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1

PLATYPUS: a PLA test pattern generation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLAs which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the constrained\\/unconstrained, simple\\/multiple folding program PLEASURE and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C developed at the University of California at Berkeley. PLATYPUS uses biased random test generation as a quick preprocess followed by a deterministic

Ruey-Sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1985-01-01

2

PLATYPUS: A PLA Test Pattern Generation Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLA's which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the folding program PLEASURE [12] and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C [11] developed at the University of California at Berkeley. A new algorithm is proposed based on complementation and the tautology check of a

Ruey-sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1986-01-01

3

Parallelization methods for circuit partitioning based parallel automatic test pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of test vectors for the VLSI devices used in contemporary digital systems is becoming much more difficult as these devices increase in size. Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) techniques are commonly used to generate these tests. Parallel processing techniques can be applied to accelerate the process of finding test patterns. One problem with this approach is that most currently

Robert H. Klenke; Ronald D. Williams; James H. Aylor

1993-01-01

4

Cost analysis of Hybrid LFSR as deterministic and pseudorandom test pattern generator  

E-print Network

Hybrid Linear Feedback Shift Register (HLFSR) is a new Built-in Self Test (BIST) pattern generator that can generate a set of deterministic test patterns followed by pseudorandom patterns. BIST with HLFSR is an effective at-speed testing method...

Utama, Peter

1994-01-01

5

Pattern Generator for Bench Test of Digital Boards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All efforts to develop electronic equipment reach a stage where they need a board test station for each board. The SMAP digital system consists of three board types that interact with each other using interfaces with critical timing. Each board needs to be tested individually before combining into the integrated digital electronics system. Each board needs critical timing signals from the others to be able to operate. A bench test system was developed to support test of each board. The test system produces all the outputs of the control and timing unit, and is delivered much earlier than the timing unit. Timing signals are treated as data. A large file is generated containing the state of every timing signal at any instant. This file is streamed out to an IO card, which is wired directly to the device-under-test (DUT) input pins. This provides a flexible test environment that can be adapted to any of the boards required to test in a standalone configuration. The problem of generating the critical timing signals is then transferred from a hardware problem to a software problem where it is more easily dealt with.

Berkun, Andrew C.; Chu, Anhua J.

2012-01-01

6

DALG: A program for test pattern generation in combinational logical circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a computer program DALG which generates test patterns for detecting faults in combinational logic circuits containing up to 200 logical gates is presented. The gates may be of logical types AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT, or Exclusive OR is presented. The faults may be any one gate or input struck at a fixed value (0 or 1). In addition to test pattern generation DALG will also determine whether or not the given test pattern will detect given faults in a circuit. Sample problems are given along with input data sheets and printed output to illustrate the capabilities of the program.

1971-01-01

7

Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent patterns in transaction databases, time-series databases, and many other kinds of databases has been studied popularly in data mining research. Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and\\/or long patterns.In this study, we propose a novel frequent pattern tree (FP-tree)

Jiawei Han; Jian Pei; Yiwen Yin

2000-01-01

8

The F-path approach for pattern generation in microprocessor testing  

E-print Network

Testing User and Supervisor Stack Pointers Testing 62 63 74 75 Status Register and Program Counter Testing 76 vn CHAPTER VIII SIMULATION RESULTS Page 77 Data Registers Results Address Registers Results 77 80 Address Bus Results 82 Data... coverage for random bridging faults in address registers. . 81 Page Figure 20 Fault coverage for random s-a-0, s-a-1 and bridge faults on address registers 82 Figure 21 Fault coverage for random s-a-0 faults in the address bus . . . . . 83 Figure 22...

Salinas, Jose?

1991-01-01

9

Walking Pattern Generator Using an Evolutionary Central Pattern Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For the generation of locomotion, such as walking, running or swimming, vertebrate and invertebrate animals use the Central\\u000a PatternGenerator (CPG). In this paper, a walking pattern generator is proposed using an evolutionary optimized CPG. Sensory\\u000a feedback pathways in CPG are proposed, which uses Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) signals. For the optimization of CPG parameters,\\u000a quantuminspired evolutionary algorithm is employed. Walking

Chang-Soo Park; Jeong-Ki Yoo; Young-Dae Hong; Ki-Baek Lee; Si-Jung Ryu; Jong-Hwan Kim

2010-01-01

10

Testing Aircraft Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern fighting airplane requires a large amount of electric power for its successful operation. The aircraft generator provides a reliable source of power at the lowest possible weight. The development of these generators has required close co-ordination of design, testing, and interpretation of test results. The tests include raw material, parts, laboratory, life, mechanical, and flight tests. This paper

H. E. Keneipp

1944-01-01

11

Fastrac Gas Generator Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator was intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter, Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic modes were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations occurred in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included the turbine inlet manifold simulator, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

1999-01-01

12

Geometric pattern generation by sewing machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a method for geometric pattern generation by using a sewing machine. Sewing machine equipment are mainly composed of mathematical models which may be constructed by computer programs or switching and other electric circuits. These models are called commutative linear representation systems and this method is a very different graphic generation scheme. Geometric pattern generation is a trial

Yasumichi Hasegawa; Kihachi Takeichi; Tsuyoshi Matsuo

1996-01-01

13

Observation-based test set generation  

E-print Network

, such as bridging surrogates and transition surrogates, can also be considered when evaluating the quality of a test set. My research explores the role that observation alone plays in generating a set of valuable tests. I compare the performance of test patterns...

Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

2013-02-22

14

Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Also, apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

Nakamura, Michiyuki (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1981-01-01

15

Mining Frequent Patterns without Candidate Generation: A Frequent-Pattern Tree Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent patterns in transaction databases, time-series databases, and many other kinds of databases has been studied popularly in data mining research. Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist a large number of patterns and\\/or long patterns. In this study, we propose a novel

Jiawei Han; Jian Pei; Yiwen Yin; Runying Mao

2004-01-01

16

Identification of Bacteria by Patterns Generated from Odor Spectra  

E-print Network

We use the power density spectra obtained by fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) to generate new, highly distinguishable, types of patterns based on the average slope of the spectra in different frequency ranges. Such plots can be considered as "fingerprints" of bacterial odors. Three different ways of pattern generation are tested, including a simple binary version. The obtained patterns are simple enough to identify the situation by the naked eye without a pattern recognizer.

Hung-Chih Chang; Laszlo B. Kish; Maria D. King; Chiman Kwan

2009-02-09

17

Combinational test generation using satisfiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust, efficient algorithm for combinational test generation using a reduction to satisfiability (SAT). The algorithm, Test Generation Using Satisfiability (TEGUS), solves a simplified test set characteristic equation using straightforward but powerful greedy heuristics, ordering the variables using depth-first search and selecting a variable from the next unsatisfied clause at each branching point. For difficult faults, the computation

Paul R. Stephan; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1996-01-01

18

Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronization but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPG) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPG). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analogue over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25433077

Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Paton, Julian F R; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I

2014-11-28

19

Precise-Test-Pulse Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise test pulse with stable duration and amplitude needed for calibration of test equipment. Precise-test-pulse generator provides such waveform and has additional desirable features. Circuit produces single test pulses of stable duration and amplitude. Made of commercially available integrated circuits and discrete components.

Eichenberg, Dennis

1994-01-01

20

HITEC: a test generation package for sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents HITEC, a sequential circuit test generation package to generate test patterns for sequential circuits, without assuming the use of scan techniques or a reset state. Several new techniques are introduced to improve the performance of test generation. A targeted D element technique is presented, which greatly increases the number of possible mandatory assignments and reduces the over-specification

Thomas Niermann; Janak H. Patel

1991-01-01

21

Data Generation for Path Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two stochastic search algorithms for generating test cases that execute specified paths in a program. The two algorithms are: a simulated annealing algorithm (SA), and a genetic algorithm (GA). These algorithms are based on an optimization formulation of the path testing problem which include both integer- and real-value test cases. We empirically compare the SA and GA algorithms

Nashat Mansour; Miran Salame

2004-01-01

22

Intersecting circuits generate precisely patterned retinal waves.  

PubMed

The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that produce stage III waves and desynchronize ON and OFF RGC firing remain obscure. Using dual patch-clamp recordings, we find that ON and OFF RGCs receive sequential excitatory input from ON and OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), respectively. This input sequence is generated by crossover circuits, in which ON CBCs control glutamate release from OFF CBCs via diffusely stratified inhibitory amacrine cells. In addition, neighboring ON CBCs communicate directly and indirectly through lateral glutamatergic transmission and gap junctions, both of which are required for wave initiation and propagation. Thus, intersecting lateral excitatory and vertical inhibitory circuits give rise to precisely patterned stage III retinal waves. PMID:23830830

Akrouh, Alejandro; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

2013-07-24

23

Intersecting Circuits Generate Precisely Patterned Retinal Waves  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that produce stage III waves and desynchronize ON and OFF RGC firing remain obscure. Using dual patch clamp recordings, we find that ON and OFF RGCs receive sequential excitatory input from ON and OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), respectively. This input sequence is generated by crossover circuits, in which ON CBCs control glutamate release from OFF CBCs via diffusely stratified inhibitory amacrine cells. In addition, neighboring ON CBCs communicate directly and indirectly through lateral glutamatergic transmission and gap junctions, both of which are required for wave initiation and propagation. Thus, intersecting lateral excitatory and vertical inhibitory circuits give rise to precisely patterned stage III retinal waves. PMID:23830830

Akrouh, Alejandro; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

2013-01-01

24

Test Generator for MATLAB Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MATLAB Automated Test Tool, version 3.0 (MATT 3.0) is a software package that provides automated tools that reduce the time needed for extensive testing of simulation models that have been constructed in the MATLAB programming language by use of the Simulink and Real-Time Workshop programs. MATT 3.0 runs on top of the MATLAB engine application-program interface to communicate with the Simulink engine. MATT 3.0 automatically generates source code from the models, generates custom input data for testing both the models and the source code, and generates graphs and other presentations that facilitate comparison of the outputs of the models and the source code for the same input data. Context-sensitive and fully searchable help is provided in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format.

Henry, Joel

2011-01-01

25

Temperature distortion generator for turboshaft engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures and unique hardware used to conduct an experimental investigation into the response of a small-turboshaft-engine compression system to various hot gas ingestion patterns are presented. The temperature distortion generator described herein uses gaseous hydrogen to create both steady-state and time-variant, or transient, temperature distortion at the engine inlet. The range of transient temperature ramps produced by the distortion generator during the engine tests was from less than 111 deg K/sec (200 deg R/sec) to above 611 deg K/sec (1100 deg R/sec); instantaneous temperatures to 422 deg K (760 deg R) above ambient were generated. The distortion generator was used to document the maximum inlet temperatures and temperature rise rates that the compression system could tolerate before the onset of stall for various circumferential distortions as well as the compressor system response during stall.

Klann, G. A.; Barth, R. L.; Biesiadny, T. J.

1984-01-01

26

Testing Whether and When Abstract Symmetric Patterns Produce Affective Responses  

PubMed Central

Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

2013-01-01

27

Assertion-oriented automated test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assertions are recognized as a powerful tool for automatic run time detection of software errors. However, existing testing methods do not use assertions to generate test cases. We present a novel approach of automated test data generation in which assertions are used to generate test cases. In this approach the goal is to identify test cases on which an assertion

Bogdan Korel; Ali M. Al-Yami

1996-01-01

28

An integrated automatic test data generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data generation method—constraint-based testing—that is based on mutation analysis. Constraint-based testing integrates mutation analysis with several other testing techniques, including statement coverage, branch coverage, domain perturbation, and symbolic evaluation. Because Godzilla uses a rule-based approach to generate test data, it is easily

A. Jefferson Offutt

1991-01-01

29

A Survey on Automatic Test Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the high cost of manual software testing and at the same time to increase the reliabil- ity of the testing processes researchers and practition- ers have tried to automate it. One of the most impor- tant components in a testing environment is an auto- matic test data generator | a system that automati- cally generates test

Jon Edvardsson

1999-01-01

30

Computerized pattern recognition applied to battery testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this work has been to develop non-destructive testing methods as a screening procedure for batteries to predict lifetime and identify probably failure mechanisms. A secondary goal has been to develop criteria for predicting imminent failure from battery performance data. We believe that these goals can be met by the application of computerized pattern recognition to the

S. P. Perone

1980-01-01

31

Generating Circuit Tests by Exploiting Designed Behavior  

E-print Network

This thesis describes two programs for generating tests for digital circuits that exploit several kinds of expert knowledge not used by previous approaches. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently ...

Shirley, Mark Harper

1988-12-01

32

Magneto-optic pattern generators for electrophotographic printers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magneto-optic light switching technique and its feasibility for electronic reproduction of text or graphics by electrophotography were studied. An optical line-pattern generator to be used as electro-optic input device was constructed. Based on magneto-optic switching arrays, the best matching of spectral features, light output power other essential parameters with the electrophotographic process was investigated. The results of recording experiments with an optimized design of light source, imaging optics and light switching array used to expose organic photoconductors in a special electrophotographic test apparatus show the feasibility of the technique at medium recording speed.

Hill, B.; Schmidt, K. P.

1982-01-01

33

Vapor-Generator Wand Helps To Reveal Airflow Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In vapor-generator wand, liquid propylene glycol flows into electrically heated stainless-steel tube. Liquid boils in heated tube, and emerging vapor forms dense, smoke-like fog used to make airflow patterns visible. Built in variety of sizes, suitable for uses ranging from tabletop demonstrations to research in wind tunnels. For best viewing, plume illuminated by bright, focused incandescent spotlight at right angle to viewing direction. Viewing further enhanced by coating walls of test chamber with flat, dark color to minimize reflections and increase contrast.

Robelen, David B.

1993-01-01

34

Generating Software Test Data by Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for automatic software test data generation. This research extends previous work on dynamic test data generation where the problem of test data generation is reduced to one of minimizing a function. In our work, the function is minimized by using one of two genetic algorithms in place of the local minimization

Christoph C. Michael; Gary Mcgraw; Michael Schatz

2001-01-01

35

Generating Spatiotemporal Joint Torque Patterns from Dynamical Synchronization of Distributed Pattern Generators  

PubMed Central

Pattern generators found in the spinal cord are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics giving to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitutes an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body's dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment). Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cord, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots. PMID:20011216

Pitti, Alexandre; Lungarella, Max; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

2009-01-01

36

Generating spatiotemporal joint torque patterns from dynamical synchronization of distributed pattern generators.  

PubMed

Pattern generators found in the spinal cord are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics giving to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitutes an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body's dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment). Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cord, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots. PMID:20011216

Pitti, Alexandre; Lungarella, Max; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

2009-01-01

37

Pattern analysis of photopatch test reactions.  

PubMed

In a multicenter study, photopatch test results from more than 1500 patients were evaluated between 1985 and 1990 and from 614 patients between 1990 and 1992. Photopatch testing was conducted according to a standardized procedure. Nearly half of the photoreactions were unclassifiable according to the classic definitions of photoallergic or phototoxic reactions. To facilitate the interpretation of these remaining photopatch test reactions, we developed a computerized substance specific reaction pattern analysis. By sequential readings from immediately after irradiation up to 72 h later and by morphological qualification of the reactions, the time course and morphological changes of each individual reaction were monitored. The summation of each individual photoreaction resulted in an overall reaction pattern of a specific substance. Four main categories could be distinguished. The first category was characterized by a peak immediately after irradiation followed by a descrescendo reaction. The second category comprized reactions combining an immediate with a delayed reaction. The third category exhibited a plateau-like delayed reaction. The fourth category showed delayed reactions in a crescendo pattern. Whereas category 1 represents classic phototoxic and category 4 classic photoallergic reaction patterns, the underlying mechanisms of categories 2 and 3 remain to be investigated. Typical substances of category 1 were many of the tested systemic drugs, such as furosemide, most of which are well-known phototoxic agents. Disinfectants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and phenothiazines showed the reaction patterns of categories 2 and 3. A delayed type reaction (category 4) could be demonstrated for well-known photoallergens such as fenticlor, musk ambrette, and ultraviolet adsorbents in sunscreens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8043387

Neumann, N J; Hölzle, E; Lehmann, P; Benedikter, S; Tapernoux, B; Plewig, G

1994-04-01

38

Automatic locomotion pattern generation for modular robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion is considered as most basic function of robots. In the case of ordinary robots, they are not needed to change locomotion pattern because their configurations are constant. For self-reconfigurable modular robots, since they can change their configurations, locomotion patterns must be prepared in advance and changed by each configuration. There are two types of locomotion used for modular robots.

Akiya Kamimura; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Eiichi Yoshida; Kohji Tomita; Satoshi Murata; Shigeru Kokaji

2003-01-01

39

Genetic Algorithms for Dynamic Test Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In software testing, it is often desirable to find test inputs that exercise specific program features. To find these inputs by hand is extremely time-consuming, especially when the software is complex. Therefore, numerous attempts have been made to automate the process. Random test data generation consists of generating test inputs at random, in the hope that they will exercise the

Christoph C. Michael; Gary E. McGraw; Michael Schatz; C. C. Walton

1997-01-01

40

Automatic Test Program Generation for Mixed Signal ICs via Design to Test Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test development is without doubt the major bottleneck in the product delivery cycle of mixed signal ICs [ 11. One of the most time consuming tasks is to create the test programs to run a mixed signal tester. On the digital side automatic test pattern generators exist today, but for the analog and mixed signal tester rarely any tools exist

William Kao; Jean Xia; Tom Boydston

1992-01-01

41

Hard-wired central pattern generators for quadrupedal locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal locomotion is generated and control- led, in part, by a central pattern generator (CPG), which is an intraspinal network of neurons capable of pro- ducing rhythmic output. In the present work, it is demon- strated that a hard-wired CPG model, made up of four coupled nonlinear oscillators, can produce multiple phase-locked oscillation patterns that correspond to three common quadrupedal

J. J. Collins; S. A. Richmond

1994-01-01

42

Programmable central pattern generators: an application to biped locomotion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators to be used as programmable central pattern generators, and apply it to control the locomotion of a humanoid robot. Central pattern generators are biological neural networks that can produce coordinated multidimensional rhythmic signals, under the control of simple input signals. They are found both in vertebrate and invertebrate animals for the control

Ludovic Righetti; Auke Jan Ijspeert

2006-01-01

43

Automated Test-Form Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

2011-01-01

44

Automatic Generation of Test Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The'syntaxmachine'discussedhereautomaticallygenerates random test cases for any suitably defined programming language.'Thetestcasesitproducesaresyntacticallyvalidprograms. But theyarenot'meaningful,\\

Kenneth V. Hanford

1970-01-01

45

Test-Data Generation Using Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique that uses a genetic algorithm for automatic test-data generation. A genetic algorithm is a heuristic that mimics the evolution of natural species in searching for the optimal solution to a problem. In the test-data generation application, the solution sought by the genetic algorithm is test data that causes execution of a given statement, branch, path,

Roy P. Pargas; Mary Jean Harrold; Robert R. Peck

1999-01-01

46

Electronic load for testing power generating devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument tests various electric power generating devices by connecting the devices to the input of the load and comparing their outputs with a reference voltage. The load automatically adjusts until voltage output of the power generating device matches the reference.

Friedman, E. B.; Stepfer, G.

1968-01-01

47

Sentences Generation by Frequent Parsing Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a sophisticated approach to generate sentences from syntax trees. Users are assumed to give their intent in text or equivalent ones (such as syntax trees). Here we generate standard sentences by examining how the syntax structure consist of frequent structures and how they are constructed. We examine corpus in some domains to extract elementary syntax structures appeared in the corpus as well as standard sentences using the trees.

Yanagisawa, Takashi; Miura, Takao; Shioya, Isamu

48

Depth first generation of long patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an algorithm for mining long patternsin databases. The algorithm finds large itemsets byusing depth first search on a lexicographic tree of itemsets.The focus of this paper is to develop CPU-efficient algorithmsfor finding frequent itemsets in the cases when thedatabase contains patterns which are very wide. We refer tothis algorithm as DepthProject, and it achieves more

Ramesh C. Agarwal; Charu C. Aggarwal; V. V. V. Prasad

2000-01-01

49

PATEGE: An Automatic DC Parametric Test Generation System for Series Gated ECL Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ECL circuits, DC parametric tests such as input current (IIL, IIH), reference voltage (VBB), and power supply current (ICC) tests are executed as well as functional tests. This paper describes an automatic DC parametric test generation system PATEGE for the series gated ECL circuits. PATEGE can automatically generate the test patterns and calculate the expected values for IIL, IIH,

Takuji OGIHARA; S. Saruyama; S. Murai

1985-01-01

50

PATEGE: an automatic DC parametric test generation system for series gated ECL circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ECL circuits. DC parametric tests such as input current (IIL IIH), reference voltage (VBB), and power supply current (ICC) tests are executed as well as functional tests.This paper describes: an automatic DC parametric test generation system PATEGE for the series gated ECL circuits. PATEGE can automatically generate the test patterns and calculate the expected values for IIL, IIH, VBB

Takuji Ogihara; Shuichi Saruyama; Shinichi Murai

1985-01-01

51

Automatic generation of nonperiodic patterns from dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and fast algorithm is presented in this paper for the automatic generation of aesthetic patterns on nonperiodic tilings by means of dynamical systems. The Chair and the Sphinx tilings are used as illustrations. Invariant mappings are constructed for the creation of striking patterns on these tilings. A modified convergence time scheme is described to enhance the artistic appeal

K. W. Chung; H. S. Y. Chan; B. N. Wang

2004-01-01

52

The Next Generation of Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New technology-enabled assessments offer the potential to understand more than just whether a student answered a test question right or wrong. Using multiple forms of media that enable both visual and graphical representations, these assessments present complex, multistep problems for students to solve and collect detailed information about an…

Tucker, Bill

2009-01-01

53

Automatic test data generation for path testing using GAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are inspired by Darwin's the survival of the fittest theory. This paper discusses a genetic algorithm that can automatically generate test cases to test a selected path. This algorithm takes a selected path as a target and executes sequences of operators iteratively for test cases to evolve. The evolved test case will lead the program execution to

Jin-cherng Lin; Pu-lin Yeh

2001-01-01

54

A method for testing association patterns of social animals.  

PubMed

Association indices were originally developed to describe species co-occurrences, but have been used increasingly to measure associations between individuals. However, no statistical method has been published that allows one to test the extent to which the observed association index values differ from those of a randomly associating population. Here, we describe an adaptation of a test developed by Manly (1995, Ecology, 76, 1109-1115), which uses the observed association data as a basis for a computer-generated randomization. The observed pattern of association is tested against a randomly created one while retaining important features of the original data, for example group size and sighting frequency. We applied this new method to test four data sets of associations from two populations of Hector's dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori, using the Half-Weight Index (HWI) as an example of a measure of association. The test demonstrated that populations with similar median HWI values showed clear differences in association patterns, that is, some were associating nonrandomly whereas others were not. These results highlight the benefits of using this new testing method in order to validate the analysis of association indices. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784222

Bejder; Fletcher; BrÄger

1998-09-01

55

Generating Test Templates via Automated Theorem Proving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing can be used during the software development process to maintain fidelity between evolving specifications, program designs, and code implementations. We use a form of specification-based testing that employs the use of an automated theorem prover to generate test templates. A similar approach was developed using a model checker on state-intensive systems. This method applies to systems with functional rather than state-based behaviors. This approach allows for the use of incomplete specifications to aid in generation of tests for potential failure cases. We illustrate the technique on the cannonical triangle testing problem and discuss its use on analysis of a spacecraft scheduling system.

Kancherla, Mani Prasad

1997-01-01

56

Automatic Question Pattern Generation for Ontology-based Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic question pattern generation method for ontology-based question answering with the use of textual entailment. In this method, a set of question pat- terns, called predictive questions, which are predicted to be asked by users in a domain, were generated on the basis of a domain ontology. Their corresponding query templates, which can be used to

Shiyan Ou; Constantin Orasan; Dalila Mekhaldi; Laura Hasler

2008-01-01

57

A dynamic approach of test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a dynamic approach to test data generation, in which the path selection stage is eliminated. In this approach, test data are derived on the basis of the actual execution of the program under test, of dynamic data flow analysis, and of function minimization methods. The approach starts by executing a program for an arbitrary program input. During

Bogdan Korel

1990-01-01

58

Constraint-Based Automatic Test Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for automati- cally generating test data. The technique is based on mutation analysis and creates test data that approximates relative ade- quacy. The technique is a fault-based technique that uses alge- braic constraints to describe test cases designed to find particular types of faults. A set of tools, collectively called Godzilla, has been implemented

Richard A. Demillo; A. Jefferson Offutt

1991-01-01

59

Generating circuit tests by exploiting designed behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating tests for sequential devices is one of the hardest problems in designing and manufacturing digital circuits. This task is difficult primarily because internal components are accessible only indirectly, forcing a test generator to use the surrounding components collectively as a probe for detecting faults. This in turn forces the test generator to reason about complex interactions between the behaviors of these surrounding components. Current automated solutions are becoming ineffective as designs grow larger and more complex. Yet, despite the complexity, human experts remain remarkably successful, in part, because they use knowledge from many sources and use a variety of reasoning techniques. This thesis exploits several kinds of expert knowledge about circuits and test generation not used by the current algorithms. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently using operation relations, a novel representation of circuit behavior that connects internal component operations with directly executable circuit operations. Operation relations can be computed efficiently for sequential circuits that provide few operations at their interfaces by searching traces of simulated circuit behavior. Second, experts write test programs rather than test vectors because programs are a more readable and compact representation for tests than vectors are. Test programs can be constructed automatically by merging test program fragments using expert supplied goal-refined rules and domain independent planning techniques from artificial intelligence.

Shirley, Mark H.

1988-12-01

60

A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high floods occurred in the last years in many regions of the world have increased the interest of local, national and international authorities on the flood and risk assessment. In this context, the estimation of the design flood to be adopted represents a crucial factor, mainly for ungauged or poorly gauged catchments where sufficiently long discharge time series are missing. Due to the wider availability of rainfall data, rainfall-runoff models represent a possible tool to reduce the relevant uncertainty involved in the flood frequency analysis. Recently, new methodologies based on the stochastic generation of rainfall and temperature data have been proposed. The inferred information can be used as input for a continuous hydrological model to generate a synthetic time series of discharge and, hence, the flood frequency distribution at a given site. As far as the rainfall generation is concerned, for catchments of limited size, a single site model, as the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP), can be applied. It is characterized by a flexible structure in which the model parameters are broadly related to the underlying physical features observed in the rainfall field and the statistical properties of rainfall time series over a range of time scales are preserved. However, when larger catchments are considered, an extension into the two-dimensional space is required. This issue can be addressed by using the Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (STNSRP) model that, however, is not easy to be applied and requires a high computational effort. Therefore, simple techniques to obtain a spatial rainfall pattern starting from the more simple single-site NSRP are welcome. In this study, in order to take account of the spatial correlation that is needed when spatial rainfall patterns should be generated, the practical method of the rank correlation proposed by Iman and Conover (IC), was applied. The method is able to introduce a desired level of correlation between data, keeping its simplicity in the application. Moreover the method can be used for all types of input probability distribution and it allows the marginal distributions to remain intact. The IC method was applied to hourly and daily rainfall time series. In the second case, a temporal disaggregation technique has been carried out to obtain the hourly data. To test the proposed methodology, rainfall data from one catchment located in the Upper Tiber River Basin was considered. At first, long stochastic rainfall time series were generated through the NSRP model for several sites, then the IC method was applied to generate spatially correlated rainfall time series. The main statistics of these time series were compared both with the observed data and with ones generated by using the more complex STNSRP model. In particular, results were expressed in terms of depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves obtained for the areal mean rainfall that are of upmost importance for the design flood estimation. The high performance shown by the IC approach in reproducing the observed data along with its simplicity of application make it a valuable tool for the estimation of spatial rainfall patterns.

Tarpanelli, Angelica; Franchini, Marco; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Moramarco, Tommaso

2010-05-01

61

Test Data Regeneration : Generating New Test Data from Existing Test Data  

E-print Network

Test Data Regeneration : Generating New Test Data from Existing Test Data Shin Yoo, Mark Harman ABSTRACT Existing automated test data generation techniques tend to start from scratch, implicitly assuming the automated generation of additional test cases. This paper introduces search-based test data regeneration

Singer, Jeremy

62

Thrombin generation test in microfluidic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrombin generation test is one of the diagnostic tests currently in use as a universal method for measuring hemostatic disorders. We envisioned that conventional monitoring of thrombin generation could be miniaturized resulting in a time-saving, accurate, easy-to-operate, and cost-efficient test. For the translation of the conventional thrombin generation test to microfluidic devices, our focus was directed to parameters such as the detection limit, temperature, protein-surface interactions (i.e., hydrophilicity of microchannels), and mixing behavior. Scaling down to microchannels (e.g., capillaries) resulted in volume reduction and allowed us to study the effect of a microchannel surface (either hydrophilic or hydrophobic) on the thrombin activity. Finally, the use of a micromixer enabled us to perform efficient on-chip mixing, resulting in the successful measurement of a thrombin generation in a microfluidic device.

Koch, Kaspar; van Berkel, Sander S.; van de Wal, Marloes M. E. B.; Nieuwland, Pieter J.; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.

2009-05-01

63

Test data augmentation : generating new test data from existing test data  

E-print Network

Test data augmentation : generating new test data from existing test data Technical Report : TR-08 generation techniques tend to start from scratch, implicitly assuming no pre-existing test data are available cases. This paper introduces search-based test data augmentation, a technique that can generate

Singer, Jeremy

64

MYSID TWO-GENERATION TEST GUIDELINE  

EPA Science Inventory

McKenney, Charles L., Jr. In press. Mysid Two-Generation Test Guideline. OECD Expert Group on Invertebrate Testing for Endocrine Disruptors, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France. 17 p. (ERL,GB 1215). This guideline describes a two-generati...

65

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

66

21 CFR 882.1430 - Electroencephalograph test signal generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. 882.1430 Section 882.1430... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. (a) Identification. An electroencephalograph test signal generator is a device used to test or...

2014-04-01

67

21 CFR 882.1430 - Electroencephalograph test signal generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. 882.1430 Section 882.1430... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. (a) Identification. An electroencephalograph test signal generator is a device used to test or...

2011-04-01

68

21 CFR 882.1430 - Electroencephalograph test signal generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. 882.1430 Section 882.1430... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. (a) Identification. An electroencephalograph test signal generator is a device used to test or...

2013-04-01

69

21 CFR 882.1430 - Electroencephalograph test signal generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. 882.1430 Section 882.1430... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. (a) Identification. An electroencephalograph test signal generator is a device used to test or...

