Sample records for test pattern generator

  1. A diagnostic test pattern generation algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Camurati; D. Medina; P. Prinetto; M. Sonza Reorda

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a novel ATPG (automatic test pattern generation) algorithm, based on PODEM, that makes diagnostic test pattern generation feasible for medium-sized combinational circuits described at the gate level with the single-stuck-at-fault assumption. The input to the ATPG is a couple of faults, and either the output is a test pattern that distinguishes them or they are tagged as

  2. Test pattern generation using Boolean satisfiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Larrabee

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Boolean satisfiability method for generating test patterns for single stuck-atfaults in combinational circuits. This new method generates test patterns in two steps: First, it constructsa formula expressing the Boolean difference between the unfaulted and faulted circuits. Second, it appliesa Boolean satisfiability algorithm to the resulting formula. This approach differs from previous methodsnow in use, which search

  3. Efficient Generation of Test Patterns Using Boolean Difference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Larrabee

    1989-01-01

    Most automatic test pattern generation systems for combinational circuits generate a test for a given fault by directly searching a data structure representing the circuit to be tested. The author describes a novel system that divides the problem into two parts: first it constructs a formula expressing the Boolean difference between the unfaulted and faulted circuits. Second, it applies a

  4. Efficient Generation of Test Patterns Using Boolean Satisfiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Larrabee

    1990-01-01

    A combinational circuit can be tested for the presence of a single stuck-at fault byapplying a set of inputs that excite a verifiable output response in that circuit. If thefault is present, the output will be different than it would be if the fault were notpresent. Given a circuit, the goal of an automatic test pattern generation system isto generate

  5. Ring Counter Based ATPG for Low Transition Test Pattern Generation.

    PubMed

    Begam, V M Thoulath; Baulkani, S

    2015-01-01

    In test mode test patterns are applied in random fashion to the circuit under circuit. This increases switching transition between the consecutive test patterns and thereby increases dynamic power dissipation. The proposed ring counter based ATPG reduces vertical switching transitions by inserting test vectors only between the less correlative test patterns. This paper presents the RC-ATPG with an external circuit. The external circuit consists of XOR gates, full adders, and multiplexers. First the total number of transitions between the consecutive test patterns is determined. If it is more, then the external circuit generates and inserts test vectors in between the two test patterns. Test vector insertion increases the correlation between the test patterns and reduces dynamic power dissipation. The results prove that the test patterns generated by the proposed ATPG have fewer transitions than the conventional ATPG. Experimental results based on ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits show 38.5% reduction in the average power and 50% reduction in the peak power attained during testing with a small size decoding logic. PMID:26075295

  6. Ring Counter Based ATPG for Low Transition Test Pattern Generation

    PubMed Central

    Begam, V. M. Thoulath; Baulkani, S.

    2015-01-01

    In test mode test patterns are applied in random fashion to the circuit under circuit. This increases switching transition between the consecutive test patterns and thereby increases dynamic power dissipation. The proposed ring counter based ATPG reduces vertical switching transitions by inserting test vectors only between the less correlative test patterns. This paper presents the RC-ATPG with an external circuit. The external circuit consists of XOR gates, full adders, and multiplexers. First the total number of transitions between the consecutive test patterns is determined. If it is more, then the external circuit generates and inserts test vectors in between the two test patterns. Test vector insertion increases the correlation between the test patterns and reduces dynamic power dissipation. The results prove that the test patterns generated by the proposed ATPG have fewer transitions than the conventional ATPG. Experimental results based on ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits show 38.5% reduction in the average power and 50% reduction in the peak power attained during testing with a small size decoding logic. PMID:26075295

  7. Automated Test Pattern Generation for Quantum Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob D. Biamonte; Marek A. Perkowski

    This work extends a general method used to test classical circuits to quantum circuits. Gate internal errors are address using a discrete fault model. Fault models to represent unwanted nearest neighbor entanglement as well as unwanted qubit rotation are presented. When witnessed, the faults we model are probabilistic, but there is a set of tests with the highest probability of

  8. Automatic test pattern generation for asynchronous circuits 

    E-print Network

    Vasudevan, Dilip Prasad

    2012-11-29

    The testability of integrated circuits becomes worse with transistor dimensions reaching nanometer scales. Testing, the process of ensuring that circuits are fabricated without defects, becomes inevitably part of the ...

  9. Thread-Parallel Integrated Test Pattern Generator Utilizing Satisfiability Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Czutro; Ilia Polian; Matthew D. T. Lewis; Piet Engelke; Sudhakar M. Reddy; Bernd Becker

    2010-01-01

    Efficient utilization of the inherent parallelism of multi-core architectures is a grand challenge in the field of electronic\\u000a design automation (EDA). One EDA algorithm associated with a high computational cost is automatic test pattern generation\\u000a (ATPG). We present the ATPG tool TIGUAN based on a thread-parallel SAT solver. Due to a tight integration of the SAT engine\\u000a into the ATPG

  10. Parallelization methods for circuit partitioning based parallel automatic test pattern generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Klenke; Ronald D. Williams; James H. Aylor

    1993-01-01

    Generation of test vectors for the VLSI devices used in contemporary digital systems is becoming much more difficult as these devices increase in size. Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) techniques are commonly used to generate these tests. Parallel processing techniques can be applied to accelerate the process of finding test patterns. One problem with this approach is that most currently

  11. Test Pattern Generation for Realistic Bridge Faults in CMOS ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Joel Ferguson; Tracy Larrabee

    1991-01-01

    Two approaches have been used to balance the costof generating effective tests for IC's and the need toincrease the quality level of shipped IC's. The first approachfavors using high-level fault models to reducetest generation costs, and the second approach favorsthe use of low-level, technology-specific fault modelsthat lead to high test generation costs, but increaseddefect coverage in the tested circuits. In

  12. Cost analysis of Hybrid LFSR as deterministic and pseudorandom test pattern generator 

    E-print Network

    Utama, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid Linear Feedback Shift Register (HLFSR) is a new Built-in Self Test (BIST) pattern generator that can generate a set of deterministic test patterns followed by pseudorandom patterns. BIST with HLFSR is an effective at-speed testing method...

  13. Toward Automatic Test Pattern Generation for VHDL Descriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Kuchcinski

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for defining a model for the VHDL de- scriptions which can be used for test generation purpose. The VHDL de- scription can be transformed to this model by semantic preserving transformations without lost of information needed for test generation pur- pose. Together with the model definition a unified fault model is defined which can be

  14. DFT and Minimum Leakage Pattern Generation for Static Power Reduction During Test and Burn-In

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chung Kao; Wei-Shun Chuang; Shiu-Ting Lin; Chien-Mo James Li; Vasco M. Manquinho

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a design for testability and minimum leakage pattern generation technique to reduce static power during test and burn-in for nanometer technologies. This technique transforms the minimum leakage pattern generation problem into a pseudo-Boolean optimization (PBO) problem. Nonlinear objective functions of leakage power are approximated by linear ones such that this problem can be solved efficiently by an

  15. Accelerating physical verification using STPRL: a novel language for test pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouh, Ahmed

    2007-02-01

    In this work, test-patterns, test-cases and layout-patterns generations are widely investigated in the sense of turnaround time for creation and/or modification. STPRL, a novel behavioral modeling language for test-pattern creation, is being proposed. The turn-around time for both creation and modification is hugely reduced at no degradation in either accuracy or performance. Furthermore, STPRL provides considerable performance improvements in custom test-patterns creation over available automatic layout creation tools. Our method has been verified with real data at different node-technologies and for migration from and between different technology nodes.

  16. The F-path approach for pattern generation in microprocessor testing 

    E-print Network

    Salinas, Jose?

    1991-01-01

    THE F-PATH APPROACH FOR PATTERN GENERATION IN MICROPROCESSOR TESTING A Thesis by JOSE SAL1NAS Approved as to style and content by: Fabrizio Lombardi (Chair of Committee) Donald Friesen (Member) Richard Vo (Head of Department) Karan... Watson (Member) August 1991 ABSTRACT The F-Path Approach for Pattern Generation in Microprocessor Testing. (August 1991) Jose Salinas, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Fabrizio Lombardi A Fault-Path methodology...

  17. More on accelerating physical verification using STPRL: a novel language for test pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouh, Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    In this work, test-patterns, test-cases and layout-patterns generations are widely investigated in the sense of turnaround time for creation and/or modification. STPRL, a novel behavioral modeling language for test-pattern creation, is being proposed. The turn-around time for both creation and modification is hugely reduced at no degradation in either accuracy or performance. Furthermore, STPRL provides considerable performance improvements in custom testpatterns creation over available automatic layout creation tools. Our method has been verified with real data at different node-technologies and for migration from and between different technology nodes.

  18. Bit-Serial Test Pattern Generation by an Accumulator Behaving as a Non-Linear Feedback Shift Register

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Dimitrakopoulos; Dimitris Nikolos; Dimitris Bakalis

    2002-01-01

    Arithmetic function modules which are available in many circuits can be utilized to generate test patterns and compact test responses. Recently, it was shown that an adder or an accumulator cannot be used as a bit serial test pattern generator due to the poor random properties of the generated sequences. Thus, accumulator-multiplier or adder-multiplier structures have been proposed. In this

  19. Pattern Generator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students must fill in the blanks in a given pattern of shapes. This activity allows students to explore patterns on a range of difficulties. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  20. FANTESTIC: Towards a Powerful Fault Analysis and Test Pattern Generator for Integrated Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Jacomet

    1989-01-01

    A methodology relating physical defects to the circuit-level faulty behavior caused by these defects and a fast algebraic implementation to provide a realistic fault list are proposed. In conjunction with the obtained statistical data on the likelihood of each fault and the knowledge of its best observable electrical manifestation, a solid basis for an effective and powerful test pattern generation

  1. On the Generation of Test Patterns for Multiple Faults Youns KARKOURI, El Mostapha ABOULHAMID and Eduard CERNY

    E-print Network

    Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

    - 1 - On the Generation of Test Patterns for Multiple Faults Younès KARKOURI, El Mostapha to generate test patterns for multiple stuck-at faults in combinational circuits. We assume the presence of all multiple faults of all multiplicities and we do not resort to their explicit enumeration

  2. TIGUAN: Thread-Parallel Integrated Test Pattern Generator Utilizing Satisfiability ANalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Czutro; Ilia Polian; Matthew Lewis; Piet Engelke; Sudhakar M. Reddy; Bernd Becker

    2009-01-01

    We present the automatic test pattern generator TIGUAN basedonathread-parallelSATsolver.Duetoatightintegra- tionoftheSATengineintotheATPGalgorithmandacare- fully chosen mix of various optimization techniques, multi- million-gate industrial circuits are handled without aborts. TIGUAN supports both conventional single-stuck-at faults andsophisticatedconditionalmultiplestuck-atfaultswhich allowstogeneratepatternsfornon-standardfaultmodels. Second, redundant structures are increasingly used to en- hance circuit reliability and yield (16,17). A significant frac- tion of faults in these structures are not detectable. To

  3. The F-path approach for pattern generation in microprocessor testing

    E-print Network

    Salinas, Jose?

    1991-01-01

    technology over the past two decades have prompted a need for testing procedures capable of diagnosing faults in circuits during manufacturing and run time. Increases in gate density have created a need to introduce testing approaches which achieve high... reliability, maintainability and increase production yield for typical CMOS and nMOS circuits. The ultimate goal of testing is to achieve the highest fault coverage in the smallest amount of time. As of today, no testing approach can guarantee a system...

  4. Redundancy and Test-Pattern Generation for Asynchronous Quasi-Delay-Insensitive Combinational Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristides Efthymiou

    2007-01-01

    Most of the early work on testing asynchronous combinational circuits ignored faults inside C elements, a common building block in these circuits. Using a standard cell based design, where C elements are built using majority gates, we show that a number of faults are untestable in some implementations, while others are undetected by previously proposed tests, which yield a fault

  5. Digital circuit test language and test pattern data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Tie-Jun; Chen, Xin-Rong; Ma, Xue-Ying; Huang, Jian-Wen

    The paper presents two aspects of digital integrated circuit testing. For test pattern generation, a set of instructions of a test language were designed and implemented. Their functions are described. For generated test pattern storing, a database and its management system were designed and implemented. Its data structure and organization are discussed.

  6. Biped walking pattern generation using reinforcement learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungho Lee; Jun Ho Oh

    2007-01-01

    In this research, a stable biped walking pattern is generated. The walking pattern is a simple third order polynomial. To find the proper boundary condition, the reinforcement learning algorithm is used. The final velocity of the walking pattern is chosen as learning parameter. To test the algorithm, a simulator that includes the reaction between the foot of the robot and

  7. A simulation-based approach to test pattern generation for synchronous sequential circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Camurati; F. Corno; P. Prinetto; M. Sonza Reorda

    1992-01-01

    Particular design environments, e.g., those based on partial scan, may prevent design for testability techniques from reducing testing to a combinational problem: ATPG for sequential devices thus remains a challenge. Random and deterministic structure-oriented techniques are state-of-the-art, but there is a growing interest in methods that resort to the automaton of the circuit. The authors present SETA, a sequential test

  8. A Retiming-Based Test Pattern Generator Design for Built-In Self Test of Data Path Architectures

    E-print Network

    El-Maleh, Aiman H.

    of the retiming technique in designing TPGs for balanced bistable sequential kernels. Experimental results on ISCAS benchmark circuits demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed TPGs in achieving higher fault coverage than the conventional maximal-length LFSR TPGs. 1. Introduction In a conventional BILBO [1] test

  9. Observation-based test set generation 

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

    2013-02-22

    When circuits are manufactured, there are unavoidable defects that occur in a small but significant portion of the products. Input test patterns that can detect these defects are uniquely generated for each circuit in advance of their production...

