Generator. While conducting scheduled full power tests of the Gas Generator at

Stephen E. Doyle

2002-01-01

392

Automatic Generation of Instructions to Robustly Test Delay Defects in Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for generating instruction sequences to test a processor functionally. We target delay defects with this technique using an ATPG engine to generate delay tests locally, a verification engine to map the tests globally, and a feedback mechanism that makes the entire procedure faster. We demonstrate nearly 96% coverage of delay faults with the instruction sequences generated.

Sankar Gurumurthy; Ramtilak Vemu; Jacob A. Abraham; Daniel G. Saab

2007-01-01

393

Steam-generator-blowdown filter testing. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the continuing problems facing PWR steam generators is sludge accumulation on the secondary side. One of the means to improve the situation is to develop devices which can minimize the amount of corrosion products sent to the steam generator and improve the ability to remove corrosion products which do reach the steam generators. High temperature filtration is a

C. A. Worley; R. C. Crittenden

1982-01-01

394

Central pattern generation involved in oral and respiratory control for feeding in the term infant  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Drinking and eating are essential skills for survival and benefit from the coordination of several pattern generating networks and their musculoskeletal effectors to achieve safe swallows. Oral-pharyngo-esophageal motility develops during infancy and early childhood, and is influenced by various factors, including neuromuscular maturation, dietary and postural habits, arousal state, ongoing illnesses, congenital anomalies, and the effects of medical or surgical interventions. Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent in neonates and infants, and its role in neonatal morbidity including dysphagia, chronic lung disease, or apparent life-threatening events is not well understood. This review highlights recent studies aimed at understanding the development of oral feeding skills, and cross-system interactions among the brainstem, spinal, and cerebral networks involved in feeding. Recent Findings Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation through the first year of life which can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Relevant central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system CPG interactions. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents accelerates pattern genesis for the suck CPG and transition-to-oral feed in the RDS preterm infant. Summary The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions which optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote safe swallows among newborn and pediatric patients.

Barlow, Steven M.

2009-01-01

395

A design scheme of neural oscillatory networks by hierarchical evolutionary calculation for generation of humanoid biped walking patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humanoid biped walking patterns attracts more and more attention both in the fields of robotics and prosthetics. This paper presents a new scheme for the design of a neural oscillatory network which can be used to generate the desired walking pattern trajectories. The scheme is based on the evolutionary computation concept, and has the advantages of simplicity, flexibility, and high

Meifen Cao; Atsuo Kawamura

1997-01-01

396

Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture.  

PubMed

Background and Aims The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Methods Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Key Results Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in 'Dhokar', a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including 'Dhokar'. Conclusions This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the diversification of cultivated olives. PMID:24013386

Besnard, G; El Bakkali, A; Haouane, H; Baali-Cherif, D; Moukhli, A; Khadari, B

2013-09-06

397

Generating test data from state-based specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although the majority of software testing in industry is conducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system-level testing techniques are only described informally. This paper presents formal testing criteria for system level testing that are based on formal specifications of the software. Software testing can only be formalized

A. Jefferson Offutt; Shaoying Liu; Aynur Abdurazik; Paul Ammann

2003-01-01

398

Test-Quality\\/Cost Optimization Using Output-Deviation-Based Reordering of Test Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

At-speed functional testing, delay testing, and n-detection test sets are being used today to detect deep submi- crometer defects. However, the resulting test data volumes are too high; the 2005 International Roadmap for Semiconductors predicts that test-application times will be 30 times larger in 2010 than they are today. In addition, many new types of defects cannot be accurately modeled

Zhanglei Wang; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2008-01-01

399

Test Generation for Mixed-Signal Devices Using Signal Flow Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new reverse simulation approach to analog and mixed-signal circuit test generation that parallels digital test generation. We invert the analog circuit signal flow graph, reverse simulate it with good and bad machine outputs, and obtain test waveforms and component tolerances, given circuit output tolerances specified by the functional test needs of the designer. The inverted graph allows

Rajesh Ramadoss; Michael L. Bushnell

1999-01-01

400

On hardware generation of random single input change test sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of higher quality requirements and sensitivity of high performance circuits to delay defects has led to an increasing emphasis on delay testing of VLSI circuits. As delay testing using extemal testers requires expensive ATE, built-in self test (BIST) is an altemative technique that can signijicantly reduce the test cost. It has been proven that Single Input Change (SIC)

R. David; P. Girard; C. Landrault; S. Pravossoudovitch; A. Virazel

2001-01-01

401

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01

402

Comparision of Limit Load Solutions with Results of a Collapse Tests of Perforated Plates with a Triangular Penetration Pattern  

SciTech Connect

Limit load solutions obtained by elastic-perfectly plastic finite element analysis (EPP-FEA) are compared to results of tests of low-alloy steel perforated plate geometries loaded to full plastic collapse. Results are given for two plastic-collapse tests of flat circular disks with circular penetrations arranged in a triangular pattern and drilled normal to the surface of the plate. The ligament efficiency (minimum distance between holes divided by the distance between the centers of the holes) of the pattern is 0.32 and the plate thickness is 2.39 inches (60.7 mm). The tests were designed so that a transverse load generated plastic collapse in the outer row of penetrations due to a combination of transverse shear and in-plane bending. Limit-load solutions were obtained using EPP-FEA with small-strain, small-defection linear geometry assumptions. Two FEA models are used: one where the perforated region is modeled using an equivent solid plate (EQS) representation and another where each hole is explicitly modeled by FEA. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the deformation patterns produced by the EPP-FEA solutions match exactly with the deformation patterns produced by the test. The EQS-EPP FEA solution is about 15% lower than the explicit-hole EPP-FEA solution. Using one-third the actual ultimate strength of the material as the strength parameter in the limit load calculation produces a calculated limit load that is greater than a factor of three less than the mean measured plastic-collapse load obtained in the tests. This paper adds to the qualification of the use of limit-load solutions obtained using small-strain, small deflection EPP-FEA programs for the calculation of the limit load for perforated plates.