2012-04-01

70

21 CFR 882.1430 - Electroencephalograph test signal generator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. 882.1430 Section 882.1430... Electroencephalograph test signal generator. (a) Identification. An electroencephalograph test signal generator is a device used to test or...

2010-04-01

71

Geothermal test generator unit: third electric generator in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helical rotary screw expander was developed as a geothermal fluid ; prime mover for driving a generator adapted for reverse operation from a ; relatively new type of air and gas compressor developed in Sweden as the Lysholm ; rotary-screw compressor. Test runs were made at Cerro Prieto and indicate a ; great potential for practical applications on a

1973-01-01

72

Modelling a Respiratory Central Pattern Generator Neuron in Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

Modelling a Respiratory Central Pattern Generator Neuron in Lymnaea stagnalis Sharene D. Bungay neurons. In 1990, Syed et al. [1] established that respiratory rhythmogenesis in the Lymnaea is controlled the respiratory orifice. The other two neurons, VD4 (Visceral Dorsal 4) and Ip3I (Input 3), are quiescent except

Campbell, Sue Ann

73

Simplified Walking: A New Way to Generate Flexible Biped Patterns  

E-print Network

- ments (due to gravity and inertial forces) equals zero.5 When the ZMP is within the convex hull to generate biped patterns online. Lin- ear Inverted Pendulum and Zero Moment Point are employed as the dynamic basic, and the CoM movement is presented by differential equations. Overall, the time granularity

Veloso, Manuela M.

74

.Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding  

E-print Network

l .Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding ) · T. DEBROY, J in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslao refinino process operating

Eagar, Thomas W.

75

A stochastic model for generating disturbance patterns within landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic model for generating disturbances in landscapes that interfaces with geographic information systems (GIS) is presented. The model operates on a lattice (rectangular array of points) using a space-time Markov process, which gives a stochastic simulation of growth patterns in terms of parameters of the local region. The model generates disturbance patterns on the landscape based on user-defined inputs of the total area disturbed and the number of patches to be disturbed. The model is developed in a C++ software package named "TDsimulator" ("Terrain Disturbance Simulator") which can be used to predict changes in landscape cover under a variety of stochastic scenarios. The software comprises a set of GIS routines that collectively yield the disturbance patterns. A demonstration of the stochastic model is provided for simulating fire behaviour in a forested landscape. The numerical examples illustrate the total disturbance impact under different initial conditions and scenarios.

Krougly, Z. L.; Creed, I. F.; Stanford, D. A.

2009-07-01

76

Central pattern generator for vocalization: is there a vertebrate morphotype?  

PubMed

Animals that generate acoustic signals for social communication are faced with two essential tasks: generate a temporally precise signal and inform the auditory system about the occurrence of one's own sonic signal. Recent studies of sound producing fishes delineate a hindbrain network comprised of anatomically distinct compartments coding equally distinct neurophysiological properties that allow an organism to meet these behavioral demands. A set of neural characters comprising a vocal-sonic central pattern generator (CPG) morphotype is proposed for fishes and tetrapods that shares evolutionary developmental origins with pectoral appendage motor systems. PMID:25050813

Bass, Andrew H

2014-10-01

77

THE IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING OF INTERACTION PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a method for identifying and assessing the significance of interaction patterns among various chemicals and chemical classes of importance to regulatory toxicologists. To this end, efforts were made to assemble and evaluate experimental data on toxicologically...

78

Logic design verification via test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for logic design verification is introduced in which a gate-level implementation of a circuit is compared with a functional-level specification. In this method, test patterns that were developed to detect single stuck-line faults in the gate-level implementation are used instead to compare the gate-level implementation with the functional-level specification. In the presence of certain hypothesized design errors, such

Magdy S. Abadir; Jack Ferguson; Tom E. Kirkland

1988-01-01

79

A transitive closure algorithm for test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transitive-closure-based test generation algorithm is presented. A test is obtained by determining signal values that satisfy a Boolean equation derived from the neural network model of the circuit incorporating necessary conditions for fault activation and path sensitization. The algorithm is a sequence of two main steps that are repeatedly executed: transitive closure computation and decision-making. A key feature of

Srimat T. Chakradhar; Vishwani D. Agrawal; Steven G. Rothweiler

1993-01-01

80

Regulation of Ventral Surface Chemoreceptors by the Central Respiratory Pattern Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains neurons described as central chemoreceptors in the adult and respiratory rhythm-generating pacemakers in neonates [parafacial respiratory group (pfRG)]. Here we test the hypothesis that both RTN and pfRG neurons are intrinsically chemosensitive and tonically firing neurons whose respiratory rhythmicity is caused by a synaptic feedback from the central respiratory pattern generator (CPG). In halothane-anesthetized

Patrice G. Guyenet; Daniel K. Mulkey; Ruth L. Stornetta; Douglas A. Bayliss

2005-01-01

81

Full-body joint trajectory generation using an evolutionary central pattern generator for stable bipedal walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generator (CPG) is used to control the locomotion of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, such as walking, running or swimming. It consists of biological neural networks that can produce coordinated rhythmic signals by using simple input signals. In this paper, a full-body joint trajectory generator is proposed for stable bipedal walking by using an evolutionary optimized CPG. Sensory feedback

Chang-Soo Park; Young-Dae Hong; Jong-Hwan Kim

2010-01-01

82

Automatic Test Case Generation with SilK Testing  

E-print Network

The research in Software Testing accumulate large amount of data. As the software technology more advanced day by day, the complexity of software is increasing. Software testing is costly and time consuming process in software development life cycle. Software developer faces many problem when create test cases because if any inaccurate or incomplete step follow during create test cases then it give application failure report to user. There are different software testing techniques and new technologies available to solve the bugs in software. Automated testing solves the bugs in few seconds as compared to manual testing. Manual testing process very slow because many logs and debug points used by user to find bugs in software. Many tools are available for automated test case generation. The main purpose of this paper how do automatic testing with silk tool. Silk testing is a new way to create test cases. Silk testing support to web applications and java based applications and traditional client server based applications. Silk testing uses any browser to execute the report of test cases. With the help of test cases it is easy to find the faults in software. The research work of this paper is when user selects objects as they navigate through the application then side by side objects records with the help of silk testing. After all steps of application are completed then press the play button. It highlights all the objects or paths you follow in the application. Silk testing is related with real world example like song record and then play.

Amandeep Kaur; Llriet Moga; Harwinder Singh Sohal

83

Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG) benchmark results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the results of running a version of the Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG3) on the ISCAS-89 sequential circuit benchmarks. First, they present a brief history of STG and briefly describe the algorithms used. They then describe the conditions under which the experiments were run and give the benchmark results. No particular problems were encountered when running

W.-T. Cheng; S. Davidson

1989-01-01

84

An Approach to Test Data Generation for Killing Multiple Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is an important technique for assurance of software quality. Mutation testing has been identified as a powerful fault-based technique for unit testing, and there has been some research on automatic generation of test data for mutation testing. However, existing approaches to this kind of test data generation usually generate test data according to one mutant at one time.

Ming-hao Liu; You-feng Gao; Jin-Hui Shan; Jiang-hong Liu; Lu Zhang; Jia-Su Sun

2006-01-01

85

Automated Test Data Generation for Programs with Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test data generation in program testing is the process of identifying a set of test data that satisfies a selected testing criterion, such as, statement coverage or branch coverage. The existing methods of test data generation are limited to unit testing and may not efficiently generate test data for programs with procedures. In this paper we present an approach for

Bogdan Korel

1996-01-01

86

Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

1995-01-01

87

A Rule-Based Software Test Data Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path\\/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and

William H. Deason; David Bruce Brown; Kai-hsiung Chang; James H. Cross

1991-01-01

88

A test pattern identification algorithm and its application to CINRAD/SA(B) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of faulty radar echoes may cause serious problems with radar data applications, especially radar data assimilation and quantitative precipitation estimates. In this study, "test pattern" caused by test signal or radar hardware failures in CINRAD (China New Generation Weather Radar) SA and SB radar operational observations are investigated. In order to distinguish the test pattern from other types of radar echoes, such as precipitation, clear air and other non-meteorological echoes, five feature parameters including the effective reflectivity data percentage ( R Z), velocity RF (range folding) data percentage ( R RF), missing velocity data percentage ( R M), averaged along-azimuth reflectivity fluctuation and averaged along-beam reflectivity fluctuation are proposed. Based on the fuzzy logic method, a test pattern identification algorithm is developed, and the statistical results from all the different kinds of radar echoes indicate the performance of the algorithm. Analysis of two typical cases with heavy precipitation echoes located inside the test pattern are performed. The statistical results show that the test pattern identification algorithm performs well, since the test pattern is recognized in most cases. Besides, the algorithm can effectively remove the test pattern signal and retain strong precipitation echoes in heavy rainfall events.

Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Liping

2014-03-01

89

Use of design pattern layout for automatic metrology recipe generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As critical dimension control requirements become more challenging, due to complex designs, aggressive lithography, and the constant need to shrink,metrology recipe generation and design evaluation have also become very complex. Hundreds of unique sites must be measured and monitored to ensure good device performance and high yield. The use of the design and layout for automated metrology recipe generation will be critical to that challenge. The DesignGauge from Hitachi implements a system enabling arbitrary recipe generation and control of SEM observations performed on the wafer, based only on the design information. This concept for recipe generation can reduce the time to develop a technology node from RET and design rule selection, through OPC model calibration and verification, and all the way to high volume manufacturing. Conventional recipe creation for a large number of measurement targets requires a significant amount of engineering time. Often these recipes are used only once or twice during mask and process verification or OPC calibration data acquisition. This process of manual setup and analysis is also potentially error prone. CD-SEM recipe creation typically requires an actual wafer, so the recipe creation cannot occur until the scanner and reticle are in house. All of these problems with conventional CD SEM lead to increased development time and reduced final process quality. The new model of CD-SEM recipe generation and management utilizes design-to-SEM matching technology. This new technology extracts an idealized shape from the designed pattern, and utilizes the shape information for pattern matching. As a result, the designed pattern is used as basis for the template instead of the actual SEM image. Recipe creation can be achieved in a matter of seconds once the target site list is finalized. The sequence of steps for creating a recipe are: generate a target site list, pass the design polygons (GDS) and site list to the CD SEM, define references, wafer map, and across wafer sampling, generate recipe. Utilizing this new technology, we can expect improved CD-SEM utilization and overall productivity defined by measurements acquired per unit time and by number of recipes that can be created. In addition, the control of recipe generation is improved as this automated data flow reduces the opportunities for errors. Finally, recipe creation automation can improve the time for production and development by enabling preparation before wafers get to the critical metrology steps. This is especially true in a development or foundry environment where the metrology recipe locations are updated frequently. A system is demonstrated where CDs and images can be acquired based on automated recipe generation, pattern recognition using the design polygons, and the measured CDís compared to the target CDís derived from the design. In addition, the presence of the design enables advanced information extraction such as edge placement error (EPE) in addition to traditional CD measurement. Example images and CD control analysis are presented for a critical resist inspection steps (poly, metal, and contact) and an etched poly pattern where an underlying layer is visible in SEM and used as part of the pattern matching template.

Tabery, Cyrus; Page, Lorena

2005-05-01

90

Methodology for the Generation of Program Test Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for generating program test data is described. The methodology is a model of the test data generation process and can be used to characterize the basic problems of test data generation. It is well defined and can be used to build an automatic test data generation system.

William E. Howden

1975-01-01

91

49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic...

2012-10-01

92

49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic...

2013-10-01

93

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

94

Proprioceptive feedback reinforces centrally generated stepping patterns in the cockroach.  

PubMed

The relative importance of sensory input for the production of centrally generated motor patterns is crucial to our understanding of how animals coordinate their body segments to locomote. In legged locomotion, where terrain heterogeneity may require stride-by-stride changes in leg placement, evidence suggests that sensory information is essential for the timing of leg movement. In a previous study we showed that in cockroaches, renowned for rapid and stable running, a coordinated pattern can be elicited from the motor centres driving the different legs in the absence of sensory feedback. In the present paper, we assess the role of movement-related sensory inputs in modifying this central pattern. We studied the effect of spontaneous steps as well as imposed transient and periodic movements of a single intact leg, and demonstrate that, depending on the movement properties, the resulting proprioceptive feedback can significantly modify phase relationships among segmental oscillators of other legs. Our analysis suggests that feedback from front legs is weaker but more phasically precise than from hind legs, selectively transferring movement-related information in a manner that strengthens the inherent rhythmic pattern and modulates local perturbations. PMID:22573767

Fuchs, Einat; Holmes, Philip; David, Izhak; Ayali, Amir

2012-06-01

95

Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

2008-12-01

96

Temperature-Dependent Regulation of Vocal Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W.

2008-01-01

97

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

98

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

99

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

100

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

101

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

102

The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

2012-01-01

103

Character String Predicate Based Automatic Software Test Data Generation  

E-print Network

Character String Predicate Based Automatic Software Test Data Generation Ruilian Zhao Computer are widely used in programming. To test a program, it is necessary to generate test data from the input issue in software testing is how to generate adequate test data from the program input domain to detect

Lyu, Michael R.

104

Test Generation Algorithm for Fault Detection of Analog Circuits Based on Extreme Learning Machine  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a novel test generation algorithm based on extreme learning machine (ELM), and such algorithm is cost-effective and low-risk for analog device under test (DUT). This method uses test patterns derived from the test generation algorithm to stimulate DUT, and then samples output responses of the DUT for fault classification and detection. The novel ELM-based test generation algorithm proposed in this paper contains mainly three aspects of innovation. Firstly, this algorithm saves time efficiently by classifying response space with ELM. Secondly, this algorithm can avoid reduced test precision efficiently in case of reduction of the number of impulse-response samples. Thirdly, a new process of test signal generator and a test structure in test generation algorithm are presented, and both of them are very simple. Finally, the abovementioned improvement and functioning are confirmed in experiments. PMID:25610458

Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Ren, Xuelong

2014-01-01

105

Using ordered partial decision diagrams for manufacture test generation  

E-print Network

Because of limited tester time and memory, a primary goal of digital circuit manufacture test generation is to create compact test sets. Test generation programs that use Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) as their primary functional...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2004-09-30

106

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating...consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

2014-07-01

107

Sequentially firing neurons confer flexible timing in neural pattern generators  

SciTech Connect

Neuronal networks exhibit a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns that include sequential activity, synchrony, and wavelike dynamics. Inhibition is the primary means through which such patterns are implemented. This behavior is dependent on both the intrinsic dynamics of the individual neurons as well as the connectivity patterns. Many neural circuits consist of networks of smaller subcircuits (motifs) that are coupled together to form the larger system. In this paper, we consider a particularly simple motif, comprising purely inhibitory interactions, which generates sequential periodic dynamics. We first describe the dynamics of the single motif both for general balanced coupling (all cells receive the same number and strength of inputs) and then for a specific class of balanced networks: circulant systems. We couple these motifs together to form larger networks. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase models which, themselves, have a certain structure and symmetry. We show that this structure endows the coupled system with the ability to produce arbitrary timing relationships between symmetrically coupled motifs and that the phase relationships are robust over a wide range of frequencies. The theory is applicable to many other systems in biology and physics.

Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, 139 University Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

2011-05-15

108

An extreme ultraviolet interferometer suitable to generate dense interference pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been designed a new type of interferometer working in extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region and intended for direct imprinting of densest possible (for given wavelength) interference pattern into a substrate. The interferometer belongs to the wave-front division category: each of its two aspheric mirrors reflects approximately one half of incoming laser beam and focuses it into a point image. Both focused beams have to intersect each other, and in the intersection region an interference pattern is generated. The closer the intersection region is to the abovementioned point images, the smaller the interference field is, but simultaneously the smaller the fringe-pitch is. This paper describes interferometer design (inclusive fringe-pitch calculation, and inclusive design of multilayer reflection coatings for the wavelength 46.9 nm (Ar8+ laser) - ensuring equal reflectivity at different reflection angles). The interferometer design is supplemented not only by ray-tracing verification of straight shape of interference fringes in ideal interferometer, but also by modelling of interference pattern of real interferometer with various misalignments as well as with random deformation of mirrors. These data enable to define necessary production as well as alignment tolerances.

Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Straus, J.; Frolov, O.; Prukner, V.; Melich, R.

2014-09-01

109

Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion: Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathophysiological Considerations  

PubMed Central

This article provides a perspective on major innovations over the past century in research on the spinal cord and, specifically, on specialized spinal circuits involved in the control of rhythmic locomotor pattern generation and modulation. Pioneers such as Charles Sherrington and Thomas Graham Brown have conducted experiments in the early twentieth century that changed our views of the neural control of locomotion. Their seminal work supported subsequently by several decades of evidence has led to the conclusion that walking, flying, and swimming are largely controlled by a network of spinal neurons generally referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. It has been subsequently demonstrated across all vertebrate species examined, from lampreys to humans, that this CPG is capable, under some conditions, to self-produce, even in absence of descending or peripheral inputs, basic rhythmic, and coordinated locomotor movements. Recent evidence suggests, in turn, that plasticity changes of some CPG elements may contribute to the development of specific pathophysiological conditions associated with impaired locomotion or spontaneous locomotor-like movements. This article constitutes a comprehensive review summarizing key findings on the CPG as well as on its potential role in Restless Leg Syndrome, Periodic Leg Movement, and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation. Special attention will be paid to the role of the CPG in a recently identified, and uniquely different neurological disorder, called the Uner Tan Syndrome. PMID:23403923

Guertin, Pierre A.

2013-01-01

110

Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications  

E-print Network

Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications Th`ese pr´esent´ee et;Abstract The goal of this thesis is the development of support for test generation and animation based generation and animation based on OCL specifications. For test generation, we have implemented several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Adaptive test program generation: planning for the unplanned  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of automatically-generated test programs is the primary means for verifying complex hardware designs and random test program generators therefore play a major role in the verification process of micro-processors. The input for a test program generator is typically an abstract specification-a template-of the tests to be generated. Due to randomness, generators often encounter situations that were not anticipated when

Allon Adir; Roy Emek; Eitan Marcus

2002-01-01

112

Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt  

E-print Network

Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt ISSE Department, 4A4@cs.hiroshima­cu.ac.jp Abstract Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from the source code, control flow graphs, design representations

Offutt, Jeff

113

Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males in vivo (advertisement and amplectant call), as well as one call pattern (release call) that is common for juvenile males and females in vivo but rare for adult males. Female brains also produced fictive release call. The production of male calls is androgen dependent in Xenopus; to test the effects of androgens on the CPG, we examined fictive calling in the brains of testosterone-treated females. Both fictive male advertisement call and release call were produced. This suggests that all Xenopus possess a sexually undifferentiated pattern generator for release call. Androgen exposure leads to a gain-of-function, allowing the production of male-specific call types without prohibiting the production of the undifferentiated call pattern. We also demonstrate that the CPG is located in the brainstem and seems to rely on the same nuclei in both males and females. Finally, we identified endogenous serotonergic inputs to both the premotor and motor nuclei in the brainstem that may regulate vocal activity in vivo. PMID:17287524

Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2008-01-01

114

Regional variations in test requiring patterns of general practitioners in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the requesting patterns for a range of laboratory tests ordered in 2009 from eight laboratories providing services to eight health areas, using appropriate indicators. Design Indicators measured every test request per 1,000 inhabitants, and indicators that measured the number of tests per related test requested by general practitioners were calculated. The savings generated, if each Health Care Department achieved the appropriate indicator standard, were also calculated. Laboratory Information System registers were collected, and indicators were calculated automatically in each laboratory using a data warehouse application. Results There was a large difference in demand for tests by health areas. The ratio of related tests also showed a great variability. The savings generated if each Health Care Department had achieved the appropriate indicator standard were €172,116 for free thyroxine, €18,289 for aspartate aminotransferase, and €62,678 for urea. Conclusions Considerable variability exists in general practitioners' demand for laboratory tests. PMID:22066972

2011-01-01

115

Random patterns generated by random permutations of natural numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We survey recent results on some one- and two-dimensional patterns generated by random permutations of natural numbers. In the first part, we discuss properties of random walks, evolving on a one-dimensional regular lattice in discrete time n, whose moves to the right or to the left are prescribed by the rise-and-descent sequence associated with a given random permutation. We determine exactly the probability of finding the trajectory of such a permutation-generated random walk at site X at time n, obtain the probability measure of different excursions and define the asymptotic distribution of the number of “U-turns" of the trajectories - permutation “peaks" and “through". In the second part, we focus on some statistical properties of surfaces obtained by randomly placing natural numbers 1,2,3, ...,L on sites of a 1d or 2d lattices containing L sites. We calculate the distribution function of the number of local “peaks" - sites the number at which is larger than the numbers appearing at nearest-neighboring sites - and discuss surprising collective behavior emerging in this model.

Oshanin, G.; Voituriez, R.; Nechaev, S.; Vasilyev, O.; Hivert, F.

2007-04-01

116

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-12-01

117

Computerized pattern recognition applied to battery testing. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this work has been to develop non-destructive testing methods as a screening procedure for batteries to predict lifetime and identify probably failure mechanisms. A secondary goal has been to develop criteria for predicting imminent failure from battery performance data. We believe that these goals can be met by the application of computerized pattern recognition to the

Perone

1980-01-01

118

The chaining approach for software test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is very labor intensive and expensive and accounts for a significant portion of software system development cost. If the testing process could be automated, the cost of developing software could be significantly reduced. Test data generation in program testing is the process of identifying a set of test data that satisfies a selected testing criterion, such as statement

Roger Ferguson; Bogdan Korel

1996-01-01

119

An evolutionary central pattern generator for stable bipedal walking by the increased double support time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generator (CPG) consisting of neural oscillators, generates rhythmic signals using simple input signal. It can modify motor patterns to handle environmental perturbations by sensory feedback. In this paper, an evolutionary CPG for stable bipedal walking by the increased double support time is proposed. The proposed CPG generates swing motion of arms as well as ankle and the center

Chang-Soo Park; Young-Dae Hong; Jong-Hwan Kim

2011-01-01

120

An Automated Framework for Structural Test-Data Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural testing criteria are mandated in many softwaredevelopment standards and guidelines. The processof generating test-data to achieve 100% coverageof a given structural coverage metric is labourintensive and expensive. This paper presents an approachto automate the generation of such test-data.The test-data generation is based on the application ofa dynamic optimisation-based search for the requiredtest-data. The same approach can be generalised tosolve

Nigel Tracey; John A. Clark; Keith Mander; John A. Mcdermid

1998-01-01

121

"MSTGen": Simulated Data Generator for Multistage Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multistage testing, or MST, was developed as an alternative to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for applications in which it is preferable to administer a test at the level of item sets (i.e., modules). As with CAT, the simulation technique in MST plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of tests. "MSTGen," a new MST…

Han, Kyung T.

2013-01-01

122

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs  

E-print Network

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow specification-based soft- ware testing has focused on the automated generation of test cases. Before a software system can be tested, it must be set up according to the input requirements of the test cases. This setup

Leow, Wee Kheng

123

Privacy Preserving Data Generation for Database Application Performance Testing  

E-print Network

Privacy Preserving Data Generation for Database Application Performance Testing Yongge Wang, Xintao models for protecting privacy in synthetic data generations. Within this model, we in- vestigate database application testing by generating synthetic data sets based on some a-priori knowledge about

Wang, Yongge

124

Techniques for testing the quality of parallel pseudorandom number generators  

SciTech Connect

Ensuring that pseudorandom number generators have good randomness properties is more complicated in a multiprocessor implementation than in the uniprocessor case. We discuss simple extensions of uniprocessor testing for SIMD parallel streams, and develop in detail a repeatability test for the SPMD paradigm. Examples of the application of these tests to an additive tagged-Fibonacci generator are also given.

Cuccaro, S.A.; Mascagni, M.; Pryor, D.V. [Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

125

Computer analysis of 400 HZ Aircraft electrical generator test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software system was specified which would derive the performance measures of MIL-STD-704B from the test data provided by the Generator Test Facility. This analysis software system was then designed and implemented. Accuracy tests on the system demonstrated that very precise measurements of generator performance can be obtained. A software system was also designed and implemented to display the analysis

P. G. Gaberdiel

1980-01-01

126

Search-based software test data generation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of metaheuristic search techniques for the automatic genera- tion of test data has been a burgeoning interest for many researchers in recent years. Previous attempts to automate the test generation process have been limited, having been constrained by the size and complexity of software, and the basic fact that in general, test data generation is an un- decidable

Phil Mcminn

2004-01-01

127

ADTEST: A Test Data Generation Suite for Ada Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the design of the software system ADTEST (ADa TESTing), for generating test data for programs developed in Ada83. The key feature of this system is that the problem of test data generation is treated entirely as a numerical optimization problem and, as a consequence, this method does not suffer from the difficulties commonly found in symbolic execution systems, such

Matthew J. Gallagher; V. Lakshmi Narasimhan

1997-01-01

128

Automated Test Data Generation Using an Iterative Relaxation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem that arises in path oriented testing is the generation of test data that causes a program to follow a given path. In this paper, we present a novel program execution based approach using an iterative relaxation method to address the above problem. In this method, test data generation is initiated with an arbitrarily chosen input from a

Neelam Gupta; Aditya P. Mathur; Mary Lou Soffa

1998-01-01

129

Test data generation and feasible path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques used by Test Specifica- tion and Determination Tool (TSDT), an experimental prototype for analysis and testing of critical applica- tions written in Ada. Two problems dominate structural testing of programs: exponential explosion in the num- ber of execution paths and feasible path determination, A path is feasible if there exists some input that will cause the

Robert Jasper; Mike Brennan; Keith E. Williamson; Bill Currier; David Zimmerman

1994-01-01

130

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry for mechanical testing of thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, performance and principles of computerised control of an optical micro-electro-mechanical device combining microtensile device and electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) to test both elastic and plastic properties of thin metallic, dielectric as well as multilayered freestanding films are presented. A piezo-actuated microtensile set up is synchronised with an ESPI to measure film elongation up to 70 ?m in length with an accuracy of nearly 50 nm. No patterning or marking of the specimen surface is needed when using the ESPI and displacements can be measured at various points of the films. Tensile force is directly measured using a miniature load cell. Tensile tests of 10 ?m aluminium and 50 ?m polymer (Kapton ®) foils have been performed. The Young's moduli are calculated for both materials from the stress-strain curves.

Augulis, L.; Tamulevic?ius, S.; Augulis, R.; Bonneville, J.; Goudeau, P.; Templier, C.

2004-07-01

131

SSME seal test program: Test results for smooth, hole-pattern and helically-grooved stators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All of the listed seals were tested in a liquid Halon test facility at high Reynolds numbers. In addition, a helically-grooved-stator seal was tested in an air seal facility. An analysis of the test results with comparisons to theoretical predictions supports the following conclusions: (1) For small seals, the Hirs' friction-factor model is more restricted than had been thought; (2) For smooth seals, predictions of stiffness and damping improve markedly as the radical clearance is reduced; (3) Friction-factor data for hole-pattern-seal stators frequently deviates from the Hirs model; (4) Predictions of stiffness and damping coefficients for hole-pattern-stator seals is generally reasonable; (5) Tests for the hole-pattern stators at reduced clearances show no clear optimum for hole-pattern seals with respect to either hole-area ratio or hole depth to minimum clearance ratios; (6) Tests of these hole-pattern stators show no significant advantage in net damping over smooth seals; (7) Tests of helically-grooved seal stators in Halon show reasonable agreement between theory and prediction for leakage and direct stiffness but poor agreement for the net damping coefficient.

Childs, Dara W.

1987-01-01

132

Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes. PMID:19492006

Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M.

2008-01-01

133

Automatic test generation using genetically-engineered distinguishing sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault-oriented sequential circuit test generator isdescribed in which various types of distinguishing sequencesare derived, both statically and dynamically,to aid the test generation process. A two-phase algorithmis used during test generation. The first phaseactivates the target fault, and the second phase propagatesthe fault effects (FE's) from the flip-flops withassistance from the distinguishing sequences. Thisstrategy improves the propagation of FE's to

Michael S. Hsiao; Elizabeth M. Rudnick; Janak H. Patel

1996-01-01

134

Automated Software Test Data Generation for Complex Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on GADGET, a new software test generation system that uses combinatorial optimizationto obtain condition\\/decision coverage of C\\/C++ programs. The GADGET system is fully automatic andsupports all C\\/C++ language constructs. This allows us to generate tests for programs more complexthan those previously reported in the literature. We address a number of issues that are encountered whenautomatically generating tests for

Christoph C. Michael; Gary Mcgraw

1998-01-01

135

Testing large flats with computer generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the optical test of a large flat based on a spherical mirror and a dedicated CGH. The spherical mirror, which can be accurately manufactured and tested in absolute way, allows to obtain a quasi collimated light beam, and the hologram performs the residual wavefront correction. Alignment tools for the spherical mirror and the hologram itself are encoded in the CGH. Sensitivity to fabrication errors and alignment has been evaluated. Tests to verify the effectiveness of our approach are now under execution.

Pariani, Giorgio; Tresoldi, Daniela; Spanò, Paolo; Bianco, Andrea

2012-09-01

136

The genotype-phenotype relationship in multicellular pattern-generating models - the neglected role of pattern descriptors  

PubMed Central

Background A deep understanding of what causes the phenotypic variation arising from biological patterning processes, cannot be claimed before we are able to recreate this variation by mathematical models capable of generating genotype-phenotype maps in a causally cohesive way. However, the concept of pattern in a multicellular context implies that what matters is not the state of every single cell, but certain emergent qualities of the total cell aggregate. Thus, in order to set up a genotype-phenotype map in such a spatiotemporal pattern setting one is actually forced to establish new pattern descriptors and derive their relations to parameters of the original model. A pattern descriptor is a variable that describes and quantifies a certain qualitative feature of the pattern, for example the degree to which certain macroscopic structures are present. There is today no general procedure for how to relate a set of patterns and their characteristic features to the functional relationships, parameter values and initial values of an original pattern-generating model. Here we present a new, generic approach for explorative analysis of complex patterning models which focuses on the essential pattern features and their relations to the model parameters. The approach is illustrated on an existing model for Delta-Notch lateral inhibition over a two-dimensional lattice. Results By combining computer simulations according to a succession of statistical experimental designs, computer graphics, automatic image analysis, human sensory descriptive analysis and multivariate data modelling, we derive a pattern descriptor model of those macroscopic, emergent aspects of the patterns that we consider of interest. The pattern descriptor model relates the values of the new, dedicated pattern descriptors to the parameter values of the original model, for example by predicting the parameter values leading to particular patterns, and provides insights that would have been hard to obtain by traditional methods. Conclusion The results suggest that our approach may qualify as a general procedure for how to discover and relate relevant features and characteristics of emergent patterns to the functional relationships, parameter values and initial values of an underlying pattern-generating mathematical model. PMID:19732421

Martens, Harald; Veflingstad, Siren R; Plahte, Erik; Martens, Magni; Bertrand, Dominique; Omholt, Stig W

2009-01-01

137

Patterns of rock fragment cover generated by tillage erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively cultivated areas in the upper part of the Guadalentin catchment (southeast Spain) show a systematic spatial pattern of surface rock fragment cover (Rc). The objective of this paper is to quantify and to explain this spatial rock fragment cover pattern. Therefore, a map of an intensively cultivated area of 5 km2 was digitised, and for each pixel total topographic

Jean Poesen; Bas van Wesemael; Gerard Govers; José Martinez-Fernandez; Philippe Desmet; Karel Vandaele; Timothy Quine; Greet Degraer

1997-01-01

138

Approaches to test set generation using binary decision diagrams  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................................19 Interpretations...............................................................................................................20 FUNCTION-BASED DYNAMIC COMPACTION........................................................21 Experimental Setup... ..................................18 Figure 10: Pattern-Based Dynamic Compaction Algorithm............................................21 Figure 11: Function-Based Dynamic Compaction Algorithm .........................................22 viii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: Test...