  10. Optimizing Test Pattern Generation Using Top-Off ATPG Methodology for Stuck–AT, Transition and Small Delay Defect Faults 

    E-print Network

    Gill, Arjun

    2013-05-01

    The ever increasing complexity and size of digital circuits complemented by Deep Sub Micron (DSM) technology trends today pose challenges to the efficient Design For Test (DFT) methodologies. Innovation is required not only in designing the digital...

  11. LFSR-Based Deterministic TPG for Two-Pattern Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaowei Li; Paul Y. S. Cheung; Hideo Fujiwara

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to designing a cost-effective deterministic test pattern generator (TPG) for two-pattern testing. Given a set of pre-generated test-pair set (obtained by an ATPG tool) with a pre-determined (path delay) fault coverage, a simple TPG is synthesized to apply the given test-pair set in a minimal test time. To achieve this objective, a configurable linear feedback

  12. Two-Pattern Test Capabilities of Autonomous TPG Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Furuya; Edward J. Mccluskey

    1991-01-01

    Two-pattern test capabilities of autonomous test pattern generator (TPG) circuits for use in built-in self- testing of CMOS circuits are investigated. The TPG circuits treated here are not limited to LFSRs but include arbitrary autonomous linear sequential circuits. Based on the transi- tion matrix of a circuit, a method is shown to analyze how many distinct transitions can occur on

  13. Identification of Bacteria by Patterns Generated from Odor Spectra

    E-print Network

    Hung-Chih Chang; Laszlo B. Kish; Maria D. King; Chiman Kwan

    2009-02-09

    We use the power density spectra obtained by fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) to generate new, highly distinguishable, types of patterns based on the average slope of the spectra in different frequency ranges. Such plots can be considered as "fingerprints" of bacterial odors. Three different ways of pattern generation are tested, including a simple binary version. The obtained patterns are simple enough to identify the situation by the naked eye without a pattern recognizer.

  14. Transition-fault test generation

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Bradley Douglas

    2013-02-22

    large to store in the memory of the tester. The proposed methods of test generation utilize stuck-at-fault tests to create transition-fault test sets of a smaller size. Greedy algorithms are used in the generation of both the stuck...

  15. Combinational test generation using satisfiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Stephan; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

    1996-01-01

    We present a robust, efficient algorithm for combinational test generation using a reduction to satisfiability (SAT). The algorithm, Test Generation Using Satisfiability (TEGUS), solves a simplified test set characteristic equation using straightforward but powerful greedy heuristics, ordering the variables using depth-first search and selecting a variable from the next unsatisfied clause at each branching point. For difficult faults, the computation

  16. Test chip assembler and test program generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in working at the geometry level for the generation of either test structure or functional circuit designs is the amount of labor involved in the design phase. To reduce the amount of labor involved in both the design and test of the structures used, JPL has developed a design and test program consisting of a Test Chip Assembler (TCA) and a Test Program Generator (TPG), which creates the geometrical description of the structures and generates the necessary test information using a high-level language. This system reduces the design time for a test chip by a factor of 30. To analyze the data obtained from wafer probing, a statistical package called STMJPL was developed. Some of the capabilities of the JPL software (STMJPL) are described.

  17. Generating Tests from UML Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jefferson Offutt; Aynur Abdurazik

    1999-01-01

    . Although most industry testing of complex software is conductedat the system level, most formal research has focused on theunit level.Asaresult,mostsystemlevel testing techniques are only describedinformally. This paper presents a novel technique that adaptspre-de#ned state-based speci#cation test data generation criteria to generatetest cases from UML statecharts. UML statecharts provide a solidbasis for test generation in a form that can be

  18. Optical Pattern Generator Using Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Bernhard F.

    1988-01-01

    Reticles (masks on enlarged scale) are needed for optical pattern transfer in the production of integrated semiconductor circuits. In order to meet present requirements for 5X reticles only a direct writing technique is feasible. This means direct exposing of photoresist either with light or an electron beam. Many of todays highly dense reticles require some 10 5 to 10 6 discrete exposures when generated with an optical pattern generator. Optical pattern generators normally use mercury arc lamps to expose positive photoresist, which in turn need 200 milliseconds for each of these discrete exposures, thus requiring to stop the table at every exposure position ("stop and go" mode). This results in running times of several days per reticle. Therefore most reticles are nowadays being manufactured with very expensive e-beam machines. In the early 80's we started the first experiments to expose photoresist with an excimer laser. In order to obtain the maximum gain in speed, the goal was to operate with only one excimer laser pulse per exposure, so that a fast "flash on the fly" operation with an optical pattern generator became true. Equipping a conventional optical pattern generator with an excimer laser as the light source, it has become possible to expose substrates coated with standard photoresist in the "flash on the fly" mode with only 13 nanoseconds per flash. So the thruput could be increased up to 25 times in comparison to a pattern generator equipped with a mercury lamp. A comparison of both operation modes will show that an immense increase of speed is possible, even when a ten years old M3600 pattern generator is used. This system is in function now with very high reliability since more than three years in our IC development line.

  19. FOGBUSTER: an efficient algorithm for sequential test generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Glaser; H. T. Vierhaus

    1995-01-01

    Automatic test pattern generation yielding high fault coverage for CMOS circuits has received a wide attention in industry and academia for a long time. Scan techniques were used to break down the sequential ATPG problem to combinational test generation. As the overhead necessary for scan design can not be spent for all circuits, sequential test generation techniques gained importance. In

  20. Test generation systems in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Funatsu; N. Wakatsuki; T. Arima

    1975-01-01

    With the advent of large scale and medium scale integrated circuit, test and diagnosis of digital logic circuits become more and more difficult to get an efficient and economical goal. In this paper, Test Generation Systems for testing digital logic circuits (IC Cards) in Japan are introduced. One implemented in Nippon Electric Co. is described in detail. Future problems of

  1. Test generation for radiotherapy accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Turner

    2005-01-01

    System specification with L OTOS (Language Of Temporal Ordering Specification) is briefly introduced. To make test generatio n practicable, speci- fications are annotated with event constraints using PCL (Pa rameter Constraint Language) as a means of stating test purposes. Automated test generation can then use the principle of input-output conformance to check whether an implementa- tion agrees with its specification.

  2. Hardware-Based Weighted Random Pattern Generation for Boundary Scan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franc Brglez; Gershon Kedem; Clay Gloster

    1989-01-01

    The authors introduce WARP, a weighted test generation system that includes a canonical circuit for resolving weights to any desired precision. Either cellular automata registers (CARs) or linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) are used as a source of random patterns, and optionally, it is possible to permute and linearly combine random bits from the source to control inputs to the

  3. Garment pattern generation from body scan data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Min Kim; Tae Jin Kang

    2003-01-01

    An automatic garment pattern design system using three-dimensional body scan data has been developed. A body model has been generated from massive body scan data using segmentation and the Fourier series expansion method. The surface geometry of a standard garment model used in the apparel industry was reconstructed by stereovision technique and converted into a mesh structure. Surface warping algorithm

  4. FPGA Implementation of a Pattern Generator

    E-print Network

    FPGA Implementation of a Pattern Generator Jakob Toft, s012012 Technical University of Denmark is implemented on a Spartan II FPGA in two different designs: "Memory- based" and "buffer-based". Two different interfaces are used between PC and FPGA, more specific a serial and parallel port interface. The system can

  5. Central Pattern Generators: Optimisation and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leena N. Patel

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses optimisation of a class of biological neural networks, called Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), with\\u000a a view to providing autonomous, reactive control to otherwise non-adaptive operators. CPGs are self-contained neural circuits\\u000a which govern rhythmic motor activities such as locomotion, breathing and digestion. Neurons in this system interact to produce\\u000a rhythmic oscillations without requiring sensory or central input. These

  6. Generating patterns from fields of cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bénédicte Sanson

    2001-01-01

    In Drosophila, a cascade of maternal, gap, pair-rule and segment polarity genes subdivides the antero\\/posterior axis of the embryo into repeating segmental stripes. This review summarizes what happens next, i.e. how an intrasegmental pattern is generated and controls the differentiation of specific cell types in the epidermis. Within each segment, cells secreting the signalling molecules Wingless (the homologue of vertebrate

  7. Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators Are Preferable to Closed Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinyan Li; Haiquan Li; Limsoon Wong; Jian Pei; Guozhu Dong

    2006-01-01

    The generators and the unique closed pattern of an equivalence class of itemsets share a common set of transactions. The generators are the minimal ones among the equivalent itemsets, while the closed pattern is the maximum one. As a generator is usually smaller than the closed pattern in cardinality, by the Minimum Description Length Principle, the generator is prefer- able

  8. Generating Circuit Tests by Exploiting Designed Behavior

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Mark Harper

    1988-12-01

    This thesis describes two programs for generating tests for digital circuits that exploit several kinds of expert knowledge not used by previous approaches. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently ...

  9. Vapor-Generator Wand Helps To Reveal Airflow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, David B.

    1993-01-01

    In vapor-generator wand, liquid propylene glycol flows into electrically heated stainless-steel tube. Liquid boils in heated tube, and emerging vapor forms dense, smoke-like fog used to make airflow patterns visible. Built in variety of sizes, suitable for uses ranging from tabletop demonstrations to research in wind tunnels. For best viewing, plume illuminated by bright, focused incandescent spotlight at right angle to viewing direction. Viewing further enhanced by coating walls of test chamber with flat, dark color to minimize reflections and increase contrast.

  10. Generation Speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verguts, Tom; De Boeck, Paul; Maris, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Studied the role of response fluency on results of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) Test by comparing scores on a test of generation speed (speed of generating rules that govern the items) with APM test performance for 127 Belgian undergraduates. Discusses the importance of generation speed in intelligence. (SLD)

  11. Generating spatiotemporal joint torque patterns from dynamical synchronization of distributed pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Pitti, Alexandre; Lungarella, Max; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Pattern generators found in the spinal cord are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics giving to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitutes an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body's dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment). Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cord, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots. PMID:20011216

  12. Generating Spatiotemporal Joint Torque Patterns from Dynamical Synchronization of Distributed Pattern Generators

    PubMed Central

    Pitti, Alexandre; Lungarella, Max; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Pattern generators found in the spinal cord are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics giving to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitutes an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body's dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment). Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cord, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots. PMID:20011216

  13. Patterning techniques for next generation IC's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Balasinski

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of linear critical dimensions (CDs) beyond 45 nm would require significant increase of the complexity of pattern definition process. In this work, we discuss the key successor methodology to the current optical lithography, the Double Patterning Technique (DPT). We compare the complexity of CAD solutions, fab equipment, and wafer processing with its competitors, such as the nanoimprint (NIL) and

  14. Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators are Preferable to Closed Patterns

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators are Preferable to Closed Patterns Jinyan Li 1 the closed pattern in cardinality, by the Minimum Description Length Principle, the generator is prefer- able the maximum one. Thus, by the Mini- mum Description Length Principle (MDL) (Rissanen 1978; Grunwald, Myung

  15. Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators are Preferable to Closed Patterns

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators are Preferable to Closed Patterns Jinyan Li 1 in cardinality, by the Minimum Description Length Principle, the generator is prefer- able to the closed pattern of an equivalence class are of- ten shorter than the maximum one. Thus, by the Mini- mum Description Length

  16. Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Curry; J. Burden; G. A. Lundy

    2006-01-01

    The next generation automatic test system (NGATS) is the latest addition to the Integrated family of test equipment (IFTE) developed and managed by product manager, test, measurement and diagnostic equipment (PM TMDE). This is Version 6 of what is commonly known as the Base Shop Test Facility series of systems developed by the off platform, automatic test system program. NGATS

  17. Pattern Generation with an Extended Focal Depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Piestun; Boris Spektor; Joseph Shamir

    1998-01-01

    The depth of focus of light patterns can be extended, within given tolerances, beyond the classical limits. For a quantitative evaluation we introduce a degree of depth-of-focus extension and a three-dimensional energy-distribution efficiency. The basic limitations involved in depth-of-focus extension are discussed. A coherent system in which the input is optimized for a desired output pattern is presented. An example

  18. Neighborhood pattern-sensitive fault testing and diagnostics for random-access memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-liang Cheng; Ming-fu Tsai; Cheng-wen Wu

    2002-01-01

    The authors present test algorithms for go\\/no-go and diagnostic test of memories, covering neighborhood pattern-sensitive faults (NPSFs). The proposed test algorithms are March based, which have linear time complexity and result in a simple built-in self-test (BIST) implementation. Although conventional March algorithms do not generate all neighborhood patterns to test the NPSFs, they can be modified by using multiple data

  19. Error-budget paradigms and laser mask pattern generator evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, H. Christopher; Jolley, Matthew J.; Berwick, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the ALTA(R) series of laser mask pattern generators has increased the relative contribution of intensity errors on critical-dimension (CD) control to those from placement errors. This paradigm shift has driven a change in rasterization strategy wherein aerial image sharpness is improved at the cost of a slight decrease in the averaging of column-to-column placement errors. Print performance evaluation using small-area CD test patterns show improvements in stripe-axis local CD uniformity (CDU) 3? values of 15-25% using the new strategy, and systematic brush-error contributions were reduced by 50%. The increased importance of intensity errors, coupled with the improvement of ALTA system performance, has also made the mask-blank and process-induced errors a more significant part of the overall error budget. A simple model based on two components, a pattern-invariant footprint and one related to the exposure density ?(x, y), is shown to describe adequately the errors induced by these sources. The first component is modeled by a fourth-order, two-dimensional polynomial, whereas the second is modeled as a convolution of ?(x, y) with one or more Gaussian kernels. Implementation of this model on the ALTA 4700 system shows improvements in global CDU of 50%.