D.P. Jones; J.L. Gordon

2001-12-13

403

Method for generating complementary mask data for an EPL stencil mask using a commercial pattern operation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-beam projection lithography (EPL) using stencil mask is one of the most promising candidates for next- generation lithography. However, the practical use of a stencil mask for fabricating ULSIs needs proximity effect correction (PEC) as well as complementary data to be prepared in order to solve the 'doughnut pattern problem'. We have developed a method for generating complementary data by

Akemi Moniwa; Fumio Murai

2002-01-01

404

Guiding Elementary Students To Generate Reading Comprehension Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Accelerated Reader software program and describes a project conducted with fourth grade students that investigated strategies for teaching reading and writing comprehension. Topics include generative learning theory; higher order thinking skills; generating original reading comprehension questions; and thinking maps and question…

Brown, Carol

2003-01-01

405

Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy

Velimir Jovanovic; Saeid Ghamaty

2006-01-01

406

Application of probabilistic neural network and static test data to the classification of bridge damage patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is primarily concerned with the applicaitonof static test data in conjunction withthe probabilistic neural nework (PNN) for the classificationof dmage patterns of a cable-stayed bridge. A total of 11 dmage patterns are considered by combinationof 5 typical dmage regions. Both training and testing data, derived from static analysis via finite element method (FEM), are contaminated with differnt noise level to simula eth eFe model and meausmeent erros. The study of damge pattern identificaitonis conducted by taking into account the change ratios of the deflection of the main beam and the towe runder loading as input neuron sof the pNN. The effects of noise levls, the types of damage patterns, and the number of input neurons on the identification accuracy ae investigated.Base don the classificaiton results some valuable conclusions were obtained.

Yan, Banfu; Miyamoto, Ayaho

2003-08-01

407

Advanced electron-beam pattern generation technology for 180-nm masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical lithography will be the dominant technique used for 180 nm generation production devices. With a reduced feature size on the wafer, 4X optical reduction, optical proximity correction (OPC), and phase shift lithography techniques, mask-related errors become even more critical to wafer yield. In addition, small feature sizes and lithography enhancement techniques require finer edge resolution. Clearly, new patten generation tools are needed for this generation of maskmaking requirements. Multipass gray (MPG) writing strategy was introduced with the MEBESR 4500S. The ability to deliver a 4X improvement in dose while improving throughput is a significant advantage over previous MEBES systems. Since MPG is used in conjunction with offset scan voting, reduction in butting of over 50% has been demonstrated with MPG. Higher doses are now possible with use of a multipass writing strategy and a brighter source. As a result, resists with higher contrast and process robustness can be used. A significant improvement in uniformity is noted with the new process, an essential step needed in meeting 180 nm requirements. Dry etch is essential to meet these new requirements and with sufficient process margin to be manufacturable. This paper describes the key electron-beam pattern generation technology necessary to meet the requirement of 180 nm masks, including a high dose field- emission gun and column capable of delivering 800 A/cm2; complete dynamic beam correction; a digital stage servo to provide stable, reproducible stage control under high acceleration conditions; a high speed data path to support 320 MHz beam blanking and a 10 nm data address. This paper also examines the improvements made to the MEBES platform and documents the resulting improvements and compares these results to the requirements for 180 nm masks.

Abboud, Frank E.; Sauer, Charles A.; Wang, William; Vernon, Matthew; Prior, Richard; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Cole, Damon M.; Mankos, Marian

1997-02-01

408

On the search for the vocal pattern generator. A single-unit recording study.  

PubMed

In the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), single-unit activity was compared between the midbrain periaqueductal grey and the parvocellular and central nuclei of the medullary reticular formation during the production of species-specific vocalization. It was found that all three areas contain neurones with vocalization-related activity. The relative number of specific reactions types differed between areas, however. While the majority of periaqueductal cells fired just before, but not during vocalization, most cells in the reticular formation fired before and during vocalization. Modulation of discharge rate with changing fundamental frequency was only found in the reticular formation, not the periaqueductal grey. It is concluded that the parvocellular and central nuclei of the reticular formation, but not the periaqueductal grey are involved in vocal pattern generation. PMID:10884066

Düsterhöft, F; Häusler, U; Jürgens, U

2000-06-26

409

Emergent central pattern generator behavior in gap-junction-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley style neuron model.  

PubMed

Most models of central pattern generators (CPGs) involve two distinct nuclei mutually inhibiting one another via synapses. Here, we present a single-nucleus model of biologically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with random gap junction coupling. Despite no explicit division of neurons into two groups, we observe a spontaneous division of neurons into two distinct firing groups. In addition, we also demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified version of the model, highlighting the importance of afterhyperpolarization currents (I(AHP)) to CPGs utilizing gap junction coupling. The properties of these CPGs also appear sensitive to gap junction conductance, probability of gap junction coupling between cells, topology of gap junction coupling, and, to a lesser extent, input current into our simulated nucleus. PMID:23365558

Horn, Kyle G; Memelli, Heraldo; Solomon, Irene C

2012-12-06

410

A new Pulse-Pattern Generator based on LabVIEW FPGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the control of experimental sequences composed of triggers, gates and delays a Pulse-Pattern Generator (PPG) has been developed based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) addressed in a LabVIEW environment. It allows a highly reproducible timing of measurement procedures by up to 64 individual channels with pulse and delay periods from the nanoseconds to the minutes range. The PPG has been implemented in the context of the development of a new control system for the ClusterTrap setup, an ion storage device for atomic-cluster research, in close contact with the SHIPTRAP and ISOLTRAP collaborations at GSI and CERN, respectively. As the new PPG is not ion-trap specific it can be employed in any experiment based on sequences of triggers, pulses and delays.

Ziegler, F.; Beck, D.; Brand, H.; Hahn, H.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.

2012-07-01

411

Differences in Walking Pattern during 6Min Walk Test between Patients with COPD and Healthy Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects.Methodology\\/Principal Findings79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed

Janneke Annegarn; Martijn A. Spruit; Hans H. C. M. Savelberg; Paul J. B. Willems; Coby van de Bool; Annemie M. W. J. Schols; Emiel F. M. Wouters; Kenneth Meijer

2012-01-01

412

Pattern classification of internal incipient faults during impulse tests using continuous wavelet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of a fault occurrence, the pattern of the fault currents obtained by the standard impulse tests contains a typical\\u000a signature of the nature and the location of the insulation failure involved. This paper presents a new approach to classify\\u000a the pattern of the arc discharge location as one of the important types of internal incipient faults in

M. S. Naderi; G. B. Gharehpetian; T. R. Blackburn; M. Abedi

2007-01-01

413

Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator  

PubMed Central

The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications.

Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

2013-01-01

414

Intersegmental Coordination of Cockroach Locomotion: Adaptive Control of Centrally Coupled Pattern Generator Circuits  

PubMed Central

Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN) in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double-tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left–right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss these results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast–slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegment coordination strategies.