Wingfield, James

2004-09-30

139

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice aerosol generator shall be used...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator and shall...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator, shall be...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice aerosol generator shall be used...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator and shall...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator, shall be...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice aerosol generator shall be used...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator and shall...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator, shall be...

2011-07-01

142

40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice aerosol generator shall be used...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator and shall...the operating parameters of the vibrating orifice aerosol generator, shall be...

2010-07-01

143

F-1 Engine Gas Generator Testing - Duration: 1:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

The gas generator from an F-1 engine is test-fired at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., on Jan. 24, 2013. Data from the 30 second test will be used in the development of advance...

144

Automated test-data generation for exception conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents a technique for automatically generating test-data to test exceptions. The approach is based on the application of a dynamic global optimization based search for the required test-data. The authors' work has focused on test-data generation for safety-critical systems. Such systems must be free from anomalous and uncontrolled behaviour. Typically, it is easier to prove the absence

Nigel Tracey; John A. Clark; Keith Mander; John A. Mcdermid

2000-01-01

145

Generation of Cartoon 2D Cracks Based on Leaf Venation Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for generating 2D cracks in real-time for application in games and cartoon animations. Cracks are generated based on a method previously used for leaf venation patterns. We describe a procedural model to generate cracks that can be customized for application in games, generating different visual results depending on interactive parameters. Results were visually evaluated by

Julia M. Colleoni Couto; Tiago Marcelino; Henry Braun; Diogo Strube de Lima; Soraia Raupp Musse

2010-01-01

146

Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics.  

PubMed

New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion. PMID:21335644

Herrero-Carrón, F; Rodríguez, F B; Varona, P

2011-03-01

147

Generating surface crack patterns Hayley N. Iben a,b,*, James F. O'Brien b  

E-print Network

Generating surface crack patterns Hayley N. Iben a,b,*, James F. O'Brien b a Pixar Animation Accepted 30 December 2008 Available online 14 January 2009 Keywords: Crack patterns Physically based crack patterns that appear in materials such as mud, ceramic glaze, and glass. To model these phenomena

O'Brien, James F.

148

Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

2009-01-01

149

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs  

E-print Network

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow research on au- tomated specification-based testing by proposing a scheme that combines the setup process, test execution, and test val- idation into a single test program for testing the behavior of object

Leow, Wee Kheng

150

Reflective electron beam lithography: lithography results using CMOS controlled digital pattern generator chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 10 nm logic (16 nm half pitch) technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) technology targeting high-volume 10 nm logic node performance. REBL uses a novel multi-column wafer writing system combined with an advanced stage architecture to enable the throughput and resolution required for a NGL system. Using a CMOS Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) chip with over one million microlenses, the system is capable of maskless printing of arbitrary patterns with pixel redundancy and pixel-by-pixel grayscaling at the wafer. Electrons are generated in a flood beam via a thermionic cathode at 50-100 keV and decelerated to illuminate the DPG chip. The DPG-modulated electron beam is then reaccelerated and demagnified 80-100x onto the wafer to be printed. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development progress of the REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 10 nm logic technology node. Since that time, the REBL team has made good progress towards developing the REBL system and DPG for direct write lithography. REBL has been successful in manufacturing a CMOS controlled DPG chip with a stable charge drain coating and with all segments functioning. This DPG chip consists of an array of over one million electrostatic lenslets that can be switched on or off via CMOS voltages to pattern the flood electron beam. Testing has proven the validity of the design with regards to lenslet performance, contrast, lifetime, and pattern scrolling. This chip has been used in the REBL demonstration platform system for lithography on a moving stage in both PMMA and chemically amplified resist. Direct imaging of the aerial image has also been performed by magnifying the pattern at the wafer plane via a mag stack onto a YAG imaging screen. This paper will discuss the chip design improvements and new charge drain coating that have resulted in a functional DPG chip and will evaluate the current chip performance on the REBL system. Print results for line/space and device test patterns at the 100nm node will be presented.

Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff Fuge; Freed, Regina; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Bevis, Chris; Carroll, Allen; Brodie, Alan; Tong, William M.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

2013-03-01

151

Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns  

SciTech Connect

A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1990-01-01

152

Electromechanical torsional analysis for a generator test bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gearbox and flexible shaft system is used to link a testing generator to a load commuted inverter (LCI) driven multi-phase motor. The generator sudden short circuit test normally causes severe electric and mechanical oscillations. A sudden short circuit may cause a significant torque oscillation. This oscillation may break the shaft and gearbox. Hence a system level electromechanical model is

Jing Wang; Ahmed Elasser; Ed Owen; James Fogarty; Ekrem Kayicki

2002-01-01

153

Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

2009-01-01

154

Testing Software Product Lines Using Incremental Test Generation  

E-print Network

the program using an or- acle specification (correctness criteria). Several exist- ing approaches can to the current lack of support for analytical approaches for testing in this domain as well as due

Khurshid, Sarfraz

155

On Low-Capture-Power Test Generation for Scan Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on low-power scan testing has been focused on the shift mode, with little or no consideration given to the capture mode power. However, high switching activity when capturing a test response can cause excessive IR drop, resulting in significant yield loss. This paper addresses this problem with a novel low-capture-power X-filling method by assigning 0's and 1's to unspecified

Xiaoqing Wen; Yoshiyuki Yamashita; Seiji Kajihara; Laung-terng Wang; Kewal K. Saluja; Kozo Kinoshita

2005-01-01

156

Next-Generation Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the most-significant health care problems of the new millennium, and the clinical microbiology laboratory plays a central role in optimizing the therapeutic management of patients with infection. This minireview explores the potential value of innovative methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms that could provide valuable alternatives to existing methodologies in the very near future. PMID:23486706

Dunne, W. Michael

2013-01-01

157

Model-Driven Test Generation of Distributed Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a novel test generation technique for distributed systems. Utilizing formal models and formal verification tools, spe cifically the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) tool-suite from SRI, we present techniques to generate concurrent test vectors for distrib uted systems. These are initially explored within an informal test validation context and later extended to achieve full MC/DC coverage of the TTEthernet protocol operating within a system-centric context.

Easwaran, Arvind; Hall, Brendan; Schweiker, Kevin

2012-01-01

158

LAPACK Working Note 9: A test matrix generation suite  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the design and implementation of a suite of test matrix generators for testing linear algebra software. These routines generate random matrices with certain properties which are useful for testing linear equation solving, least squares, and eigendecomposition software. These properites include the spectrum, symmetry, bandwidth, norm, sparsity, conditioning (with respect to inversion or for the eigenproblem), type (real or complex), and storage scheme (dense, packed or banded).

Demmel, J.; McKenney, A. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Institute

1989-02-28

159

Automatic generation of atlas programs for computer controlled test equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOPAL system automatically generates programs in ATLAS to test and diagnose malfunctions of electronic circuit boards. two parts: a top-part which analyzes the circuit diagram and determines the necessary tests, and a bottom art which analyzes the required tests and &program in the RCA EQUATE ATLAS test language for use with the RCA AN\\/USM-410 automatic test equipment. The system

C. Tinaztepe; R. Sangal; N. S. Prywes

1978-01-01

160

Interference pattern generation in evanescent electromagnetic waves for nanoscale lithography using waveguide diffraction gratings  

SciTech Connect

The generation of interference patterns of evanescent electromagnetic waves with an essentially subwavelength period using dielectric waveguide diffraction gratings is considered. Using simulations within the framework of the electromagnetic theory, the possibility of obtaining high-quality interference patterns due to enhancement of evanescent diffraction orders under resonance conditions is demonstrated. The contrast of the interference patterns in the case of TE polarisation of the incident wave is close to unity. The field intensity in the near-field interference maxima exceeds the intensity of the incident wave by 25-100 times. The possibility of generation of the interference patterns of evanescent waves corresponding to higher diffraction orders is shown. The use of higher orders reduces the requirements to the fabrication technology and allows generation of interference patterns with a high spatial frequency, using diffraction gratings with a low spatial frequency. Examples of generating interference patters with periods six times smaller than those of the used diffraction gratings are presented. (nanolithography)

Bezus, E A; Doskolovich, L L; Kazanskii, N L [Institute for Image Processing Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31

161

Personalized Power Saving Profiles Generation Analyzing Smart Device Usage Patterns  

E-print Network

-app advertisements consume up to 30% of the total power consumed by the application [1]. The Android operating system power saving profiles by analyzing individual usage patterns. The client is an Android app named "Power Monitor" running on the Android devices. It periodically records usage information from the devices

Gesbert, David

162

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns  

E-print Network

. However, this may not be a problem if the size of the pattern is small. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and DARPA-QuIST. #3;1#4; S. R. J. Brueck, S...

Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2007-01-01

163

The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot color patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A fundamental challenge of evolutionary and developmental biology is understanding how new characters arise and change. The recently derived eyespots on butterfly wings vary extensively in number and pattern between species and play important roles in predator avoidance. Eyespots form through the activity of inductive organizers (foci) at the center of developing eyespot fields. Foci are the proposed source

Craig R Brunetti; Jayne E Selegue; Antonia Monteiro; Vernon French; Paul M Brakefield; Sean B Carroll

2001-01-01

164

Generation of Polynomial Discriminant Functions for Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical method of determining weights for crossproduct and power terms in the variable inputs to an adaptive threshold element used for statistical pattern classification is derived. The objective is to make it possible to realize general nonlinear decision surfaces, in contrast with the linear (hyperplanar) decision surfaces that can be realized by a threshold element using only first-order terms

Donald F. Specht

1967-01-01

165

Flow generation in a novel centrifugal diffuser test device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the need to develop optimum diffusers for advanced centrifugal compressors, resulted in the design and manufacture of a novel low-speed test facility for centrifugal diffuser testing. The CDTD was designed to allow the flow angle and wall boundary profiles into the test diffuser to be controlled by variable geometry in the flow generator. The present study reports on

P. Vidos

1983-01-01

166

Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ?  

E-print Network

Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ? George Mason University, Fairfax VA 22030, USA Abstract. Although most industry testing of complex software is con­ ducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system level testing

Offutt, Jeff

167

An automatic rule base generation method for fuzzy pattern recognition with multiphased clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an approach for the automatic generation of fuzzy rule bases for pattern recognition from a given sample data. The general idea of the approach is to use and enhance the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. The rule base is generated through a modified iterative feature clustering method. A following cross-checking is used to separate the generated rules. Although the rule

Franjo Ivancic; Ashutosh Malaviya; Liliane Peters

1998-01-01

168

Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

2009-03-01

169

High-Power Pulse Generator With Flexible Output Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high-voltage bipolar rectangular pulse generator using a solid-state boosting front-end and an H-bridge output stage. The topology generates rectangular pulses with fast enough rise time and allows easy step-up input voltage. In addition, the circuit is able to adjust positive or negative pulsewidth, dead time between two pulses, and operating frequency. The topology can also be

Sungwoo Bae; Alexis Kwasinski; Mark M. Flynn; Robert E. Hebner

2010-01-01

170

A self-testing quantum random number generator  

E-print Network

A central issue in randomness generation is to estimate the entropy of the output data generated by a given device. Here we present a protocol for self-testing quantum random number generation, in which the entropy of the raw data can be monitored in real-time. In turn, this allows the user to adapt the randomness extraction procedure, in order to continuously generate high quality random bits. Using a fully optical implementation, we demonstrate that our protocol is practical and efficient, and illustrate its self-testing capacity.

Tommaso Lunghi; Jonatan Bohr Brask; Charles Ci Wen Lim; Quentin Lavigne; Joseph Bowles; Anthony Martin; Hugo Zbinden; Nicolas Brunner

2014-10-10

171

Test Input Generation for Red-Black Trees using Abstraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the problem of test input generation for code that manipulates complex data structures. Test inputs are sequences of method calls from the data structure interface. We describe test input generation techniques that rely on state matching to avoid generation of redundant tests. Exhaustive techniques use explicit state model checking to explore all the possible test sequences up to predefined input sizes. Lossy techniques rely on abstraction mappings to compute and store abstract versions of the concrete states; they explore under-approximations of all the possible test sequences. We have implemented the techniques on top of the Java PathFinder model checker and we evaluate them using a Java implementation of red-black trees.

Visser, Willem; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Pelanek, Radek

2005-01-01

172

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...All flow measurements given in volume units shall be standardized to 25 °C and 760 mm Hg. (g) Schematic drawings, photos, descriptions, and other information showing complete procedural details of the test atmosphere generation,...

2013-07-01

173

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...All flow measurements given in volume units shall be standardized to 25 °C and 760 mm Hg. (g) Schematic drawings, photos, descriptions, and other information showing complete procedural details of the test atmosphere generation,...

2014-07-01

174

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

175

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

176

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

177

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

178

Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

Conner, David A.

1989-01-01

179

Maskless projection lithography for the fast and flexible generation of grayscale protein patterns.  

PubMed

Protein patterns of different shapes and densities are useful tools for studies of cell behavior and to create biomaterials that induce specific cellular responses. Up to now the dominant techniques for creating protein patterns are mostly based on serial writing processes or require templates such as photomasks or elastomer stamps. Only a few of these techniques permit the creation of grayscale patterns. Herein, the development of a lithography system using a digital mirror device which allows fast patterning of proteins by immobilizing fluorescently labeled molecules via photobleaching is reported. Grayscale patterns of biotin with pixel sizes in the range of 2.5 ?m are generated within 10 s of exposure on an area of about 5 mm(2) . This maskless projection lithography method permits the rapid and inexpensive generation of protein patterns definable by any user-defined grayscale digital image on substrate areas in the mm(2) to cm(2) range. PMID:22411542

Waldbaur, Ansgar; Waterkotte, Björn; Schmitz, Katja; Rapp, Bastian E

2012-05-21

180

Semiscale steam-generator tube-rupture test results. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semiscale Program and Test facility are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. The system is a small-scale model of the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear generating plant. An experimental program designed to provide data from steam generator tube rupture

Dimenna

1983-01-01

181

A Novel Wideband Subarray Technique for Shaped Pattern Generation and Adaptively Interference Rejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a simple and efficient technique for the wideband shaped beam and sector beam pattern generation with their adaptive interference rejection is proposed. A microcontroller controlled and time delay based beam forming network for simultaneously generating multiple beams, shaped beam and sector beam is conceptualized. The antenna patterns considered here is formed by linear array of isotropic elements grouped as subarray. The shaped and sector beam synthesis procedure is practically simplified by simultaneous adding the constituents beams from the subarrays, was theoretically established by Woodward and Lawson (Proc. IEE. 95(1):362 370, 1948). Apart from the shaped beam generation a technique for adaptive interference rejection in shaped patterns using combination of time delay and phase shifter is discussed. This topic promises good prospect for wideband pattern generation and interference rejection.

Alfred, Q. Md.; Chakravarty, T.; Singh, G.; Sanyal, S. K.

2008-03-01

182

A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRainfall scenarios are of considerable interest for design flood and flood risk analysis. To this end, the stochastic generation of continuous rainfall sequences is often coupled with the continuous hydrological modelling. In this context, the spatial and the temporal rainfall variability represents a significant issue, especially for basins in which the rainfall field cannot be approximated through the use of a single station. Therefore, methodologies for the spatially and temporally correlated rainfall generation are welcome. An example of such a methodology is the well-established Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (STNSRP), a modification of the single-site Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (NSRP) approach, designed to incorporate specific features to reproduce the rainfall spatial cross-correlation. In order to provide a simple alternative to the STNSRP, a new method of generating synthetic rainfall time series with pre-set spatial-temporal correlation is proposed herein. This approach relies on the single-site NSRP model, which is used to generate synthetic hourly independent rainfall time series at each rain gauge station with the required temporal autocorrelation (and several other appropriately selected statistics). The rank correlation method of Iman and Conover (IC) is then applied to these synthetic rainfall time series in order to introduce the same spatial cross-correlation that exists between the observed time series. This combination of the NSRP model with the IC method consents the reproduction of the observed spatial-temporal variability of a rainfall field. In order to verify the proposed procedure, four sub-basins of the Upper Tiber River basin are investigated whose basin areas range from 165 km2 to 2040 km2. Results show that the procedure is able to preserve both the rainfall temporal autocorrelation at single site and the rainfall spatial cross-correlation at basin scale, and its performance is comparable with that of the STNSRP model for rainfall field generation. Given its simple formal structure (based on well established methods: i.e. NSRP and IC), we believe that the proposed approach can be conveniently utilized to generate spatially and temporally correlated rainfall scenarios.

Tarpanelli, A.; Franchini, M.; Brocca, L.; Camici, S.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

2012-11-01

183

Online Biped Walking Pattern Generation for Humanoid Robot KHR-3(KAIST Humanoid Robot - 3: HUBO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an algorithm about online walking pattern generation method, sensory feedback controllers for walking of humanoid robot platform KHR-3 (KAIST Humanoid Robot-3: HUBO) and experimental results. The walking pattern trajectories have continuity, smoothness in varying walking period and stride, and it has simple mathematical form which can be implemented easily. The gait trajectory algorithm is composed of two

Ill-Woo Park; Jung-Yup Kim; Jun-Ho Oh

2006-01-01

184

Postnatal subventricular zone progenitors switch their fate to generate neurons with distinct synaptic input patterns.  

PubMed

New granule cell neurons (GCs) generated in the neonatal and adult subventricular zone (SVZ) have distinct patterns of input synapses in their dendritic domains. These synaptic input patterns determine the computations that the neurons eventually perform in the olfactory bulb. We observed that GCs generated earlier in postnatal life had acquired an 'adult' synaptic development only in one dendritic domain, and only later-born GCs showed an 'adult' synaptic development in both dendritic domains. It is unknown to what extent the distinct synaptic input patterns are already determined in SVZ progenitors and/or by the brain circuit into which neurons integrate. To distinguish these possibilities, we heterochronically transplanted retrovirally labeled SVZ progenitor cells. Once these transplanted progenitors, which mainly expressed Mash1, had differentiated into GCs, their glutamatergic input synapses were visualized by genetic tags. We observed that GCs derived from neonatal progenitors differentiating in the adult maintained their characteristic neonatal synapse densities. Grafting of adult SVZ progenitors to the neonate had a different outcome. These GCs formed synaptic densities that corresponded to neither adult nor neonatal patterns in two dendritic domains. In summary, progenitors in the neonatal and adult brain generate distinct GC populations and switch their fate to generate neurons with specific synaptic input patterns. Once they switch, adult progenitors require specific properties of the circuit to maintain their characteristic synaptic input patterns. Such determination of synaptic input patterns already at the progenitor-cell level may be exploited for brain repair to engineer neurons with defined wiring patterns. PMID:25519243

Ravi, Namasivayam; Li, Zhijun; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Bartsch, Dusan; Schönig, Kai; Kelsch, Wolfgang

2015-01-15

185

Evolution and Development of a Central Pattern Generator for the Swimming of a Lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design of neural control architectures for locomotion using an evolutionary approach. Inspired by the central pattern generators found in animals, we develop neural controllers that can produce the patterns of oscillations necessary for the swimming of a simulated lamprey. This work is inspired by Ekeberg's neuronal and mechanical model of a lamprey [11] and follows experiments

Auke Jan Ijspeert; Jérôme Kodjabachian

1999-01-01

186

Symmetric patterns in the cellular automaton that generates Pascal's triangle modulo 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binary difference pattern (BDP) is a pattern obtained by covering an equilateral triangular grid by black and white circles in a dense hexagonal packing under a simple symmetric local matching rule. It is a subpattern in a specific graphical representation of the orbit of a cellular automaton that generates Pascal's triangle modulo 2. Analytic conditions for certain types of

André Barbé

2000-01-01

187

From Central Pattern Generator to Sensory Template in the Evolution of Birdsong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central nervous networks, be they a part of the human brain or a group of neurons in a snail, may be designed to produce distinct patterns of movement. Central pattern generators can account for the development and production of normal vocal signals without auditory feedback in non-songbirds. Songbirds need auditory feedback to develop and…

Konishi, Masakazu

2010-01-01

188

Morphodynamics and anabranching patterns generated in the Madeira River, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madeira River is the largest tributary in water discharge and sediment transport of the Amazon River. At present, this river is at the center of a controversial political discussion because the Brazilian government is building two hydroelectric plants on the Bolivia-Brazil border, flooding a long reach from near Cachuela Esperanza in the tributary Beni River, close to the Brazil-Bolivia border, up to Porto Velho. We present results from three field expeditions carried out in July-August 2011, December 2012 and March 2013. The main scope of this article is to disseminate the environmental threat suffered by the Madeira from regulation/disruption, and to present preliminary results on the geomorphologic characteristics of the Madeira channel and floodplain. Using historical radar and satellite imagery, the floodplain morpho-sedimentary units and morphology of the channel were assessed and quantified. Sediment bed and bank sampling, bathymetric surveys and velocity measurements were recorded using a single beam echo sounder and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), respectively. Velocity data were analyzed using TRDI's WinRiverII and a MATLAB-based software package Velocity Mapping Tool. We consider that the Madeira River offers some ideal conditions to provide information on critical conditions and geomorphologic thresholds in mega-rivers. The Madeira River has been classified as a simple to moderate anabranching low-sinuosity river. The Madeira flows through a relatively simple pattern, alternating straight reaches with others that exhibit an incipient tendency to anabranch. Single beam and ADCP data yields insight into the bathymetry and flow characteristics in the channel through straight, pseudo-meandering, and anabranching stretches. We studied in detail three selected three reaches zones where three primary mechanisms for anabranching were identified: a) branches upstream and downstream in box shape pseudo-meanders; b) simple branch patterns developing downstream a straight single channel reach; and c) branches in sinuous-second order lateral channels. Velocity maps and an analysis of secondary currents provide information on the three-dimensional flows of water within the channel indicating that bed and channel morphology affect hydraulic characteristics. Several cross sections present unusually deep pools up to ~80m depth in the outer bank and significant increases in the local water slope. These are related to geological constraints, which manifest in the over deepening from the preferentially downwards secondary flow, exacerbating erosion. The anabranching patterns in large rivers such as the Madeira are not just controlled by intrinsic morphodynamics and hydraulic geometry variables but though a variety of interactions with the architecture of the floodplain and the control exerted by older fluvial geomorphological units.

Latrubesse, E. M.; Bonthius, C.; Abad, J. D.; Stevaux, J.; Filizola, N.; Frias, C. E.

2013-12-01

189

Automatic generation of primary sequence patterns from sets of related protein sequences.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a computer algorithm that can extract the pattern of conserved primary sequence elements common to all members of a homologous protein family. The method involves clustering the pairwise similarity scores among a set of related sequences to generate a binary dendrogram (tree). The tree is then reduced in a stepwise manner by progressively replacing the node connecting the two most similar termini by one common pattern until only a single common "root" pattern remains. A pattern is generated at a node by (i) performing a local optimal alignment on the sequence/pattern pair connected by the node with the use of an extended dynamic programming algorithm and then (ii) constructing a single common pattern from this alignment with a nested hierarchy of amino acid classes to identify the minimal inclusive amino acid class covering each paired set of elements in the alignment. Gaps within an alignment are created and/or extended using a "pay once" gap penalty rule, and gapped positions are converted into gap characters that function as 0 or 1 amino acid of any type during subsequent alignment. This method has been used to generate a library of covering patterns for homologous families in the National Biomedical Research Foundation/Protein Identification Resource protein sequence data base. We show that a covering pattern can be more diagnostic for sequence family membership than any of the individual sequences used to construct the pattern. Images PMID:2296575

Smith, R F; Smith, T F

1990-01-01

190

Analysing humanly generated random number sequences: a pattern-based approach.  

PubMed

In a random number generation task, participants are asked to generate a random sequence of numbers, most typically the digits 1 to 9. Such number sequences are not mathematically random, and both extent and type of bias allow one to characterize the brain's "internal random number generator". We assume that certain patterns and their variations will frequently occur in humanly generated random number sequences. Thus, we introduce a pattern-based analysis of random number sequences. Twenty healthy subjects randomly generated two sequences of 300 numbers each. Sequences were analysed to identify the patterns of numbers predominantly used by the subjects and to calculate the frequency of a specific pattern and its variations within the number sequence. This pattern analysis is based on the Damerau-Levenshtein distance, which counts the number of edit operations that are needed to convert one string into another. We built a model that predicts not only the next item in a humanly generated random number sequence based on the item's immediate history, but also the deployment of patterns in another sequence generated by the same subject. When a history of seven items was computed, the mean correct prediction rate rose up to 27% (with an individual maximum of 46%, chance performance of 11%). Furthermore, we assumed that when predicting one subject's sequence, predictions based on statistical information from the same subject should yield a higher success rate than predictions based on statistical information from a different subject. When provided with two sequences from the same subject and one from a different subject, an algorithm identifies the foreign sequence in up to 88% of the cases. In conclusion, the pattern-based analysis using the Levenshtein-Damarau distance is both able to predict humanly generated random number sequences and to identify person-specific information within a humanly generated random number sequence. PMID:22844490

Schulz, Marc-André; Schmalbach, Barbara; Brugger, Peter; Witt, Karsten

2012-01-01

191

An Enhanced Framework for Microprocessor Test-Program Generation  

E-print Network

An Enhanced Framework for Microprocessor Test-Program Generation F. Corno, G. Squillero Politecnico microprocessor, engineers may exploit test programs to uncover errors and blunders. Such a process is sometimes microprocessors or microcontrollers by exposing internal defects to accessible outputs trough suitable sequences

Fernandez, Thomas

192

Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

2007-05-25

193

Performance results of a digital test signal generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance results of a digital test signal-generator hardware-demonstration unit are reported. Capabilities available include baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) spectrum generation, for which test results are provided. Repeatability in the setting of a given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when a baseband or an IF spectrum is being generated ranges from 0.01 dB at high SNR's or high data rates to 0.3 dB at low data rates or low SNR's. Baseband symbol SNR and carrier SNR (Pc/No) accuracies of 0.1 dB were verified with the built-in statistics circuitry. At low SNR's that accuracy remains to be fully verified. These results were confirmed with measurements from a demodulator synchronizer assembly for the baseband spectrum generation, and with a digital receiver (Pioneer 10 receiver) for the IF spectrum generation.

Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.; Marina, M.; Parham, B.

1993-01-01

194

TestU01: A C library for empirical testing of random number generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

a collection of utilities for the empirical statistical testing of uniform random number generators (RNGs). It provides general implementations of the classical statistical tests for RNGs, as well as several others tests proposed in the literature, and some original ones. Predefined tests suites for sequences of uniform random numbers over the interval (0,1) and for bit sequences are available. Tools

Pierre L'ecuyer; Richard J. Simard

2007-01-01

195

The state problem for test generation in Simulink  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Search based test-data generation has ,proved successful for code- level testing. In this paper we investigate the application of such approaches at the higher levels of abstraction offered by Matlab- Simulinkmodels. The presence of persistent state has been shown to beproblematic,at the code level and such difficulties remain when Matlab-Simulink models are to be tested. In such cases, sequences

Yuan Zhan; John A. Clark

2006-01-01

196

Boundary Coverage Criteria for Test Generation from Formal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new family of model-based coverage criteria, based on formalizing boundary-value testing heuristics. The new criteria form a hierarchy of data-oriented coverage criteria, and can be applied to any formal notation that uses variables and values. They can be used either to measure the coverage of an existing test set, or to generate tests from a formal

Nikolai Kosmatov; Bruno Legeard; Fabien Peureux; Mark Utting

2004-01-01

197

Efficient Path Delay Test Generation with Boolean Satisfiability  

E-print Network

) .................................................. 49 Table 14 Results of generating pseudo functional tests for AMD test case ..................................................................................................... 54 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Delay Testing Physical defects... (S1): A Windows 7 PC with dual AMD Opteron Processors 252 (2.59 GHz) and 16.0 GB main memory ? Server 2 (S2): A Windows 7 PC with dual Intel E5-2603 Processors (4 core, 1.80 GHz) and 64.0 GB main memory In this dissertation, unless specially...

Bian, Kun

2013-12-10

198

Optical testing of cylindrical surfaces with computer-generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands for highly accurate cylinders require more high-precision testing techniques. The existing methods of testing cylindrical surfaces can not ensure the highly-accuracy, efficiency, convenience and the overall cost. In order to acquire highly accurate cylindrical surfaces conveniently at a low cost, a new Fizeau interferometric optical testing utilizing CGH which is fabricated onto a wedge-shaped substrate is designed. In this test, a slit filter is placed in the center of the cylindrical curvature to filter out the undesired diffraction orders which occur when the beam hits the CGH. Meanwhile, the front side of the wedge-shaped substrate is as the reference flat, and the CGH is written onto the inclined surface, so that the real fringe pattern can not be affected by its reflected beam. Moreover, the design of cylindrical surfaces under test tilting and off-center relative to the diffraction surface of the CGH results that the required rays for interference can be obtained effectively from the pinhole filter in the interferometer. Furthermore, high-accuracy CGH in this test can be processed by conventional microlithography equipments. Corresponding to a cylindrical surface with 60mm in diameter and f-number of 1/7, the test has been successfully designed and optimized in Zemax whose testing accuracy is prior to 0.0019?. Better interference pattern can be obtained because all the other disturbing rays image outside of aperture in a radius of 2mm. Experiment shows the method is efficient and predominant.