  20. Automatic Test Generation for Combinational Threshold Logic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pallav Gupta; Rui Zhang; Niraj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    We propose an automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) framework for combinational threshold networks. The motivation behind this work lies in the fact that many emerging nanotechnologies, such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), single electron transistor (SET), and quantum cellular automata (QCA), implement threshold logic. Consequently, there is a need to develop an ATPG methodology for this type of logic. We

  1. Sentence Generation for Pattern-Based Machine Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Takeda

    In this paper we discuss sentence generation strategy for pattern-based machine translation and their computational properties. Even though sentence generation in general is known to be computationally expensive, there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for synchronized sentence analysis\\/generation for \\

  2. Negative Generator Border for Effective Pattern Maintenance

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    : Apriori-based and sliding window filtering (SWF). Both the Apriori- based and SWF approaches are developed new can- didates iteratively based on the a priori property. SWF algorithms [5, 11] slice a dataset patterns. The Apriori-based algorithms and SWF algorithms aim to update and maintain the entire frequent

  3. Sentences Generation by Frequent Parsing Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi; Miura, Takao; Shioya, Isamu

    We propose a sophisticated approach to generate sentences from syntax trees. Users are assumed to give their intent in text or equivalent ones (such as syntax trees). Here we generate standard sentences by examining how the syntax structure consist of frequent structures and how they are constructed. We examine corpus in some domains to extract elementary syntax structures appeared in the corpus as well as standard sentences using the trees.

  4. Transition-fault test generation 

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Bradley Douglas

    2013-02-22

    After an integrated circuit is manufactured, it must be tested to insure that it is not defective. Specifically, timing defects are becoming increasingly important to detect because of the decreasing process geometries and increasing clock rates...

  5. Generative models versus underlying symmetries to explain biological pattern.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A

    2014-06-01

    Mathematical models play an increasingly important role in the interpretation of biological experiments. Studies often present a model that generates the observations, connecting hypothesized process to an observed pattern. Such generative models confirm the plausibility of an explanation and make testable hypotheses for further experiments. However, studies rarely consider the broad family of alternative models that match the same observed pattern. The symmetries that define the broad class of matching models are in fact the only aspects of information truly revealed by observed pattern. Commonly observed patterns derive from simple underlying symmetries. This article illustrates the problem by showing the symmetry associated with the observed rate of increase in fitness in a constant environment. That underlying symmetry reveals how each particular generative model defines a single example within the broad class of matching models. Further progress on the relation between pattern and process requires deeper consideration of the underlying symmetries. PMID:24750332

  6. A SPIKING SILICON CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATOR WITH FLOATING GATE SYNAPSES

    E-print Network

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Pattern Generator (CPG) networks is described. The de- sign consists of 20 integrate-and-fire neurons ARCHITECTURE Each neuron in the design is constructed from three compartments: a dendritic compartment

  7. On Central Pattern Generator of Biological Motor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuanyi Zhu; Dingguo Zhang; Li Lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical results of the neural control mechanism existed in the spinal cord, central pattern generator (CPG), which has the ability to provide rhythmic movement patterns for the invertebrate and vertebrate. It is known that although CPG is verified by biological methods, it still lacks a complete theoretical investigation. The theoretical analysis about CPG from engineering perspective such

  8. Testing Software Product Lines Using Incremental Test Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Engin Uzuncaova; Daniel Garcia; Sarfraz Khurshid; Don S. Batory

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel specification-based approach for generating tests for products in a software product line. Given properties of features as first-order logic formu- las, our approach uses SAT-based analysis to automat- ically generate test inputs for each product in a product line. To ensure soundness of generation, we introduce an automatic technique for mapping a formula that specifies a

  9. Generating Test Templates via Automated Theorem Proving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kancherla, Mani Prasad

    1997-01-01

    Testing can be used during the software development process to maintain fidelity between evolving specifications, program designs, and code implementations. We use a form of specification-based testing that employs the use of an automated theorem prover to generate test templates. A similar approach was developed using a model checker on state-intensive systems. This method applies to systems with functional rather than state-based behaviors. This approach allows for the use of incomplete specifications to aid in generation of tests for potential failure cases. We illustrate the technique on the cannonical triangle testing problem and discuss its use on analysis of a spacecraft scheduling system.

  10. Acceptance testing of electric motors and generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Hamer

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive inspection and acceptance-test program for electric motors and generators of 300 HP (225 kW) and larger is outlined. Induction and synchronous machines are included, and references are made to IEEE, ANSI, and NEMA standards for the electrical tests. Recommended electrical and mechanical inspections and tests are described, and bearing housing and shaft vibration limits are recommended for all

  11. Generation speed in Raven's progressive matrices test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Verguts; Paul De Boeck; Eric Maris

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Finding rules that govern the items is critical in solving this test. Finding these rules is conceptualized as sampling rules from a (statistical) rule distribution until the correct one is attained. Response fluency is then seen as generation speed,

  12. General Principles of Rhythmogenesis in Central Pattern Generator Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Harris-Warrick

    2010-01-01

    The cellular and ionic mechanisms that generate the rhythm in central pattern generator (CPG) networks for simple movements are not well understood. Using vertebrate locomotion, respiration and mastication as exemplars, I describe four main principles of rhythmogenesis: (1) rhythmogenic ionic currents underlie all CPG networks, regardless of whether they are driven by a network pacemaker or an endogenous pacemaker neuron

  13. Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Neuron Article Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks David Sussillo be used to alter the chaotic activity of a recurrently connected neural network and generate complex but controlled outputs. Training a neural network is a process through which network parameters (typically

  14. System Test Pattern Language Copyright 1996 AG Communication Systems Corporation

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    System Test Pattern Language Copyright Ó 1996 AG Communication Systems Corporation Permission, the role of a System Tester has become vital in the lifecycle of product development. This pattern language modify it, but it is this common context that helps focus these patterns into a pattern language

  15. Automatic Test Generation for Mutation Testing on Database Applications

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    . INTRODUCTION To assure high quality of database applications, testing database applications remains the mostAutomatic Test Generation for Mutation Testing on Database Applications Kai Pan Xintao Wu Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina, USA xie@csc.ncsu.edu Abstract--To assure high quality

  16. Concurrent Bug Patterns and How to Test Them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Farchi; Yarden Nir; Ur Shmuel

    2003-01-01

    We present and categorize a taxonomy of concurrent bug patterns. We then use the taxonomy to create new timing heuristics for ConTest. Initial industrial experience indi- cates that these heuristics improve the bug finding ability of ConTest. We also show how concurrent bug patterns can be derived from concurrent design patterns. Further research is required to complete the concurrent bug

  17. A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Franchini, Marco; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2010-05-01

    The high floods occurred in the last years in many regions of the world have increased the interest of local, national and international authorities on the flood and risk assessment. In this context, the estimation of the design flood to be adopted represents a crucial factor, mainly for ungauged or poorly gauged catchments where sufficiently long discharge time series are missing. Due to the wider availability of rainfall data, rainfall-runoff models represent a possible tool to reduce the relevant uncertainty involved in the flood frequency analysis. Recently, new methodologies based on the stochastic generation of rainfall and temperature data have been proposed. The inferred information can be used as input for a continuous hydrological model to generate a synthetic time series of discharge and, hence, the flood frequency distribution at a given site. As far as the rainfall generation is concerned, for catchments of limited size, a single site model, as the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP), can be applied. It is characterized by a flexible structure in which the model parameters are broadly related to the underlying physical features observed in the rainfall field and the statistical properties of rainfall time series over a range of time scales are preserved. However, when larger catchments are considered, an extension into the two-dimensional space is required. This issue can be addressed by using the Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (STNSRP) model that, however, is not easy to be applied and requires a high computational effort. Therefore, simple techniques to obtain a spatial rainfall pattern starting from the more simple single-site NSRP are welcome. In this study, in order to take account of the spatial correlation that is needed when spatial rainfall patterns should be generated, the practical method of the rank correlation proposed by Iman and Conover (IC), was applied. The method is able to introduce a desired level of correlation between data, keeping its simplicity in the application. Moreover the method can be used for all types of input probability distribution and it allows the marginal distributions to remain intact. The IC method was applied to hourly and daily rainfall time series. In the second case, a temporal disaggregation technique has been carried out to obtain the hourly data. To test the proposed methodology, rainfall data from one catchment located in the Upper Tiber River Basin was considered. At first, long stochastic rainfall time series were generated through the NSRP model for several sites, then the IC method was applied to generate spatially correlated rainfall time series. The main statistics of these time series were compared both with the observed data and with ones generated by using the more complex STNSRP model. In particular, results were expressed in terms of depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves obtained for the areal mean rainfall that are of upmost importance for the design flood estimation. The high performance shown by the IC approach in reproducing the observed data along with its simplicity of application make it a valuable tool for the estimation of spatial rainfall patterns.

  18. Test Case Generation for Programming Language Metamodels

    E-print Network

    Power, James

    might be more relevant to metamodelling. In the context of testing structural models, two tools strike and generate counter-examples. As part of an earlier project, we have previously exploited the close rela

  19. Self-testing quantum random number generator.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Tommaso; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Lavigne, Quentin; Bowles, Joseph; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-04-17

    The generation of random numbers is a task of paramount importance in modern science. A central problem for both classical and quantum randomness generation is to estimate the entropy of the data generated by a given device. Here we present a protocol for self-testing quantum random number generation, in which the user can monitor the entropy in real time. Based on a few general assumptions, our protocol guarantees continuous generation of high quality randomness, without the need for a detailed characterization of the devices. Using a fully optical setup, we implement our protocol and illustrate its self-testing capacity. Our work thus provides a practical approach to quantum randomness generation in a scenario of trusted but error-prone devices. PMID:25933297

  20. MYSID TWO-GENERATION TEST GUIDELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    McKenney, Charles L., Jr. In press. Mysid Two-Generation Test Guideline. OECD Expert Group on Invertebrate Testing for Endocrine Disruptors, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France. 17 p. (ERL,GB 1215). This guideline describes a two-generati...

  1. Using Test Oracles Generated from Program Documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis K. Peters

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates how software can be described precisely using LD-relations, how these descriptions can bepresented in a readable manner using tabular notations, and one way such descriptions can be used to test programs. We describean algorithm that can be used to generate a test oracle from program documentation, and present the results of using a tool basedon it to

  2. Observation-based test set generation

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

    2013-02-22

    . Current test set generation relies primarily on the "stuck-at" model, which both excites and observes every site of the circuit. However, a test set with good stuck-at fault coverage will not necessarily find all the defects in a circuit. Other models...

  3. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  4. Incremental Test Generation for Software Product Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Engin Uzuncaova; Sarfraz Khurshid; Don S. Batory

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in mechanical techniques for systematic testing have increased our ability to automatically find subtle bugs, and hence, to deploy more dependable software. This paper builds on one such systematic technique, scope-bounded testing, to develop a novel specification-based approach for efficiently generating tests for products in a software product line. Given properties of features as first-order logic formulas in

  5. Linking traits of foraging animals to spatial patterns of plants: social and solitary ants generate opposing patterns of surviving seeds.