Fuchs, Einat; Holmes, Philip; Kiemel, Tim; Ayali, Amir

2010-01-01

415

Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator.  

PubMed

Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

Day, Nancy F; Terleski, Kyle L; Nykamp, Duane Q; Nick, Teresa A

2012-11-21

416

Animal-to-animal variability of connection strength in the leech heartbeat central pattern generator  

PubMed Central

The heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) in medicinal leeches controls blood flow within a closed circulatory by programming the constrictions of two parallel heart tubes. This circuit reliably produces a stereotyped fictive pattern of activity and has been extensively characterized. Here we determined, as quantitatively as possible, the strength of each inhibitory synapse and electrical junction within the core circuit of the heartbeat CPG. We also examined the animal-to-animal variability in strengths of these connections and, for some, determined the correlations between connections to the same postsynaptic target. The core CPG is composed of seven bilateral pairs of heart interneurons connected via both inhibitory chemical synapses and electrical junctions. Fifteen different connections within the core CPG were measured for strength using extracellular presynaptic recordings and postsynaptic voltage-clamp recordings across a minimum of seven individuals each, and the animal-to-animal variability was characterized. Connection strengths within the core network varied three to more than sevenfold among individuals (depending on the specific connection). The balance between two inputs onto various postsynaptic targets was explored by within-individual comparisons and correlation across individuals. Of the seven comparisons made within the core CPG, three showed a clear correlation of connection strengths, while the other four did not. We conclude that the leech heartbeat CPG can withstand wide variability in connection strengths and still produce stereotyped output. The network appears to preserve the relative strengths of some pairs of inputs, despite the animal-to-animal variability.

Roffman, Rebecca C.; Norris, Brian J.

2012-01-01

417

Different patterns of language activation in post-stroke aphasia are detected by overt and covert versions of the verb generation fMRI task  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Post-stroke language functions depend on the relative contributions of the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Thus, we aimed to identify the neural correlates of overt and covert verb generation in adult post-stroke aphasia. Material/Methods Sixteen aphasic LMCA stroke patients (SPs) and 32 healthy controls (HCs) underwent language testing followed by fMRI while performing an overt event-related verb generation task (ER-VGT) isolating activations related to noun-verb semantic processing or to articulation and auditory processing, and a covert block design verb generation task (BD-VGT). Results BD-VGT activation patterns were consistent with previous studies, while ER-VGT showed different patterns in SPs relative to HCs including less left-hemispheric involvement during semantic processing and predominantly right-sided activation related to articulation and auditory processing. ER-VGT intra-scanner performance was positively associated with activation during semantic associations in the left middle temporal gyrus for HCs (p=0.031) and left middle frontal gyrus for SPs (p=0.042). Increased activation in superior frontal/cingulate gyri was associated with better intra-scanner performance (p=0.020). Lesion size negatively impacted verbal fluency tested with Controlled Oral Word Association Test (p=0.0092) and the Semantic Fluency Test (p=0.033) and trended towards a negative association with verb generation performance on the event-related verb generation task (p=0.081). Conclusions Greater retention of pre-stroke language skills is associated with greater involvement of the left hemisphere with different cortical recruitment patterns observed in SPs versus HCs. Post-stroke verbal fluency may depend more upon the structural and functional integrity of the dominant left hemisphere language network rather than the shift to contralateral homologues.

Allendorfer, Jane B.; Kissela, Brett M.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2012-01-01

418

Experiment Data Report for Semiscale MOD-1 Test S-28-6 (Steam Generator Tube Rupture Test).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-6 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothe...

M. L. Patton K. E. Sackett C. E. Coppin

1977-01-01

419

Study on MCM interconnect test generation using ant algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach based on ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed for Multi-chip Module (MCM) interconnect test generation in this paper. Using the pheromone-updating rule and state transition rule, AA generates the initial candidate test vectors. PSO is employed to evolve the candidates generated by AA. The optimized search is guided by the swarm intelligent

Chen Lei

2008-01-01

420

Symstra: A Framework for Generating Object-Oriented Unit Tests Using Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object-oriented unit tests consist of sequences of method invocations. Behavior of an invocation depends on the method's arguments and the state of the receiver at the beginning of the invocation. Correspondingly, generating unit tests involves two tasks: generating method sequences that build relevant receiver- object states and generating relevant method arguments. This paper proposes Symstra, a framework that achieves both

Tao Xie; Darko Marinov; Wolfram Schulte; David Notkin

2005-01-01

421

Generation of design verification tests from behavioral VHDL programs using path enumeration and constraint programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for generation of design verification tests from behavior-level VHDL programs is presented. The method generates stimuli to execute desired control-flow paths in the given VHDL program. This method is based on path enumeration, constraint generation and constraint solving techniques that have been traditionally used for software testing. Behavioral VHDL programs contain multiple communicating processes, signal assignment statements, and

Ranga Vemuri; R. Kalyanaraman

1995-01-01

422

Test diagram generation: A practical application of the ATML standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML) family of standards allows Automatic Test System (ATS) and test information to be exchanged in a common format adhering to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard. Now that the standards have been published, through the IEEE SCC20, the next key step is the incorporation of these standards on actual ATS programs. The DoD

R. Taylor

2009-01-01

423

Automated test plan generator for database application systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As database applications become larger and more complex, the development of suitable test plans to assure robust and reliable software becomes essential. The testing procedure must establish the applications reliability from the human expectation viewpoint as well as its correctness and robustness.The predetermined goals of this testing procedure are to assure high reliability of the application and ascertain that the

Mary Ann Robbert; Fred J. Maryanski

1991-01-01

424

HIV Testing Patterns among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Typology  

PubMed Central

Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Black MSM are more likely to have unrecognized HIV infection, suggesting that testing may occur later and/or infrequently relative to current recommendations. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the HIV testing behaviors of Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia, who were participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061). Methods and Findings We conducted 29 in-depth interviews and four focus groups with a community-recruited sample. Modified grounded theory methodologies were used to guide our inductive analysis, which yielded a typology comprised of four distinct HIV testing patterns. Participants could be categorized as: (1) Maintenance Testers, who tested regularly as part of routine self-care; (2) Risk-Based Testers, whose testing depended on relationship status or sexual behavior; (3) Convenience Testers, who tested irregularly depending on what testing opportunities arose; or (4) Test Avoiders, who tested infrequently and/or failed to follow up on results. We further characterized these groups with respect to age, socioeconomic factors, identity, stigma and healthcare access. Conclusions Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of HIV testing patterns among Black MSM, and offer a framework for conceptualizing HIV testing in this group. Public health messaging must account for the diversity of Black MSM's experiences, and multiple testing approaches should be developed and utilized to maximize outreach to different types of testers.