Wang, Wei; Guo, Pei-ji

2013-08-01

199

Exploring a type of central pattern generator based on hindmarsh-rose model: from theory to application.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the idea that Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model can be used to develop a new type of central pattern generator (CPG). Some key properties of HR model are studied and proved to meet the requirements of CPG. Pros and cons of HR model are provided. A CPG network based on HR model is developed and the related properties are investigated. We explore the bipedal primary gaits generated by the CPG network. The preliminary applications of HR model are tested on humanoid locomotion model and functional electrical stimulation (FES) walking system. The positive results of stimulation and experiment show the feasibility of HR model as a valid CPG. PMID:25146328

Zhang, Dingguo; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Xiangyang

2015-02-01

200

Pattern formation in singly resonant second-harmonic generation with competing parametric oscillation  

E-print Network

is resonant. We will refer to this as positive detuning of the cavity. Stationary roll solutions are preferredPattern formation in singly resonant second-harmonic generation with competing parametric-harmonic generation. We consider a cavity with planar mirrors that is resonant at the fundamental frequency

Saffman, Mark

201

Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned

John O. Dabiri; Sean P. Colin; John H. Costello; Morteza Gharib

2005-01-01

202

Automatic Generation of English-Japanese Translation Pattern Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.

Matsumura, Koki; Tamekuni, Yuji; Kimura, Shuhei

203

Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing an Automated Modelling Tool  

E-print Network

- 1 - Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing complex. This paper presents an approach called data mutation to generating a large number of test data for measuring test adequacy, data mutation is a method of test case generation. In traditional mutation testing

Zhu, Hong

204

Generator of predictive verification pattern using vision system based on higher-order local autocorrelation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although lithography conditions, such as NA, illumination condition, resolution enhancement technique (RET), and material stack on wafer, have been determined to obtain hotspot-free wafer images, hotspots are still often found on wafers. This is because the lithography conditions are optimized with a limited variety of patterns. For 40 nm technology node and beyond, it becomes a critical issue causing not only the delay of process development but also the opportunity loss of the business. One of the easiest ways to avoid unpredictable hotspots is to verify an enormous variety of patterns in advance. This, however, is time consuming and cost inefficient. This paper proposes a new method to create a group of patterns to cover pattern variations in a chip layout based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation (HLAC), which consists of two phases. The first one is the "analyzing phase" and the second is the "generating phase". In the analyzing phase, geometrical features are extracted from actual layouts using the HLAC technique. Those extracted features are statistically analyzed and define the "feature space". In the generating phase, a group of patterns representing actual layout features are generated by correlating the feature space and the process margin. By verifying the proposed generated patterns, the lithography conditions can be optimized efficiently and the number of hotspots dramatically reduced.

Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Maeda, Shimon; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mimotogi, Shoji; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Murakawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Eiichi

2012-03-01

205

Experiments with Test Case Generation and Runtime Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software testing is typically an ad hoc process where human testers manually write many test inputs and expected test results, perhaps automating their execution in a regression suite. This process is cumbersome and costly. This paper reports preliminary results on an approach to further automate this process. The approach consists of combining automated test case generation based on systematically exploring the program's input domain, with runtime analysis, where execution traces are monitored and verified against temporal logic specifications, or analyzed using advanced algorithms for detecting concurrency errors such as data races and deadlocks. The approach suggests to generate specifications dynamically per input instance rather than statically once-and-for-all. The paper describes experiments with variants of this approach in the context of two examples, a planetary rover controller and a space craft fault protection system.

Artho, Cyrille; Drusinsky, Doron; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Pasareanu, Corina; Rosu, Grigore; Visser, Willem; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

206

Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

2009-01-01

207

Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing  

E-print Network

Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing S. Hellebrand, H.-J. Wunderlich, O. F. Haberl Institute of Computer Design. Germany Abstract In the past years special chips for external test have been suc- cessfully used

Hellebrand, Sybille

208

Test generation and verification for highly sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel test procedure that exploits the structure of the combinational logic in the circuit as well as the sequential behavior of the circuit is presented. Initially, before test generation, separate sum-of-product representations of the complete or partial ON-sets and OFF-sets of each of the flip-flop inputs and primary outputs of the sequential circuit are extracted using the PODEM algorithm.

Abhijit Ghosh; Srinivas Devadas; A. Richard Newton

1991-01-01

209

An exact algorithm for generating homogenous T-shape cutting patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the material usage and the complexity of the cutting process should be considered in generating cutting patterns. This paper presents an exact algorithm for constrained two-dimensional guillotine-cutting problems of rectangles. It uses homogenous T-shape patterns to simplify the cutting process. Only homogenous strips are allowed, each of which contains rectangular blanks of the same size and direction. The sheet

Yaodong Cui

2007-01-01

210

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2012-10-01

211

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2013-10-01

212

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2014-10-01

213

46 CFR 111.12-5 - Construction and testing of generators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Construction and testing of generators. 111.12-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111...12-5 Construction and testing of generators. Each generator...

2011-10-01

214

Focal High Cell Density Generates a Gradient of Patterns in Self-Organizing Vascular Mesenchymal Cells  

PubMed Central

In embryogenesis, structural patterns, such as vascular branching, may form via a reaction-diffusion mechanism in which activator and inhibitor morphogens guide cells into periodic aggregates. We previously found that vascular mesenchymal cells (VMC) spontaneously aggregate into nodular structures and that morphogen pairs regulate the aggregation into patterns of spots and stripes. To test the effect of a focal change in activator morphogen on VMC pattern formation, we created a focal zone of high cell density by plating a second layer VMC within a cloning ring over a confluent monolayer. After 24 hours, the ring was removed, and pattern formation monitored by phase-contrast microscopy. At days 2–8, the patterns progressed from uniform distributions to swirl, labyrinthine, and spot patterns. Within the focal high-density zone and a narrow halo zone, cells aggregated into spot patterns; in the outermost zone of the plate, cells formed a labyrinthine pattern. Area occupied by aggregates was significantly greater in the outermost zone than in the HDZ or halo. The rate of pattern progression within the HDZ increased as a function of its plating density. Thus, focal differences in cell density may drive pattern formation gradients in tissue architecture, such as vascular branching. PMID:22797747

Cheng, Henry; Reddy, Aneela; Sage, Andrew; Lu, Jinxiu; Garfinkel, Alan; Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

2012-01-01

215

Test Input Generation for Java Containers using State Matching  

E-print Network

. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2.4 [Software Engineering]: Software/Program Verifi- cation; D.2Test Input Generation for Java Containers using State Matching Willem Visser RIACS/NASA Ames Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA wvisser@email.arc.nasa.gov Corina S. Pasareanu QSS/NASA Ames Moffett Field

Pasareanu, Corina

216

Model Based Test Generation for Microprocessor Architecture Validation  

E-print Network

Model Based Test Generation for Microprocessor Architecture Validation Sreekumar V. Kodakara.dingankar@intel.com Abstract Functional validation of microprocessors is growing in complexity in current and future microprocessors. Tra- ditionally, the different components (or validation collaterals) used in simulation based

Minnesota, University of

217

Automatic Generation of Tests from Domain and Multimedia Ontologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to present an approach for generating tests in an automatic way. Although other methods have been already reported in the literature, the proposed approach is based on ontologies, representing both domain and multimedia knowledge. The article also reports on a prototype implementation of this approach, which…

Papasalouros, Andreas; Kotis, Konstantinos; Kanaris, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

218

Automatic Test Data Generation Using Constraint Solving Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic test data generation leads to identify input values on which a selected point in a procedure is executed. This paper introduces a new method for this problem based on constraint solving techniques. First, we statically transform a procedure into a constraint system by using well-known \\

Arnaud Gotlieb; Bernard Botella; Michel Rueher

1998-01-01

219

Testing a Student Generated Hypothesis Using Student Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an activity that allows students to experience the full process of a statistical investigation, from generating the research question, to collecting data and testing a hypothesis. Implementation of the activity is described both with and without use of clickers, handheld remotes that allow instant data collection.

McGowan, Herle M.; Vaughan, Joel

2012-01-01

220

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisitope Themoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ``Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The licensed hardware is now in the U. S. Department of Energy licensing process that certifies the packaging's integrity under accident conditions. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4,500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process.

Goldmann, Louis H.; Averette, Henry S.

1995-01-01

221

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to 'Type B' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of Pu-238, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process.

Goldmann, L. H.; Averette, H. S.

1994-09-01

222

A Materials Science Driven Pattern Generation Solution to Fracturing Computer Generated Glass for Films and Games  

E-print Network

Believably and realistically fracturing computer generated glass for visual effects has been previously solved through various methods such as algorithmic approaches, utilizing texture maps, or finite element analysis. These solutions can achieve...

Monroe, David Charles

2014-08-11

223

Generation of diffuser dot patterns for light guides using fuzzy scheme strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a fuzzy scheme strategy for the generation of the diffuser dot patterns in the light guide of an edge-lit backlight. The fuzzy scheme strategy is based on fuzzy logic and rules, which are closely related to the physical luminance properties of the light guide. During the process of generating diffuser dot patterns, two inputs are the dot radius and the distance from dots to a light source, and one output is the luminance of the light guide panel. This strategy converts the linguistic strategy based on expert knowledge the optimal dot-generation strategy. Furthermore, this study includes the discussion of fuzzification and defuzzification strategies, the derivation of fuzzy logic rules, and the analysis of fuzzy reasoning mechanisms. Experiment results reveal that the proposed strategy can achieve an even luminance condition by establishing dot patterns. Compared to conventional methods, the fuzzy scheme strategy has two advantages. It effectively integrates the dot generation scheme into the subsequent optical design phase to make dot patterns more efficient and easy to control. Moreover, optimized dot patterns realize sufficient luminance uniformity.

Zhao, Heng; Fang, Suping; Yang, Qing; Shang, Bo

2009-12-01

224

Combined computer-generated hologram for testing steep aspheric surfaces.  

PubMed

A novel type of a combined (or multiplex) computer-generated hologram (CGH) and a method for interferometric testing of steep axially symmetric aspheres is presented. The method is based on a hybrid CGH containing two different diffractive structures. The presented new type of Diffractive Fizeau Null Lens (DFNL) design eliminates the transmitted wavefront distortion (TWD) of the CGH substrate and increases the accuracy of the surface test. The method was approved by testing a spherical reference mirror with an f-number of f/0.65. PMID:19333307

Poleshchuk, A G; Nasyrov, R K; Asfour, J-M

2009-03-30

225

Imaging nanometer-thick patterned self-assembled monolayers via second-harmonic generation microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second-harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. This optical technique is ideal for imaging nanometer-thick, chromophoric self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which have been patterned using photolithographic techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of second-harmonic generation microscopy to patterned SAMs of the noncentrosymmetric molecule calixarene and discuss the resolution and sensitivity limits of the technique. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Smilowitz, L.; Jia, Q.X.; Yang, X.; Li, D.Q.; McBranch, D.; Buelow, S.J.; Robinson, J.M. [Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1997-03-01

226

Generation of microwave bursts with zebra pattern by nonlinear interaction of Bernstein modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of generation and nonlinear interaction of Bernstein modes are investigated. The physical conditions considered correspond here to the sources of microwave bursts with a zebra pattern. It is shown that the simultaneous generation of plasma waves corresponding to several cyclotron harmonics is possible under these conditions. Nonlinear coupling of plasma waves results in formation of a zebra pattern with a frequency separation between the adjacent stripes close to the electron cyclotron frequency. The emission is confined in the narrow angle interval near the transversal (relative to the magnetic field) propagation direction. Polarization of emission in this process corresponds to the extraordinary wave, and the polarization degree reaches 100%.

Kuznetsov, A. A.

2005-07-01

227

Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments  

SciTech Connect

This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

1991-01-01

228

Automated Test Case Generation for an Autopilot Requirement Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing safety-critical automation with robust human interaction is a difficult task that is susceptible to a number of known Human-Automation Interaction (HAI) vulnerabilities. It is therefore essential to develop automated tools that provide support both in the design and rapid evaluation of such automation. The Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) enables the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. ADEPT supports a number of analysis capabilities, thus enabling the detection of HAI vulnerabilities early in the design process, when modifications are less costly. In this paper, we advocate the introduction of a new capability to model-based prototyping tools such as ADEPT. The new capability is based on symbolic execution that allows us to automatically generate quality test suites based on the system design. Symbolic execution is used to generate both user input and test oracles user input drives the testing of the system implementation, and test oracles ensure that the system behaves as designed. We present early results in the context of a component in the Autopilot system modeled in ADEPT, and discuss the challenges of test case generation in the HAI domain.

Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Rungta, Neha; Feary, Michael

2011-01-01

229

Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to the control object, and generally, the damper has been designed by linear control theory as pole placement method, optimal control method or H infinity control method, and all the rest. On the other hand, on walking of animate beings like mammals or insects, both side feet have appropriate phase relations; moreover, it is possible to keep moving on irregular ground. That is, algorithms for the walking would be embedded into the animate beings to control the complicated and redundant bodies with ease and robustness. In biological study, the Central Pattern Generators in bodies playing a significant role in the walking have been learned over the last few decades, and some studies said that some animate beings are able to control their feet by using the generators without their brains in the walking. Moreover, mathematical models of the pattern generators have been proposed, and some researchers have been studying to realize walking of biped-robots using the pattern generators embedded in a computer. In this study, the algorithm is installed into a controller for the active mass damper; furthermore, validation of the controller is performed by numerical simulation.

Iba, Daisuke; Hongu, Junichi

2011-04-01

230

Outdoor testing of solar water heaters - Effects of load pattern and auxiliary boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of load draw-off pattern and auxiliary boosting on the performance of vertical and horizontal tank solar water heaters is investigated. The selection of an appropriate load pattern to use in a performance rating test is shown to depend on the type of system. The primary factor governing the dependence of performance on load pattern in single tank systems

G. L. Morrison; D. Gilliaert; P. Tebaldi

1992-01-01

231

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space has been a long-time goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Fastrac engine program was begun at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a 60,000-pound (60K) thrust, liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/RP), gas generator-cycle booster engine for a fraction of the cost of similar engines in existence. To achieve this goal, off-the-shelf components and readily available materials and processes would have to be used. This paper will present the Fastrac gas generator (GG) design and the component level hot-fire test program and results. The Fastrac GG is a simple, 4-piece design that uses well-defined materials and processes for fabrication. Thirty-seven component level hot-fire tests were conducted at MSFC's component test stand #116 (TS116) during 1997 and 1998. The GG was operated at all expected operating ranges of the Fastrac engine. Some minor design changes were required to successfully complete the test program as development issues arose during the testing. The test program data results and conclusions determined that the Fastrac GG design was well on the way to meeting the requirements of NASA's X-34 Pathfinder Program that chose the Fastrac engine as its main propulsion system.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, T.

2000-01-01

232

Single-nucleotide-resolution DNA differentiation by pattern generation in lipid bilayer membranes.  

PubMed

Pattern generation/recognition in lipid bilayers is introduced for the differentiation of anionic biological relevant polymers. The amplification of the polymer differences during transport events allows the straightforward identification of a wide range collection of anionic polymers. The introduced approach displays excellent resolution even for single mutations in short single-stranded oligonuclotides. PMID:24840396

Priegue, Juan M; Montenegro, Javier; Granja, Juan R

2014-09-24

233

Draft of 1 September 2013 The central pattern generator for rhythmic whisking  

E-print Network

Draft of 1 September 2013 The central pattern generator for rhythmic whisking David Kleinfeld1 System Editors: Patrik Krieger and Alexander Groh Publisher: Tucker Seven Editorial Associates Abstract correspondence: David Kleinfeld Department of Physics 0374 University of California 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla

Kleinfeld, David

234

Design of central pattern generator for humanoid robot walking based on multi-objective GA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the field of humanoid robotics attracts more and more interest and the research on humanoid locomotion based on central pattern generators (CPG) reveals many challenging aspects. This paper describes the design of CPG for stable humanoid bipedal locomotion using an evolutionary approach. In this research, each joint of the humanoid is driven by a neuron that consists of two

Jiang Shan; Cheng Junshi; Chen Jiapin

2000-01-01

235

A Time-series Pattern based Noise Generation Strategy for Privacy Protection in Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

A Time-series Pattern based Noise Generation Strategy for Privacy Protection in Cloud Computing of Technology, Sydney Broadway, NSW, Australia 2007 Jinjun.Chen@uts.edu.au Abstract--Cloud computing promises of cloud computing security, there is a need to take special actions to protect privacy at client sides

Yang, Yun

236

Dust generation and drought patterns in Africa from helium-4 in a modern Cape Verde coral  

E-print Network

Dust generation and drought patterns in Africa from helium-4 in a modern Cape Verde coral S Cape Verde provides a robust reconstruction of mineral dust loading over the Eastern Tropical Atlantic from mid-1950's to mid-1990's. The 4 He record demonstrates pronounced increases in dust emission from

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

237

This symposium covered learning about the spinal cord (e.g. interneuronal systems, central pattern generators)  

E-print Network

This symposium covered learning about the spinal cord (e.g. interneuronal systems, central pattern cord, so there is a tendency to think that it is largely irrelevant. In fact, the spinal cord limitations'. The spinal cord circuitry enables the central nervous system to generate robust, graceful

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

238

Testing of ground conductors with artificially generated lightning current  

SciTech Connect

Alternative conductors for lightning protection applications favorable for use in mobile systems have been tested to demonstrate high levels of protection against maximal lightning events. The method of determining the survivability of the down conductors was to expose each type of conductor to maximal lightning events generated by a large Marx capacitor bank. Each type of conductor was tested until mechanical failure occurred or until it survived four exposures to the lightning event. A test to determine the effect of physical damage on conductor performance was also conducted. A theory attributing interstrand or intraconductor magnetic forces, rather than ohmic heating, as the primary cause of conductor failure is proposed. Results indicate that two types of tested conductor exist which can provide protection against maximal lightning events, yet have properties that lend themselves to mobile application.

Tobias, J.M. [USA CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States)] [USA CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States)

1996-05-01

239

Regulation of ventral surface chemoreceptors by the central respiratory pattern generator.  

PubMed

The rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains neurons described as central chemoreceptors in the adult and respiratory rhythm-generating pacemakers in neonates [parafacial respiratory group (pfRG)]. Here we test the hypothesis that both RTN and pfRG neurons are intrinsically chemosensitive and tonically firing neurons whose respiratory rhythmicity is caused by a synaptic feedback from the central respiratory pattern generator (CPG). In halothane-anesthetized adults, RTN neurons were silent below 4.5% end-expiratory (e-exp) CO2. Their activity increased linearly (3.2 Hz/1% CO2) up to 6.5% (CPG threshold) and then more slowly to peak approximately 10 Hz at 10% CO2. Respiratory modulation of RTN neurons was absent below CPG threshold, gradually stronger beyond, and, like pfRG neurons, typically (42%) characterized by twin periods of reduced activity near phrenic inspiration. After CPG inactivation with kynurenate (KYN), RTN neurons discharged linearly as a function of e-exp CO2 (slope, +1.7 Hz/1% CO2) and arterial pH (threshold, 7.48; slope, 39 Hz/pH unit). In coronal brain slices (postnatal days 7-12), RTN chemosensitive neurons were silent at pH 7.55. Their activity increased linearly with acidification up to pH 7.2 (17 Hz/pH unit at 35 degrees C) and was always tonic. In conclusion, consistent with their postulated central chemoreceptor role, RTN/pfRG neurons encode pH linearly and discharge tonically when disconnected from the rest of the respiratory centers in vivo (KYN treatment) and in vitro. In vivo, RTN neurons receive respiratory synchronous inhibitory inputs that may serve as feedback and impart these neurons with their characteristic respiratory modulation. PMID:16192384

Guyenet, Patrice G; Mulkey, Daniel K; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bayliss, Douglas A

2005-09-28

240

Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

1998-01-01

241

Effect of solution viscosity on generating long DNA nanostrands array via patterned molecular combing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have investigated the effect of solution viscosity on generating the aligned and long DNA nanostrands array via modified molecular combing/soft lithography technique (or patterned molecular combing). By using the solution with higher viscosity, a low peeling-off speed can be applied to generate the long DNA nanostrands and the thornlike structures can be eliminated effectively. The DNA nanostrands array can also be generated by utilizing the polydimethylsiloxane stamp having microwells with larger diameter; however, variation of the lengths of the DNA nanostrands becomes greater as the solution viscosity and the size of microwells increase.

Cheng, Jun-Jie; Chang, Yuan-Hsin; Huang, Wan-Yu; Juang, Yi-Je

2009-06-01

242

Testing links between river patterns and in-channel characteristics using MRPP and ANOVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tests the assumption that the characteristics of channels within multiple channel rivers are different from those of single channel rivers. Some river restoration approaches propose radical transformation of river patterns, from multiple to single channels, based on the link between river patterns and their in-channel characteristics. Determining the links between river patterns and their in-channel characteristics is complicated by differences in geology, history, climate and discharge among rivers. Furthermore, multiple channel rivers are composed of a mosaic of channel types with a range of in-channel characteristics. This study minimizes these problems by analysing a single river containing neighbouring single and multiple channel patterns with little change in discharge downstream, and by analysing all channel types. The study addressed two objectives: to determine the hydraulic geometry, energy, and sediment mobility characteristics of neighbouring single and multiple channel river patterns, and to test for statistical differences in these characteristics between patterns. The Renous River shows a wandering pattern for 11.5 km, with multiple channels around semipermanent islands and abandoned channels in the flood plain. The river displays a single channel river pattern where channels are confined by their valley walls, upstream and downstream of wandering. The analysis was conducted at three scales. First, the confined single channel and wandering multiple channel patterns were compared (pattern scale). Second, the confined channel pattern was compared to single and multiple channel sections within the wandering pattern (section scale). Third, all channel types were compared (channel type scale). Multi response permutation procedure (MRPP) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze differences between channels. Difference tests found no simple discrimination between the single and multiple channel river patterns of the Renous River. Tests between the single confined and multiple wandering channel patterns found few differences in the in-channel variables. The tests did find differences between multiple channel sections within the wandering pattern and confined single channels; however, a greater number of differences were found between multiple channel and single channel sections within the wandering pattern, highlighting the variability within the wandering pattern. Two groups emerged when all channel types were tested for differences: perennial main-channels containing the thalweg, and ephemeral side-channels. Therefore, side-channels define the in-channel characteristics of wandering rivers because few differences were found among main-channels in either pattern. This analysis suggests that all channel types, not just main-channels, should be investigated to obtain a complete picture of a river pattern prior to any restoration efforts. Engineers must exercise caution when applying the link between river patterns and in-channel characteristics to river restoration efforts.

Burge, Leif M.

2004-12-01

243

NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

Keller, J.; Halse, C.

2014-05-01

244

Shape matching utilizing indexed hypotheses generation and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An indexing mechanism is developed as part of an overall scheme called SMITH (shape matching utilizing indexed hypothesis generation and testing) for two-dimensional model-based object recognition. The approach is based on a dynamic programming implementation of attributed string matching, is computationally efficient, and works effectively for both nonoccluded and occluded shapes. Another advantage of this technique is that models may be inserted or deleted with relatively little cost.

Mehrotra, Rajiv; Grosky, William I.

1989-01-01

245

Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.  

PubMed

The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. PMID:25081852

González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

2014-11-01

246

Experimental observations of shear patterns in direct shear tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of simple experiments were performed using direct shear apparatus in order to study the rupture patterns in sands. Measurements of internal displacements were made by observing with X-rays the positions of lead shot placed in a regular array within the sample. Shear displacement was applied manually and radiographs were taken after each increment of horizontal movement in order

G. Scarpelli; D. M. Wood

1982-01-01

247

Teaching Procedures for Pattern Practice: A Self-Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers are urged to improve their teaching through the effective use of pattern drills by examining the construction and function of the drills. Forty-eight questions with answers elaborate upon generalities and technicalities of drill design and their classroom use. (RL)

Mathieu, G. Bording

1968-01-01

248

Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

2014-04-01

249

An Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation1 Joseph M. Wolf  

E-print Network

individual processor then performs the normal test generation process on its own portion of the fault listAn Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation1 Joseph M. Wolf Lori M. Kaufman Robert H and ASC-9201822. #12;An Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation Abstract Generation of test

Klenke, Robert H.

250

Difference frequency generation of 8-?m radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-order quasi-phase-matched difference frequency generation of narrowband tunable mid-infrared light is demonstrated in orientation-patterned GaAs. The all-epitaxial orientation-patterned crystal is fabricated by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Lasers at 1.3 and 1.55 ?m were mixed to give an idler output at 8 ?m, with power and wavelength tuning consistent with theoretical estimates, indicating excellent material uniformity over the 19-mm-long and 500-?m-thick device.

Levi, O.; Pinguet, T. J.; Skauli, T.; Eyres, L. A.; Parameswaran, K. R.; Harris, J. S.; Fejer, M. M.; Kulp, T. J.; Bisson, S. E.; Gerard, B.; Lallier, E.; Becouarn, L.

2002-12-01

251

A method for testing association patterns of social animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association indices were originally developed to describe species co-occurrences, but have been used increasingly to measure associations between individuals. However, no statistical method has been published that allows one to test the extent to which the observed association index values differ from those of a randomly associating population. Here, we describe an adaptation of a test developed by Manly (1995,Ecology,76,

LARS BEJDER; DAVID FLETCHER; STEFAN BRÄGER

1998-01-01

252

D0 Experimental Area Emergency Backup Power and Generator Test  

SciTech Connect

The DO experimental area has a generator designated as emergency power. This generator provides power for critical loads and starts automatically upon loss of commercial power. This note concerns the testing of this generator. A list of loads is attached to this note. One of the loads on the emergency power grid is a 10KVA Uninterruptable Power Supply(UPS). The UPS powers the cryogenic controls and Oxygen deficiency hazard equipment(ODH) and has a minimum rating of 20 minutes while on its batteries(to cover the transfer time to/from the emergency generator). Jan 23,1991 at 1640 hrs this system was tested under the supervision of the Terry Ross, Marv Johnson, Dan Markley, Kelly Dixon, and John Urbin. The power feeder to the emergency power grid at DO was disconnected. The generator responded immediately and was supplying power to the emergency power grid in less than 10 seconds. During the 10 seconds that there was no power on the emergency grid the UPS switched on its inverter and provided uninterrupted power to the cryogenic control system and the ODH system. All of the motorized equipment shut off instrument air compressor, vacuum pumps 1 and 2, insulating vacuum blower, glycol cooling pumps, cooling tower fan, and Exhaust Fan 7(EF7). Upon reengagement of power to the grid from the emergency generator, all of the motorized loads started back up with the exception of vacuum pumps 1 and 2, and the UPS inverter turned off. Vacuum pumps 1 and 2 were delay started 20 seconds by the cryogenic control system as not to cause too large of a surge in power by all of the inductive loads starting at once. The DO building elevator which is also on emergency power was test run while the emergency generator was on line with all other emergency loads. The emergency generator current was 140 amps with all loads on line and running except the building elevator. This load of 140 amps is 27% of the generator's capacity. The cryogenic control and ODH system continued to function properly throughout the entire test due to the UPS responding correctly to each power situation. The cryogenic control system isolated both the Utility(UV) and insulating(IV) vacuum systems as to preserve their vacua while the pumps were off. Once the vacuum pumps were reestablished the IV and UV vacua were put back on line to their respective pumps by the cryogenic control system. The instrument air is backed up by a high pressure trailer, regulated down to instrument air pressure and switches automatically on line through a check valve. During the time that the instrument air compressor was off, instrument air never went below 80 psig (high pressure regulator setting).

Markley, D.; /Fermilab

1991-01-24

253

Search-based Software Test Data Generation: Phil McMinn  

E-print Network

Search-based Software Test Data Generation: A Survey Phil McMinn The Department of Computer Science by the size and complexity of software, and the basic fact that in general, test data generation is an un been applied to automate test data generation for structural and functional testing; the testing

McMinn, Phil

254

Stable and flexible multiple spot pattern generation using LCOS spatial light modulator.  

PubMed

The LCOS spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) can generate desired multiple spot patterns (MSPs) via the application of suitable computer-generated-holograms (CGHs), but the MSP intensity distribution varies because ambient temperature affects the phase modulation characteristic and causes wavefront distortion. To generate high-optical-quality MSPs we use our hardware-compensated (with a Peltier system to even out phase modulation) and software-corrected (via multiplication of the CGH by temperature correction coefficients) LCOS-SLMs. Experimental results with a 14 × 14 MSP generation show that the hardware-compensated LCOS-SLM provides stable MSPs between 9 to 32 °C. The software-corrected LCOS-SLM provides uniform spots over twice the temperature range obtained with conventional SLM method. We confirm that our methods are highly efficient for use in two-photon excitation microscopy application such as multifocal mulitphoton microscopy. PMID:25322047

Matsumoto, Naoya; Itoh, Haruyasu; Inoue, Takashi; Otsu, Tomoko; Toyoda, Haruyoshi

2014-10-01

255

Evolving cellular automata for diversity generation and pattern recognition: deterministic versus random strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological systems evolve to fulfil their tasks with maximal efficiency. The immune system is a remarkable example, where the distinction between self and non-self is made by means of molecular interaction between self-proteins and antigens, triggering affinity-dependent systemic actions. Specificity of this binding and the infinitude of potential antigenic patterns call for novel mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Inspired by this problem, we develop a genetic algorithm where agents evolve their strings in the presence of random antigenic strings and reproduce with affinity-dependent rates. We ask what is the best strategy to generate diversity if agents can rearrange their strings a finite number of times. We find that endowing each agent with an inheritable cellular automaton rule for performing rearrangements makes the system more efficient in pattern-matching than if transformations are totally random. In the former implementation, the population evolves to a stationary state where agents with different automata rules coexist.