    PubMed

    Avgar, Tal; Giladi, Itamar; Nathan, Ran

    2008-03-01

    Foraging traits of seed predators are expected to impact the spatial structure of plant populations, community dynamics and diversity. Yet, many of the key mechanisms governing distance- or density-dependent seed predation are poorly understood. We designed an extensive set of field experiments to test how seed predation by two harvester ant species interact with seed dispersal in shaping the spatial patterns of surviving seeds. We show that the Janzen-Connell establishment pattern can be generated by central-place foragers even if their focal point is located away from the seed source. Furthermore, we found that differences in the social behaviour of seed predators influence their sensitivity to seed density gradients and yield opposing spatial patterns of surviving seeds. Our results support the predictions of a recent theoretical framework that unifies apparently opposing plant establishment patterns, and suggest that differences in foraging traits among seed predators can drive divergent pathways of plant community dynamics. PMID:18047586

  6. Occupancy Numbers in Testing Random Number Generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Figotin; A. Gordon; J. Quinn; N. Stavrakas; S. Molchanov

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. The classical occupancy,problem,where n balls are placed in N cells is used for testing of random,number generators. We show that the statistics of appropriately chosen occupancy numbers,are incompatible with the statistics of many,pseudorandom,number,generators (PRNGs) evenif they are trun cated. More thanthat, the in compatibility shows up onrelatively small samples long before the period of the PRNG is reached. We

  7. Robust Central Pattern Generators for Embodied Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

    E-print Network

    Whiteson, Shimon

    -level learning. For example, a walking animal or robot would have to spend less effort to learn to adapt its gait on several different terrain types. Cognitive processing is represented by a reinforcement learning (RLRobust Central Pattern Generators for Embodied Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning Matthijs Snel

  8. .Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding

    E-print Network

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    l .Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding ) · T. DEBROY, J in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslao refinino process operating

  9. Wisconsin Test Facility Transmitting Antenna Pattern and Steering Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER R. BANNISTER; FREDERICK J. WILLIAMS; ALAN L. DAHLVIG; WILLIAM A. KRAIMER

    1974-01-01

    During August and September 1971, the New London Laboratory, Naval Underwater Systems Center, performed pattern and steering measurements on the Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF) antennas. The pattern measurements were made at 13 locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin (covering approximately 120° of arc), while the far-field steering tests were taken in Maine and North Carolina. To be certain that the receiving

  10. Automated Loaded Transmission-Line Testing Using Pattern Recognition Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Bisignani

    1975-01-01

    A pattern recognition approach to the automatic testing of loaded transmission lines is investigated. The pattern recognition technique selected allows automatic testing of a loaded line requiring, as data, only the magnitude of the input impedance of the line over the frequencies of interest. For standard voice quality lines, these frequencies lie between 200-4000 Hz. Thirty-two features are automatically extracted

  11. Oscillations, resonances and noise: basis of flexible neuronal pattern generation.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans A; Voigt, Karlheinz; Huber, Martin T

    2003-09-01

    Modulation of neuronal impulse pattern is examined by means of a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley type computer model which refers to experimental recordings of cold receptor discharges. This model essentially consists of two potentially oscillating subsystems: a spike generator and a subthreshold oscillator. With addition of noise the model successfully mimics the major types of experimentally recorded impulse patterns and thereby elucidate different resonance behaviors. (1) There is a range of rhythmic spiking or bursting where the spike generator is strongly coupled to the subthreshold oscillator. (2) There is a pacemaker activity of more complex interactions where the spike generator has overtaken part of the control. (3) There is a situation where the two subsystems are decoupled and only resonate with the help of noise. PMID:14568205

  12. SNAP-III--THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR ENVIRONMENTAL TEST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    The effects of simulated space vehicle vibration, acceleration and shock ;\\u000a on the operation and efficiency of a SNAP-III thermoelectric generator are ;\\u000a described. The test specifications were developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratories ;\\u000a for the third stage and payload of the Vega Vehicle. (auth)

  13. Next-generation test of cosmic inflation

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Gold; Andreas Albrecht

    2003-10-15

    The increasing precision of cosmological datasets is opening up new opportunities to test predictions from cosmic inflation. Here we study the impact of high precision constraints on the primordial power spectrum and show how a new generation of observations can provide impressive new tests of the slow-roll inflation paradigm, as well as produce significant discriminating power among different slow-roll models. In particular, we consider next-generation measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies and (especially) polarization, as well as new Lyman-$\\alpha$ measurements that could become practical in the near future. We emphasize relationships between the slope of the power spectrum and its first derivative that are nearly universal among existing slow-roll inflationary models, and show how these relationships can be tested on several scales with new observations. Among other things, our results give additional motivation for an all-out effort to measure CMB polarization.

  14. Test factoring with amock: generating readable unit tests from system tests

    E-print Network

    Glasser, David Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Automated unit tests are essential for the construction of reliable software, but writing them can be tedious. If the goal of test generation is to create a lasting unit test suite (and not just to optimize execution of ...

  15. Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

  16. Pattern generation using likelihood inference for cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Craiu, Radu V; Lee, Thomas C M

    2006-07-01

    Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems which evolve on a discrete grid. Recent studies have shown that cellular automata with relatively simple rules can produce highly complex patterns. We develop likelihood-based methods for estimating rules of cellular automata aimed at the re-generation of observed regular patterns. Under noisy data, our approach is equivalent to estimating the local map of a stochastic cellular automaton. Direct computations of the maximum likelihood estimates are possible for regular binary patterns. The likelihood formulation of the problem is congenial with the use of the minimum description length principle as a model selection tool. We illustrate our method with a series of examples using binary images. PMID:16830896

  17. Error-budget paradigms and laser mask pattern generator evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Christopher Hamaker; Matthew J. Jolley; Andrew D. Berwick

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the ALTA(R) series of laser mask pattern generators has increased the relative contribution of intensity errors on critical-dimension (CD) control to those from placement errors. This paradigm shift has driven a change in rasterization strategy wherein aerial image sharpness is improved at the cost of a slight decrease in the averaging of column-to-column placement errors. Print performance

  18. Modeling Neural Mechanisms for Genesis of Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern. II. Network Models of the Central Respiratory Pattern Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ILYA A. RYBAK; JULIAN F. R. PATON; JAMES S. SCHWABER

    Rybak, Ilya A., Julian F. R. Paton, and James S. Schwaber. Model- respiratory rhythm and pattern generation at the cellular, ing neural mechanisms for genesis of respiratory rhythm and pattern. network, and system levels employing modeling methods. II. Network models of the central respiratory pattern generator. J. Neu- The preceding paper ( Rybak et al. 1997a ) described models rophysiol.

  19. Towards automatic generation of parameterized test cases from abstractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Calamé; N. Ioustinova; Pol van de J. C

    2006-01-01

    Model-based tools for automatic test generation usually can handle systems of a rather limited size. Therefore, they cannot be applied directly to systems of real industrial size. Here, we propose an approach to test generation combining enumerative data abstraction, test generation methods and constraint solving. The approach allows applying enumerative test generation tools like TGV to large and infinite systems.

  20. Using Bug Patterns in the Regression Testing of Concurrent Software

    E-print Network

    Bradbury, Jeremy S.

    4. Process Using Bug Patterns in the Regression Testing of Concurrent Software 2. Background 3. Defining Bug Patterns 5. Conclusions & Future Work Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S. Bradbury Software Quality fixed concurrency bugs do not reoccur in future versions During maintenance software can regress

  1. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a)...

  4. Test Generation Algorithm for Fault Detection of Analog Circuits Based on Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Ren, Xuelong

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel test generation algorithm based on extreme learning machine (ELM), and such algorithm is cost-effective and low-risk for analog device under test (DUT). This method uses test patterns derived from the test generation algorithm to stimulate DUT, and then samples output responses of the DUT for fault classification and detection. The novel ELM-based test generation algorithm proposed in this paper contains mainly three aspects of innovation. Firstly, this algorithm saves time efficiently by classifying response space with ELM. Secondly, this algorithm can avoid reduced test precision efficiently in case of reduction of the number of impulse-response samples. Thirdly, a new process of test signal generator and a test structure in test generation algorithm are presented, and both of them are very simple. Finally, the abovementioned improvement and functioning are confirmed in experiments. PMID:25610458

  5. Minimizing Peak Power Consumption during Scan Testing: Test Pattern Modification

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    scan testing can be divided in two sub-problems: excessive peak power during load/unload cycles and capture. Several techniques have been proposed for reducing test power dissipation during load/unload

  6. Privacy Preserving Data Generation for Database Application Performance Testing

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yongge

    Privacy Preserving Data Generation for Database Application Performance Testing Yongge Wang, Xintao the feasibility and techniques for privacy preserving synthetic database generation that can be used for database preserving software performance testing. 1 Introduction Functionality and performance testing is essential

  7. Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Rosling, Mats; Carlqvist, Per; Askebjer, Per; Karlin, Tord; Sallander, Jesper; Österberg, Anders

    2006-10-01

    A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics to compose the photomask pattern. Image profiles are enhanced with phase shifting in the pattern generator, and features below 200 nm are reliably printed. The Sigma7500 extends the SLM-based architecture with improvements to CD uniformity and placement accuracy, resulting from an error budget-based methodology. Among these improvements is a stiffer focus stage design with digital servos, resulting in improved focus stability. Tighter climate controls and improved dose control reduce drift during mask patterning. As a result, global composite CD uniformity below 5 nm (3?) has been demonstrated, with placement accuracy below 10 nm (3?) across the mask. Self-calibration methods are used to optimize and monitor system performance, reducing the need to print test plates. The SLM calibration camera views programmed test patterns, making it possible to evaluate image metrics such as CD uniformity and line edge roughness. The camera is also used to characterize image placement over the optical field. A feature called ProcessEqualizer TM has been developed to correct long-range CD errors arising from process effects on production photomasks. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for pattern-dependent errors related to local pattern density, as well as for systematic pattern-independent errors such as radial CD signatures. Corrections are made in the pixel domain in the advanced adjustments processor, which also performs global biasing, stamp distortion compensation, and corner enhancement. In the Sigma7500, the mask pattern is imaged with full edge addressability in each writing pass, providing the means of additionally improving write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Photomask write time is generally under two hours in the 2-pass mode, compared to three hours with 4-pass writing. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suitable for 2 nd layer patterning in advanced PSM applications. Improvements in alignment algorithms and writing accuracy have resulted in first-to-second level overlay below 15 nm (mean+3?).

  8. Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Regulation of Vocal Pattern Generator

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W.

    2008-01-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

  10. Neuromodulation and Flexibility in Central Pattern Generator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Warrick, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Central Pattern Generator (CPG) networks, which organize rhythmic movements, have long served as models for neural network organization. Modulatory inputs are essential components of CPG function: neuromodulators set the parameters of CPG neurons and synapses to render the networks functional. Each modulator acts on the network by many effects which may oppose one another; this may serve to stabilize the modulated state. Neuromodulators also determine the active neuronal composition in the CPG, which varies with state changes such as locomotor speed. The pattern of gene expression which determines the electrophysiological personality of each CPG neuron is also under modulatory control. It is not possible to model the function of neural networks without including the actions of neuromodulators. PMID:21646013

  11. Phase Relationships Between Segmentally Organized Oscillators in the Leech Heartbeat Pattern Generating Network

    E-print Network

    Calabrese, Ronald

    Phase Relationships Between Segmentally Organized Oscillators in the Leech Heartbeat Pattern. Calabrese. Phase relationships between segmentally organized oscillators in the leech heartbeat pattern activity. The leech heartbeat central pattern generator is paced by a core timing network, which consists

  12. Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications Th`ese pr´esent´ee et;Abstract The goal of this thesis is the development of support for test generation and animation based generation and animation based on OCL specifications. For test generation, we have implemented several

  13. Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. T.; Liaw, S. S.; Maini, P. K.

    2006-07-01

    Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, which showed that flecks are the primitive pattern of the felid family and all other patterns including rosettes and blotches develop from it, we construct a Turing reaction-diffusion model which generates spot patterns initially. Starting from this spotted pattern, we successfully generate patterns of adult leopards and jaguars by tuning parameters of the model in the subsequent phase of patterning.

  14. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  15. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W; Knight, George P

    2014-03-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588

  16. Towards Automatic Generation of Parameterized Test Cases from Abstractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens R. Calame; Natalia Ioustinova; Jaco van de Pol

    Model-based tools for automatic test generation usually can handle systems of a rather limited size. Therefore, they cannot be applied directly to systems of real industrial size. Here, we propose an approach to test gener- ation combining enumerative data abstraction, test generation methods and constraint solving. The approach allows applying enumerative test generation tools like TGV to large and infinite

  17. Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt ISSE Department, 4A4@cs.hiroshima­cu.ac.jp Abstract Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from the source code, control flow graphs, design representations

  18. Sequentially firing neurons confer flexible timing in neural pattern generators

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, 139 University Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Neuronal networks exhibit a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns that include sequential activity, synchrony, and wavelike dynamics. Inhibition is the primary means through which such patterns are implemented. This behavior is dependent on both the intrinsic dynamics of the individual neurons as well as the connectivity patterns. Many neural circuits consist of networks of smaller subcircuits (motifs) that are coupled together to form the larger system. In this paper, we consider a particularly simple motif, comprising purely inhibitory interactions, which generates sequential periodic dynamics. We first describe the dynamics of the single motif both for general balanced coupling (all cells receive the same number and strength of inputs) and then for a specific class of balanced networks: circulant systems. We couple these motifs together to form larger networks. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase models which, themselves, have a certain structure and symmetry. We show that this structure endows the coupled system with the ability to produce arbitrary timing relationships between symmetrically coupled motifs and that the phase relationships are robust over a wide range of frequencies. The theory is applicable to many other systems in biology and physics.