Hussen, Sophia A.; Stephenson, Robert; del Rio, Carlos; Wilton, Leo; Wallace, Jermel; Wheeler, Darrell

2013-01-01

425

Investigation, Analysis, and Testing of Self-Contained Oxygen Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self Contained Oxygen Generators (SCOGs) have widespread use in providing emergency breathing oxygen in a variety of environments including mines, submarines, spacecraft, and aircraft. These devices have definite advantages over storing of gaseous or liqu...

2008-01-01

426

Evaluating functional roles of phase resetting in generation of adaptive human bipedal walking with a physiologically based model of the spinal pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central pattern generators (CPGs) in the spinal cord strongly contribute to locomotor behavior. To achieve adaptive locomotion,\\u000a locomotor rhythm generated by the CPGs is suggested to be functionally modulated by phase resetting based on sensory afferent\\u000a or perturbations. Although phase resetting has been investigated during fictive locomotion in cats, its functional roles in\\u000a actual locomotion have not been clarified.

Shinya Aoi; Naomichi Ogihara; Tetsuro Funato; Yasuhiro Sugimoto; Kazuo Tsuchiya

2010-01-01

427

The Neural Basis of Perceptual Hypothesis Generation and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-dot masking is a new form of visual masking that does not involve local contour interactions or spatial superimposition of the target stimulus and the mask (as, e.g., in pattern or metacontrast masking). Rather, the effective masking mechanism is based on object substitution. Object substitution masking occurs when low-level visual information representations are altered before target identification through iterative interaction

Ralph Weidner; Nadim Joni Shah; Gereon R. Fink

2006-01-01

428

A Novel Functional Test Generation Method for Processors Using Commercial ATPG  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the sizes of general and special purpose processors increase rapidly, generating high quality manufacturing tests for them is becoming a serious problem in industry. This paper describes a novel method for hierarchical functional test generation for processors which targets one embedded module at a time and uses commercial ATPG tools to derive tests for faults within the module. Applying

Raghuram S. Tupuri; Jacob A. Abraham

1997-01-01

429

Some Test Results on the SIMSCRIPT II.5 and SIMPL/1 Pseudorandom Number Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents results of applying the runs up and down test, the chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the serial test to streams of pseudorandom numbers generated by the pseudorandom number generators implemented in the IBM version of SIMSCRIPT II.5,...

G. S. Fishman

1976-01-01

430

Comparison of Two Fitness Functions for GA-Based Path-Oriented Test Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic path-oriented test data generation is not only a crucial problem but also a hot issue in the research area of software testing today. As a robust metaheuritstic search method in complex spaces, genetic algorithm (GA) has been used to path-oriented test data generation since 1992 and outperforms other approaches. A fitness function based on branch distance (BDBFF) and another

Yong Chen; Yong Zhong; Tingting Shi; Jingyong Liu

2009-01-01

431

Master test plan for the MB75 mW (B) generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five 75 mW radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and two electrically heated thermoelectrically heated generators (ETGs) are to be supplied. A facility is not available that can accommodate RTG mechanical shock and vibration testing and this testing will be performed on ETGs. The tests to be conducted will fall into four categories: (1) materials evaluation; (2) component evaluation; (3) ETG evaluation;

N. B. Elsner; J. C. Bass; H. G. Staley

1977-01-01

432

GENERATION OF DYNAMIC STANDARD TEST ATMOSPHERES FOR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS BY USING THE DIFFUSION VIAL METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diffusion vial was calibrated to generate standard test atmospheres for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and styrene. The vial was placed into a temperature-controlled chamber in a standards generator, and the diffusion rates for the test compounds were experimentally determined by mass loss and time. The test concentration data were correlated by using a gas chromatograph that was previously calibrated with

Brian Worthington; Allan R. Rey

1991-01-01

433

Sodium-water reaction test results and LMFBR steam generator inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large leak test rig provides information on the consequences of sodium-water reaction events in sodium-heated steam generators. Information gained from testing can be used in future steam generator design and as an indication of NDE that may be required for plant inservice inspection. To support testing, new NDE equipment was developed for measuring tube wall wastage, inside diameter, tube

1981-01-01

434

The Combinatorial Design Approach to Automatic Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combinatorial design method substantially reduces testing costs. The authors describe an application in which the method reduced test plan development from one month to less than a week. In several experiments, the method demonstrated good code coverage and fault detection ability

David M. Cohen; Siddhartha R. Dalal; Jesse Parelius; Gardner C. Patton

1996-01-01

435

MEMS Spring Probe for Next Generation Wafer Level Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS spring probe was fabricated for a nondestructive contact and testing of ultra small pitch devices. The probes have high suspension from the bottom planar surface, high elastic spring constant, and low interface contact resistivity. All contacts take place simultaneously. The contact interface area of the fabricated probe was 70 ?m2. Low RF signal loss was observed from RF testing.

Kee-keun Lee; Bruce C. Kim

2003-01-01

436

ACCELERATED TESTING METHODS FOR NEXT-GENERATION LAUNCH VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite tanks are planned to be used for storage of propellants in future reusable space vehicles. The durability of these tanks is now determined by a predictive design methodology based on verification by extensive experimental testing under representative service conditions encountered by the tanks during their lifecycle. These tests include filling and pressurization of a tank while subjected to anticipated

Frank Abdi; D. Huang; Ross Messinger

2003-01-01

437

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: safety test plan  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this safety test plan is to outline particular kinds of safety tests designed to produce information which would be useful in the safety analysis process. The program deals primarily with the response of the RTG to accident environments; accordingly two criteria were established: (1) safety tests should be performed for environments which are the most critical in terms of risk contribution; and (2) tests should be formulated to determine failure conditions for critical heat source components rather than observe heat source response in reference accident environments. To satisfy criterion 1. results of a recent safety study were used to rank various accidents in terms of expected source terms. Six kinds of tests were then proposed which would provide information meeting the second criterion.

Not Available

1979-01-31

438

Specification-driven directed test generation for validation of pipelined processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional validation is a major bottleneck in pipelined processor design due to the combined effects of increasing design complexity and lack of efficient techniques for directed test genera- tion. Directed test vectors can reduce overall validation effort since shorter tests can obtain the same coverage goal compared to the random tests. This article presents a specification-driven directed test generation methodology.