Argollo de Menezes, Marcio; Brigatti, Edgardo; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-08-01

256

Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

2009-07-01

257

The 3D linear inverted pendulum mode: a simple modeling for a biped walking pattern generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 3D walking control of a biped robot we analyze the dynamics of a 3D inverted pendulum in which motion is constrained to move along an arbitrarily defined plane. This analysis yields a simple linear dynamics, the 3D linear inverted pendulum mode (3D-LIPM). Geometric nature of trajectories under the 3D-LIPM and a method for walking pattern generation are discussed. A

Shuuji Kajita; Fumio Kanehiro; Kenji Kaneko; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa

2001-01-01

258

ELEC6007 Final Report: Morphogenesis and Skin Pattern Generation for 3D Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This report firstly examines how,Morphogenesis can be interpreted through the use of computer modelling, concentrating on reaction-diusion equations and how they can be used to simulate real-world animal skin patterns. The report then focuses on the work done by Greg Turk in his 1991 paper ”Generating Textures on Arbitrary Surfaces Using Reaction-Diusion” [19]. The work accomplished in Turk’s paper

Robert Mills; David Newman; Simon Smith; Qing Yan Zhang

2005-01-01

259

A floating-gate programmable array of silicon neurons for central pattern generating networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new central pattern generator chip with 24 silicon neurons and reprogrammable connectivity is presented. The 3mm times 3mm chip fabricated in a 3M2P 0.5mum process contains 1032 synapses, each with multiple floating gates for storing parameters governing synaptic strength and polarity. Every neuron includes a dendritic compartment with 12 externally-addressable synaptic inputs and 24 recurrent synaptic inputs, enabling construction

Francesco Tenorel; R. Jacob Vogelstein; Ralph Etienne-cummings; Gert Cauwenberghs; P. Hasler

2006-01-01

260

Heuristic and exact algorithms for generating homogenous constrained three-staged cutting patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is proposed for generating homogenous three-staged cutting patterns for the constrained two-dimensional guillotine-cutting problems of rectangles. It is based on branch-and-bound procedure combined with dynamic programming techniques. The stock plate is divided into segments. Each segment consists of strips with the same direction. Only homogenous strips are allowed, each of which contains rectangles of the same size. The

Yaodong Cui

2008-01-01

261

An exact algorithm for generating homogenous two-segment cutting patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact algorithm is proposed for generating homogenous two-segment patterns for the constrained two-dimensional guillotine-cutting problems of rectangular items. It is a bottom-up approach combined with branch-and-bound techniques. The stock plate is divided into two segments. Each segment consists of strips of the same length and direction. Only homogenous strips are considered, each of which contains items of the same

Y. Cui

2007-01-01

262

Functional interface between brain and central pattern generator for application in human-machine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a functional interface between brain and central pattern generator (CPG) is designed in an engineering perspective, which may serve in a human-machine system. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) is used to recognize five types of intention related to human walking. After feature extraction, classification and command translation on electroencephalography (EEG) signals, the human

Dingguo Zhang; Lin Yao; Ying Wang; Xiangyang Zhu

2011-01-01

263

Convolution-sum-based generation of walking patterns for uneven terrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In generating walking patterns for humanoid robots, a Center-of-Mass trajectory is usually derived from the desired Zero-Moment-Point (ZMP) trajectory. One way to accomplish this is the use of the preview-control method, which tracks the desired ZMP trajectory while minimizing the jerk. Another method, which is more computationally efficient, is based on the convolution-sum method. Although this method is simple to

H. Andy Park; Muhammad A. Ali; C. S. George Lee

2010-01-01

264

Process generating the ditribution pattern of eggs of the common cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The process generating the negative binomial in the distribution pattern of eggs of the common cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae crucivora, was investigated by releasing the female adults in a net house where cabbages were planted.\\u000a \\u000a The distribution of butterflies visited and laid an egg or more per plant followed thePoisson series under the uniform light condition, while that of eggs laid

Shiro Kobayashi

1966-01-01

265

Key Bifurcations of Bursting Polyrhythms in 3-Cell Central Pattern Generators  

PubMed Central

We identify and describe the key qualitative rhythmic states in various 3-cell network motifs of a multifunctional central pattern generator (CPG). Such CPGs are neural microcircuits of cells whose synergetic interactions produce multiple states with distinct phase-locked patterns of bursting activity. To study biologically plausible CPG models, we develop a suite of computational tools that reduce the problem of stability and existence of rhythmic patterns in networks to the bifurcation analysis of fixed points and invariant curves of a Poincaré return maps for phase lags between cells. We explore different functional possibilities for motifs involving symmetry breaking and heterogeneity. This is achieved by varying coupling properties of the synapses between the cells and studying the qualitative changes in the structure of the corresponding return maps. Our findings provide a systematic basis for understanding plausible biophysical mechanisms for the regulation of rhythmic patterns generated by various CPGs in the context of motor control such as gait-switching in locomotion. Our analysis does not require knowledge of the equations modeling the system and provides a powerful qualitative approach to studying detailed models of rhythmic behavior. Thus, our approach is applicable to a wide range of biological phenomena beyond motor control. PMID:24739943

Wojcik, Jeremy; Schwabedal, Justus; Clewley, Robert; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

2014-01-01

266

Key bifurcations of bursting polyrhythms in 3-cell central pattern generators.  

PubMed

We identify and describe the key qualitative rhythmic states in various 3-cell network motifs of a multifunctional central pattern generator (CPG). Such CPGs are neural microcircuits of cells whose synergetic interactions produce multiple states with distinct phase-locked patterns of bursting activity. To study biologically plausible CPG models, we develop a suite of computational tools that reduce the problem of stability and existence of rhythmic patterns in networks to the bifurcation analysis of fixed points and invariant curves of a Poincaré return maps for phase lags between cells. We explore different functional possibilities for motifs involving symmetry breaking and heterogeneity. This is achieved by varying coupling properties of the synapses between the cells and studying the qualitative changes in the structure of the corresponding return maps. Our findings provide a systematic basis for understanding plausible biophysical mechanisms for the regulation of rhythmic patterns generated by various CPGs in the context of motor control such as gait-switching in locomotion. Our analysis does not require knowledge of the equations modeling the system and provides a powerful qualitative approach to studying detailed models of rhythmic behavior. Thus, our approach is applicable to a wide range of biological phenomena beyond motor control. PMID:24739943

Wojcik, Jeremy; Schwabedal, Justus; Clewley, Robert; Shilnikov, Andrey L

2014-01-01

267

End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

1997-01-01

268

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

269

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining  

E-print Network

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining Jian, object-relational DBMS, data warehouse sys- tems, etc. We believe that benchmarking data mining mining systems as well. Frequent pattern mining forms a core component in mining associations

Pei, Jian

270

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06

271

Implementation of a Data Packet Generator Using Pattern Matching for Wearable ECG Monitoring Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

2014-01-01

272

Implementation of a data packet generator using pattern matching for wearable ECG monitoring systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

2014-01-01

273

Efficient second harmonic generation using nonlinear substrates patterned by nano-antenna arrays.  

PubMed

We study theoretically various design considerations for efficient generation of second harmonic using a nonlinear substrate patterned with nano-antennas. The analysis is focused on a gap Bowtie nano-antenna array recessed in LiNbO? which is shown to be preferable over on surface structures due to field enhancement, field profile and linear and non-linear polarization considerations. In addition, we develop the nano-antenna counterpart of the Boyd-Klienmann model in order to analyze the impact of a Gaussian shaped fundamental beam on the generated second harmonic. Finally, we show that the dielectric properties of the substrate lead to preferable directions for the incident fundamental harmonic and the emission of the second harmonic. Our analyses lead to several design rules which can enhance second and high harmonic generation from nano-antennas arrays by several orders of magnitude. PMID:24514468

Bar-Lev, Doron; Scheuer, Jacob

2013-12-01

274

Defects generation and annihilation in GaN grown on patterned silicon substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of threading dislocations and stacking faults were investigated in a (1-101) GaN grown on a patterned (001)Si substrate by selective metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxy with an AlN buffer layer. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy images showed that threading dislocations are generated at the hetero-interface of GaN/AlN/Si induced by misfit dislocations, while stacking faults are generated when two crystals with different crystal axes coalesce. We found some of them are annihilated making a loop, where two stacking faults have been generated at a short distance. This suggests a rout to decrease the density of stacking faults in III nitrides.

Sawaki, N.; Ito, S.; Nakagita, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Irie, M.; Honda, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, H.

2013-03-01

275

SSME Seal Test Program: Test results for sawtooth pattern damper seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and transverse force coefficients for 11, sawtooth-pattern, and damper-seal configurations were examined. The designation damper seal uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation sawtooth-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or dams. All seals use the same smooth rotor and have the same, constant, minimum clearance. The stators examined the consequences of changes in the following design parameters: (1) axial-groove depth; (2) number of teeth: (3) number of sawtooth sections; (4) number of spacer elements; (5) dam width; (6) axially aligned sawtooth sections versus axially-staggered sawtooth sections; and (7) groove geometry. It is found that none of the sawtooth-pattern seal performs as well as the best round-hole-pattern seal. Maximum damping configurations for the sawtooth and round-hole-pattern stators have comparable stiffness performance. Several of the sawtooth pattern stators outperformed the best round-hole pattern seal.

Childs, D. W.

1986-01-01

276

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, to complete the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication, and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas generator. Focus during this report period has been on testing the Gas Generator. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA. A substantial portion of this report period was devoted to Testing Preparations, i.e. test facility development, cold- flow testing, calibration testing, performing igniter ignition testing, and then commencement of the completely assembled Gas Generator Assembly Testing, in process at this writing.

Unknown

2001-10-30

277

Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small groups of interneurons, abbreviated by CPG for central pattern generators, are arranged into neural networks to generate a variety of core bursting rhythms with specific phase-locked states, on distinct time scales, which govern vital motor behaviors in invertebrates such as chewing and swimming. These movements in lower level animals mimic motions of organs in higher animals due to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Hence, various neurological diseases can be linked to abnormal movement of body parts that are regulated by a malfunctioning CPG. In this paper, we, being inspired by recent experimental studies of neuronal activity patterns recorded from a swimming motion CPG of the sea slug Melibe leonina, examine a mathematical model of a 4-cell network that can plausibly and stably underlie the observed bursting rhythm. We develop a dynamical systems framework for explaining the existence and robustness of phase-locked states in activity patterns produced by the modeled CPGs. The proposed tools can be used for identifying core components for other CPG networks with reliable bursting outcomes and specific phase relationships between the interneurons. Our findings can be employed for identifying or implementing the conditions for normal and pathological functioning of basic CPGs of animals and artificially intelligent prosthetics that can regulate various movements.

Jalil, Sajiya; Allen, Dane; Youker, Joseph; Shilnikov, Andrey

2013-12-01

278

Micropunching Lithography for Generating Micro- and Submicron-patterns on Polymer Substrates  

PubMed Central

Conducting polymers have attracted great attention since the discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 19771. They offer the advantages of low weight, easy tailoring of properties and a wide spectrum of applications2,3. Due to sensitivity of conducting polymers to environmental conditions (e.g., air, oxygen, moisture, high temperature and chemical solutions), lithographic techniques present significant technical challenges when working with these materials4. For example, current photolithographic methods, such as ultra-violet (UV), are unsuitable for patterning the conducting polymers due to the involvement of wet and/or dry etching processes in these methods. In addition, current micro/nanosystems mainly have a planar form5,6. One layer of structures is built on the top surfaces of another layer of fabricated features. Multiple layers of these structures are stacked together to form numerous devices on a common substrate. The sidewall surfaces of the microstructures have not been used in constructing devices. On the other hand, sidewall patterns could be used, for example, to build 3-D circuits, modify fluidic channels and direct horizontal growth of nanowires and nanotubes. A macropunching method has been applied in the manufacturing industry to create macropatterns in a sheet metal for over a hundred years. Motivated by this approach, we have developed a micropunching lithography method (MPL) to overcome the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. Like the macropunching method, the MPL also includes two operations (Fig. 1): (i) cutting; and (ii) drawing. The "cutting" operation was applied to pattern three conducting polymers4, polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophen)-poly(4-styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI). It was also employed to create Al microstructures7. The fabricated microstructures of conducting polymers have been used as humidity8, chemical8, and glucose sensors9. Combined microstructures of Al and conducting polymers have been employed to fabricate capacitors and various heterojunctions9,10,11. The "cutting" operation was also applied to generate submicron-patterns, such as 100- and 500-nm-wide PPy lines as well as 100-nm-wide Au wires. The "drawing" operation was employed for two applications: (i) produce Au sidewall patterns on high density polyethylene (HDPE) channels which could be used for building 3D microsystems12,13,14, and (ii) fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars on HDPE substrates to increase the contact angle of the channel15. PMID:22805740

Chakraborty, Anirban; Liu, Xinchuan; Luo, Cheng

2012-01-01

279

Micropunching lithography for generating micro- and submicron-patterns on polymer substrates.  

PubMed

Conducting polymers have attracted great attention since the discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977(1). They offer the advantages of low weight, easy tailoring of properties and a wide spectrum of applications(2,3). Due to sensitivity of conducting polymers to environmental conditions (e.g., air, oxygen, moisture, high temperature and chemical solutions), lithographic techniques present significant technical challenges when working with these materials(4). For example, current photolithographic methods, such as ultra-violet (UV), are unsuitable for patterning the conducting polymers due to the involvement of wet and/or dry etching processes in these methods. In addition, current micro/nanosystems mainly have a planar form(5,6). One layer of structures is built on the top surfaces of another layer of fabricated features. Multiple layers of these structures are stacked together to form numerous devices on a common substrate. The sidewall surfaces of the microstructures have not been used in constructing devices. On the other hand, sidewall patterns could be used, for example, to build 3-D circuits, modify fluidic channels and direct horizontal growth of nanowires and nanotubes. A macropunching method has been applied in the manufacturing industry to create macropatterns in a sheet metal for over a hundred years. Motivated by this approach, we have developed a micropunching lithography method (MPL) to overcome the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. Like the macropunching method, the MPL also includes two operations (Fig. 1): (i) cutting; and (ii) drawing. The "cutting" operation was applied to pattern three conducting polymers(4), polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophen)-poly(4-styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI). It was also employed to create Al microstructures(7). The fabricated microstructures of conducting polymers have been used as humidity(8), chemical(8), and glucose sensors(9). Combined microstructures of Al and conducting polymers have been employed to fabricate capacitors and various heterojunctions(9,10,11). The "cutting" operation was also applied to generate submicron-patterns, such as 100- and 500-nm-wide PPy lines as well as 100-nm-wide Au wires. The "drawing" operation was employed for two applications: (i) produce Au sidewall patterns on high density polyethylene (HDPE) channels which could be used for building 3D microsystems(12,13,14), and (ii) fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars on HDPE substrates to increase the contact angle of the channel(15). PMID:22805740

Chakraborty, Anirban; Liu, Xinchuan; Luo, Cheng

2012-01-01

280

Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

2006-01-01

281

Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell–cell interactions with microscale resolution. Scope of the review We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Major conclusions Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell–cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell–cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. General significance Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. PMID:20655984

Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

2010-01-01

282

Fuel cell drive system with hydrogen generation in test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the future, drive systems for vehicles with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) may be the environmentally more acceptable alternative to conventional drives with internal combustion engines. The energy carrier may not be gasoline or diesel, as in combustion engines today, but methanol, which is converted on-board into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in a reforming reaction with water. After removal of carbon monoxide in a gas-cleaning step, the conditioned synthesis gas is converted into electricity in a fuel cell using air as the oxidant. The electric energy thus generated serves to supply a vehicle's electric drive system. Based on the process design for a test drive system, a test facility was prepared and assembled at Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ). Final function tests with the PEMFC and the integrated compact methanol reformer (CMR) were carried out to determine the performance and the dynamic behaviour. With regard to the 50-kW(H 2)-compact methanol reformer, a special design of catalytic burner was constructed. The burner units, with a total power output of 16 kW, were built and tested under different states of constant and alternating load. If selecting a specific catalyst loading of 40 g Pt/m 2, the burner emissions are below the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) standard. The stationary performance test of the CMR shows a specific hydrogen production of 6.7 m N3/(kg cat h) for a methanol conversion rate of 95% at 280°C. Measurements of the transient behaviour of the CMR clearly show a response time of about 20 s, reaching 99% of the hydrogen flow demand due to the limited performance of the test facility control system. Simulations have been carried out in order to develop a control strategy for hydrogen production by the CMR during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Based on the NEDC, an optimized energy management for the total drive system was evaluated and the characteristic data for different peak load storage systems are described.

Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Schmidt, H.; Grube, T.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.; Tschauder, A.

283

Convergence of pattern generator outputs on a common mechanism of diaphragm motor unit recruitment.  

PubMed

Motor units are the final element of neuromotor control. In manner analogous to the organization of neuromotor control in other skeletal muscles, diaphragm motor units comprise phrenic motoneurons located in the cervical spinal cord that innervate the diaphragm muscle, the main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Diaphragm motor units play a primary role in sustaining ventilation but are also active in other nonventilatory behaviors, including coughing, sneezing, vomiting, defecation, and parturition. Diaphragm muscle fibers comprise all fiber types. Thus, diaphragm motor units display substantial differences in contractile and fatigue properties, but importantly, properties of the motoneuron and muscle fibers within a motor unit are matched. As in other skeletal muscles, diaphragm motor units are recruited in order such that motor units that display greater fatigue resistance are recruited earlier and more often than more fatigable motor units. The properties of the motor unit population are critical determinants of the function of a skeletal muscle across the range of possible motor tasks. Accordingly, fatigue-resistant motor units are sufficient to generate the forces necessary for ventilatory behaviors, whereas more fatigable units are only activated during expulsive behaviors important for airway clearance. Neuromotor control of diaphragm motor units may reflect selective inputs from distinct pattern generators distributed according to the motor unit properties necessary to accomplish these different motor tasks. In contrast, widely distributed inputs to phrenic motoneurons from various pattern generators (e.g., for breathing, coughing, or vocalization) would dictate recruitment order based on intrinsic electrophysiological properties. PMID:24746055

Mantilla, Carlos B; Seven, Yasin B; Sieck, Gary C

2014-01-01

284

Coupled chaotic oscillators and their relation to a central pattern generator for artificial quadrupeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal locomotion employs different periodic patterns known as animal gaits. In 1993, Collins and Stewart recognized that gaits possessed certain symmetries and characterized the gaits of quadrupeds and bipeds using permutation symmetry groups, which impose constraints on the locomotion center called the central pattern generator (CPG) in the animal brain. They modeled the CPG by coupling four nonlinear oscillators and found that it was possible to reproduce all symmetries of the gaits by changing the coupling strength. Here we propose to extend this idea using coupled chaotic oscillators synchronized using the Pyragas method in order to characterize the CPG symmetries. We also evaluate the time series behavior when the foot is in contact with the ground: this has potential robotic applications.

Castellini, Horacio; Yudiarsah, Efta; Romanelli, Lilia; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

2005-04-01

285

Efficient generation of diffraction-limited multi-sheet pattern for biological imaging.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a new technique to generate multiple light-sheets for fluorescence microscopy. This is possible by illuminating the cylindrical lens using multiple copies of Gaussian beams. A diffraction grating placed just before the cylindrical lens splits the incident Gaussian beam into multiple beams traveling at different angles. Subsequently, this gives rise to diffraction-limited light-sheets after the Gaussian beams pass through the combined cylindrical lens-objective sub-system. Direct measurement of field at and around the focus of objective lens shows multi-sheet pattern with an average thickness of 7.5 ?m and inter-sheet separation of 380 ?m. Employing an independent orthogonal detection sub-system, we successfully imaged fluorescently-coated yeast cells (?4???m) encaged in agarose gel-matrix. Such a diffraction-limited sheet-pattern equipped with dedicated detection system may find immediate applications in the field of optical microscopy and fluorescence imaging. PMID:25680162

Mondal, Partha Pratim; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; Mohan, Kavya

2015-02-15

286

GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

287

Distinct inspiratory rhythm and pattern generating mechanisms in the preBötzinger Complex  

PubMed Central

In the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator, the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) produces rhythmic bursts that drive inspiratory motor output. Cellular mechanisms initiated by each burst are hypothesized to be necessary to determine the timing of the subsequent burst, playing a critical role in rhythmogenesis. To explore mechanisms relating inspiratory burst generation to rhythmogenesis, we compared preBötC and hypoglossal (XII) nerve motor activity in medullary slices from neonatal mice in conditions where periods between successive inspiratory XII bursts were highly variable and distributed multimodally. This pattern resulted from rhythmic preBötC neural population activity that consisted of bursts, concurrent with XII bursts, intermingled with significantly smaller “burstlets”. Burstlets occurred at regular intervals during significantly longer XII interburst intervals, at times when a XII burst was expected. When a preBötC burst occurred, its high amplitude inspiratory component (I-burst) was preceded by a preinspiratory component that closely resembled the rising phase of burstlets. Cadmium (8 ?M) eliminated preBötC and XII bursts, but rhythmic preBötC burstlets persisted. Burstlets and preinspiratory activity were observed in ~90% of preBötC neurons that were active during I-bursts. When preBötC excitability was raised significantly, burstlets could leak through to motor output in medullary slices and in vivo in adult anesthetized rats. Thus, rhythmic bursting, a fundamental mode of nervous system activity and an essential element of breathing, can be deconstructed into a rhythmogenic process producing low amplitude burstlets and preinspiratory activity that determine timing, and a pattern-generating process producing suprathreshold I-bursts essential for motor output. PMID:23719793

Kam, Kaiwen; Worrell, Jason W.; Janczewski, Wiktor A.; Cui, Yan; Feldman, Jack L.

2013-01-01

288

Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Generation of the Lobster Gastric Mill Motor Pattern  

PubMed Central

The lobster gastric mill central pattern generator (CPG) is located in the stomatogastric ganglion and consists of 11 neurons whose circuitry is well known. Because all of the neurons are identifiable and accessible, it can serve as a prime experimental model for analyzing how microcircuits generate multiphase oscillatory spatiotemporal patterns. The neurons that comprise the gastric mill CPG consist of one interneuron, five burster neurons and six tonically firing neurons. The single interneuron (Int 1) is shared by the medial tooth subcircuit (containing the AM, DG and GMs) and the lateral teeth subcircuit (LG, MG and LPGs). By surveying cell-to-cell connections and the cooperative dynamics of the neurons we find that the medial subcircuit is essentially a feed forward system of oscillators. The Int 1 neuron entrains the DG and AM cells by delayed excitation and this pair then periodically inhibits the tonically firing GMs causing them to burst. The lateral subcircuit consists of two negative feedback loops of reciprocal inhibition from Int 1 to the LG/MG pair and from the LG/MG to the LPGs. Following a fast inhibition from Int 1, the LG/MG neurons receive a slowly developing excitatory input similar to that which Int 1 puts onto DG/AM. Thus Int 1 plays a key role in synchronizing both subcircuits. This coordinating role is assisted by additional, weaker connections between the two subsets but those are not sufficient to synchronize them in the absence of Int 1. In addition to the experiments, we developed a conductance-based model of a slightly simplified gastric circuit. The mathematical model can reproduce the fundamental rhythm and many of the experimentally induced perturbations. Our findings shed light on the functional role of every cell and synapse in this small circuit providing a detailed understanding of the rhythm generation and pattern formation in the gastric mill network. PMID:19893763

Selverston, Allen I.; Szücs, Attila; Huerta, Ramon; Pinto, Reynaldo; Reyes, Marcelo

2009-01-01

289

Generating balanced learning and test sets for function approximation problems.  

PubMed

In function approximation problems, one of the most common ways to evaluate a learning algorithm consists in partitioning the original data set (input/output data) into two sets: learning, used for building models, and test, applied for genuine out-of-sample evaluation. When the partition into learning and test sets does not take into account the variability and geometry of the original data, it might lead to non-balanced and unrepresentative learning and test sets and, thus, to wrong conclusions in the accuracy of the learning algorithm. How the partitioning is made is therefore a key issue and becomes more important when the data set is small due to the need of reducing the pessimistic effects caused by the removal of instances from the original data set. Thus, in this work, we propose a deterministic data mining approach for a distribution of a data set (input/output data) into two representative and balanced sets of roughly equal size taking the variability of the data set into consideration with the purpose of allowing both a fair evaluation of learning's accuracy and to make reproducible machine learning experiments usually based on random distributions. The sets are generated using a combination of a clustering procedure, especially suited for function approximation problems, and a distribution algorithm which distributes the data set into two sets within each cluster based on a nearest-neighbor approach. In the experiments section, the performance of the proposed methodology is reported in a variety of situations through an ANOVA-based statistical study of the results. PMID:21656926

Florido, J P; Pomares, H; Rojas, I

2011-06-01

290

Monitoring of neuroactive factors released from a pattern-generating network.  

PubMed

To detect neuroactive factors in biological fluids, we have previously elaborated a moveable biosensor, the preparation of isolated neuron penetrated with recording microelectrode. Here, we report that, in the pond snail, signals emanated from a central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding and detected by such biosensor correspond to long-term changes in motor output of the CPG as recorded from buccal nerves. The results suggest that combined recording from motor nerves, neurons in situ and the neuron-based biosensors may be a useful tool in studies of the mechanisms underlying network organisation. PMID:18652368

Chistopolsky, I A; Vorontsov, D D; Sakharov, D A

2008-01-01

291

VLDB Journal,2, 173-213 (1993),Georg Gottlob, Editor 173 Generating Consistent Test Data  

E-print Network

VLDB Journal,2, 173-213 (1993),Georg Gottlob, Editor 173 ©VLDB Generating Consistent Test Data. To address the problem of generating test data for a set of general con- sistency constraints, we propose data generation. The second, a new approach, operationalizes the generator formula by translating

Mannheim, Universität

292

Design Fault Directed Test Generation for Microprocessor Validation Deepak A. Mathaikutty,  

E-print Network

Design Fault Directed Test Generation for Microprocessor Validation Deepak A. Mathaikutty, Sandeep validation of modern microprocessors is an impor- tant and complex problem. One of the problems in functional a microprocessor modeling and test generation framework that generates test suites to satisfy Modi- fied Condition

Minnesota, University of

293

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt  

E-print Network

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data generation method

Offutt, Jeff

294

Mutation Sampling Technique for the Generation of Structural Test Data M. Scholiv1  

E-print Network

Mutation Sampling Technique for the Generation of Structural Test Data M. Scholivé1 , V. Beroulle1 detail an original test-oriented mutation sampling technique used for generating such data and we present approach addresses the data generation problem for both validation and physical tests. Data for validation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe  

E-print Network

Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe Sc, Berkeley Spring 2007 #12;Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Copyright c 2007 by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe #12;Abstract Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving

Kammen, Daniel M.

296

Absolute interferometric test of aspheres by use of twin computer-generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete absolute interferometric test of axially symmetric aspheres is presented. The method is based on a specially designed computer-generated hologram (CGH) that reconstructs an aspherical wave as well as a spherical auxiliary wave. Since both phase functions have the same symmetry and their pattern is simultaneously encoded, we call this type of multiplex hologram a Twin-CGH. The spherical wave is used for calibration. The aberrations of the spherical auxiliary wave are measured absolutely with either a spherical mirror or an absolute test for Fresnel zone plates. Thus the two types of aberration inherent in the CGH can be identified and separated from each other. The errors of the spherical wave can be transferred to those of the aspherical wave. Two different methods that use Twin-CGHs for absolute testing of aspheric surfaces are described. Test procedures are explained, equations are derived, and experimental results are presented. A mutual comparison of the two results and a comparison with the established N-position rotation test are given.

Reichelt, Stephan; Pruss, Christof; Tiziani, Hans J.

2003-08-01

297

Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar R. T. Liu,1  

E-print Network

Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar R. T. Liu,1 S s : 87.10. e, 47.54. r, 82.40.Ck, 05.45. a I. INTRODUCTION The origin of pigmentation patterns on animal application to biological systems may not simply be of academic interest. Amongst the myriad of pigment

Maini, Philip K.

298

Fabrication of 35nm via-hole patterns for interconnect test chips with EUV lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fabrication of interconnect test chips with a half pitch of 35 nm, we used an EUV full-field scanner (EUV1) for three critical layers: Metal 1, Via 1 and Metal 2. In this study, we focused on the Via-1 layer and investigated the printing characteristics of 35-nm via-hole patterns. There are three types of major via-hole patterns; aligned, staggered,

Yuusuke Tanaka; Hajime Aoyama; Kazuo Tawarayama; Shunko Magoshi; Daisuke Kawamura; Kentaro Matsunaga; Takashi Kamo; Yukiyasu Arisawa; Taiga Uno; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Naofumi Nakamura; Eiichi Soda; Noriaki Oda; Shuichi Saito; Ichiro Mori

2010-01-01

299

Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm2 pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV ? particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F.; Druillole, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G.; Porte, C.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Suen, L.

2014-01-01

300

Atomic layer deposition on phase-shift lithography generated photoresist patterns for 1D nanochannel fabrication.  

PubMed

A versatile, low-cost, and flexible approach is presented for the fabrication of millimeter-long, sub-100 nm wide 1D nanochannels with tunable wall properties (wall thickness and material) over wafer-scale areas on glass, alumina, and silicon surfaces. This approach includes three fabrication steps. First, sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns were generated by near-field contact phase-shift lithography (NFC-PSL) using an inexpensive homemade borosilicate mask (NFC-PSM). Second, various metal oxides were directly coated on the resist patterns with low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, the remaining photoresist was removed via an acetone dip, and then planar nanochannel arrays were formed on the substrate. In contrast to all the previous fabrication routes, the sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns produced by NFC-PSL are directly employed as a sacrificial layer for the creation of nanochannels. Because both the NFC-PSL and the ALD deposition are highly reproducible processes, the strategy proposed here can be regarded as a general route for nanochannel fabrication in a simplified and reliable manner. In addition, the fabricated nanochannels were used as templates to synthesize various organic and inorganic 1D nanostructures on the substrate surface. PMID:21047101

Güder, Firat; Yang, Yang; Krüger, Michael; Stevens, Gregory B; Zacharias, Margit

2010-12-01

301

Wave patterns generated by a supersonic moving body in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of wave structures by a two-dimensional (2D) object (laser beam) moving in a 2D two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with a velocity greater than the two sound velocities of the mixture is studied by means of analytical methods and systematic simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations. The wave pattern features three regions separated by two Mach cones. Two branches of linear patterns similar to the so-called “ship waves” are located outside the corresponding Mach cones, and oblique dark solitons are found inside the wider cone. An analytical theory is developed for the linear patterns. A particular dark-soliton solution is also obtained, its stability is investigated, and two unstable modes of transverse perturbations are identified. It is shown that for a sufficiently large flow velocity, this instability has a convective character in the reference frame attached to the moving body, which makes the dark soliton effectively stable. The analytical findings are corroborated by numerical simulations.

Gladush, Yu. G.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Shi, Z.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.

2009-03-01

302

Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals. PMID:18262186

Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

2008-01-01

303

Surveys on specific patterns of facility intallation of photovoltaic power generating technologies for international cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to contribute to the international introduction of photovoltaic power generation. To do this, its load patterns, device constitution, land areas, and prices were rearranged and standardized so that design standardization and efficiency improvement may be achieved, and appropriate introduction patterns may be selected from climatic conditions at various sites. Areas dealt with are Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South and Central America. The basic design consists of combination of solar cells with storage batteries for DC load, whereas inverters were added for AC load. Facility capacities were designed so that they can be calculated by assuming general load menus comprising lighting, pumps, and electric appliances, as well as load patterns. Because of non-electrified areas requiring insolation to take care of all of the annual load, minimum monthly average insolation on slopes was used to calculate solar cell capacities. While storage battery capacities will be established upon investigating climatic conditions at proposed sites, arrangements were made on selecting charge controllers that can avoid overcharging and overdischarging due to variation in insolation. A design procedure document was prepared so that the basic design could be carried out efficiently.