  19. Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion: Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Pierre A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a perspective on major innovations over the past century in research on the spinal cord and, specifically, on specialized spinal circuits involved in the control of rhythmic locomotor pattern generation and modulation. Pioneers such as Charles Sherrington and Thomas Graham Brown have conducted experiments in the early twentieth century that changed our views of the neural control of locomotion. Their seminal work supported subsequently by several decades of evidence has led to the conclusion that walking, flying, and swimming are largely controlled by a network of spinal neurons generally referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. It has been subsequently demonstrated across all vertebrate species examined, from lampreys to humans, that this CPG is capable, under some conditions, to self-produce, even in absence of descending or peripheral inputs, basic rhythmic, and coordinated locomotor movements. Recent evidence suggests, in turn, that plasticity changes of some CPG elements may contribute to the development of specific pathophysiological conditions associated with impaired locomotion or spontaneous locomotor-like movements. This article constitutes a comprehensive review summarizing key findings on the CPG as well as on its potential role in Restless Leg Syndrome, Periodic Leg Movement, and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation. Special attention will be paid to the role of the CPG in a recently identified, and uniquely different neurological disorder, called the Uner Tan Syndrome. PMID:23403923

  20. Pattern accuracy and throughput optimization for an SLM-based 248-nm DUV laser mask pattern generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Sjoberg; Jean-Michel Chauvet; Jan Harkesjo; Peter Hogfeldt; Andrzej Karawajczyk; Johan Karlsson; Lars Kjellberg; Jonas Mahlen; Angela Beyerl; Jukka Vedenpaa; Robin Goodoree; Mans Bjuggren; Johan Aman

    2004-01-01

    With each new technology generation, photomask manufacturing faces increasing complexity due to shrinking designs and accelerating use of reticle enhancement techniques. Denser and more complex patterns on the mask result in lower yields and long write and turn-around times, important factors for the rapidly increasing mask related costs in IC manufacturing. Laser pattern generators operating at DUV wavelengths were recently

  1. Validation Testing of Hydrogen Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2007-12-01

    This report describes the results of testing performed by ORNL for Photech Energies, Inc. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the efficacy of Photech's hydrogen generation reactor technology, which produces gaseous hydrogen through electrolysis. Photech provided several prototypes of their proprietary reactor for testing and the ancillary equipment, such as power supplies and electrolyte solutions, required for proper operation of the reactors. ORNL measured the production of hydrogen gas (volumetric flow of hydrogen at atmospheric pressure) as a function of input power and analyzed the composition of the output stream to determine the purity of the hydrogen content. ORNL attempted measurements on two basic versions of the prototype reactors-one version had a clear plastic outer cylinder, while another version had a stainless steel outer cylinder-but was only able to complete measurements on reactors in the plastic version. The problem observed in the stainless steel reactors was that in these reactors most of the hydrogen was produced near the anodes along with oxygen and the mixed gases made it impossible to determine the amount of hydrogen produced. In the plastic reactors the production of hydrogen gas increased monotonically with input power, and the flow rates increased faster at low input powers than they did at higher input powers. The maximum flow rate from the cathode port measured during the tests was 0.85 LPM at an input power of about 1100 W, an electrolyte concentration of 20%. The composition of the flow from the cathode port was primarily hydrogen and water vapor, with some oxygen and trace amounts of carbon dioxide. An operational mode that occurs briefly during certain operating conditions, and is characterized by flashes of light and violent bubbling near the cathode, might be attributable to the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolyte solution.

  2. Generating Linear Temporal Logic Formulas for Pattern-Based Specifications

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    is considered. Based on a selected pattern, SPS provides a specification for each type of scope in multiple behavior to represent pattern and scope parameters. In this work, we provide formal definitions of patterns. Each pattern describes the structure of specific behavior and defines the pattern's relationship

  3. Genetic Patterns of Paternity and Testes Size in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Soulsbury, Carl D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Testes size is used as a proxy of male intrasexual competition, with larger testes indicative of greater competition. It has been shown that in some taxa, social mating systems reflect variance in testes size, but results are not consistent, and instead it has been suggested that genetic patterns of mating may reflect testes size. However, there are different measures of genetic patterns of mating. Multiple paternity rates are the most widely used measure but are limited to species that produce multi-offspring litters, so, at least for group living species, other measures such as loss of paternity to males outside the social group (extra group paternity) or the proportion of offspring sired by the dominant male (alpha paternity) might be appropriate. This study examines the relationship between testes size and three genetic patterns of mating: multiple paternity, extragroup paternity and alpha paternity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from mammals, phylogenetically corrected general linear models demonstrate that both multiple paternity and alpha paternity, but not extra group paternity, relate to testes size. Testes size is greater in species with high multiple paternity rates, whereas the converse is found for alpha paternity. Additionally, length of mating season, ovulation mode and litter size significantly influenced testes size in one model. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that patterns of mating (multiple paternity and alpha paternity rates) determined by genetic analysis can provide reliable indicators of male postcopulatory intrasexual competition (testes size), and that other variables (length of mating season, ovulation mode, litter size) may also be important. PMID:20221392

  4. 40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Generation of test atmospheres. 53.22 Section 53.22 Protection...NO2 § 53.22 Generation of test atmospheres. (a) Table B-2 to subpart B...preferred methods for generating test atmospheres and suggested methods of...

  5. General principles of rhythmogenesis in central pattern generator networks.

    PubMed

    Harris-Warrick, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The cellular and ionic mechanisms that generate the rhythm in central pattern generator (CPG) networks for simple movements are not well understood. Using vertebrate locomotion, respiration and mastication as exemplars, I describe four main principles of rhythmogenesis: (1) rhythmogenic ionic currents underlie all CPG networks, regardless of whether they are driven by a network pacemaker or an endogenous pacemaker neuron kernel; (2) fast synaptic transmission often evokes slow currents that can affect cycle frequency; (3) there are likely to be multiple and redundant mechanisms for rhythmogenesis in any essential CPG network; and (4) glial cells may participate in CPG network function. The neural basis for rhythmogenesis in simple behaviors has been studied for almost 100 years, yet we cannot identify with certainty the detailed mechanisms by which rhythmic behaviors are generated in any vertebrate system. Early studies focused on whether locomotor rhythms were generated by a chain of coupled reflexes that require sensory feedback, or by a central neural network. By now there is general agreement that for the major rhythmic behaviors (including locomotion, respiration, and mastication, the subjects of this book), there exist CPG networks within the central nervous system that are able to drive the basic rhythmic behavior in the complete absence of sensory feedback. This of course does not eliminate an important role for sensory feedback, which certainly affects cycle frequency and for some behaviors determines the timing of one phase of the behavior (Borgmann et al., 2009; Pearson, 2008). Given the existence of CPGs, the question of rhythmogenesis can be rephrased to ask how these networks determine the timing of the rhythmic behavior. In this chapter, I focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms that could underlie rhythmogenesis in CPG networks, especially those that drive locomotion, respiration, and mastication. PMID:21111210

  6. Using UML Collaboration Diagrams for Static Checking and Test Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aynur Abdurazik; A. Jefferson Offutt

    2000-01-01

    Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from program source code, graphical models of software (such as control flow graphs), and specifications\\/requirements. UML collaboration diagrams represent a significant opportunity for testing because they precisely describe how the functions the software provides are connected in a

  7. Expression of the crustacean pyloric pattern generator in the intact animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Rezer; Maurice Moulins

    1983-01-01

    1.InJasus lalandii the activity of the central pattern generator of the pyloric motor output (the pyloric CPG) has been studied in intact free animals by electromyographic recording of the pyloric muscles (Fig. 2).2.Two patterns of activity (pattern 1 and pattern 2) can be observed. Each pattern corresponds to a specific behavioural situation: pattern 1 is only observed in unfed lobsters

  8. Neuronal mechanisms of respiratory pattern generation are evolutionary conserved.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Elenia; Robertson, Brita; Mutolo, Donatella; Grillner, Sten; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

    2013-05-22

    A brainstem region, the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), has been suggested to play a crucial role in the respiratory rhythm generation in lampreys. However, a detailed characterization of the pTRG region is lacking. The present study performed on isolated brainstem preparations of adult lampreys provides a more precise localization of the pTRG region with regard to both connectivity and neurochemical markers. pTRG neurons projecting to the vagal motoneuronal pool were identified in a restricted area of the rostral rhombencephalon at the level of the isthmic Müller cell I1 close to sulcus limitans of His. Unilateral microinjections of lidocaine, muscimol, or glutamate antagonists into the pTRG inhibited completely the bilateral respiratory activity. In contrast, microinjections of glutamate agonists enhanced the respiratory activity, suggesting that this region is critical for the respiratory pattern generation. The retrogradely labeled pTRG neurons are glutamatergic and surrounded by terminals with intense substance P immunoreactivity. Cholinergic neurons were seen close to, and intermingled with, pTRG neurons. In addition, ?-bungarotoxin binding sites (indicating nicotinic receptors) were found throughout the pTRG area and particularly on the soma of these neurons. During apnea, induced by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors within the same region, microinjections of 1 ?m substance P or 1 mm nicotine into the pTRG restored rhythmic respiratory activity. The results emphasize the close similarities between the pTRG and the mammalian pre-Bötzinger complex as a crucial site for respiratory rhythmogenesis. We conclude that some basic features of the excitatory neurons proposed to generate respiratory rhythms are conserved throughout evolution. PMID:23699521

  9. A Test Class Framework for Generating Test Cases from Z Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaikou Miao; Ling Liu

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces test classes and a test class framework for generating test cases from Z specifications. We define a test class using object-oriented concept in test framework instead of Phil Stock's test template. Our test framework for Z specifications uniformly defines the test data and oracles in a test class that also contains the information of before states and

  10. Setting and testing automatic generator synchronizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Grono; J. J. Wlodarski

    1999-01-01

    In today's electric power systems, generation relies almost exclusively on many AC generating units operating in parallel. When a new generating unit is being connected to the system, a variety of conditions must be precisely satisfied, including the amplitude, frequency, and phase conditions. This article describes a new method for establishing the advance time, which is the most important parameter

  11. Generating Tests from B Specifications and Test J. Julliand, P.-A. Masson and R. Tissot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Generating Tests from B Specifications and Test Purposes J. Julliand, P.-A. Masson and R. Tissot, tissot}@lifc.univ-fcomte.fr Abstract. This paper is about generating tests from test purposes, in addition to structural tests. We present a method that re-uses a be- havioural model and an abstract test

  12. Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow specification-based soft- ware testing has focused on the automated generation of test cases. Before a software system can be tested, it must be set up according to the input requirements of the test cases. This setup

  13. "MSTGen": Simulated Data Generator for Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    Multistage testing, or MST, was developed as an alternative to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for applications in which it is preferable to administer a test at the level of item sets (i.e., modules). As with CAT, the simulation technique in MST plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of tests. "MSTGen," a new MST…

  14. SSME seal test program: Test results for hole-pattern damper seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The results consisting of direct and transverse force coefficients are presented for thirteen, hole-pattern, damper-seal configurations. The designation damper seal refers to a seal which uses a deliberately roughened stator nd smooth rotor, to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation hole-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern which is developed by a pattern of round holes while are milled into the stator. All seals tested use the same smooth rotor and have the same constant minimum clearance. The seal tests examined the following major design options: (1) hole-area density, i.e., the proportion of stator surface area consumed by holes; and (2) hole depth, particularly the ratio of hole depth to minimum clearance. In addition, limited data were taken to examine the influence of in-line versus staggered hole patterns and flat-bottomed versus spherical-bottomed holes.

  15. Techniques for testing the quality of parallel pseudorandom number generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cuccaro, S.A.; Mascagni, M.; Pryor, D.V. [Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ensuring that pseudorandom number generators have good randomness properties is more complicated in a multiprocessor implementation than in the uniprocessor case. We discuss simple extensions of uniprocessor testing for SIMD parallel streams, and develop in detail a repeatability test for the SPMD paradigm. Examples of the application of these tests to an additive tagged-Fibonacci generator are also given.

  16. Reusing State Machines for Automatic Test Generation in Product Lines

    E-print Network

    Schlingloff, Holger

    Reusing State Machines for Automatic Test Generation in Product Lines Stephan Weißleder1 , Dehla for automatic test case generation in the context of product lines. We consider a corresponding approach model. This could lead to reduced costs of model-based testing. A product line is a set of products

  17. SSME seal test program: Test results for smooth, hole-pattern and helically-grooved stators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.

    1987-01-01

    All of the listed seals were tested in a liquid Halon test facility at high Reynolds numbers. In addition, a helically-grooved-stator seal was tested in an air seal facility. An analysis of the test results with comparisons to theoretical predictions supports the following conclusions: (1) For small seals, the Hirs' friction-factor model is more restricted than had been thought; (2) For smooth seals, predictions of stiffness and damping improve markedly as the radical clearance is reduced; (3) Friction-factor data for hole-pattern-seal stators frequently deviates from the Hirs model; (4) Predictions of stiffness and damping coefficients for hole-pattern-stator seals is generally reasonable; (5) Tests for the hole-pattern stators at reduced clearances show no clear optimum for hole-pattern seals with respect to either hole-area ratio or hole depth to minimum clearance ratios; (6) Tests of these hole-pattern stators show no significant advantage in net damping over smooth seals; (7) Tests of helically-grooved seal stators in Halon show reasonable agreement between theory and prediction for leakage and direct stiffness but poor agreement for the net damping coefficient.