Prabhat Mishra; Nikil Dutt

2008-01-01

439

Fault Detection Effectiveness of Weighted Random Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance results are given for use of a weighted random pattern test generator, WRP, on ten benchmark designs. Deterministic (DET) and WRP tests created for single stuck faults are compared in their ability to detect shorts and transition faults. The WRP is able to generate a test for all the single stuck faults detected with a state-of-the-art deterministic pattern generator;

John A. Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom

1988-01-01

440

Test for Success: Next Generation Aircraft Identification System RF Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems are generating a variety of signals operating with a common purpose and often over common radio frequency (RF) spectrum. This paper will describe the top level characteristics of each of the following IFF\\/Surveillance systems and the plans and challenges of modeling these systems in ViaSat's RF stimulator systems. (1.) Mark XIIA, Mode

M. L. Garcia; J. M. Hoffman; J. L. Rowley; D. L. Stone

2007-01-01

441

Pattern recognition methods: a novel analysis for the pupillographic sleepiness test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to improve the information gained by the most commonly applied fit-for-duty sleepiness test (Pupillographic Sleepiness test, PST) by using pattern recognition approaches. The pupil diameter based sleepiness detection is enriched by several new features and machine learning methods. Using all newly computed pupil diameter features we achieved on the two-class detection problem (moderate sleepiness

Jarek Krajewski; Thomas Schnupp; Sebastian Schnieder; David Sommer; Christian Heinze; Martin Golz

2010-01-01

442

Identification of Patient Recovery Patterns after Cardiovascular Surgery Based on Laboratory Tests Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation is proposed a methodology to identify patient's recovery patterns after cardiovascular surgery based on laboratory tests results. The main purpose is to enhance the understanding of the manifestations of postsurgical complications in patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery. The analysis of patients' recovery process is based on the relationship between plasma calcium, ionized calcium and platelet count over

Alcides Ricardo Santander Mercado

2011-01-01

443

Expression patterns and transcript concentrations of the autosomal DAZL gene in testes of azoospermic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene cluster on the Y chromosome is a strong candidate for the azoospermia factor. The DAZ gene was derived from an autosomal homologue, DAZL (DAZ-Like). This study was designed to assess the functional role of DAZL in human spermatogenesis. The expression patterns and mRNA transcript levels of DAZL in the testes of 17 azoospermic men

Yung Ming Lin; Chaio Wei Chen; H. Sunny Sun; Shaw Jeng Tsai; Chao Chin Hsu; Yen Ni Teng; Johnny Shinn; Nan Lin; Pao Lin Kuo

2001-01-01

444

Interpretations of Rod-and-Frame Test Scores: An Application of Pattern Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rod-and-frame test data of undergraduates were subjected to pattern analysis, which showed that most tilt toward the spatial position of the frame, while some utilize two frame cues, i.e., the nearest to vertical side and corner of the frame. Other interpretations of performance were not supported by results. (Author/RD)

Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

1982-01-01

445

Spatial patterns of Yucatan reef fish communities: Testing models using a multi-scale survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a hierarchical multi-scale survey design, we examined the spatial patterns of reef fish communities and tested ecological models concerning the relative importance of reef geomorphology and anthropogenic pressure possibly driving community structure. Canonical redundancy analysis was used as a form of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to asses differences in reef fish community composition at two spatial scales: broad

Enrique Núñez-Lara; J. Ernesto Arias-González; Pierre Legendre

2005-01-01

446

Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC\\/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

M. L. Johnson; D. R. Sisk; R. W. Goles; K. L. Swinth; M. R. Tinker; E. E. Hickey

1994-01-01

447

Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

1994-05-01

448

Initial benchmarking of a new electron-beam raster pattern generator for 130-100 nm maskmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decision by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) to accelerate the continuing evolution to smaller linewidths is consistent with the commitment by Etec Systems, Inc. to rapidly develop new technologies for pattern generation systems with improved resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity, positional accuracy, and throughput. Current pattern generation designs are inadequate to meet the more advanced requirements for masks, particularly at or below the 100 nm node. Major changes to all pattern generation tools will be essential to meet future market requirements. An electron-beam (e-beam) system that is designed to meet the challenges for 130 - 100 nm device generation with extendibility to the 70-nm range will be discussed. This system has an architecture that includes a graybeam writing strategy, a new state system, and improved thermal management. Detailed changes include a pulse width modulated blanking system, per-pixel deflection, retrograde scanning multipass writing, and a column with a 50 kV accelerating voltage that supports a dose of up to 45 (mu) C/cm2 with minimal amounts of resist heating. This paper examines current issues, our approach to meeting International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) requirements, and some preliminary results from a new pattern generator.

Sauer, Charles A.; Abboud, Frank E.; Babin, Sergey V.; Chakarian, Varoujan; Ghanbari, Abe; Innes, Robert; Trost, David; Raymond, Frederick

2000-07-01

449

Statistical Tests of Some Widely Used and Recently Proposed Uniform Random Number Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several widely used uniform random number generators have been extensively subjected to three commonly used statistical tests of uniformity and randomness. The object was (1) to examine the power of these statistical tests to discriminate between good and...

G. P. Learmonth P. A. W. Lewis

1973-01-01

450

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System...

A. Huskey D. Jager J. Hur J. Smith

2012-01-01

451

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Syst...

A. Huskey D. Jager J. Hur J. Smith

2012-01-01

452

GMOtrack: generator of cost-effective GMO testing strategies.  

PubMed

Commercialization of numerous genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has already been approved worldwide, and several additional GMOs are in the approval process. Many countries have adopted legislation to deal with GMO-related issues such as food safety, environmental concerns, and consumers' right of choice, making GMO traceability a necessity. The growing extent of GMO testing makes it important to study optimal GMO detection and identification strategies. This paper formally defines the problem of routine laboratory-level GMO tracking as a cost optimization problem, thus proposing a shift from "the same strategy for all samples" to "sample-centered GMO testing strategies." An algorithm (GMOtrack) for finding optimal two-phase (screening-identification) testing strategies is proposed. The advantages of cost optimization with increasing GMO presence on the market are demonstrated, showing that optimization approaches to analytic GMO traceability can result in major cost reductions. The optimal testing strategies are laboratory-dependent, as the costs depend on prior probabilities of local GMO presence, which are exemplified on food and feed samples. The proposed GMOtrack approach, publicly available under the terms of the General Public License, can be extended to other domains where complex testing is involved, such as safety and quality assurance in the food supply chain. PMID:20166592

Novak, Petra Krau; Gruden, Kristina; Morisset, Dany; Lavrac, Nada; Stebih, Dejan; Rotter, Ana; Zel, Jana

453

Energy efficient walking with central pattern generators: from passive dynamic walking to biologically inspired control.  