1993-03-01

304

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01

305

Transition of pattern generation: The phenomenon of post-scratching locomotion.  

PubMed

A fundamental problem in neurophysiology is the understanding of neuronal mechanisms by which the central nervous system produces a sequence of voluntary or involuntary motor acts from a diverse repertory of movements. These kinds of transitions between motor acts are extremely complex; however, they could be analyzed in a more simple form in decerebrate animals in the context of spinal central pattern generation. Here, we present for the first time a physiological phenomenon of post-scratching locomotion in which decerebrate cats exhibit a compulsory locomotor activity after an episode of scratching. We found flexor, extensor and intermediate single interneurons rhythmically firing in the same phase during both scratching and the subsequent post-scratching locomotion. Because no changes in phase of these neurons from scratching to post-scratching locomotion were found, we suggest that in the lumbar spinal cord there are neurons associated with both motor tasks. Moreover, because of its high reproducibility we suggest that the study of post-scratching fictive locomotion, together with the unitary recording of neurons, could become a useful tool to study neuronal mechanisms underlying transitions from one rhythmic motor task to another, and to study in more detail the central pattern generator circuitry in the spinal cord. PMID:25556832

Trejo, A; Tapia, J A; De la Torre Valdovinos, B; Huidobro, N; Flores, G; Flores-Hernandez, J; Flores, A; Manjarrez, E

2015-03-12

306

Fast oscillations during gasping and other non-eupneic respiratory behaviors: Clues to central pattern generation  

PubMed Central

The mammalian nervous system exhibits fast synchronous oscillations, which are especially prominent in respiratory-related nerve discharges. In the phrenic nerve, they include high- (HFO), medium- (MFO), and low-frequency (LFO) oscillations. Because motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies had never been recorded, an epiphenomenological mechanism for their existence had been posited. We have recently recorded phrenic motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies in unanesthetized decerebrate rats and showed that they exhibit dynamic coherence with the phrenic nerve, validating synchronous motoneuronal discharge as a mechanism underlying the generation of HFO. In so doing, we have helped validate the conclusions of previous studies by us and other investigators who have used changes in fast respiratory oscillations to make inferences about central respiratory pattern generation. Here, we seek to review changes occurring in fast synchronous oscillations during non-eupneic respiratory behaviors, with special emphasis on gasping, and the inferences that can be drawn from these dynamics regarding respiratory pattern formation. PMID:23545119

Ghali, Michael George Zaki; Marchenko, Vitaliy

2013-01-01

307

HIV Testing Patterns among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Typology  

PubMed Central

Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Black MSM are more likely to have unrecognized HIV infection, suggesting that testing may occur later and/or infrequently relative to current recommendations. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the HIV testing behaviors of Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia, who were participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061). Methods and Findings We conducted 29 in-depth interviews and four focus groups with a community-recruited sample. Modified grounded theory methodologies were used to guide our inductive analysis, which yielded a typology comprised of four distinct HIV testing patterns. Participants could be categorized as: (1) Maintenance Testers, who tested regularly as part of routine self-care; (2) Risk-Based Testers, whose testing depended on relationship status or sexual behavior; (3) Convenience Testers, who tested irregularly depending on what testing opportunities arose; or (4) Test Avoiders, who tested infrequently and/or failed to follow up on results. We further characterized these groups with respect to age, socioeconomic factors, identity, stigma and healthcare access. Conclusions Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of HIV testing patterns among Black MSM, and offer a framework for conceptualizing HIV testing in this group. Public health messaging must account for the diversity of Black MSM's experiences, and multiple testing approaches should be developed and utilized to maximize outreach to different types of testers. PMID:24069408

Hussen, Sophia A.; Stephenson, Robert; del Rio, Carlos; Wilton, Leo; Wallace, Jermel; Wheeler, Darrell

2013-01-01

308

Different patterns of language activation in post-stroke aphasia are detected by overt and covert versions of the verb generation fMRI task  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Post-stroke language functions depend on the relative contributions of the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Thus, we aimed to identify the neural correlates of overt and covert verb generation in adult post-stroke aphasia. Material/Methods Sixteen aphasic LMCA stroke patients (SPs) and 32 healthy controls (HCs) underwent language testing followed by fMRI while performing an overt event-related verb generation task (ER-VGT) isolating activations related to noun-verb semantic processing or to articulation and auditory processing, and a covert block design verb generation task (BD-VGT). Results BD-VGT activation patterns were consistent with previous studies, while ER-VGT showed different patterns in SPs relative to HCs including less left-hemispheric involvement during semantic processing and predominantly right-sided activation related to articulation and auditory processing. ER-VGT intra-scanner performance was positively associated with activation during semantic associations in the left middle temporal gyrus for HCs (p=0.031) and left middle frontal gyrus for SPs (p=0.042). Increased activation in superior frontal/cingulate gyri was associated with better intra-scanner performance (p=0.020). Lesion size negatively impacted verbal fluency tested with Controlled Oral Word Association Test (p=0.0092) and the Semantic Fluency Test (p=0.033) and trended towards a negative association with verb generation performance on the event-related verb generation task (p=0.081). Conclusions Greater retention of pre-stroke language skills is associated with greater involvement of the left hemisphere with different cortical recruitment patterns observed in SPs versus HCs. Post-stroke verbal fluency may depend more upon the structural and functional integrity of the dominant left hemisphere language network rather than the shift to contralateral homologues. PMID:22367124

Allendorfer, Jane B.; Kissela, Brett M.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2012-01-01

309

Extension of ArF lithography for poly gate patterning of 65-nm generation and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing problems and delay of 157nm lithography tool, extension of the ArF (193nm) lithography process with resolution enhancement techniques (RET) should be considered for the 65nm generation lithography and beyond. The mature double-exposure lithography process based on dark-field alternating phase-shift mask (PSM) is one of the promising RET candidates, which is proven to be one of the production-ready strong phase-shifting techniques for current and future IC generations. In this paper, poly gate patterning with the minimum pitch of 160nm has been demonstrated with high numeric aperture (NA) and small partial coherence of ArF lithography along with a dark-field alternating PSM. For poly gate patterning of 65nm generation, optimum illumination settings are found for minimum pitch of 160nm. Through-pitch common process windows for gates with 65nm after-development-inspection (ADI) critical dimension (CD) at minimum pitch of 160nm can be reached larger than 0.30um depth of focus (DOF), which can be used for 65nm node production. Through-pitch proximity can be compensated by optical proximity correction (OPC). Line edge roughness (LER) can be improved a little by this dark-field alternating PSM technique. LER is found of strong aerial image contrast dependency. Shifter width is also chosen as optimum value to obtain the largest process windows and minimize the phase conflicts. 193nm Hi-NA or liquid immersion lithography is suggested to push the alternating PSM resolution limitation.

Hsu, Shu-Hao; Fang, Shu-Ping; Huang, I. Hsuing; Lin, Benjamin S.; Hung, Kuei-Chun

2004-05-01

310

Genetic Algorithm-Based Test Data Generation for Multiple Paths via Individual Sharing  

PubMed Central

The application of genetic algorithms in automatically generating test data has aroused broad concerns and obtained delightful achievements in recent years. However, the efficiency of genetic algorithm-based test data generation for path testing needs to be further improved. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model of generating test data for multiple paths coverage. Then, a multipopulation genetic algorithm with individual sharing is presented to solve the established model. We not only analyzed the performance of the proposed method theoretically, but also applied it to various programs under test. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the efficiency of generating test data for many paths' coverage significantly.

Gong, Dunwei

2014-01-01

311

Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition algorithms on single session testing  

PubMed Central

There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in response to sleep loss. PMID:22959616

St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

2012-01-01

312

Analysis of a Random Cut Test Instance Generator for the TSP  

E-print Network

Analysis of a Random Cut Test Instance Generator for the TSP Ronald L. Rardin School of Industrial, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 USA Abstract Test Instance Generators (TIG's) are important to Pilcher and Rardin, is based on a random cut method. We show that it generates a class of instances

Tovey, Craig A.

313

Development of a morphing structure with the incorporation of central pattern generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manta Ray, Manta birostris, is an amazing creature, propelling itself through the water with the elegant and complex flapping of its wings. Achieving outstanding efficiencies, engineers are looking for ways to mimic its flight through the water and harness its propulsive techniques. This study combines two biologically inspired aspects to achieve this goal: morphing structures actuated with a biomimetic neural network control system. It is believed that this combination will prove capable of producing the oscillatory motions necessary for locomotion. In this paper, a four-truss structure with three actuators is chosen and its performance capabilities are analyzed. A synthetic central pattern generator, which provides the fundamental control mechanisms for rhythmic motion in animals, is designed to realize an oscillatory control of the three actuators. The control system is simulated using Matlab, then combined with LabVIEW to control the four-truss structure. The system's performance is analyzed, with specific attention to both transient and steady-state behavior.

Bliss, Thomas K.; Bart-Smith, Hilary; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

2006-03-01

314

Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials.  

PubMed

For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators. PMID:24303193

Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

2013-10-01

315

Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials  

PubMed Central

For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators. PMID:24303193

Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

2013-01-01

316

Emergent Central Pattern Generator Behavior in Gap-Junction-Coupled Hodgkin-Huxley Style Neuron Model  

PubMed Central

Most models of central pattern generators (CPGs) involve two distinct nuclei mutually inhibiting one another via synapses. Here, we present a single-nucleus model of biologically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with random gap junction coupling. Despite no explicit division of neurons into two groups, we observe a spontaneous division of neurons into two distinct firing groups. In addition, we also demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified version of the model, highlighting the importance of afterhyperpolarization currents (IAHP) to CPGs utilizing gap junction coupling. The properties of these CPGs also appear sensitive to gap junction conductance, probability of gap junction coupling between cells, topology of gap junction coupling, and, to a lesser extent, input current into our simulated nucleus. PMID:23365558

Memelli, Heraldo; Solomon, Irene C.

2012-01-01

317

On the search for the vocal pattern generator. A single-unit recording study.  

PubMed

In the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), single-unit activity was compared between the midbrain periaqueductal grey and the parvocellular and central nuclei of the medullary reticular formation during the production of species-specific vocalization. It was found that all three areas contain neurones with vocalization-related activity. The relative number of specific reactions types differed between areas, however. While the majority of periaqueductal cells fired just before, but not during vocalization, most cells in the reticular formation fired before and during vocalization. Modulation of discharge rate with changing fundamental frequency was only found in the reticular formation, not the periaqueductal grey. It is concluded that the parvocellular and central nuclei of the reticular formation, but not the periaqueductal grey are involved in vocal pattern generation. PMID:10884066

Düsterhöft, F; Häusler, U; Jürgens, U

2000-06-26

318

Intersegmental Coordination of Cockroach Locomotion: Adaptive Control of Centrally Coupled Pattern Generator Circuits  

PubMed Central

Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN) in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double-tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left–right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss these results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast–slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegment coordination strategies. PMID:21369365

Fuchs, Einat; Holmes, Philip; Kiemel, Tim; Ayali, Amir

2010-01-01

319

Psychometric Characteristics of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns: Take One Giant Step Backwards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns is designed as an assessment of reading and spelling skills that allows specific diagnosis of the source and typology of reading problems. From a purely psychometric perspective, the BTRSP fails on virtually every characteristic examined. (BW)

Reynolds, Cecil R.

1984-01-01

320

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1)  

E-print Network

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1 will be different depending on both the location of the site and the type of landslide considered. Indeed, mass valley (France) using present and past climate conditions. Keywords: hazard, landslide, climate change

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Detection of Unmotivated Test Takers through an Analysis of Response Patterns: Beyond Person-Fit Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The identification of patterned responding in unmotivated test takers was investigated through the formation of a novel method. The proposed method relied on marginal proportions of answer choice options as well as the transitional proportions between responses on item pairs. A chi square analysis was used to determine the degree of significance…

Twiste, Tara L.

2011-01-01

322

Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator.  

PubMed

The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications. PMID:23755009

Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

2013-01-01

323

Overlapping gene coexpression patterns in human medullary thymic epithelial cells generate self-antigen diversity.  

PubMed

Promiscuous expression of numerous tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential to safeguard self-tolerance. A distinct feature of promiscuous gene expression is its mosaic pattern (i.e., at a given time, each self-antigen is expressed only in 1-3% of mTECs). How this mosaic pattern is generated at the single-cell level is currently not understood. Here, we show that subsets of human mTECs expressing a particular TRA coexpress distinct sets of genes. We identified three coexpression groups comprising overlapping and complementary gene sets, which preferentially mapped to certain chromosomes and intrachromosomal gene clusters. Coexpressed gene loci tended to colocalize to the same nuclear subdomain. The TRA subsets aligned along progressive differentiation stages within the mature mTEC subset and, in vitro, interconverted along this sequence. Our data suggest that single mTECs shift through distinct gene pools, thus scanning a sizeable fraction of the overall repertoire of promiscuously expressed self-antigens. These findings have implications for the temporal and spatial (re)presentation of self-antigens in the medulla in the context of tolerance induction. PMID:23980163

Pinto, Sheena; Michel, Chloé; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Harder, Nathalie; Rohr, Karl; Wild, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Kyewski, Bruno

2013-09-10

324

GENETIC ACTIVITY PROFILES AND PATTERN RECOGNITION IN TEST BATTERY SELECTION (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-generated genetic activity profiles and pairwise matching procedures may aid in the selection of the most appropriate short-term bioassays to be used in test batteries for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a given chemical or group of chemicals. Selection of test bat...

325

Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

2010-01-01

326

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002.

Unknown

2002-03-31

327

Eclat : automatic generation and classification of test inputs  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a technique that selects, from a large set of test inputs, a small subset likely to reveal faults in the software under test. The technique takes a program or software component, plus a set of correct ...

Pacheco, Carlos, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

328

Strong Higher Order Mutation-Based Test Data Generation Mark Harman  

E-print Network

Strong Higher Order Mutation-Based Test Data Generation Mark Harman CREST Centre University College introduces SHOM, a mutation-based test data generation approach that combines Dynamic Symbolic Ex- ecution and Search Based Software Testing. SHOM targets strong mutation adequacy and is capable of killing both first

Harman, Mark

329

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda  

E-print Network

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data

Offutt, Jeff

330

An Incomplete Scan Design Approach to Test Generation for Sequential Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incomplete scan design approach to sequential test generation is presented. This approach represents a significant departure from previous methods. First, using an efficient sequential testing algorithm, test sequences are generated for a large number of possible faults in the given sequential circuit. A minimal subset of memory elements is then found, which if made observable and controllable will result

Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Srinivas Devadas; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1988-01-01

331

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

332

Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test  

PubMed Central

Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stéphane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

2014-01-01

333

Gustatory feedback affects feeding related motor pattern generation in starved 3rd instar larvae of Calliphora vicina.  

PubMed

Gustatory feedback allows animals to distinguish between edible and noxious food and adapts centrally generated feeding motor patterns to environmental demands. In reduced preparations obtained from starved Calliphora larvae, putatively appetitive (ethanol), aversive (sodium acetate) and neutral (glucose) gustatory stimuli were applied to the anterior sense organs. The resulting sensory response was recorded from the maxillary and antennal nerves. All three stimuli increased the neural activity in both nerves. Recordings obtained from the antennal nerve to monitor the activation pattern of the cibarial dilator muscles, demonstrated an effect of gustatory input on the central pattern generator for feeding. Ethanol consistently enhanced the rhythmic activity of the CDM motor neurons either by speeding up the rhythm or by increasing the burst duration. Ethanol also had an enhancing effect on the motor patterns of a protractor muscle which moves the cephalopharyngeal skeleton relative to the body. Sodium acetate showed a state dependent effect: in preparations without spontaneous CDM activity it initiated rhythmic motor patterns, while an ongoing CDM rhythm was inhibited. Surprisingly glucose had an enhancing effect which was less pronounced than that of ethanol. Gustatory feedback therefore can modify and adapt the motor output of the multifunctional central pattern generator for feeding. PMID:21453707

Khesroshahi, Nasim Dokani; Wessalowski, Ulf; Ulama, Tim; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, Hans-Georg; Spiess, Roland

2011-07-01

334

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the test analyzer at very nearly atmospheric pressure. The delivery system shall be fabricated from borosilicate glass, FEP Teflon, or other material that is inert with regard to the gas or gases to be used. (c) The output of the test atmosphere...

2012-07-01

335

Automated generation of protocol test sequences from formal specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program which takes as input the formal specification of a protocol using the formal model systems of communicating machines, and outputs a sequence of tests for an implementation of the protocol is discussed. The protocol is specified formally as a finite state machine with local and shared variables. The test program, called TESTGEN, finds all paths which may be

G. M. Lundy; C. Basaran

1994-01-01

336

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale.  

PubMed

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13?×?107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production. PMID:24289275

Ho, Jian-Wei; Wee, Qixun; Dumond, Jarrett; Tay, Andrew; Chua, Soo-Jin

2013-01-01

337

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale  

PubMed Central

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13?×?107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production. PMID:24289275

2013-01-01

338

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13 × 107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production.

Ho, Jian-Wei; Wee, Qixun; Dumond, Jarrett; Tay, Andrew; Chua, Soo-Jin

2013-12-01

339

Automatically generated acceptance test: A software reliability experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents results of a software reliability experiment investigating the feasibility of a new error detection method. The method can be used as an acceptance test and is solely based on empirical data about the behavior of internal states of a program. The experimental design uses the existing environment of a multi-version experiment previously conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which the launch interceptor problem is used as a model. This allows the controlled experimental investigation of versions with well-known single and multiple faults, and the availability of an oracle permits the determination of the error detection performance of the test. Fault interaction phenomena are observed that have an amplifying effect on the number of error occurrences. Preliminary results indicate that all faults examined so far are detected by the acceptance test. This shows promise for further investigations, and for the employment of this test method on other applications.

Protzel, Peter W.

1988-01-01

340

AETGSM Web: A Web Based Service for Automatic Efficient Test Generation from Functional Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

AETG Web is a web based service developed by Bell- core researchers for enabling model based testing. In model based testing, the functional test requirements of the system are first modeled and then testcases based on this model are created or generated. AETG Web employs a web based user interface to model the functional requirements of the System Under Test,

Siddhartha R. Dalal; Ashish Jain; Gardner C. Patton; Manish Rathi; Paul D. Seymour

1998-01-01

341

Error compensation in computer generated hologram-based form testing of aspheres.  

PubMed

Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) are used relatively often to test aspheric surfaces in the case of medium and high lot sizes. Until now differently modified measurement setups for optical form testing interferometry have been presented, like subaperture stitching interferometry and scanning interferometry. In contrast, for testing low to medium lot sizes in research and development, a variety of other tactile and nontactile measurement methods have been developed. In the case of CGH-based interferometric form testing, measurement deviations in the region of several tens of nanometers typically occur. Deviations arise especially due to a nonperfect alignment of the asphere relative to the testing wavefront. Therefore, the null test is user- and adjustment-dependent, which results in insufficient repeatability and reproducibility of the form errors. When adjusting a CGH, an operator usually performs a minimization of the spatial frequency of the fringe pattern. An adjustment to the ideal position, however, often cannot be performed with sufficient precision by the operator as the position of minimum spatial fringe density is often not unique, which also depends on the asphere. Thus, the scientific and technical objectives of this paper comprise the development of a simulation-based approach to explain and quantify typical experimental errors due to misalignment of the specimen toward a CGH in an optical form testing measurement system. A further step is the programming of an iterative method to realize a virtual optimized realignment of the system on the basis of Zernike polynomial decomposition, which should allow for the calculation of the measured form for an ideal alignment and thus a careful subtraction of a typical alignment-based form error. To validate the simulation-based findings, a series of systematic experiments is performed with a recently developed hexapod positioning system in order to allow an exact and reproducible positioning of the optical CGH-based setup. Additionally a CGH phase function using an exact geometric model is compared to the other approaches. The phase function is utilized to enhance the overall reliability of the sensitivity functions with regard to alignment errors in interferometric testing. PMID:25608066

Stuerwald, Stephan

2014-12-10

342

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

343

Validation of a new breathing simulator generating and measuring inhaled aerosol with adult breathing patterns.  

PubMed

The use of breathing simulators for the in vitro determination of the inhaled mass of drug from nebulizers has become widely accepted. Their use is, however, based on the assumption that there is a correlation between the in vitro and in vivo inhaled mass of drug. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate whether a new breathing simulator--the MIMIC Breathing Emulator (Medic-Aid Limited, Bognor Regis, UK)--could accurately emulate the in vivo inhaled mass of budesonide suspension for nebulization. Eight adult healthy subjects were included. Each subject inhaled for 2 min from a Spira Module 1 jet nebulizer (Respiratory Care Center, Hämeenlinna, Finland), charged with 1.0 mg of budesonide suspension for nebulization (0.5 mg mL-1, 2 mL suspension, AstraZeneca, Sweden) and supplied with an inhaled mass filter between the nebulizer and the subject. The breathing patterns were recorded during the nebulization and simulated in vitro at two different experimental sites (simulations A and B) with the breathing simulator. With the patients breathing through the filters (in vivo test), inhaled mass of budesonide averaged 103.6 micrograms. The two in vitro experiments using the simulator revealed similar results with in vitro simulation A equal to 101.0 micrograms and simulation B 99.1 micrograms. There were no statistically significant differences between the in vivo results and those of in vitro simulation A. Results were significantly different for simulation B (p = 0.032) although the difference was less than 4.5%. These data indicate that the breathing simulator can be used to accurately simulate sine waveforms, human breathing patterns, and the in vitro and in vivo inhaled mass of budesonide suspension for nebulization. PMID:11010594

Nikander, K; Denyer, J; Everard, M; Smaldone, G C

2000-01-01

344

Modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in rats with central pattern generator hardware.  

PubMed

We report on the modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in rats with central pattern generator (CPG) hardware made of silicon neurons. The neurons are made to compete through mutually inhibitory synapses to provide timed electrical oscillations that stimulate the peripheral end of vagus nerve at specific points of the respiratory cycle: the inspiratory phase (?(1)), the early expiratory phase (?(2)) and the late expiratory phase (?(3)). In this way the CPG hardware mimics the neuron populations in the brainstem which through connections with cardiac vagal motoneurones control respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Here, we time the output of the CPG hardware from the phrenic nerve activity recorded from rats while monitoring heart rate changes evoked by vagal nerve stimulation (derived from ECG) controlled by the CPG. This neuroelectric stimulation has the effect of reducing the heart rate and increasing the arterial pressure. The artificially induced RSA strongly depends on the timing of pulses within the breathing cycle. It is strongest when the vagus nerve is stimulated during the inspiratory phase (?(1)) or the early expiratory phase (?(2)) in which case the heart rate slows by 50% of the normal rate. Heart rate modulation is less when the same exact stimulus is applied during the late expiratory phase (?(3)). These trials show that neurostimulation by CPG hardware can augment respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The CPG hardware technology opens a new line of therapeutic possibilities for prosthetic devices that restore RSA in patients where respiratory-cardiac coupling has been lost. PMID:23026190

Nogaret, Alain; Zhao, Le; Moraes, Davi J A; Paton, Julian F R

2013-01-15

345

Directed Micro-architectural Test Generation for an Industrial Processor: A Case Study  

E-print Network

Directed Micro-architectural Test Generation for an Industrial Processor: A Case Study Heon-Mo Koo in terms of exer- cising intricate micro-architectural artifacts. Therefore, it is necessary to use micro generation targeting micro-architectural faults. To address these challenges, we present a directed test

Mishra, Prabhat

346

Formal Specification, Verification, and Automatic Test Generation of ATM Routing Protocol: PNNI  

E-print Network

Formal Specification, Verification, and Automatic Test Generation of ATM Routing Protocol: PNNI, Murray Hill, New Jersey Abstract This paper presents an effort to use formal tools to model, validate formal methods in validating these protocols and in generating test cases. The tools needed to accomplish

347

Next-generation test equipment for micro-production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces different approaches to overcome the large ratio between wafer size and feature size in the testing step of micro production. For the inspection of Micro(Opto)ElectroMechanicalSystems (M(O)EMS) a priori information are available to optimise the inspection process. The EU-project SMARTIEHS develops a new concept for high volume M(O)EMS testing. The design of the test station and the fabrication of the first components are presented and the advancements compared to the state of the art are introduced within the following fields: micro-optical interferometer design, micro-optical production, smart-pixel camera and mechanical design. Furthermore the first demonstrators are introduced and experimental results are presented.

Gastinger, Kay; Johnsen, Lars; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Jozwik, Michal; Zeitner, Uwe; Dannberg, Peter; Albero, Jorge; Bargiel, Sylwester; Schaeffel, Christoph; Beer, Stephan; Moosburger, Rudolf; Lambelet, Patrick; Pizzi, Marco

2010-05-01

348

Thermoelastic generation of elastic waves for non-destructive testing and medical diagnostics.  

PubMed

The generation of MHz elastic waves by means of thermoelastic expansions is described. Several multilayered structures are described which use constrained boundary conditions at the energy absorbing surface. Elastic waves of sufficient amplitude can be generated to be useful for non-destructive testing applications. Biomedical ultrasonics using thermoelastically generated MHz waves will also be discussed. PMID:7414741

von Gutfeld, R J

1980-07-01

349

Finding Bugs in Web Applications Using Dynamic Test Generation and Explicit-State Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web script crashes and malformed dynamically-generated web pages are common errors, and they seriously impact the usability of web applica- tions. Current tools for web-page validation cannot handle the dynamically generated pages that are ubiquitous on today's Internet. We present a dynamic test generation technique for the domain of dynamic web ap- plications. The technique utilizes both combined concrete and

Shay Artzi; Adam Kiezun; Julian Dolby; Frank Tip; Amit M. Paradkar; Michael D. Ernst

2010-01-01

350

Privacy Aware Data Generation for Testing Database Applications Xintao Wu, Chintan Sanghvi, Yongge Wang, Yuliang Zheng  

E-print Network

Privacy Aware Data Generation for Testing Database Applications Xintao Wu, Chintan Sanghvi, Yongge, rules) extracted from the production database and then generate the syn- thetic data using model learnt. The generated data is valid and similar to real data in terms of statistical distribution, hence it can be used

Zheng, Yuliang

351

A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives  

PubMed Central

In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a “reshaping” function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal “reshaping” functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good “reshaping” function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25324773

Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

2014-01-01

352

Pattern generating and reflex-like processes controlling aiming movements in the presence of inertia, damping and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed, in which goal-directed movements of the forearm are controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG) initiated for exactly one period, and by reflex-analogous processes. Movement width is proportional to the amplitude factor of the CPG's output, and to the square of the CPG's period length. The period duration can be freely selected, thus enabling the CPG

K. Th. Kalveram

1991-01-01

353

Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program  

SciTech Connect

In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated.

Garbett, K; Mendler, O J; Gardner, G C; Garnsey, R; Young, M Y

1987-03-01

354

Generating Feedback Reports for Adults Taking Basic Skills Tests  

E-print Network

. For example, someone using the nicotine addiction test on www.healthcalculators.org will be told whether he or she has a low, medium, or high level of nicotine addiction, together with some explanatory text in the nicotine addiction example) accompanied by a fixed explanatory text and often a suggestion to contact

Williams, Sandra

355

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

..................................................................3 1.3 False Path Problem .....................................................................................6 1.4 Scan-Based At-Speed Test Approaches......................................................7 1.5 Combined Delay Fault Model ? A... on scan cells. .....................................................................44 Figure 23. A pipeline structure...........................................................................................45 Figure 24. A path that passes direct...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

356

Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

2009-01-01

357

Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

Almahrous, Mazen

1990-08-01

358

Automatic Generation of Rasch-Calibrated Items: Figural Matrices Test GEOM and Endless-Loops Test EC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of test construction for certain psychological ability domains that can be analyzed well in a structured manner may lie--at the very least for reasons of test security--in the field of automatic item generation. In this context, a question that has not been explicitly addressed is whether it is possible to embed an item response theory…

Arendasy, Martin

2005-01-01

359

Decomposing risk: landscape structure and wolf behavior generate different predation patterns in two sympatric ungulates.  

PubMed

Recolonizing carnivores can have a large impact on the status of wild ungulates, which have often modified their behavior in the absence of predation. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of reestablished predator-prey systems is crucial to predict their potential ecosystem effects. We decomposed the spatial structure of predation by recolonizing wolves (Canis lupus) on two sympatric ungulates, moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in Scandinavia during a 10-year study. We monitored 18 wolves with GPS collars, distributed over 12 territories, and collected records from predation events. By using conditional logistic regression, we assessed the contributions of three main factors, the utilization patterns of each wolf territory, the spatial distribution of both prey species, and fine-scale landscape structure, in determining the spatial structure of moose and roe deer predation risk. The reestablished predator-prey system showed a remarkable spatial variation in kill occurrence at the intra-territorial level, with kill probabilities varying by several orders of magnitude inside the same territory. Variation in predation risk was evident also when a spatially homogeneous probability for a wolf to encounter a prey was simulated. Even inside the same territory, with the same landscape structure, and when exposed to predation by the same wolves, the two prey species experienced an opposite spatial distribution of predation risk. In particular, increased predation risk for moose was associated with open areas, especially clearcuts and young forest stands, whereas risk was lowered for roe deer in the same habitat types. Thus, fine-scale landscape structure can generate contrasting predation risk patterns in sympatric ungulates, so that they can experience large differences in the spatial distribution of risk and refuge areas when exposed to predation by a recolonizing predator. Territories with an earlier recolonization were not associated with a lower hunting success for wolves. Such constant efficiency in wolf predation during the recolonization process is in line with previous findings about the naive nature of Scandinavian moose to wolf predation. This, together with the human-dominated nature of the Scandinavian ecosystem, seems to limit the possibility for wolves to have large ecosystem effects and to establish a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in Scandinavia. PMID:24261051

Gervasi, Vincenzo; Sand, Hakan; Zimmermann, Barbara; Mattisson, Jenny; Wabakken, Petter; Linnell, John D C

2013-10-01

360

Stereotypic Laryngeal and Respiratory Motor Patterns Generate Different Call Types in Rat Ultrasound Vocalization  

PubMed Central

Rodents produce highly variable ultrasound whistles as communication signals unlike many other mammals, who employ flow-induced vocal fold oscillations to produce sound. The role of larynx muscles in controlling sound features across different call types in ultrasound vocalization (USV) was investigated using laryngeal muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, subglottal pressure measurements and vocal sound output in awake and spontaneously behaving Sprague–Dawley rats. Results support the hypothesis that glottal shape determines fundamental frequency. EMG activities of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles were aligned with call duration. EMG intensity increased with fundamental frequency. Phasic activities of both muscles were aligned with fast changing fundamental frequency contours, for example in trills. Activities of the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles, two muscles involved in vocal production in other mammals, are not critical for the production of rat USV. To test how stereotypic laryngeal and respiratory activity are across call types and individuals, sets of ten EMG and subglottal pressure parameters were measured in six different call types from six rats. Using discriminant function analysis, on average 80% of parameter sets were correctly assigned to their respective call type. This was significantly higher than the chance level. Since fundamental frequency features of USV are tightly associated with stereotypic activity of intrinsic laryngeal muscles and muscles contributing to build-up of subglottal pressure, USV provide insight into the neurophysiological control of peripheral vocal motor patterns. PMID:23423862

RIEDE, TOBIAS

2014-01-01

361

Resistive Bridge Fault Modeling, Simulation and Test Generation  

E-print Network

In this work ' we develop models of resistive bridging faults and study the fault coverage on ISCAS85 circuits of different test sets using resistive and zero-ohm bridges at different supply voltages. These results explain several previously observed anomalous behaviors. In order to serve as a reference, we have developed the $rst resistive bridging faylt ATPG, which attempts to detect the maximum possible bridging resistance at each fault site. We compare the results of the ATPG to the coverage obtained from other test sets, and coverage obtained by using the ATPG in a clean-up mode. Results on ISCAS85 circuits show ~ that stuck-at test sets do quite well, but that the ATPG can still improve the coverage. We have also found that the loss of fault coverage is predominantly due to undetected! faults, rather than faults in which only a small resistance is detected. This suggests that lower-cost fault models can be used to obtain high resistive bridge fault coverage. I.