  18. Introduction to the next generation automatic test system (NGATS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Burden; P. A. Curry; D. Roby; F. Love

    2005-01-01

    The next generation automatic test system (NGATS) is the latest addition to the integrated family of test equipment (IFTE), developed and managed by product manager, test, measurement and diagnostic equipment (PM TMDE). The NGATS, commonly known as the base shop test facility (V)6, joins the other BSTFs developed by the off platform, automatic test system program. NGATS is a highly

  19. On the Automated Generation of Program Test Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Ramamoorthy; Siu-bun F. Ho; Wen-Tsuen Chen

    1976-01-01

    Software validation through testing will continue to be a very important tool for ensuring correctness of large scale software systems. Automation of testing tools can greatly enhance their power and reduce testing cost. In this paper, techniques for automated test data generation are discussed. Given a program graph, a set of paths are identified to satisfy some given testing criteria.

  20. Testing for coevolutionary diversification: linking pattern with process.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-02-01

    Coevolutionary diversification is cited as a major mechanism driving the evolution of diversity, particularly in plants and insects. However, tests of coevolutionary diversification have focused on elucidating macroevolutionary patterns rather than the processes giving rise to such patterns. Hence, there is weak evidence that coevolution promotes diversification. This is in part due to a lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which coevolution can cause speciation and the difficulty of integrating results across micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In this review, we highlight potential mechanisms of coevolutionary diversification, outline approaches to examine this process across temporal scales, and propose a set of minimal requirements for demonstrating coevolutionary diversification. Our aim is to stimulate research that tests more rigorously for coevolutionary diversification. PMID:24314843

  1. High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zheng

    2011-08-08

    Delay testing is used to detect timing defects and ensure that a circuit meets its timing specifications. The growing need for delay testing is a result of the advances in deep submicron (DSM) semiconductor technology and the increase in clock...

  2. Generating Program Inputs for Database Application Testing

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    @csc.ncsu.edu Abstract--Testing is essential for quality assurance of database applications. Achieving high code coverage. INTRODUCTION Database applications are ubiquitous, and it is critical to assure high quality of database applications. To assure high quality of database applications, testing is commonly used in practice. Testing

  3. A test case generation approach for conformance testing of SDL systems1

    E-print Network

    Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

    1 A test case generation approach for conformance testing of SDL systems1 C. Bourhfir2 , E This paper presents an approach for automatic executable test case and test sequence generation for a protocol modeled by an SDL system. Our methodology uses a uni- fied method which tests an Extended Finite

  4. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53.42 ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice...consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

  5. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53.42 ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice...consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

  6. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53.42 ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice...consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

  7. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. 53.42 Section 53.42 ...Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (a) A vibrating orifice...consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of...

  8. Generation of Crystal-Structure Transverse Patterns via a Self-Frequency-Doubling Laser

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories. PMID:23336067

  9. Textile Pattern Generation Technique Based on Quasi-Regular Pattern Theory and Their Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suyi Liu; Leduo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A lot of function database were built by researching evolution law of uniform stochastic web and quasi-regular patterns mathematical model. It related quasi-regular pattern evolution mechanism with textile pattern design to translate formerly invisible information in mathematic area into visible textile pattern of art design. So the visual field on design could be effectively expanded, and formed the new design

  10. Design and testing of a second generation solar Stirling engine power conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-G. Nelving; C. Bratt; W. Percival; D. Wells

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of the improved, second generation 4-95 solar Stirling engine power conversion system. Design rationale and performance results are presented for the improved receiver design, improved concentrator alignment, integrated cooling unit, and improved control system. Flux patterns for the concentrator are presented along with calculated and measured data on the temperatures obtained in the

  11. F-1 Engine Gas Generator Testing - Duration: 110 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The gas generator from an F-1 engine is test-fired at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., on Jan. 24, 2013. Data from the 30 second test will be used in the development of advance...

  12. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  13. Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow research on au- tomated specification-based testing by proposing a scheme that combines the setup process, test execution, and test val- idation into a single test program for testing the behavior of object

  14. Generating Efficient Test Sets with a Model Checker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grégoire Hamon; Leonardo Mendonça De Moura

    2004-01-01

    It is well-known that counterexamples produced by model checkers can provide a basis for automated genera- tion of test cases. However, when this approach is used to meet a coverage criterion, it generally results in very inef- ficient test sets having many tests and much redundancy. We describe an improved approach that uses model check- ers to generate efficient test

  15. Patterns of rock fragment cover generated by tillage erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Poesen; Bas van Wesemael; Gerard Govers; José Martinez-Fernandez; Philippe Desmet; Karel Vandaele; Timothy Quine; Greet Degraer

    1997-01-01

    Intensively cultivated areas in the upper part of the Guadalentin catchment (southeast Spain) show a systematic spatial pattern of surface rock fragment cover (Rc). The objective of this paper is to quantify and to explain this spatial rock fragment cover pattern. Therefore, a map of an intensively cultivated area of 5 km2 was digitised, and for each pixel total topographic

  16. Central pattern generation and the motor infrastructure for suck, respiration, and speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Barlow; Meredith Estep

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current report is to review experimental findings on centrally patterned movements and sensory and descending modulation of central pattern generators (CPGs) in a variety of animal and human models. Special emphasis is directed toward speech production muscle systems, including the chest wall and orofacial complex during patterned motor output. Experimental results indicate that CPGs subserving orofacial

  17. Generating optimal multi-segment cutting patterns for circular blanks in the manufacturing of electric motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaodong Cui

    2006-01-01

    The author presents a method to generate optimal multi-segment cutting patterns to improve the material usage of the circular blanks in the manufacturing of rotors and stators of electric motors. In the patterns generated, the sheet is divided into segments with cut lines perpendicular to the sheet length. The width of the segments equals to the sheet width. The lengths

  18. Testing polycyclicity of finitely generated rational matrix groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Bjoern; Eick, Bettina

    2007-09-01

    We describe algorithms for testing polycyclicity and nilpotency for finitely generated subgroups of mathrm{GL}(d,mathbb{Q}) and thus we show that these properties are decidable. Variations of our algorithm can be used for testing virtual polycyclicity and virtual nilpotency for finitely generated subgroups of mathrm{GL}(d,mathbb{Q}) .

  19. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  20. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  1. TESTS OF RANDOM NUMBER GENERATORS USING ISING MODEL SIMULATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. CODDINGTON

    1996-01-01

    Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations require high-qualityrandom number generators to ensure correct results. The contrapositive of this statement is also true - the quality of random number generators can be tested byusing them in large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We have tested manycommonly -used random number generators with high precision Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d Ising model using the Metropolis, Swendsen-

  2. A Business Process Testing Sequence Generation Approach Based on Test Cases Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhi Cai

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a business process testing scenario generation based on test cases composition. Just like path oriented testing technique in structure testing area, this testing method focuses on finding the logical error in the process implementation according to the formal business process presentation. The test cases against a node of process designed by the techniques such as boundary value

  3. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  4. Functional test generation for DMA controllers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grosso; W. J. H. Pe?rez; D. Ravotto; E. Sanchez; M. S. Reorda; J. V. Medina

    2010-01-01

    Today's SoCs are composed of a high variety of modules, such as microprocessor cores, memories, peripherals, and customized blocks directly related to the targeted application. Testing a peripheral core embedded in a SoC requires two correlated phases: module configuration and module operation. The first one prepares the peripheral on the different operation modes, whereas, the second one is in charge

  5. Next-Generation Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the most-significant health care problems of the new millennium, and the clinical microbiology laboratory plays a central role in optimizing the therapeutic management of patients with infection. This minireview explores the potential value of innovative methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms that could provide valuable alternatives to existing methodologies in the very near future. PMID:23486706

  6. Towards Generating Acceptance Tests for Product Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Geppert; J. Jenny Li; Frank Rößler; David M. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a Software product-line engineering aims at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of software development by exploiting\\u000a the product line members’ commonalities and by controlling their variabilities. The duality of commonalities and variabilities\\u000a holds for all kinds of assets ranging from requirements specifications over design documents to test cases. A decision model\\u000a controls the way a product can be distinguished from the

  7. MODA: Automated Test Generation for Database Applications via Mock Objects

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    used in assuring the quality of database applications. It is often prohibitively expensive to man- ually write quality tests for complex database applications. Auto- mated test generation techniques widely used by developers to assess the quality of database applications. Given that manual test

  8. Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ?

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ? George Mason University, Fairfax VA 22030, USA Abstract. Although most industry testing of complex software is con­ ducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system level testing

  9. On the Development of A Black Box Security Test Pattern Catalog Based on Empirical Data

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    On the Development of A Black Box Security Test Pattern Catalog Based on Empirical Data Ben Smith design pattern to the domain of black box security testing. The goal of this research is to codify a process for developing a software security test pattern catalog that provides a vehicle for capturing

  10. Interference pattern generation in evanescent electromagnetic waves for nanoscale lithography using waveguide diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Bezus, E A; Doskolovich, L L; Kazanskii, N L [Institute for Image Processing Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-31

    The generation of interference patterns of evanescent electromagnetic waves with an essentially subwavelength period using dielectric waveguide diffraction gratings is considered. Using simulations within the framework of the electromagnetic theory, the possibility of obtaining high-quality interference patterns due to enhancement of evanescent diffraction orders under resonance conditions is demonstrated. The contrast of the interference patterns in the case of TE polarisation of the incident wave is close to unity. The field intensity in the near-field interference maxima exceeds the intensity of the incident wave by 25-100 times. The possibility of generation of the interference patterns of evanescent waves corresponding to higher diffraction orders is shown. The use of higher orders reduces the requirements to the fabrication technology and allows generation of interference patterns with a high spatial frequency, using diffraction gratings with a low spatial frequency. Examples of generating interference patters with periods six times smaller than those of the used diffraction gratings are presented. (nanolithography)

  11. Process-Oriented Behavior Generation Using Interaction Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Daniele; Luis Ferreira Pires; Sinderen van Marten

    2010-01-01

    Model-driven approaches have shown that the systematic use of models and model transformations can facilitate the development process of distributed applications. Abstract models can be used to (automatically) generate more detailed models, to simulate and execute application's behavior in early stages, to validate it against requirements, or to generate executable code. These models also document the design at different abstraction

  12. Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2009-03-01

    We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

  13. A Pulse-Type Hardware CPG Model for Generation and Transition of Quadruped Locomotion Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Keiko; Sekine, Yoshifumi; Nakabora, Yoshifumi; Saeki, Katsutoshi

    The purpose of our research is to clarify information processing functions of living organisms by neural networks using pulse-type hardware neuron models and applying pulse-type hardware neural networks to engineered models. It is known that locomotion such as walking by a living organism is generated and transited by CPG (Central Pattern Generator) in the central nervous system. We investigate a pulse-type hardware CPG model using coupled oscillator composed of pulse-type hardware neuron models. A CPG model is need to generate and control quadruped locomotion. In this paper, we describe generation and transition of oscillation patterns, corresponding to quadruped locomotion patterns. As a result, it is shown that generation and transition of oscillation patterns are possible by giving external inputs of one pulse to the CPG model.

  14. In-Parameter-Order: A Test Generation Strategy for Pairwise Testing

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    In-Parameter-Order: A Test Generation Strategy for Pairwise Testing Jeff Lei Department of Computer Testing and Beyond 3 Why Testing? Modern society is increasingly dependent on the quality of software systems. Software failure can cause severe consequences, including loss of human life Testing is the most

  15. Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns 

    E-print Network

    Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    pattern resolution. The level separation of the substrate does not pose an upper limit to the frequency summation. So the fundamental frequency can be high and the number of Fourier terms can be large, making our scheme very suitable for subwavelength...

  16. Gene regulation networks generate diverse pigmentation patterns in plants

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W; Davies, Kevin M; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of pigmentation patterns observed in plants occurs due to the spatial distribution and accumulation of colored compounds, which may also be associated with structural changes to the tissue. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that provide red/purple/blue coloration to plants, often forming complex patterns such as spots, stripes, and vein-associated pigmentation, particularly in flowers. These patterns are determined by the activity of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes, which activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, resulting in anthocyanin pigment accumulation. Recently, we established that the MBW complex controlling anthocyanin synthesis acts within a gene regulation network that is conserved within at least the Eudicots. This network involves hierarchy, reinforcement, and feedback mechanisms that allow for stringent and responsive regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The gene network and mobile nature of the WDR and R3-MYB proteins provide exciting new opportunities to explore the basis of pigmentation patterning, and to investigate the evolutionary history of the MBW components in land plants. PMID:25763693

  17. A Materials Science Driven Pattern Generation Solution to Fracturing Computer Generated Glass for Films and Games 

    E-print Network

    Monroe, David Charles

    2014-08-11

    fracture patterns used for breaking objects apart based on input values, materials science literature, and fracture mechanics. After determining all of the fracture pattern variables such as the number of radial and concentric cracks, the artist is able...

  18. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  19. Approaches to test set generation using binary decision diagrams 

    E-print Network

    Wingfield, James

    2004-09-30

    This research pursues the use of powerful BDD-based functional circuit analysis to evaluate some approaches to test set generation. Functional representations of the circuit allow the measurement of information about faults that is not directly...