PubMed

Like human walking, passive dynamic walking-i.e. walking down a slope with no actuation except gravity-is energy efficient by exploiting the natural dynamics. In the animal world, neural oscillators termed central pattern generators (CPGs) provide the basic rhythm for muscular activity in locomotion. We present a CPG model, which automatically tunes into the resonance frequency of the passive dynamics of a bipedal walker, i.e. the CPG model exhibits resonance tuning behavior. Each leg is coupled to its own CPG, controlling the hip moment of force. Resonance tuning above the endogenous frequency of the CPG-i.e. the CPG's eigenfrequency-is achieved by feedback of both limb angles to their corresponding CPG, while integration of the limb angles provides resonance tuning at and below the endogenous frequency of the CPG. Feedback of the angular velocity of both limbs to their corresponding CPG compensates for the time delay in the loop coupling each limb to its CPG. The resonance tuning behavior of the CPG model allows the gait velocity to be controlled by a single parameter, while retaining the energy efficiency of passive dynamic walking. PMID:19504121

Verdaasdonk, B W; Koopman, H F J M; van der Helm, F C T

2009-06-06

454

A DISTINCTIVE LAYERING PATTERN OF MOUSE DENTATE GRANULE CELLS IS GENERATED BY DEVELOPMENTAL AND ADULT NEUROGENESIS  

PubMed Central

New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work we aimed to systematically quantify the relative position of dentate granule cells generated at different ages. We used 5’-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and retroviral methodologies to birth-date cells born in the embryonic, early postnatal and adult hippocampus and assessed their final position in the adult mouse granule cell layer. We also quantified both developmental and adult-born cohorts of neural progenitor cells that contribute to the pool of adult progenitor cells. Our data confirm that the outside-in layering of the dentate gyrus continues through adulthood and that early-born cells constitute most of the adult dentate gyrus. We also found that a substantial fraction of the dividing cells in the adult dentate gyrus were derived from early-dividing cells and retained BrdU, suggesting that a subpopulation of hippocampal progenitors divides infrequently from early development on.

Mathews, Emily A.; Morgenstern, Nicolas A.; Piatti, Veronica C.; Zhao, Chunmei; Jessberger, Sebastian; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Gage, Fred H.

2010-01-01

455

Control of oscillation periods and phase durations in half-center central pattern generators: a comparative mechanistic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generators (CPGs) consisting of interacting groups of neurons drive a variety of repetitive, rhythmic behaviors\\u000a in invertebrates and vertebrates, such as arise in locomotion, respiration, mastication, scratching, and so on. These CPGs\\u000a are able to generate rhythmic activity in the absence of afferent feedback or rhythmic inputs. However, functionally relevant\\u000a CPGs must adaptively respond to changing demands, manifested

Silvia Daun; Jonathan E. Rubin; Ilya A. Rybak

2009-01-01

456

Patterns of Death in the First and Second Generation Immigrants from Selected Middle Eastern Countries in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrant studies in the United States (US) have rarely covered the Middle Eastern population (ME), and have never distinguished\\u000a the first and second generations born in the US. This study aims to describe the mortality patterns of ME immigrants by origin,\\u000a acculturation, and generation. Death certificates issued from 1997 through 2004 were used to calculate, for Middle Eastern\\u000a immigrants, the

Kiumarss Nasseri; Lawrence H. Moulton

2011-01-01

457

Constancy and variability in the output of a central pattern generator  

PubMed Central

Experimental and corresponding modeling studies have demonstrated a 2–5 fold variation of intrinsic and synaptic parameters across animals, while functional output is maintained. These studies have led to the hypothesis that correlated, compensatory changes in particular parameters can at least partially explain the biological variability in parameters. Using the leech heartbeat CPG, we selected three different segmental motor neurons that fire in a functional phase progression but receive input from the same four premotor interneurons. Previous work suggested that the phase progression arises because the pattern of relative strength of the four inputs varies systematically across the segmental motor neurons. Nevertheless, there was considerable animal-to-animal variation in the absolute strengths of these connections. We tested the hypothesis that functional output is maintained in the face of variation in the absolute strength of connections because relative strengths onto particular motor neurons are maintained. We found relative strength is not strictly maintained across animals even as functional output is maintained, and animal-to-animal variations in relative strength of particular inputs do not correlate strongly with output phase. In parallel with this variation in synaptic strength, the firing phase of the premotor inputs to these motor neurons varies considerably across individuals. We conclude that the number (four) of inputs to each motor neuron, which each vary in strength, and the phase diversity of the temporal pattern of input from the CPG diminish the influence of individual inputs. We hypothesize that each animal arrives at a unique solution for how the network produces functional output.

Norris, Brian J.; Wenning, Angela; Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

458

Math Test Generator. Volume 2: Special Skills [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This computer software program helps to make classroom worksheets, take home assignments, and school mathematics tests easy to design and manufacture. The accompanying printed teaching guide provides technical information for setting up and using the program, along with sample worksheets and instructions on how to create them using the software.…

Aud, Joel; Gintz, Chris

459

An improved protocol test generation procedure based on UIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the Unique Input\\/Output, UIO, approach and the Distinguishing Sequence, DS, approach for the conformance testing of protocol implementations do not always produce identical fault converges, contrary to a previous claim. In the UIO approach, when UIO sequences and signatures are not unique in an implementation, they may not be able to detect erroneous states in the implementation.

W. Y. L. Chan; C. T. Vuong; M. R. Otp

1989-01-01

460

Acceptance Test Report for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATR will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

NORMAN, E.C.

2000-10-23

461

Acceptance test plan for fourth generation Hanford corrosion monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

NORMAN, E.C.

2000-07-27

462

A design of programmable AC voltage and current generators for testing energy meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype equipment that generates two AC sources of the same frequency for testing single phase energy meters is described. Their amplitudes, frequency and phase shift can be set through a keyboard pad. It consists of reference signal generators and amplifiers. The reference signal is generated using a microcontroller and two serial 16 bit digital to analog converters. The amplifiers

S. Methawee; E. Leelarasmee

2004-01-01

463

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

464

Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid.  