Vijay R. Sar-dessai

1999-01-01

362

Setting the Pace: New Insights into Central Pattern Generator Interactions in Box Jellyfish Swimming  

PubMed Central

Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora) with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs) considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians. PMID:22073288

Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2011-01-01

363

Neurochemical and neuroanatomical identification of central pattern generator neuron homologues in Nudipleura molluscs.  

PubMed

Certain invertebrate neurons can be identified by their behavioral functions. However, evolutionary divergence can cause some species to not display particular behaviors, thereby making it impossible to use physiological characteristics related to those behaviors for identifying homologous neurons across species. Therefore, to understand the neural basis of species-specific behavior, it is necessary to identify homologues using characteristics that are independent of physiology. In the Nudipleura mollusc Tritonia diomedea, Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) was first described as being a member of the swim central pattern generator (CPG). Here we demonstrate that neurochemical markers, in conjunction with previously known neuroanatomical characteristics, allow C2 to be uniquely identified without the aid of electrophysiological measures. Specifically, C2 had three characteristics that, taken together, identified the neuron: 1) a white cell on the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglion, 2) an axon that projected to the contralateral pedal ganglion and through the pedal commissure, and 3) immunoreactivity for the peptides FMRFamide and Small Cardioactive Peptide B. These same anatomical and neurochemical characteristics also uniquely identified the C2 homologue in Pleurobranchaea californica (called A1), which was previously identified by its analogous role in the Pleurobranchaea swim CPG. Furthermore, these characteristics were used to identify C2 homologues in Melibe leonina, Hermissenda crassicornis, and Flabellina iodinea, species that are phylogenetically closer to Tritonia than Pleurobranchaea, but do not display the same swimming behavior as Tritonia or Pleurobranchaea. These identifications will allow future studies comparing and contrasting the physiological properties of C2 across species that can and cannot produce the type of swimming behavior exhibited by Tritonia. PMID:22363716

Lillvis, Joshua L; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

2012-01-01

364

Effects of age and working memory capacity on pitch pattern sequence test and dichotic listening.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of age and working memory capacity on dichotic listening and temporal sequencing. Double Dichotic Digit Test (DDT), Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPST) and Digit Span Test were administered on 40 healthy adults with hearing thresholds of not greater than 30 dB HL across octave frequencies from 250 to 4000 Hz. Twenty young (20-30 years old) and 20 older (50-65 years old) adults were included in the study. Results showed that the older group had significantly lower scores in DDT, PPST and working memory capacity measures than the young subjects. Working memory capacity was positively correlated with PPST but not with DDT, suggesting that DDT might be more auditory-modality-specific than PPST. PMID:20150728

Mukari, Siti Z; Umat, C; Othman, Nor I

2010-01-01

365

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes  

PubMed Central

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-01

366

A Static Analysis Approach for Automatic Generating Test Cases for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is a challenging work and Web application testing may be even more challenging owing to its dynamic behaviors and heterogeneous representations. In this paper, we propose a static analysis approach to automatically generate test cases for Web application. In our approach, application source code is analyzed to extract interfaces which are composed of input parameters with domain information

Minghui Wang; Jie Yuan; Huaikou Miao; Gemiao Tan

2008-01-01

367

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions  

E-print Network

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main

Xie, Tao

368

Execution Generated Test Cases: How to Make Systems Code Crash Itself  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique that uses code to auto- matically generate its own test cases at run-time by using a combination of symbolic and concrete (i.e., regular) execution. The input values to a program (or software component) provide the standard interface of any test- ing framework with the program it is testing, and gen- erating input values that will

Cristian Cadar; Dawson R. Engler

2005-01-01

369

Fabrication of 35nm via-hole patterns for interconnect test chips with EUV lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fabrication of interconnect test chips with a half pitch of 35 nm, we used an EUV full-field scanner (EUV1) for three critical layers: Metal 1, Via 1 and Metal 2. In this study, we focused on the Via-1 layer and investigated the printing characteristics of 35-nm via-hole patterns. There are three types of major via-hole patterns; aligned, staggered, and isolated. Simple optical proximity effect correction (OPC) and shadowing effect correction (SEC) were applied to the mask patterns to reduce the iso-dense bias and anisotropy of hole shapes. Mask critical-dimension (CD) correction enabled the fabrication of all three types of patterns with almost the same CD. A simulation analysis revealed the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) to be about 2.5, the exposure latitude to be about 18%, and the depth of focus (DOF) to be about 100 nm for 35-nm via holes when the resist CD was 35 nm. The experimental results agree fairly well with the simulation results. The intra-field CD uniformity of 35-nm via holes is 3.3 nm (3?). The intra-field overlay accuracy (Mean+3?) between the Via-1 and Metal-2 layers is better than 15 nm. We used a multi-stacked resist to fabricate 35-nm via holes in a low-k dielectric layer. Moreover, we fabricated interconnect test chips and measured their electrical properties. The resistance of 32-nm vias is 12.4?, which meets the target of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The yield of 40k dense via chains was over 70%. The results demonstrate that EUV lithography is useful for the fabrication of ULSI devices with a half pitch of 35 nm and beyond.

Tanaka, Yuusuke; Aoyama, Hajime; Tawarayama, Kazuo; Magoshi, Shunko; Kawamura, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Kentaro; Kamo, Takashi; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Uno, Taiga; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Naofumi; Soda, Eiichi; Oda, Noriaki; Saito, Shuichi; Mori, Ichiro

2010-04-01

370

Probabilistic neural network with homogeneity testing in recognition of discrete patterns set.  

PubMed

The article is devoted to pattern recognition task with the database containing small number of samples per class. By mapping of local continuous feature vectors to a discrete range, this problem is reduced to statistical classification of a set of discrete finite patterns. It is demonstrated that the Bayesian decision under the assumption that probability distributions can be estimated using the Parzen kernel and the Gaussian window with a fixed variance for all the classes, implemented in the PNN, is not optimal in the classification of a set of patterns. We presented here the novel modification of the PNN with homogeneity testing which gives an optimal solution of the latter task under the same assumption about probability densities. By exploiting the discrete nature of patterns our modification prevents the well-known drawbacks of the memory-based approach implemented in both the PNN and the PNN with homogeneity testing, namely, low classification speed and high requirements to the memory usage. Our modification only requires the storage and processing of the histograms of input and training samples. We present the results of an experimental study in two practically important tasks: (1) the problem of Russian text authorship attribution with character n-grams features; and (2) face recognition with well-known datasets (AT&T, FERET and JAFFE) and comparison of color- and gradient-orientation histograms. Our results support the statement that the proposed network provides better accuracy (1%-7%) and is much more resistant to change of the smoothing parameter of Gaussian kernel function in comparison with the original PNN. PMID:23811385

Savchenko, A V

2013-10-01

371

Cube corner retroreflector test and analysis. [of laser far field diffraction pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cube corner retroreflectors with nominal dihedral angles of 90 deg 0 min 1.5 sec were fabricated, tested, and analyzed to determine the return energy in the annular ring of the far field diffraction pattern required by the Laser Geodynamic Satellite. Performance was assessed for variations in the dihedral angles, optical surfaces, and thermal environment. Despite relatively high independent axial and radial sensitivities, the changes caused by the anticipated thermal environment were found to be negligible; however, there were substantial variations between the analytical predictions and measured performance.-

Zurasky, J. L.

1976-01-01

372

Non-contact acoustic tests based on nanosecond laser ablation: Generation of a pulse sound source with a small amplitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to generate a pulse sound source for acoustic tests based on nanosecond laser ablation with a plasma plume is discussed. Irradiating a solid surface with a laser beam expands a high-temperature plasma plume composed of free electrons, ionized atoms, etc. at a high velocity throughout ambient air. The shockwave generated by the plasma plume becomes the pulse sound source. A laser ablation sound source has two features. Because laser ablation is induced when the laser fluence reaches 1012-1014 W/m2, which is less than that for laser-induced breakdown (1015 W/m2), laser ablation can generate a lower sound pressure, and the sound source has a hemispherical radiation pattern on the surface where laser ablation is generated. Additionally, another feature is that laser-induced breakdown sound sources can fluctuate, whereas laser ablation sound sources do not because laser ablation is produced at a laser beam-irradiation point. We validate this laser ablation method for acoustic tests by comparing the measured and theoretical resonant frequencies of an impedance tube.

Hosoya, Naoki; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Inoue, Tatsuo; Umenai, Koh

2014-09-01

373

Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

Charles D. Griffin

2006-06-01

374

The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.  

PubMed

Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 ?g/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; P<0.05 and P<0.01). Long sleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (P<0.02). Lower sleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (P<0.06). In girls, no significant associations were detected. Sleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly. PMID:25086827

Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

2014-11-01

375

Rapid Generation of Multiplexed Cell Cocultures Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection Followed by Aqueous Two-Phase Exclusion Patterning  

PubMed Central

The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P.; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary

2012-01-01

376

Use of chaotic and random vibrations to generate high frequency test inputs  

SciTech Connect

This paper and a companion paper show the traditional limits on amplitude and frequency that can be generated in a laboratory test on a vibration exciter can be substantially extended. This is accomplished by attaching a device to the shaker that permits controlled metal to metal impacts that generate high frequency, high acceleration environment on a test surface. A companion paper (Reference 1) shows that a sinusoidal or random shaker input can be used to generate a random vibration environment on the test surface. This paper derives the three response components that occur on the test surface due to an impact on the bottom surface and the base driven response from the shaker input. These response components are used to generate impulse response functions and frequency response functions which are used in the companion paper to derive power spectral density functions for the overall response. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gregory, D. L.; Paez, T. L.

1990-01-01

377

Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

Lewandowski, Edward J.

2013-01-01

378

Regional patterns and correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing among youths in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among young people in Nigeria is low with implications on the epidemic control. Using the 2003 Nigerian National Demographic and Health Survey, we examined the regional prevalence, pattern and correlates of VCT for HIV among youths aged 15 to 24 in Nigeria. Analysis was based on 3573 (out of 11,050) observations using logistic regression model to estimate the effects of identified predictors of volunteering for HIV testing. Results show that national prevalence of VCT is low (2.6%) with regional variations. Generally, the critical factors associated with VCT uptake are age, sex, education, wealth index and risk perception with North (sex, education, religion, occupation and risk perception) and South (age and education) variance. It is recommended that Nigerian HIV programmers should introduce evidence based youth programmes to increase the uptake of VCT with differing approaches across the regions. PMID:22590899

Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Odimegwu, Clifford

2011-06-01

379

Altered breathing patterns during lumbopelvic motor control tests in chronic low back pain: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to evaluate the breathing pattern in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP) and in healthy subjects, both at rest and during motor control tests. Ten healthy subjects and ten patients with chronic LBP participated at this case–control study. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing) and while performing clinical motor control tests, i.e. bent knee fall out and active straight leg raise. A blinded observer analyzed the breathing pattern of the participants using visual inspection and manual palpation. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as optimal breathing pattern. Subjects filled in visual analog scales for the assessment of pain intensity during the tests. At rest, no significant differences were found between the breathing pattern of patients and healthy subjects (P > 0.05). In contrast, significantly more altered breathing patterns were observed in chronic LBP-patients during motor control tests (P = 0.01). Changes in breathing pattern during motor control tests were not related to pain severity (P > 0.01), but were related to motor control dysfunction (P = 0.01). PMID:19430948

Roussel, Nathalie; Truijen, Steven; Vervecken, Liesbet; Mottram, Sarah; Stassijns, Gaëtane

2009-01-01

380

Validation of the step test method for generating Haigh diagrams for Ti–6Al–4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Step testing provides a method for generating an endurance stress for a particular stress ratio with a single specimen as well as a method of generating endurance limits for one-of-a-kind specimens, e.g. specimens that may have been subjected to pre-test damage that cannot be accurately reproduced. The objective of this paper was to determine the statistical validity of the step

Richard S. Bellows; Sandeep Muju; Theodore Nicholas

1999-01-01

381

Coordination of Cellular Pattern-Generating Circuits that Control Limb Movements: The Sources of Stable Differences  

E-print Network

theory analysis, we identify an alternative intersegmental connection pattern producing realistic stable, Massachusetts 02215, and 2Section of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior, University of California, Davis oscillator theory was used to derive coupling functions that predict phase differences between neurons

Kaper, Tasso J.

382

Search-Based Test Input Generation for String Data Types Using the Results of Web Queries  

E-print Network

Search-Based Test Input Generation for String Data Types Using the Results of Web Queries Phil Mc1 4DP Abstract--Generating realistic, branch-covering string in- puts is a challenging problem, due program identifiers into web queries. The resultant URLs are downloaded, split into tokens, and used

McMinn, Phil

383

Improving the Generation of Random Modal Formulae for Testing Decision Procedures  

E-print Network

Improving the Generation of Random Modal Formulae for Testing Decision Procedures Peter F. Patel, USA pfps@research.bell­labs.com 2 Dept. of Mathematics, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I decision proce­ dures has lead to a number of generation methods for modal formulae. However

Sebastiani, Roberto

384

Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

385

What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

was the first initiative to try to define Web 2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated

Tim O'Reilly

2007-01-01

386

Pattern generating and reflex-like processes controlling aiming movements in the presence of inertiao damping and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A model is proposed, in which goal-directed movements,of the forearm are controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG) initiated for exactly one pe- riod, and by reflex-analogous processes. Movement width is proportional to the amplitude,factor of the CPG's output, and to the square of the CPG's period length. The period duration can be freely selected, thus enabling the CPG

K. Th. Kalveram

387

Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intra- and extra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmotic swelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate sperm quality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomly collected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided into two portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorld Health Organization (WHO)-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOST procedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and late or early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5). Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR) of abnormal sperm head morphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviable spermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between percentage of sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protamine deficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which are mature and intact sperms. PMID:24520486

Bassiri, Farzaneh; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2013-01-01

388

Low-capture-power test generation for scan-based at-speed testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scan-based at-speed testing is a key technology to guarantee timing-related test quality in the deep submicron era. However, its applicability is being severely challenged since significant yield loss may occur from circuit malfunction due to excessive IR drop caused by high power dissipation when a test response is captured. This paper addresses this critical problem with a novel low-capture-power X-filling

Xiaoqing Wen; Yoshiyuki Yamashita; Shohei Morishima; Seiji Kajihara; Laung-Terng Wang; Kewal K. Saluja; Kozo Kinoshita

2005-01-01

389

Automating test case generation for coverages required by FAA standard DO-178B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coverage testing techniques are required by the FAA for various levels of subsystem criticality at the unit testing level. Higher levels of criticality require coverage schemes that frequently require more and more test cases, particularly when the number of conditions in a decision grows. For example, if we have a decision with n conditions of the form: if (/ci/ or /c2/ or .... or /cn/) then there are 2(n) possible combinations of condition outcomes. Given the enormous number of inputs that may be required to satisfy different coverages, and given that there are no automated tools for determining these inputs (to our knowledge), we will show how one alternative testing technique, mutation testing, can be coerced into generating inputs that satisfy a code coverage scheme X, i.e., if we modify the rules for mutant generation during mutation testing, this technique will provide test cases that satisfy X.

Voas, Jeffrey M.; Payne, Jeffery E.; Miller, Keith W.

1993-01-01

390

Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

2009-01-01

391

Large-Scale Multiobjective Static Test Generation for Web-Based Testing with Integer Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web-based testing has become a ubiquitous self-assessment method for online learning. One useful feature that is missing from today's web-based testing systems is the reliable capability to fulfill different assessment requirements of students based on a large-scale question data set. A promising approach for supporting large-scale web-based…

Nguyen, M. L.; Hui, Siu Cheung; Fong, A. C. M.

2013-01-01

392

A computer test bench for checking and adjusting the automatic regulators of generator excitation systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer test bench for testing and debugging natural samples of the automatic excitation regulation systems of generators, the protection units and the power part of the excitation system is described. The bench includes a personal computer with specialized input-output circuit boards for analog and digital signals, and enables the time and cost involved in developing and checking control systems to be reduced considerably. The program employed operates in real time and enables the automatic excitation regulators of synchronous generators and generators with longitudinal-transverse excitation in a specific power system to be adjusted.

Dovganyuk, I. Ya.; Labunets, I. A.; Plotnikova, T. V.; Sokur, P. V. [Affiliate of the 'NTTs Elektroenergetiki' Company - Scientific Research Institute of Electric Power (VNIIE) (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

393

Immobilized Antibody Orientation Analysis using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence Imaging of Affinity-generated Patterns  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the capability of high-resolution surface analytical tools to distinguish immobilized antibody orientations on patterned surfaces designed for antibody affinity capture. High-fidelity, side-by-side co-patterning of protein A (antibody Fc domain affinity reagent) and fluorescein (antibody Fab domain hapten) was achieved photo-lithographically on commercial amine-reactive hydrogel polymer surfaces. This was verified from fluorescence imaging using fluorescently labeled protein A and intrinsic fluorescence from fluorescein. Subsequently, dye-labeled murine anti-fluorescein antibody (4-4-20), and antibody Fab and Fc fragments were immobilized from solution onto respective protein A- and fluorescein- co-patterned or control surfaces using antibody-ligand affinity interactions. Fluorescence assays support specific immobilization to fluorescein hapten- and protein A-patterned regions through antigen-antibody recognition and natural protein A-Fc domain interactions, respectively. Affinity-based antibody immobilization on the two different co-patterned surfaces generated side-by-side full antibody “heads-up” and “tails-up” oriented surface patterns. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis, sensitive to chemical information from the top 2-3 nm of the surface, provided ion-specific images of these antibody patterned regions, imaging and distinguishing characteristic ions from amino acids enriched in Fab domains for antibodies oriented in “heads-up” regions, and ions from amino acids enriched in Fc domains for antibodies oriented in “tails-up” regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) improved the distinct ToF-SIMS amino acid compositional and ion-specific surface mapping sensitivity for each “heads-up” versus “tails-up” patterned region. Characteristic Fab and Fc fragment immobilized patterns served as controls. This provides first demonstration of pattern-specific, antibody orientation-dependent surface maps based on antibody domain- and structure- specific compositional differences by ToF-SIMS analysis. Since antibody immobilization and orientation are critical to many technologies, orientation characterization using ToF-SIMS could be very useful and convenient for immobilization quality control and understanding methods for improving the performance of antibody-based surface capture assays. PMID:20230047

Liu, Fang; Dubey, Manish; Takahashi, Hironobu; Castner, David G.; Grainger, David W.

2010-01-01

394

T-DOC: a Tool for the Automatic Generation of Testing Documentation for OSS Products  

E-print Network

. In the context of Open Source Software (OSS), the lack of project documentation is one of the most challenging documentation, test- ing tools 1 Introduction Open Source Software (OSS) is experiencing an increasing diffusionT-DOC: a Tool for the Automatic Generation of Testing Documentation for OSS Products Sandro Morasca

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Theoretical Runtime Analyses of Search Algorithms on the Test Data Generation for the Triangle Classification Problem  

E-print Network

Classification program. The search algorithms that we analyse are Random Search, Hill Climbing and Alternating Engineering community to better understand the role of Search Based Techniques applied to software testing. 1Theoretical Runtime Analyses of Search Algorithms on the Test Data Generation for the Triangle

Yao, Xin

396

High pressure water hammer test program for the split flow preheat steam generator. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the high pressure water hammer test program was to experimentally and analytically investigate the possibility of water hammer phenomena in the preheater region of preheat steam generators. In particular, those conditions that produced steam voids and their subsequent collapse by condensation and attendant depressurization were investigated. Volume 1 of the 3-volume report includes the test design and

J. Alba; R. A. Basel; R. W. Carlson

1978-01-01

397

High pressure water hammer test program for the split flow preheat steam generator. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the high pressure water hammer test program was to experimentally and analytically investigate the possibility of water hammer phenomena in the preheater region of preheat steam generators. In particular, those conditions that produced steam voids and their subsequent collapse by condensation and attendant depressurization were investigated. Volume 2 of the 3-volume report deals with the test facility

1978-01-01

398

Performance of small CST column gas generation test in radiation field  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this position paper is to describe the circumstances leading to the decision to delete the dynamic CST small column radiolytic gas generation test from the current phase of tests and the impact of that decision on the Decision Phase.

Jacobs, R.A.; Rueter, K.J.; Carter, J.T.

2000-02-02

399

Design, fabrication, test qualification and price analysis of a third generation solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, test, and qualification of a third generation intermediate load solar cell module are presented. A technical discussion of the detailed module design, preliminary design review, design modifications, and environmental testing are included. A standardized pricing system is utilized to establish the cost competitiveness of this module design.

1982-01-01

400

Comparison of Unit-Level Automated Test Generation Tools Shuang Wang and Jeff Offutt  

E-print Network

Engineering George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030, USA {swangb,offutt}@gmu.edu Abstract Data from projects is very expensive, possibly pro- hibitively so. Automatic test data generation is essential to support test data gen- eration tools more often. However, developers have very little information about which

Offutt, Jeff

401

Short Time Rated And Protected High Voltage Ac Testing Of Generator Stators Using Parallel Resonant Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power station generators require short duration HV ac testing of their insulation as part of their acceptance before being put into service. Depending on the value of the capacitance of the insulation, the rating of the test power supply can be large. One method of reducing this supply requirement is to compensate the capacitance with inductance. The paper describes a

Wade Enright; Pat Bodger

402

Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase "gas generationtesting" shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

Carlsbad Field Office

2002-03-01

403

A simple model for polar cap convection patterns and generation of theta auroras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An addition of the uniform interplanetary magnetic field and the earth's dipole magnetic field is used to evaluate electric field convection patterns over the polar caps that result from solar wind flow across open geomagnetic field lines. The model also accounts for field-aligned patterns within, and auroral arcs across, the polar cap. The qualitative predictions derived from the model express the electric field magnitudes, aurora intensity, sunward and antisunward flow, and the dusk-side reversal of the convection field in terms of the x and y components of the interplanetary magnetic field.

Lyons, L. R.

1985-01-01

404

Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the project 'Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker' we have extended an existing tools infrastructure for formal modeling to export Java code so that we can use the NASA Ames tool Java Pathfinder (JPF) for test case generation. We have completed a translator from our source language RSML(exp -e) to Java and conducted initial studies of how JPF can be used as a testing tool. In this final report, we provide a detailed description of the translation approach as implemented in our tools.

Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Gao, Jimin

2003-01-01

405

Bioenergetic Pattern of Turtle Brain and Resistance to Profound Loss of Mitochondrial ATP Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptations in the freshwater turtle that permit survival despite prolonged loss of mitochondrial ATP generation were investigated by comparing the bioenergetics of turtle brain slices with rat brain slices. Aerobic turtle brain shows no significant difference in basal levels of total ATP generation compared to rat brain; levels in turtle brain and rat brain were 18.4 ± 2.8 (SD)

Eugene D. Robin; Norman Lewiston; Andrew Newman; Lawrence M. Simon; James Theodore

1979-01-01

406

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to continue and complete testing of the Gas Generator hardware, to complete and submit a Draft Final Report, and after incorporation of adjustments required, to then submit the Final Report. Focus during this report period was initially on testing the Gas Generator. While conducting scheduled full power tests of the Gas Generator at the facilities of the testing sub-contractor, National Testing Services [NTS], in Santa Clarita CA, anomalies in the performance of the Gas Generator were discovered. All testing was stopped on November 6, 2002. An expert team was formed to evaluate the anomalies and to recommend any appropriate corrective actions. After extensive analyses of the actual hardware, the test data acquired and recorded during testing, and a review of the test facilities and procedures, the Anomalies Review Team recommended that CES modify the combustion chamber front end cooling method and modify the configuration of the diluent injectors downstream of the combustion chamber, to eliminate the anomalies. At a review meeting convened in Sacramento CA on November 23, 2002, outside experts from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Air Liquide's Research Center in Chicago IL, and the California Energy Commission, confirmed that the expert team's assessed cause of the problem was the likely cause, and the recommended corrective actions were appropriate. Modified hardware drawings were produced in late November-early December 2002, hardware fabrication was begun in December, and was in process at the end of December. Also during December, the NTS test facility was being adjusted to take account of the modified hardware configuration being produced. All work was aimed toward realizing a schedule of resumed testing by mid-January for completion of tests by end of January or early February, 2003. Original objectives of the program remain in place and approximately ninety (90) percent of those objectives had been completed prior to discovery of the anomalies. The accomplished objectives to date are described in this report.

Stephen E. Doyle

2002-12-31

407

Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

1991-01-01

408

Directivity patterns of laser thermoelastically generated ultrasound in metal with consideration of thermal conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the thermal diffusion equation with the consideration of the effect of thermal conductivity, we obtain two terms contributing to the directivity patterns respectively for the longitudinal wave and the transverse wave. The first term is exactly the same as the results obtained by earlier workers. The additional second term is due to the effect of thermal diffusion. In the

Pengzhi Zhang; C. F. Ying; Jianzhong Shen

1997-01-01

409

Forecast of Wind speed and power of wind generator based on pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecast of wind speed is very important for making out dispatch scheme of power system and operation in higher reliability, according to the forming mechanism of wind, its influencing factors and its inherent variation rule, one of pattern recognition called as adaptive neuron-fuzzy inference system, abbreviated as ANFIS is used in wind speed forecast. The hybrid algorithm is used to

Hui Zhou; Mei Huang; Xinfhua Wu

2009-01-01

410

Modifying the Conventional Visual Field Test Pattern to Improve the Detection of Early Glaucomatous Defects in the Central 10°  

PubMed Central

Purpose To simulate modified versions of the 24-2 (6° grid) visual field (VF) test pattern by adding points from the 10-2 (2° grid) test pattern, and to assess their ability to detect early glaucomatous defects in the central 10°. Methods One hundred forty-four eyes of 144 glaucoma patients and suspects with 24-2 mean deviations better than ?6 dB were tested with 10-2 and 24-2 VFs. Based upon both 10-2 VF and optical coherence tomography probability plots, 63 hemifields were defined as abnormal, while 121 hemifields were defined as normal. Three modified 24-2 VF test patterns, called 24-2 +4, 24-2 +16 (Even), and 24-2 +16 (Empirical), were simulated by adding 4 or 16 test points from the 10-2 VF. Results Based upon the number of abnormal points (P ? 5%), the area under the ROC curves (AROC scores) of the three modified 24-2 VFs were significantly greater than that of the 24-2 VF for both the upper and lower VF. For a specificity of 85%, the number of true positives was 25 (24-2), 30 (24-2 +4), 31 (24-2 +16, even), and 32 (24-2 +16, empirical) of 34 total true positives for the upper VF and 23, 26, 27, and 28 of 29 for the lower VF. Conclusions Adding points from the 10-2 test pattern to the 24-2 test pattern significantly improved its ability to detect macular defects without employing more test points than a single 10-2 test. Translational Relevance Additional central points should be added to the 24-2 pattern to improve the detection of macular damage. PMID:25653884

Ehrlich, Alyssa C.; Raza, Ali S.; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

2014-01-01

411

FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology developed in this program.

Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

2003-06-01

412

An Extended Nonlinear-Based Method for Optimum Cutting Pattern Generation of Membrane Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cutting pattern for membrane structures obtained by using the geodesic line method or flattening technique does not allow the actual stresses in the structures to be specified. As a result, the occurrence of surface wrinkles may form under service loading. In this paper, a method for determining an optimum cutting pattern which accounts for the designed stresses of the membrane structures is presented. Using the displacements of the 3-D surface as the key variables, the method proposed utilizes a nonlinear analysis technique based upon the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, Green strain tensor and Saint Venant-Kirchhoff hyperelastic material. The genetic algorithm is also adopted to solve the optimization problem. To verify the validation of the existing method, a cone shape membrane structure was analyzed. By using the proposed method, the deviation of the actual membrane stresses from the assumed design stresses could be reduced.

Punurai, W.; Tongpool, W.; Saardwong, W.

2010-05-01

413

Lung respiratory rhythm and pattern generation in the bullfrog: role of neurokinin-1 and µ-opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

Location of the lung respiratory rhythm generator (RRG) in the bullfrog brainstem was investigated by examining neurokinin-1 and µ-opioid receptor (NK1R, µOR) colocalization by immunohistochemistry and characterizing the role of these receptors in lung rhythm and episodic pattern generation. NK1R and µOR occurred in brainstems from all developmental stages. In juvenile bullfrogs a distinct area of colocalization was coincident with high-intensity fluorescent labeling of µOR; high-intensity labeling of µOR was not distinctly and consistently localized in tadpole brainstems. NK1R labeling intensity did not change with development. Similarity in colocalization is consistent with similarity in responses to substance P (SP, NK1R agonist) and DAMGO (µOR agonist) when bath applied to bullfrog brainstems of different developmental stages. In early stage tadpoles and juvenile bullfrogs, SP increased and DAMGO decreased lung burst frequency. In juvenile bullfrogs, SP increased lung burst frequency, episode frequency, but decreased number of lung bursts per episode and lung burst duration. In contrast, DAMGO decreased lung burst frequency and burst cycle frequency, episode frequency, and number of lung bursts per episode but increased all other lung burst parameters. Based on these results, we hypothesize that NK1R and µOR colocalization together with a metamorphosis-related increase in µOR intensity marks the location of the lung RRG but not necessarily the lung episodic pattern generator. PMID:19184042

Davies, B. L.; Brundage, C. M.; Harris, M. B.