  20. Approaches to test set generation using binary decision diagrams

    E-print Network

    Wingfield, James

    2004-09-30

    This research pursues the use of powerful BDD-based functional circuit analysis to evaluate some approaches to test set generation. Functional representations of the circuit allow the measurement of information about faults that is not directly...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to detect and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to detect and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to detect and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to detect and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to detect and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

  6. Using Spin to Generate Tests from ASM Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Gargantini; Elvinia Riccobene; Salvatore Rinzivillo

    In this paper we introduce an algorithm to automatically encode an ASM specification in PROMELA, the language of the model\\u000a checker Spin, and we present a method exploitingthe counter example generation feature of Spin, to automatically generate\\u000a from ASM specifications test sequences which accomplish a desired coverage. ASMs are used as test oracles to predict the expected\\u000a outputs of units

  7. Reconfigurable Model-Based Test Program Generator for Microprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kamkin; Eugene Kornykhin; Dmitry Vorobyev

    2011-01-01

    Automatic generation and simulation of test pro- grams is known to be the main means for verifying micro- processors. The problem is that test program generators for new designs are often developed from scratch with little reuse of well-tried components. State-of-the-art tools, like Genesys- Pro and RAVEN, meet the challenge by using a model-based approach, where a microprocessor model is

  8. Automatic Generation of Floating-Point Test Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Webb Miller; David L. Spooner

    1976-01-01

    For numerical programs, or more generally for programs with floating-point data, it may be that large savings of time and storage are made possible by using numerical maximization methods instead of symbolic execution to generate test data. Two examples, a matrix factorization subroutine and a sorting method, illustrate the types of data generation problems that can be successfully treated with

  9. FROM THE FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS TO REAL-TIME TEST GENERATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "main" 2004/3/5 page 1 1 FROM THE FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS TO REAL-TIME TEST GENERATION, with © clocks. The given solution, combined with synchronous product, allows in particular, generating both theory for Mealy machines in the case of dense real-time systems was proposed by Springintvel

  10. Mechanisms of Left-Right Coordination in Mammalian Locomotor Pattern Generation Circuits: A Mathematical Modeling View

    PubMed Central

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Rybak, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs). Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized “hopping” pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype) resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype) maintained the left–right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them. The model reproduced, and suggested explanation for, a series of experimental phenomena and generated predictions available for experimental testing. PMID:25970489

  11. A Novel Wideband Subarray Technique for Shaped Pattern Generation and Adaptively Interference Rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfred, Q. Md.; Chakravarty, T.; Singh, G.; Sanyal, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    In this article, a simple and efficient technique for the wideband shaped beam and sector beam pattern generation with their adaptive interference rejection is proposed. A microcontroller controlled and time delay based beam forming network for simultaneously generating multiple beams, shaped beam and sector beam is conceptualized. The antenna patterns considered here is formed by linear array of isotropic elements grouped as subarray. The shaped and sector beam synthesis procedure is practically simplified by simultaneous adding the constituents beams from the subarrays, was theoretically established by Woodward and Lawson (Proc. IEE. 95(1):362 370, 1948). Apart from the shaped beam generation a technique for adaptive interference rejection in shaped patterns using combination of time delay and phase shifter is discussed. This topic promises good prospect for wideband pattern generation and interference rejection.

  12. Inherent Smoothness of Intensity Patterns for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Generated by Simultaneous

    E-print Network

    Censor, Yair

    Inherent Smoothness of Intensity Patterns for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Generated) Abstract The efficient delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) de- pendends on finding technologies. I. INTRODUCTION Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with two-dimensional (2D) modulated

  13. Organization of oscillatory motor pattern generation networks in the mammalian central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Smith; Jack L. Feldman

    1990-01-01

    Several classes of models for oscillatory pattern generation networks are considered, and an experimental approach is described that has allowed the global organization to be elaborated for the system underlying respiratory movements. The experimental data suggest that in its most rudimentary configuration, this system is organized so that rhythmogenesis and pattern formation are separate functions involving distinct sets of neural

  14. Design of a Central Pattern Generator for Bionic-robot Joint with Angular Frequency Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daibing Zhang; Dewen Hu; Linchen Shen; Haibin Xie

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes an artificial central pattern generator (CPG) for bionic-robot joint control. The neural oscillator adopted to produce rhythmic pattern is specially designed from original sin-cosine oscillator model. An amplitude neural estimator consisted of two neurons is presented to provide sensor feedback to CPG control. The artificial CPG can adapt itself to the physical system parameters variety by rhythmic

  15. Online Biped Walking Pattern Generation for Humanoid Robot KHR-3(KAIST Humanoid Robot - 3: HUBO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ill-Woo Park; Jung-Yup Kim; Jun-Ho Oh

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm about online walking pattern generation method, sensory feedback controllers for walking of humanoid robot platform KHR-3 (KAIST Humanoid Robot-3: HUBO) and experimental results. The walking pattern trajectories have continuity, smoothness in varying walking period and stride, and it has simple mathematical form which can be implemented easily. The gait trajectory algorithm is composed of two

  16. Testing random number generators for Monte Carlo applications.

    PubMed

    Sim, L H; Nitschke, K N

    1993-03-01

    Central to any system for modelling radiation transport phenomena using Monte Carlo techniques is the method by which pseudo random numbers are generated. This method is commonly referred to as the Random Number Generator (RNG). It is usually a computer implemented mathematical algorithm which produces a series of numbers uniformly distributed on the interval [0,1). If this series satisfies certain statistical tests for randomness, then for practical purposes the pseudo random numbers in the series can be considered to be random. Tests of this nature are important not only for new RNGs but also to test the implementation of known RNG algorithms in different computer environments. Six RNGs have been tested using six statistical tests and one visual test. The statistical tests are the moments, frequency (digit and number), serial, gap, and poker tests. The visual test is a simple two dimensional ordered pair display. In addition the RNGs have been tested in a specific Monte Carlo application. This type of test is often overlooked, however it is important that in addition to satisfactory performance in statistical tests, the RNG be able to perform effectively in the applications of interest. The RNGs tested here are based on a variety of algorithms, including multiplicative and linear congruential, lagged Fibonacci, and combination arithmetic and lagged Fibonacci. The effect of the Bays-Durham shuffling algorithm on the output of a known "bad" RNG has also been investigated. PMID:8470994

  17. Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Öström; Jonas Måhlén; Andrzej Karawajczyk; Mats Rosling; Per Carlqvist; Per Askebjer; Tord Karlin; Jesper Sallander; Anders Österberg

    2006-01-01

    A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics

  18. Design and testing of a second generation solar Stirling engine power conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelving, H.G.; Wells, D.

    1983-08-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of the improved, second generation 4-95 solar Stirling engine power conversion system. Design rationale and performance results are presented for the improved receiver design, improved concentrator alignment, integrated cooling unit, and improved control system. Flux patterns for the concentrator are presented along with calculated and measured data on the temperatures obtained in the solar heater tubes. Test results including maximum and average module performance are shown. The highlights from the testing include a maximum demonstrated power output of over 24.9 kilowatts electric output to the grid, and an overall module efficiency of 27%.

  19. A Test Generation Framework for Quantum Cellular Automata Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pallav Gupta; Niraj K. Jha; Loganathan Lingappan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a test generation framework for quantum cellular automata (QCA) circuits. QCA is a nanotechnology that has attracted recent significant attention and shows promise as a viable future technology. This work is motivated by the fact that the stuck-at fault test set of a circuit is not guaranteed to detect all defects that can occur in

  20. Hierarchical GUI Test Case Generation Using Automated Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atif M. Memon; Martha E. Pollack; Mary Lou Soffa

    2001-01-01

    The widespread use of GUIs for interacting with software is leading to the construction of more and more complex GUIs. With the growing complexity come challenges in testing the correctness of a GUI and its underlying software. We present a new technique to automatically generate test cases for GUIs that exploits planning, a well-developed and used technique in artificial intelligence.

  1. VanetMobiSim: generating realistic mobility patterns for VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Härri; Fethi Filali; Christian Bonnet; Marco Fiore

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present and describe VanetMobiSim, a generator of realistic vehicular movement traces for telecommunication networks simulators. VanetMobiSim mobility description is validated by illustrating how the interaction between featured macro- and micro-mobility is able to reproduce typical phenomena of vehicular traffic.

  2. Analyzing a Discrete Model of Aplysia Central Pattern Generator

    E-print Network

    Tiwari, Ashish

    SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, {tiwari,clt}@csl.sri.com Abstract. We present a discrete in understanding the buccal motor programs generated by the network in terms of the network connection topology. It also eliminates the need for detailed knowledge of the unknown parameters in the continuous model

  3. ASM-based Testing: Coverage Criteria and Automatic Test Sequence Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Gargantini; Elvinia Riccobene

    2001-01-01

    This paper tackles some aspects concerning the exploitation of Abstract State Machines (ASMs) for testing purposes. We define for ASM specifications a set of adequacy criteria measuring the coverage achieved by a test suite, and determining whether sufficient testing has been performed. We introduce a method to automatically generate from ASM specifications test sequences which accomplish a desired coverage. This

  4. Running Tests of a Combined SC Type Linear Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    In the superconducting maglev system, it is important to develop a non-contact on-board power source without environmental pollution such as noise and exhaust gas. We have studied a combined SC (Superconducting Coil) type linear generator as the most realistic system. The linear generator system has improved to increase output, power factor and measuring equipment. In this paper, the linear generator system is experimented in running tests on the Yamanashi Test line. We can supply power of 25kW to half a car in the speed range 400km/h to 500km/h. A good correlation is recognized between the analysis and measurement in the running tests. This linear generator system can be expected to be applicable in the practical use

  5. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  6. Pattern accuracy and throughput optimization for an SLM-based 248-nm DUV laser mask pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoberg, Henrik; Chauvet, Jean-Michel; Harkesjo, Jan; Hogfeldt, Peter; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Karlsson, Johan; Kjellberg, Lars; Mahlen, Jonas; Beyerl, Angela; Vedenpaa, Jukka; Goodoree, Robin; Bjuggren, Mans; Aman, Johan

    2004-08-01

    With each new technology generation, photomask manufacturing faces increasing complexity due to shrinking designs and accelerating use of reticle enhancement techniques. Denser and more complex patterns on the mask result in lower yields and long write and turn-around times, important factors for the rapidly increasing mask related costs in IC manufacturing. Laser pattern generators operating at DUV wavelengths were recently introduced to provide cost effective alternatives to electron-beam systems for printing of high-end photomasks. DUV wavelengths provide the required resolution and pattern fidelity. Optical tools that use raster writing principles and massively parallel printing ensure short and predictable write times for photomasks almost independent of pattern complexity. One such high-volume production system, the Sigma7300, uses spatial light modulator (SLM) technology and a 248 nm excimer laser for printing. Partially coherent imaging and multi-pass printing as in a lithography scanner further increases resolution and pattern accuracy. With four-pass printing the system provides resolution and pattern accuracy meeting mask requirements for critical layers at the 90-nm node and sub-critical layers at the 65-nm node and beyond. The paper discusses how mask layout can be optimized to take full advantage of the speed potential provided by the SLM-based writer. It shows how flexible use of the writing principle can provide cost effective writing solutions for many layers in high-end mask sets. Resolution and pattern accuracy results from the Sigma7300 will be presented together with write times for different types of designs.

  7. A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, A.; Franchini, M.; Brocca, L.; Camici, S.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryRainfall scenarios are of considerable interest for design flood and flood risk analysis. To this end, the stochastic generation of continuous rainfall sequences is often coupled with the continuous hydrological modelling. In this context, the spatial and the temporal rainfall variability represents a significant issue, especially for basins in which the rainfall field cannot be approximated through the use of a single station. Therefore, methodologies for the spatially and temporally correlated rainfall generation are welcome. An example of such a methodology is the well-established Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (STNSRP), a modification of the single-site Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (NSRP) approach, designed to incorporate specific features to reproduce the rainfall spatial cross-correlation. In order to provide a simple alternative to the STNSRP, a new method of generating synthetic rainfall time series with pre-set spatial-temporal correlation is proposed herein. This approach relies on the single-site NSRP model, which is used to generate synthetic hourly independent rainfall time series at each rain gauge station with the required temporal autocorrelation (and several other appropriately selected statistics). The rank correlation method of Iman and Conover (IC) is then applied to these synthetic rainfall time series in order to introduce the same spatial cross-correlation that exists between the observed time series. This combination of the NSRP model with the IC method consents the reproduction of the observed spatial-temporal variability of a rainfall field. In order to verify the proposed procedure, four sub-basins of the Upper Tiber River basin are investigated whose basin areas range from 165 km2 to 2040 km2. Results show that the procedure is able to preserve both the rainfall temporal autocorrelation at single site and the rainfall spatial cross-correlation at basin scale, and its performance is comparable with that of the STNSRP model for rainfall field generation. Given its simple formal structure (based on well established methods: i.e. NSRP and IC), we believe that the proposed approach can be conveniently utilized to generate spatially and temporally correlated rainfall scenarios.