PubMed

Rapid and reproducible genomic changes can be induced during the early stages of the life of nascent allopolyploid species. In a previous study, it was shown that following allopolyploidization, cytosine methylation changes can affect up to 11% of the wheat genome. However, the methylation patterns around transposable elements (TEs) were never studied in detail. We used transposon methylation display (TMD) to assess the methylation patterns of CCGG sites flanking three TE families (Balduin, Apollo, and Thalos) in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid. In addition, transposon display (TD), using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme, was applied to search for genomic rearrangements at the TE insertion sites. We observed that up to 54% of CCGG sites flanking the three TE families showed changes in methylation patterns in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, where hypermethylation was predominant. Over 70% of the changes in TMD patterns occurred in the first two generations of the newly formed allohexaploid. Furthermore, analysis of 555 TE insertion sites by TD and 18 cases by site-specific PCR revealed a full additive pattern in the allohexaploid, an indication for lack of massive rearrangements. These data indicate that following allopolyplodization, DNA-TE insertion sites can undergo a significantly high level of methylation changes compared with methylation changes of other genomic sequences. PMID:21217805

Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

2011-01-01

465

Using Model Checking to Generate Tests from Requirements Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many formal methods, such as the SCR (Software Cost Reduction) requirements method, have been proposed for improving\\u000a the quality of software specifications. Although improved specifications are valuable, the ultimate objective of software\\u000a development is to produce software that satisfies its requirements. To evaluate the correctness of a software implementation,\\u000a one can apply black-box testing to determine whether the implementation,

Angelo Gargantini; Constance Heitmeyer

466

Worst case tolerance analysis and CLP-based multifrequency test generation for analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for automatically generating minimal test sets for parametric faults in linear analog circuits. In a previous work we elaborated a multifrequency test generation method (TPG) for such circuit faults. The method was formulated as a series of optimization problems that were solved by sequential quadratic programming (SQP) available in MATLAB. Such a standard optimization method processes

Abdessatar Abderrahman; Eduard Cerny; Bozena Kaminska

1999-01-01

467

A hybrid deterministic\\/genetic test generator to improve fault effectiveness and reduce CPU time run  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on an evolutionary algorithm (EA) approach in the development of effective test vector generation for single and multiple fault detection in VLSI circuits. The genetic operators (selection, crossover, and mutation) are applied to the CNF-satisfiability problem for the generation of test vectors for growth faults in programmable logic arrays (PLAs). The CNF-constraints satisfaction problem has several advantages

A. Cruz

2004-01-01

468

Recursive Learning: An attractive alternative to the decision tree for test generation in digital ci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most test generators for combinational and sequential circuits use a branch and bound technique in order to systematically explore the search space when trying to generate a test vector. This paper presents an alternative method. Instead of using a decision tree to implicitly try all combinations of signal values for a given set of signals we use a learning routine

Wolfgang Kunz; Dhiraj K. Pradhan

1992-01-01

469

In Vivo Modulation of Interacting Central Pattern Generators in Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion: Influence of Feeding and Partial Pressure of Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the European lobster Homarus gammarus contains two rhythm-generating networks (the gastric and pyloric circuits) that in resting, unfed animals produce two distinct, yet strongly interacting, motor patterns. By using simultaneous EMG recordings from the gastric and pyloric muscles in vivo, we found that after feeding, the gas- tropyloric interaction disappears as the two networks express

Stefan Clemens; Jean-Charles Massabuau; Alexia Legeay; Pierre Meyrand; John Simmers

1998-01-01

470

Influence of bromine substitution pattern on the singlet oxygen generation efficiency of two-photon absorbing chromophores.  

PubMed

A molecular engineering strategy based on rational variations of the bromine substitution pattern in two-photon absorbing singlet oxygen sensitizers allows studying the relations that exist between the positioning of an inter-system crossing promoter on the charge-transfer chromophore and its ability to generate singlet oxygen. PMID:22744649

Lanoë, Pierre-Henri; Gallavardin, Thibault; Dupin, Aurore; Maury, Olivier; Baldeck, Patrice L; Lindgren, Mikael; Monnereau, Cyrille; Andraud, Chantal

2012-06-29

471

Generation of Patterned Cell Co-Cultures in Silicone Tubing Using a Microelectrode Technique and Electrostatic Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a method for producing patterned cell adhesion inside silicone tubing. A platinum needle microelectrode was inserted through the wall of the tubing and an oxidizing agent electrochemically generated at the inserted electrode. This agent caused local detachment of the anti-biofouling heparin layer from the inner surface of the tubing. The cell-adhesive protein fibronectin selectively adsorbed onto the newly

Hirokazu Kaji; Soichiro Sekine; Masahiko Hashimoto; Takeaki Kawashima; Matsuhiko Nishizawa

2007-01-01

472

Central pattern generators for a common semiology in fronto-limbic seizures and in parasomnias. A neuroethologic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generators (CPGs) are genetically determined neuronal aggregates in the mesencephalon, pons and spinal cord subserving innate motor behaviours essential for survival (feeding, locomotion, reproduction etc.). In higher primates CPGs are largely under neocortical control. We describe how certain motor events observed in parasomnias and epileptic seizures could have similar features and resemble motor behaviours, which can be the

C. A. Tassinari; G. Rubboli; E. Gardella; G. Cantalupo; G. Calandra-Buonaura; M. Vedovello; M. Alessandria; G. Gandini; S. Cinotti; N. Zamponi; S. Meletti

2005-01-01

473

Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of band-limited masking noise and blur on the minimum contrast required to identify a) military targets, b) the standard MRTD and MTDP four-bar test pattern and c) the TOD equilateral triangle test pattern. First, the image containing the test object was spatially blurred by an amount varying from one pixel up to the maximum blur at which the object could still be identified or resolved. This mimics the effect of sensor optics and detector blur on the image of a target at different ranges. Then, band-limited noise was added to the image. The center spatial frequency fc of the masking noise was varied over 7.0 octaves. Observers had to indicate at which target contrast they were just able to identify the target. The results are a) identification thresholds for all targets are strongly elevated by masking noise of certain spatial wavelengths and much less by coarser or finer noise, showing that identification by human observers is mediated by a relatively narrow visual filter, and b) with increasing blur, maximum masking shifts towards lower noise spatial frequencies in a consistent but non-linear way. Current popular TA models are inconsistent with these results but suggestions for improvement are presented. The laboratory test patterns are appropriate to characterize target acquisition performance with viewing systems that include noise and blur.

Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

2004-08-01

474

Patterns of use of the bone mineral density test in Ontario, 1992-1998  

PubMed Central

Background There is ongoing controversy about who should be referred for bone mineral density (BMD) testing to estimate fracture risk and diagnose osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of use of BMD testing in Ontario between 1992 and 1998. Methods All physician claims from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) claims database for BMD testing between Jan. 1, 1992, and Dec. 31, 1998, were categorized by age and sex of the patient and the specialty of the physician who ordered the test. Time trends and regional rate variation analyses were also performed. To examine the prevalence of repeat testing, an inception cohort of women who had a BMD test in 1996 was followed for 2 years from the date of first test. Results From 1992 to 1998 the number of BMD tests performed per year in women increased from 34 402 to 230 936 and in men from 2 162 to 13 579. In 1998 most tests were being ordered by family physicians (80.2% in 1998 v. 52.1% in 1992). Approximately 1 in 7 women aged 55–69 years had BMD tests done in 1998. Within a 2-year period 29.3% of these women had the test repeated; the mean time between tests was 16 months. Regional rate variation analyses of BMD tests performed in 1996–1998 indicated a 235-fold variation in BMD test rates across counties in Ontario, with a range from 0.2 to 47.1 per 1000 women in the population. Interpretation The number of BMD tests performed each year in Ontario is increasing rapidly. However, the significant variation between rates of testing in different regions indicates that the diffusion of this technology may not be taking place according to population need.

Jaglal, Susan B.; McIsaac, Warren J.; Hawker, Gillian; Jaakkimainen, Liisa; Cadarette, Suzanne M.; Chan, Benjamin T.B.

2000-01-01

475

Next-generation automatic test equipment for military support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underlying philosophy and design of automatic testing equipment (ATE) for military systems have undergone modification in view of the increasingly important requirement of forward deployment. ATE stations must accordingly become smaller and lighter for the sake of transportability, as well as hardier and easily reconfigurable. Ease of operation and maintenance also become critical. Among the technologies identified as essential for the implementation of these stringent ATE design requirements are the IEE-488, MIL-STD-1553, VME, VXI, and SCSI data buses, 'instruments on a card' technology, optical disk drives, touch-screen technology, and expert system-related software.

Wasserman, M.

476

Test case set generation method on MC/DC based on binary tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploring efficient, reliable test case design methods has been tester pursuit of the goal. Along with the aerospace software logic complexity of improving and software scale enlarging, this requirement also gets more compelling. Test case design techniques suited for MC/DC improved test case design efficiency, increase the test coverage. It is suitable to test the software that logical relationship is complicated comparatively. Some software test tools provide the function to calculate the test coverage. And it can assess the test cases whether on the MC/DC or not. But the software tester needs the reverse thinking. The paper puts forward that design the test case by Unique-cause and Masking approach. And it proposes automatic generation method of test case on MC/DC. It improved the efficiency and correctness of generation the test case set on DC/DC.

Wang, Jun-jie; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yuan

2013-03-01

477

Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

Almahrous, Mazen

1990-08-01

478

Summary of DEEP STEAM downhole steam generator development activities. [Kern River and Long Beach field tests  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the concept and goals of the DOE program, DEEP STEAM, as related to the development of a downhole steam generator for deep heavy oil recovery will be discussed. Additionally, the past, present and future activities of the development program being carried out at Sandia National Laboratories will be discussed. These include evaluation studies, surface testing at Bakersfield, CA, a run-in test at Hobbs, NM, and status of field testing at Long Beach, CA. The Long Beach test includes both a downhole diesel-air generator and a surface diesel-oxygen generator. 7 figures.

Donaldson, A.B.; Fox, R.L.; Mulac, A.J.

1981-01-01

479

Generation and Testing of Autonomous Mineral Detectors for Mars Rovers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently Mars missions can collect more data than can be returned. Autonomous systems for data collection, processing and return will aid future Mars rovers in prioritizing and returning geologically important information. We have created a neural net detector that is able to successfully recognize carbonates from Visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of rocks collected from Mars analog environments (Gilmore et al. JGR 105, 29,223). In order to characterize and improve the detector's sensitivity, we are evaluating the performance of the detector under more realistic Martian environments: 1) carbonate minerals covered with palagonitic dust, and 2) carbonate minerals intimately mixed with basalt and palagonite. Lessons learned will be applied to the generation of additional detectors for minerals of interest (e.g., hydrothermal minerals). Aliquots of Martian Soil Simulant JSC Mars-1 palagonite were sieved to <45 microns and air fall deposited onto a calcite crystal and an adjacent glass slide. Spectra in the Vis/NIR were taken of the calcite after every layer up to a thickness of 270 microns (35 layers) with an Analytical Spectral Devices Field Spec Pro spectrometer operating from 350-2500 nm. The carbonate detector, operating over the range 2000-2400 nm, has an empirically established detection threshold based on training with thousands of synthetic linear combinations of laboratory mineral spectra designed to simulate expected Martian rocks. The detection threshold was reached in this experiment when the dust layer thickness reached 102 -116 microns (78-85% aerial coverage). This corresponds to a real change in the depth of the 2300 nm carbonate band (continuum depth, D= 1- [reflectance at trough center/reflectance at continuum] = ~0.1), and is similar to the detection threshold of the human experimenter. Very thin (~10-20 microns) coatings of palagonite dust had a large effect on the spectral response of the substrate, exemplifying the nonlinear mixing of the two components. We will report on experiments mixing known quantities of carbonate with basalt and palagonite at various grain sizes. We plan to assess the detector's ability to discern and quantify varying amounts of carbonate within the mixtures, and model the spectra as nonlinear mixtures to ascertain if any improvements in the accuracy of the neural net can be achieved. Finally, we will report on the generation and performance of a detector capable of identifying phyllosilicate minerals individually and as a mineral class.

Merrill, M. D.; Gilmore, M. S.; Castaño, R.; Bornstein, B.; Greenwood, J.

2004-05-01

480

THEDA-2 Code Verification with Data from Model Tests of a Once-Through Steam Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code (THEDA-2) developed for predicting the thermal and hydraulic performance of nuclear once-through and inverted U-tube steam generators was benchmarked. Data from a full-length laboratory steam generator, representative of Babcock & Wilcox once-through nuclear steam generators, were obtained and compared to THEDA-2 predictions. Two geometrical arrangements of the laboratory steam generator were tested to produce detailed, multidimensional data

T. E. Moskal; M. T. Childerson; H. R. Carter

1984-01-01

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