2010-01-01

414

First-generation black-hole-forming supernovae and the metal abundance pattern of a very iron-poor star.  

PubMed

It has been proposed theoretically that the first generation of stars in the Universe (population III) would be as massive as 100 solar masses (100 M(O)), because of inefficient cooling of the precursor gas clouds. Recently, the most iron-deficient (but still carbon-rich) low-mass star--HE0107-5240--was discovered. If this is a population III star that gained its metals (elements heavier than helium) after its formation, it would challenge the theoretical picture of the formation of the first stars. Here we report that the patterns of elemental abundance in HE0107-5240 (and other extremely metal-poor stars) are in good accord with the nucleosynthesis that occurs in stars with masses of 20-130 M(O) when they become supernovae if, during the explosions, the ejecta undergo substantial mixing and fallback to form massive black holes. Such supernovae have been observed. The abundance patterns are not, however, consistent with enrichment by supernovae from stars in the range 130-300 M(O). We accordingly infer that the first-generation supernovae came mostly from explosions of approximately 20-130 M(O) stars; some of these produced iron-poor but carbon- and oxygen-rich ejecta. Low-mass second-generation stars, like HE0107-5240, could form because the carbon and oxygen provided pathways for the gas to cool. PMID:12712199

Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

2003-04-24

415

Neural oscillators triggered by loading and hip orientation can generate activation patterns at the ankle during walking in humans.  

PubMed

Spinal pattern generators (SPGs), which are neural networks without a central input from the brain may be responsible for controlling locomotion. In this study, we used neural oscillators to examine the rhythmic patterns generated at the ankle during walking. Seven healthy male subjects were requested to walk at their normal self-selected speed on a treadmill. Force measurements acquired from pressure insoles, electromyography and kinematic data were captured simultaneously. The SPG model consisted of a simple oscillator made up of two neurons; one neuron will activate an ankle extensor and the other will activate an ankle flexor. The outputs of the oscillator represented the muscle activation of each muscle. A nonlinear least squares algorithm was used to determine a set of parameters that would optimise the differences between model output and experimental data. Insole forces and hip angles of six consecutive strides were used as inputs to the model, which generated outputs that closely fitted experimental data. Our results showed that it is possible to reproduce muscle activations using neural oscillators. A close correlation between simulated and measured muscle activations indicated that spinal control should not be underestimated in models of human locomotion. PMID:22843430

Chong, Sook-Yee; Wagner, Heiko; Wulf, Arne

2012-09-01

416

Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project.

NONE

1994-10-01

417

Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

1996-05-01

418

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

419

The Interrogator as Critic: The Turing Test and the Evaluation of Generative Music Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedural or algorithmic approaches to generating music have been explored in the medium of software for over fifty years. Occasionally, researchers have attempted to evaluate the success of these generative music systems by measuring the perceived quality or style conformity of isolated musical outputs. These tests are often conducted in the form of comparisons between computer-aided output and non-computer-aided output.

Christopher Ariza

2009-01-01

420

Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop  

SciTech Connect

Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

1997-04-01

421

Fatal Flaws in Measuring Landfill Gas Generation Rates by Empirical Well Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well testing procedures, such as the Tier 3 methodology specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Subtitle D, are commonly used for directly estimating landfill gas (LFG) emissions at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Similar procedures are also used to estimate LFG generation rates for the design of LFG-to-energy projects. These methodologies assume that the LFG generation rate

Gary R. Walter

2003-01-01

422

Origin of the patchy emission pattern at the ZERT CO2 Release Test  

SciTech Connect

A numerical experiment was carried out to test whether the patchy CO{sub 2} emission patterns observed at the ZERT release facility are caused by the presence of packers that divide the horizontal injection well into six CO2-injection zones. A three-dimensional model of the horizontal well and cobble-soil system was developed and simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7CA were carried out. Simulation results show patchy emissions for the seven-packer (six-injection-zone) configuration of the field test. Numerical experiments were then conducted for the cases of 24 packers (23 injection zones) and an effectively infinite number of packers. The time to surface breakthrough and the number of patches increased as the number of packers increased suggesting that packers and associated along pipe flow are the origin of the patchy emissions. In addition, it was observed that early breakthrough occurs at locations where the horizontal well pipe is shallow and installed mostly in soil rather than the deeper cobble. In the cases where the pipe is installed at shallow depths and directly in the soil, higher pipe gas saturations occur than where the pipe is installed slightly deeper in the cobble. It is believed this is an effect mostly relevant to the model rather than the field system and arises through the influence of capillarity, permeability, and pipe elevation of the soil compared to the cobble adjacent to the pipe.

Lewicki, J.L.; Pan, L.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2009-10-15

423

Pattern of condom use among clients at a Nigerian HIV Counseling and Testing Centre  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in Nigeria have shown that the main route of HIV transmission is sexual intercourse and that effective condom use protects people against infection. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of condom use among clients of a friendly HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) Centre in Osogbo southwestern Nigeria. Methods This was a review of the HCT Centre records from 2006 to 2010 retrieving socio-demographic information, sexual behaviour, condom use and result of HIV testing. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results One thousand nine hundred and twenty-one client records were reviewed. The mean age of the study population was 35.4 (SD 10.5) years. The majority (53%) of the respondents were females, 232 (12%) were HIV positive, and 38.2% had multiple sexual partners. Only heterosexual vaginal sex was reported among the clients. Overall 45.2% of the clients did not use a condom in their last sexual act. Factors identified to be significantly associated with non-use of condoms were; younger age, having had higher education and positive HIV status. Conclusion Unprotected heterosexual intercourse was common among the study population, indicating a need to step up HIV preventive programme through behavioural change communication strategy. PMID:23883623

2013-01-01

424

MIPoD: A Hypothesis-Testing Framework for Microevolutionary Inference from Patterns of Divergence  

PubMed Central

Despite the many triumphs of comparative biology during the past few decades, the field has remained strangely divorced from evolutionary genetics. In particular, comparative methods have failed to incorporate multivariate process models of microevolution that include genetic constraint in the form of the G matrix. Here we explore the insights that might be gained by such an analysis. A neutral model of evolution by genetic drift that depends on effective population size and the G matrix predicts a probability distribution for divergence of population trait means on a phylogeny. Use of a maximum likelihood (ML) framework then allows us to compare independent direct estimates of G with the ML estimates based on the observed pattern of trait divergence among taxa. We assess the departure from neutrality, and thus the role of different types of selection and other forces, in a stepwise hypothesis-testing procedure based on parameters for the size, shape, and orientation of G. We illustrate our approach with a test case of data on vertebral number evolution in garter snakes. PMID:18194086

Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Arnold, Stevan J.

2008-01-01

425

Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscope using an excitation beam with a controlled polarization pattern in order to detect three-dimensional molecular orientation. The electric field at the focus is controlled three-dimensionally by modifying the polarization distribution with a parallel-aligned nematic-liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator without any mechanical moving parts. We demonstrated that the SHG signal from an Achilles tendon, sliced so that collagen fibers were aligned parallel to the optical axis, excited by a radially polarized beam was higher than those excited by linearly polarized beams. The possibility of determinating three-dimensional molecular orientation was thus shown.

Yoshiki, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Araki, Tsutomu

2005-08-01

426

Unwanted sounds generated with test tone presentation can spoil extended high-frequency audiometry.  

PubMed

Unwanted sounds from a commercially available audiometer were evaluated in terms of their effects on extended high-frequency (EHF) audiometry. Although the manufacturer reported that the audiometer conformed to relevant International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, the audiograms obtained using the audiometer were erroneous because the subjects had responded falsely to noise generated with the test tone presentation before detecting the test tone. Analyses of acoustic and electric output signals revealed that the audiometer generated most of the unwanted sounds, not the earphones that were used. Based on the measurement results, clinical implications of the measurement results are discussed for conducting more reliable EHF audiometry. PMID:20968319

Kurakata, Kenji; Mizunami, Tazu; Matsushita, Kazuma; Shiraishi, Kimio

2010-10-01

427

Test results for a Bi-2223 HTS racetrack coil for generator applications  

SciTech Connect

Testing, results and analysis of a Bi-2223 model superconducting generator coil produced under the DOE Superconductivity Partnership Initiative are presented. The test arrangement enables coil energization with dc and transient currents over a range of operating temperatures to explore coil performance under conditions analogous to those that would be experienced by a superconducting generator field coil. Analytical calculations of coil ac and ohmic losses and temperature rise compare well with experimental measurements. Good performance is predicted for a typical 3-phase fault condition. Coil steady state and transient performance can be predicted with confidence for full scale superconductor application.

Salasoo, L.; Herd, K.G.; Laskaris, E.T.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Chari, M.V.K. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

428

What is learned in patterning discriminations? Further tests of configural accounts of associative learning in human electrodermal conditioning.  

PubMed

Two Pavlovian SCR conditioning experiments investigated positive and negative patterning discriminations in humans by means of transfer tests. In Experiment 1, positive patterning (A-,B-,AB+) was trained interleaved with non-reinforced presentations of an additional stimulus (C-). Then responding to new compounds consisting of either already trained elements (AC,BC) or new elements (DE) was examined. In Experiment 2, negative patterning (A+,B+,AB-) was trained interleaved with reinforced presentations of an additional stimulus (C+). Again, we examined responding to new compounds consisting of either already trained elements (AC,BC) or new elements (DE). In both experiments the initial patterning discrimination was solved successfully. The response patterns to the test compounds in both experiments were in contradiction to configural accounts of associative learning. In positive patterning human participants seemed to utilize 'number' or some other abstract feature in preference to available concrete stimuli. In negative patterning the abstract dimension of 'separate-versus-together' or 'opposite' was used. PMID:11240314

Lachnit, H; Lober, K

2001-03-01

429

Complex Zebra Patterns in Solar Radio Emission and New Generation Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several complex uncommon zebra patterns in meter/ decimeter and microwave range are shown. It is difficult to interpret them as the regular harmonics within the framework of known models, e.g. based on the double plasma resonance (DPR) mechanism. Specifically, for this reason, only in the last 5 years about 10 works devoted to an improvement of the DPR mechanism were published, and 5 new models were proposed. We propose a new advanced model of ZP based on the explosive instability in the system of the weakly-relativistic mono-velocity beam of protons - the strongly nonisothermic plasma.

Chernov, G. P.; Fomichev, V. V.

430

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

1995-10-01

431

Complexity of pattern generation via planar parallel binary fission\\/fusion grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two previous works [74CGP,86CGP], we defined and studied a scheme for grammar-based generation of planar maps, using deterministic parallel (in the sense of Lindenmayer) derivation rules of tow types — binary splitting of countries (fission) and binary merging (fusion). Countries would be visualized as cells in applications to modeling the development of (planar) biological organisms, for example. We are

Jack W. Carlyle; Sheila A. Greibach; Azaria Paz

1986-01-01

432

Class and University Education: Inter-Generational Patterns in Canada. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people from lower class origins continue to face major barriers to university education in Canada. This paper documents both substantial inter-generational class mobility and continuing inequalities in formal educational attainments by class origins. While Canada now has the world's higher educational attainments in its youth cohort and has…

Livingstone, D. W.; Stowe, Susan

433

Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in México.  

PubMed

Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied. PMID:18573653

Otoniel, Buenrostro Delgado; Liliana, Márquez-Benavides; Francelia, Pinette Gaona

2008-01-01

434

Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied.

Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: otonielb@zeus.umich.mx; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)

2008-07-01

435

Development tests for the 2.5 megawatt Mod-2 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2.5 megawatt MOD-2 wind turbine generator test program is discussed. The development of the 2.5 megawatt MOD-2 wind turbine generator included an extensive program of testing which encompassed verification of analytical procedures, component development, and integrated system verification. The test program was to assure achievement of the thirty year design operational life of the wind turbine system as well as to minimize costly design modifications which would otherwise have been required during on site system testing. Computer codes were modified, fatigue life of structure and dynamic components were verified, mechanical and electrical component and subsystems were functionally checked and modified where necessary to meet system specifications, and measured dynamic responses of coupled systems confirmed analytical predictions.

Andrews, J. S.; Baskin, J. M.

1982-01-01

436

Test and evaluation of the Navy half-watt RTG. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) considered is to provide a continuous minimum power output of 0.5 watt at 6.0 to 8.5 volts for a minimum period of 15 years. The mechanical-electrical evaluation phase discussed involved the conduction of shock and vibration tests. The thermochemical-physical evaluation phase consisted of an analysis of the materials and the development of a thermal model. The thermoelectric evaluation phase included the accelerated testing of the thermoelectric modules.

Rosell, F. E., Jr.; Lane, S. D.; Eggers, P. E.; Gawthrop, W. E.; Rouklove, P. G.; Truscello, V. C.

1976-01-01

437

SMART And FAST: Test Generation for VLSI Scan-Design Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes new concepts and algorithms used to generate tests for VLSI scan-design circuits. The new algorithms include: 1. a low-cost fault-independent algorithm (SMART), 2. a fault-oriented algorithm (FAST), and 3. an algorithm for dynamic test set compaction. The fault-oriented algorithm is guided by new controllability\\/observability cost functions whose objective is to minimize the amount of search done in

M. Abramovici; J. J. Kulikowski; P. R. Menon; D. T. Miller

1986-01-01

438

The generation of biomolecular patterns in highly porous collagen-GAG scaffolds using direct photolithography  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex organization of structural proteins found within tissues and organs. Heterogeneous tissues with spatially and temporally modulated properties play an important role in organism physiology. Here we present a benzophenone (BP) based direct, photolithographic approach to spatially pattern solution phase biomolecules within collagen-GAG (CG) scaffolds and demonstrate creation of a wide range of patterns composed of multiple biomolecular species in a manner independent from scaffold fabrication steps. We demonstrate the ability to immobilize biomolecules at surface densities of up to 1000 ligands per square micron on the scaffold strut surface and to depths limited by the penetration depth of the excitation source into the scaffold structure. Importantly, while BP photopatterning does further crosslink the CG scaffold, evidenced by increased mechanical properties and collagen crystallinity, it does not affect scaffold microstructural or compositional properties or negatively influence cell adhesion, viability, or proliferation. We show that covalently photoimmobilized fibronectin within a CG scaffold significantly increases the speed of MC3T3-E1 cell attachment relative to the bare CG scaffold or non-specifically adsorbed fibronectin, suggesting that this approach can be used to improve scaffold bioactivity. Our findings, on the whole, establish the use of direct, BP photolithography as a methodology for covalently incorporating activity-improving biochemical cues within 3D collagen biomaterial scaffolds with spatial control over biomolecular deposition. PMID:21397322

Martin, Teresa A.; Caliari, Steven R.; Williford, Paul D.; Harley, Brendan A.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

439

Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.  

PubMed

Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks. PMID:25172170

Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

2014-11-01

440

Ecological coherence of diversity patterns derived from classical fingerprinting and Next Generation Sequencing techniques  

PubMed Central

Changes in richness and bacterial community structure obtained via 454 Massively Parallel Tag Sequencing (MPTS) and Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Analysis (ARISA) were systematically compared to determine whether and how the ecological knowledge obtained from both molecular techniques could be combined. We evaluated community changes over time and depth in marine coastal sands at different levels of taxonomic resolutions, sequence corrections and sequence abundances. Although richness over depth layers or sampling dates greatly varied [??30% and 70–80% new operational taxonomic units (OTU) between two samples with ARISA and MPTS respectively], overall patterns of community variations were similar with both approaches. Alpha-diversity estimated by ARISA-derived OTU was most similar to that obtained from MPTS-derived OTU defined at the order level. Similar patterns of OTU replacement were also found with MPTS at the family level and with 20–25% rare types removed. Using ARISA or MPTS datasets with lower resolution, such as those containing only resident OTU, yielded a similar set of significant contextual variables explaining bacterial community changes. Hence, ARISA as a rapid and low-cost fingerprinting technique represents a valid starting point for more in-depth exploration of community composition when complemented by the detailed taxonomic description offered by MPTS. PMID:24147993

Gobet, Angélique; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

2014-01-01

441

Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

442

Development of automated test procedures and techniques for LSI circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of large scale integrated (LSI) logic circuits was considered from the point of view of automatic test pattern generation. A system for automatic test pattern generation is described. A test generation algorithm is presented that can be applied to both combinational and sequential logic circuits. Also included is a programmed implementation of the algorithm and sample results from the program.

Carroll, B. D.

1975-01-01

443

Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation: pattern generation algorithms This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation: pattern generation algorithms This article has (9pp) doi:10.1088/1741-2560/7/5/056002 Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation: pattern, opening up a range of possible systems and applications where the non-invasiveness, safety, mm-range

Shoham, Shy

444

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

2011-11-01

445

Test Program for Stirling Radioisotope Generator Hardware at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling-based energy conversion technology has demonstrated the potential of high efficiency and low mass power systems for future space missions. This capability is beneficial, if not essential, to making certain deep space missions possible. Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. A variety of flight-like hardware, including Stirling convertors, controllers, and housings, was designed and built under the ASRG flight development project. To support future Stirling-based power system development NASA has proposals that, if funded, will allow this hardware to go on test at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). While future flight hardware may not be identical to the hardware developed under the ASRG flight development project, many components will likely be similar, and system architectures may have heritage to ASRG. Thus the importance of testing the ASRG hardware to the development of future Stirling-based power systems cannot be understated. This proposed testing will include performance testing, extended operation to establish an extensive reliability database, and characterization testing to quantify subsystem and system performance and better understand system interfaces. This paper details this proposed test program for Stirling radioisotope generator hardware at NASA GRC. It explains the rationale behind the proposed tests and how these tests will meet the stated objectives.

Lewandowski, Edward J.; Bolotin, Gary S.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

2014-01-01

446

The Growing Canvas of Biological Development: Multiscale Pattern Generation on an Expanding Lattice of Gene Regulatory Nets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spontaneous generation of an entire organism from a single cell is the epitome of a self-organizing, decentralized complex system. How do nonspatial gene interactions extend in 3-D space? In this work, I present a simple model that simulates some biological developmental principles using an expanding lattice of cells. Each cell contains a gene regulatory network (GRN), modeled as a feedforward hierarchy of switches that can settle in various on/off expression states. Local morphogen gradients provide positional information in input, which is integrated by each GRN to produce differential expression of identity genes in output. Similarly to striping in the Drosophila embryo, the lattice becomes segmented into spatial regions of homogeneous genetic expression that resemble stained-glass motifs. Meanwhile, it also expands by cell proliferation, creating new local gradients of positional information within former single-identity regions. Analogous to a "growing canvas" painting itself, the alternation of growth and patterning results in the creation of a form. This preliminary study attempts to reproduce pattern formation through a multiscale, recursive and modular process. It explores the elusive relationship between nonspatial GRN weights (genotype) and spatial patterns (phenotype). Abstracting from biology in the same spirit as neural networks or swarm optimization, I hope to be contributing to a novel engineering paradigm of system construction that could complement or replace omniscient architects with decentralized collectivities of agents.

Doursat, René

447

Interference patterns in the Spacelab 2 plasma wave data - oblique electrostatic waves generated by the electron beam  

SciTech Connect

During the Spacelab 2 mission the University of Iowa's Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) explored the plasma environment around the shuttle. Wideband spectrograms of plasma waves were obtained from the PDP at frequencies of 0-30 kHz and at distances up to 400 m from the shuttle. Strong low-frequency (below 10 kHz) electric field noise was observed in the wideband data during two periods in which an electron beam was ejected from the shuttle. This noise shows clear evidence of interference patterns caused by the finite (3.89 m) antenna length. The low-frequency noise was the most dominant type of noise produced by the ejected electron beam. Analysis of antenna interference patterns generated by these waves permits a determination of the wavelength, the direction of propagation, and the location of the source region. The observed waves have a linear dispersion relation very similar to that of ion acoustic waves. The waves are believed to be oblique ion acoustic or high-order ion cyclotron waves generated by a current of ambient electrons returning to the shuttle in response to the ejected electron beam. 31 refs.

Feng, Wei; Gurnett, D.A.; Cairns, I.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City (United States))

1992-11-01

448

Generation and testing of random fields and the conditional simulation of reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Three methods have been reported by which random fields can be generated to represent permeability fields for use in reservoir simulation. Because these fields would be the basis of the simulations, it is essential that the procedure of their generation, and the qualifications of the methods themselves, should be investigated closely. There seem to have been no attempts reported to identify the general characteristics needed by which to qualify a particular method for this use. The methods that are considered to generate random fields in this study are: the Fast Fourier Transform Method (FFTM) developed by Gutjahr; the Source Point Method (SPM) introduced by Heller; and the Turning Bands Method (TBM) which was originated by Matheron and further developed by Montoglou and Wilson. A structural analysis, that takes spatial correlations into consideration, has been performed on these three methods. For most reservoirs, permeability has been reported to be distributed log-normally. In this work, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test was performed on each of the three methods. It was noted that a normality test alone is not a sufficient criterion by which to select a particular method for the generation of a random field. To this must be coupled a structural analysis, so that spatial correlations can be considered. Geostatistical techniques, kriging, and conditioned simulation are used on the generated fields. These techniques take into account the actual measured data taken from laboratory or field tests. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Sultan, A.J.; Heller, J.P.; Gutjahr, A.L.

1990-01-01

449

Thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results obtained from combined thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station are summarized. The obtained data are compared with the results of thermal and chemical tests carried out on steam generators at other nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors, and recommendations on selecting the steam-generator blowdown schedule are given.

Davidenko, N. N.; Trunov, N. B.; Saakov, E. S.; Berezanin, A. A.; Bogomolov, I. N.; Derii, V. P.; Nemytov, D. S.; Usanov, D. A.; Shestakov, N. B.; Shchelik, S. V.

2007-12-01

450

Fine-Scale Patterns of Population Stratification Confound Rare Variant Association Tests  

PubMed Central

Advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled systematic exploration of the contribution of rare variation to Mendelian and complex diseases. Although it is well known that population stratification can generate spurious associations with common alleles, its impact on rare variant association methods remains poorly understood. Here, we performed exhaustive coalescent simulations with demographic parameters calibrated from exome sequence data to evaluate the performance of nine rare variant association methods in the presence of fine-scale population structure. We find that all methods have an inflated spurious association rate for parameter values that are consistent with levels of differentiation typical of European populations. For example, at a nominal significance level of 5%, some test statistics have a spurious association rate as high as 40%. Finally, we empirically assess the impact of population stratification in a large data set of 4,298 European American exomes. Our results have important implications for the design, analysis, and interpretation of rare variant genome-wide association studies. PMID:23861739

O’Connor, Timothy D.; Kiezun, Adam; Bamshad, Michael; Rich, Stephen S.; Smith, Joshua D.; Turner, Emily; Leal, Suzanne M.; Akey, Joshua M.

2013-01-01

451

Development of a diurnal rainfall pattern generator and assessment of climate change impact on flood risk in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. Immediate measures are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. The capacities of drainage systems in paddy areas are planned on the basis of design rainfall. For example, design rainfall may be represented by a 3-day rainfall event with a 10-year return period. However, design rainfall parameters used in Japan have not been reviewed for a few decades, and changes in rainfall patterns associated with recent climate change are not reflected in current drainage planning. The aim of this study was to develop a diurnal rainfall pattern generator and to use it to evaluate the effects of changing patterns of heavy rainfall due to climate change on flood risk in low-lying areas. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for upland and inundated areas, respectively. The model was adjusted in accordance with observed discharges and water levels for heavy rainfall events. Next, the rainfall data predicted by MIROC (a Global Climate Model developed by the Center for Climate Systems Research) were analyzed to determine the future trends of changes of heavy rainfall. Our analysis showed that probabilistic 3-day rainfall would increase in the future. In particular, 3-day rainfall events with a 10-year return period were calculated to increase from about 220 mm/3d at present to about 270 mm/3d in the future. These amounts of rainfall were used to represent the future trend of increases of heavy rainfall. Simultaneously, we developed a diurnal rainfall pattern generator based on a Monte Carlo simulation method. For this generator, the beta distribution was used to disaggregate daily rainfall to hourly data. Hourly data were then permuted to a data series by using an autocorrelation correction; hence, it could be argued that the resultant data represented the characteristics of observed rainfall. Three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount (220 mm/3d and 270 mm/3d) by using this generator, and all data were input to the drainage model. On the other hand, the lagoons are important for flood prevention in the basin so that allowable flood level is established at 1.50 m at one of lagoons, for example. Our evaluation of the influence of climate change on the study area showed that the risk that the future frequency of the lagoon reaching peak water levels that exceed the allowable flood level would rise by nearly 25% compared with the present risk. Furthermore, we estimated that the average duration of inundations of paddies to depths greater than 30 cm would increase in the future. Mitigation measures such as revision of drainage planning and changing design standards to increase the capacity of drainage pump may be necessary.

Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

2011-12-01

452

Generating High-Intensity Electromagnetic Fields for Radiated-Susceptibility Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a feasibility study covering the generation of high-intensity electromagnetic fields for radiated susceptibility or ordnance hazard tests. A new type of antenna using an elliptic-cylinder reflector is discussed. The results of laboratory measurements made with such an antenna are displayed graphically and discussed in the text of the paper. The advantages and limitations of this device are

Victor P. Musil

1968-01-01

453

NEXT GENERATION GENETIC COUNSELING Genetic Testing of Children for Predisposition to Mood Disorders  

E-print Network

/or family history of Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar Disorder were interviewed based on the Health genetic research on bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is to determine how geneticNEXT GENERATION GENETIC COUNSELING Genetic Testing of Children for Predisposition to Mood Disorders

454

Automated Micro-architectural Test Generation for Validation of Modern Processors  

E-print Network

Automated Micro-architectural Test Generation for Validation of Modern Processors Heon-Mo Koo by adopting complicated micro-architectural features such as deep pipelines, dynamic scheduling, out-of- order techniques have limitations in terms of exercising intricate micro-architectural artifacts. Therefore

Mishra, Prabhat

455

High pressure water hammer test program for the split flow preheat steam generator. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the high pressure water hammer test program was to experimentally and analytically investigate the possibility of water hammer phenomena in the preheater region of preheat steam generators. In particular, those conditions that produced steam voids and their subsequent collapse by condensation and attendant depressurization were investigated. Volume 2 of the 3-volume report deals with noncondensible gas effects

1978-01-01

456

MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

457

Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the on-going automation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) a new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. High accuracy is obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at the desired bandwidth (base-band or bandpass). The digital synthesis provides a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy is dependent on test integration time and limited only by the system quantization noise (0.02 dB). The monitor and control as well as signal-processing programs reside in a personal computer (PC). Commands are transmitted to properly configure the specially designed high-speed digital hardware. The prototype can generate either two data channels modulated or not on a subcarrier, or one QPSK channel, or a residual carrier with one biphase data channel. The analog spectrum generated is on the DC to 10 MHz frequency range. These spectra may be up-converted to any desired frequency without loss on the characteristics of the SNR provided. Test results are presented.

Gutierrez-Luaces, Benito O.

1993-01-01

458

Genetic Algorithm Based Multi-Agent System Applied to Test Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automatic test generating system in distributed computing context is one of the most important links in on-line evaluation system. Although the issue has been argued long since, there is not a perfect solution to it so far. This paper proposed an innovative approach to successfully addressing such issue by the seamless integration of genetic…

Meng, Anbo; Ye, Luqing; Roy, Daniel; Padilla, Pierre

2007-01-01

459

Asphere testing with a Fizeau interferometer based on a combined computer-generated hologram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fizeau interferometers with an additional diffractive optical element are frequently used for measuring spherical and aspherical surfaces. We present a new (to our knowledge) optical test method, in which the Fizeau principle is now perfectly fulfilled by generating reference and measuring wavefront on the last optical surface, which carries a diffractive optical element. This method has been examined experimentally by

Jean-Michel Asfour; Alexander G. Poleshchuk

2006-01-01

460

Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research  

PubMed Central

Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. Summary The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants. PMID:23046515

2012-01-01

461

Representation Search through Generate and Test Ashique Rupam Mahmood, Richard S. Sutton  

E-print Network

Representation Search through Generate and Test Ashique Rupam Mahmood, Richard S. Sutton Department, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada {ashique,rsutton}@ualberta.ca Abstract Learning representations from data is one for learning representations, but what constitutes a good representa- tion is not yet well understood

Sutton, Richard S.

462

A method of fault analysis for test generation and fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a fault coverage analysis method for test generation and fault diagnosis of large combinational circuits. Input vectors are analyzed in pairs in two steps using a 16-valued logic system, GEMINI. Forward propagation is performed to determine, for each line in the network, the set of all possible values it can take if the network contains any single

Henry Cox; Janusz Rajski

1988-01-01

463

Dynamic Test Generation to Find Integer Bugs in x86 Binary Linux Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, integer bugs, including integer overflow, width conversion, and signed\\/unsigned conversion errors, have risen to become a common root cause for serious security vulnerabilities. We introduce new methods for discover- ing integer bugs using dynamic test generation on x86 binaries, and we describe key design choices in efficient symbolic execution of such programs. We implemented our methods in a prototype

David Molnar; Xue Cong Li; David Wagner

2009-01-01

464

Towards Fully Automated Test Program Generation from Closed Specifications of Classes  

E-print Network

that support automated generation of test programs: 1. Auxiliary functions are used in ADL to define specification system, ADL requires the user to pro­ vide additional supporting functions to define the semantics­ grams for the function or module. This paper proposes a Closed Class Specification (CCS) system

Leow, Wee Kheng

465

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation  

E-print Network

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

Boyer, Edmond

466

Particle generators for the calibration and testing of narcotic and explosive vapor/particle detection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of data on narcotics and explosives particulates is presented. Methods to generate particles of narcotics and explosives will be discussed with respect to resulting particle size distribution and mass output. The application of these standards to the testing of narcotic and explosive particle detection systems will be addressed.

Davies, John P.; Hallowell, Susan F.; Hoglund, David E.

1994-03-01

467

Fabrication and Testing of Binary-Phase Fourier Gratings for Nonuniform Array Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort describes the fabrication and testing of binary-phase Fourier gratings designed to generate an incoherent array of output source points with nonuniform user-defined intensities, symmetric about the zeroth order. Like Dammann fanout gratings, these binary-phase Fourier gratings employ only two phase levels to generate a defined output array. Unlike Dammann fanout gratings, these gratings generate an array of nonuniform, user-defined intensities when projected into the far-field regime. The paper describes the process of design, fabrication, and testing for two different version of the binary-phase grating; one designed for a 12 micron wavelength, referred to as the Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) grating, and one designed for a 5 micron wavelength, referred to as the Mid-Wavelength Infrared Grating (MWIR).

Keys, Andrew S.; Crow, Robert W.; Ashley, Paul R.; Nelson, Tom R., Jr.; Parker, Jack H.; Beecher, Elizabeth A.

2004-01-01