  8. Dynamic test input generation for multiple-fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Phil

    1990-01-01

    Recent work is Causal Reasoning has provided practical techniques for multiple fault diagnosis. These techniques provide a hypothesis/measurement diagnosis cycle. Using probabilistic methods, they choose the best measurements to make, then update fault hypotheses in response. For many applications such as computers and spacecraft, few measurement points may be accessible, or values may change quickly as the system under diagnosis operates. In these cases, a hypothesis/measurement cycle is insufficient. A technique is presented for a hypothesis/test-input/measurement diagnosis cycle. In contrast to generating tests a priori for determining device functionality, it dynamically generates tests in response to current knowledge about fault probabilities. It is shown how the mathematics previously used for measurement specification can be applied to the test input generation process. An example from an efficient implementation called Multi-Purpose Causal (MPC) is presented.

  9. CityMob: A Mobility Model Pattern Generator for VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Martinez; Juan-Carlos Cano; Carlos T. Calafate; Pietro Manzoni

    2008-01-01

    Ad hoc networking is regarded as an adequate solution to cooperative driving between communicating cars on the road. Deploying and testing these networks, usually known as Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), involves a high cost in the real world, and so simulation is an useful alternative in research. One of the most critical issues in a simulation study of VANETs is

  10. Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates Yufeng Wang, Xun- brate gene families that were generated in the early stage of vertebrates and/or shortly before occurred before the divergence be- tween vertebrate and Drosophila, indicating a possible misleading

  11. Effects of Differences in Working Memory Capacity on Patterns of Word Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamura, Mimpei; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Morioka, Shu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has been reported that WM (working memory) is concerned with word generation, but many points regarding the relationship between the individual differences of WM capacity and the patterns of word generation remain unclear. This study is to investigate these unclear points by using three types of word fluency task with different…

  12. Artistic Pattern Generation by a Model of Territory Competing Kokichi Sugihara

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    This paper presents a method for generating artistic pat- terns using the Voronoi diagram. In this method, we start with a few of seed points, generate new sites at random, and assign them to one of the seed points based on the Voronoi diagram of the sites. The resulting territory patterns are colored by choosing

  13. Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zero-moment point

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuuji Kajita; Fumio Kanehiro; Kenji Kaneko; Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Kensuke Harada; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new method of a biped walking pat- tern generation by using a preview control of the zero- moment point (ZMP). First, the dynamics of a biped robot is modeled as a running cart on a table which gives a convenient representation to treat ZMP. After reviewing conventional methods of ZMP based pattern generation, we formalize the problem

  14. A technique for high-speed, fine-resolution pattern generation and its CMOS implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Moyer; Mark Clements; Wentai Liu; Toby Schaffer; Ralph K. Cavin III

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for generating a high-speed data pattern with precise edge placement (resolution) by using the matched delay technique. The technique involves passing clock and data signals through arrays of matched delay elements in such a way that the data rate and resolution of the generated data stream are controlled by the difference of these matched delays.

  15. Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Dabiri; Sean P. Colin; John H. Costello; Morteza Gharib

    2005-01-01

    Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned

  16. Automated Generation and Assessment of Autonomous Systems Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Horvath, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning verification and validation testing of autonomous spacecraft routinely culminates in the exploration of anomalous or faulted mission-like scenarios using the work involved during the Dawn mission's tests as examples. Prioritizing which scenarios to develop usually comes down to focusing on the most vulnerable areas and ensuring the best return on investment of test time. Rules-of-thumb strategies often come into play, such as injecting applicable anomalies prior to, during, and after system state changes; or, creating cases that ensure good safety-net algorithm coverage. Although experience and judgment in test selection can lead to high levels of confidence about the majority of a system's autonomy, it's likely that important test cases are overlooked. One method to fill in potential test coverage gaps is to automatically generate and execute test cases using algorithms that ensure desirable properties about the coverage. For example, generate cases for all possible fault monitors, and across all state change boundaries. Of course, the scope of coverage is determined by the test environment capabilities, where a faster-than-real-time, high-fidelity, software-only simulation would allow the broadest coverage. Even real-time systems that can be replicated and run in parallel, and that have reliable set-up and operations features provide an excellent resource for automated testing. Making detailed predictions for the outcome of such tests can be difficult, and when algorithmic means are employed to produce hundreds or even thousands of cases, generating predicts individually is impractical, and generating predicts with tools requires executable models of the design and environment that themselves require a complete test program. Therefore, evaluating the results of large number of mission scenario tests poses special challenges. A good approach to address this problem is to automatically score the results based on a range of metrics. Although the specific means of scoring depends highly on the application, the use of formal scoring - metrics has high value in identifying and prioritizing anomalies, and in presenting an overall picture of the state of the test program. In this paper we present a case study based on automatic generation and assessment of faulted test runs for the Dawn mission, and discuss its role in optimizing the allocation of resources for completing the test program.

  17. Next-generation DUV ALTA mask patterning capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Paul C.; Bohan, Michael J.; Christenson, Eric R.; Hamaker, H. Christopher; Howells, Sam C.; Kenan, Boaz; Pirogovsky, Peter; Sadiq, Malik K.; Teitzel, Robin L.; White, Michael C.; Ungureit, Michael; Wickstrom, Alan; Kiefer, Robert; Jackson, Curt

    2004-12-01

    The capability of the DUV ALTAÓ 4300 system has been extended by the development of two new optical subsystems: a 0.9 NA, 42X reduction lens and a high-bandwidth acousto-optic deflector based beam position and intensity correction servo. The PSM overlay performance has been improved by modifications to the software algorithms. Characterization data show improved resolution performance in line end shortening, through pitch CD bias and feature corner acuity. The AOD subsystem reduces stripe beam placement errors and random and systematic beam intensity errors. This has enabled local CD uniformity to be reduced to 4.3 nm (3?) and global CD uniformity to be reduced to 5.8 nm (range/2). Second layer overlay performance is now 20 nm (max error). A split lot wafer evaluation has demonstrated the equivalence of unmodified ALTAÓ 4300 reticles to those printed on a 50 KeV electron beam system for a 130/110 nm device. Wafer lithography results show equivalent CD uniformity, depth of focus and pattern registration results.

  18. Identifying Patterns of Appraising Tests in First-Year College Students: Implications for Anxiety and Emotion Regulation during Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; DiStefano, Christine; Schutz, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored patterns of appraising tests in a large sample of 1st-year college students. Cluster analysis was used to identify homogeneous groups of 1st-year students who shared similar patterns of cognitive appraisals about testing. The authors internally validated findings with an independent sample from the same population of students…

  19. NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation consists of viewgraph which review the test program and the results of the tests for the Gas Generator (GG) component for the Fastrac Engine. Included are pictures of the Fastrac (MC-1) Engine and the GG, diagrams of the flight configuration, and schematics of the LOX, and the RP-1 systems and the injector assembly. The normal operating parameters are reviewed, as are the test instrumentation. Also shown are graphs of the hot gas temperature, and the test temperature profiles. The results are summarized.

  20. Generation of arbitrary complex quasi-non-diffracting optical patterns

    E-print Network

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Petrov, Dmitri; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Torner, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Due to their unique ability to maintain an intensity distribution upon propagation, non-diffracting light fields are used extensively in various areas of science, including optical tweezers, nonlinear optics and quantum optics, in applications where complex transverse field distributions are required. However, the number and type of rigorously non-diffracting beams is severely limited because their symmetry is dictated by one of the coordinate system where the Helmholtz equation governing beam propagation is separable. Here, we demonstrate a powerful technique that allows the generation of a rich variety of quasi-non-diffracting optical beams featuring nearly arbitrary intensity distributions in the transverse plane. These can be readily engineered via modifications of the angular spectrum of the beam in order to meet the requirements of particular applications. Such beams are not rigorously non-diffracting but they maintain their shape over large distances, which may be tuned by varying the width of the angu...

  1. Pigment cell movement is not required for generation of Turing patterns in zebrafish skin

    PubMed Central

    Bullara, D.; De Decker, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is a model organism for pattern formation in vertebrates. Understanding what drives the formation of its coloured skin motifs could reveal pivotal to comprehend the mechanisms behind morphogenesis. The motifs look and behave like reaction–diffusion Turing patterns, but the nature of the underlying physico-chemical processes is very different, and the origin of the patterns is still unclear. Here we propose a minimal model for such pattern formation based on a regulatory mechanism deduced from experimental observations. This model is able to produce patterns with intrinsic wavelength, closely resembling the experimental ones. We mathematically prove that their origin is a Turing bifurcation occurring despite the absence of cell motion, through an effect that we call differential growth. This mechanism is qualitatively different from the reaction–diffusion originally proposed by Turing, although they both generate the short-range activation and the long-range inhibition required to form Turing patterns. PMID:25959141

  2. Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing

    E-print Network

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing S. Hellebrand, H.-J. Wunderlich, O. F. Haberl Institute of Computer Design. Germany Abstract In the past years special chips for external test have been suc- cessfully used

  3. Conformance Testing based on UML State Machines Automated Test Case Generation, Execution and Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Conformance Testing based on UML State Machines Automated Test Case Generation, Execution testing of reactive systems. Based on a formal specification, namely UML state machines, we automatically completely formalized a substantial subset of UML state machines that includes complex structured data

  4. Generating Reduced Tests for FSMs with Extra States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, Adenilso; Petrenko, Alexandre; Yevtushenko, Nina

    We address the problem of generating tests from a deterministic Finite State Machine to provide full fault coverage even if the faults may introduce extra states in the implementations. It is well-known that such tests should include the sequences in the so-called traversal set, which contains all sequences of length defined by the number of extra states. Therefore, the only apparent opportunity to produce shorter tests is to find within a test suite a suitable arrangement of the sequences in the inescapable traversal set. We observe that the direct concatenation of the traversal set to a given state cover, suggested by all existing generation methods with full fault coverage, results in extensive test branching, when a test has to be repeatedly executed to apply all the sequences of the traversal set. In this paper, we state conditions which allow distributing these sequences over several tests. We then utilize these conditions to elaborate a method, called SPY-method, which shortens tests by avoiding test branching as much as possible. We present the results of the experimental comparison of the proposed method with an existing method which indicate that the resulting save can be up to 40%.

  5. Generating realistic environments for cyber operations development, testing, and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Murphy, John P.

    2012-06-01

    Training eective cyber operatives requires realistic network environments that incorporate the structural and social complexities representative of the real world. Network trac generators facilitate repeatable experiments for the development, training and testing of cyber operations. However, current network trac generators, ranging from simple load testers to complex frameworks, fail to capture the realism inherent in actual environments. In order to improve the realism of network trac generated by these systems, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the level of realism in generated trac with respect to the environment being mimicked. We categorize realism measures into statistical, content, and behavioral measurements, and propose various metrics that can be applied at each level to indicate how eectively the generated trac mimics the real world.

  6. Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-05-13

    In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

  7. Tokamak fusion generators for nuclear radiation effects testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Jassby

    1982-01-01

    The potential utilization of near-term tokamak test reactors for nuclear radiation damage evaluation and hardening programs is examined. Physical layouts of the irradiation modules and methods of neutron spectrum tailoring are described. Tokamak fusion generators provide much larger test volume and can give more faithful spectral simulations of thermonuclear threat environments than do accelerator-driven point neutron sources or pulsed fast-fission

  8. Steam generator tube integrity program leak rate tests. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Bickford, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary results on leak rate tests performed on through-wall defected Inconel 600 steam generator tubing. Tube defects included an EDM (electro-discharge machine) notch and IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracks) of various lengths. Tests were conducted at PWR operating temperatures with leakage of hot water/steam into air. A number of IGSCC cracks were unstable under the experiment conditions of these initial tests, continuing to grow until system capacity limitations resulted in decreased pressure differential. However, initial tesing also pointed to a need for reconfiguration of the test apparatus to sustain increased flow and, more importantly, alter the mode of control. The initial test configuration is based on flow control, with pressure differential across the specimen an independent variable. This often results in pressure increases too rapid to establish the initiation of crack instability. A reconfigured system based on pressure control with flow as an independent parameter is being recommended for future tests.

  9. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, M/S R3-86 or N1-32, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisitope Themoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations} (10 CFR 71) relating to ``Type B`` shipments of radioactive materials. The licensed hardware is now in the U. S. Department of Energy licensing process that certifies the packaging`s integrity under accident conditions. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of {sup 238}Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator`s temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4,500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Logic Design for On-Chip Test ClockGeneration-Implementation Details and Impact on Delay Test Quality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Logic Design for On-Chip Test ClockGeneration- Implementation Details and Impact on Delay Test on- chip high-speed clock generation, implemented to avoid expensive test equipment, is described in detail. Techniques for on-chip clock generation, meant to reduce test vector count and to increase test

  11. Efficient Path Delay Test Generation with Boolean Satisfiability 

    E-print Network

    Bian, Kun

    2013-12-10

    delay test generator CodGen. A mixed structural-functional approach was implemented in CodGen where longest paths were detected using the K Longest Path Per Gate (KLPG) algorithm and path justification and dynamic compaction were handled with the SAT...

  12. Efficient Path Delay Test Generation with Boolean Satisfiability

    E-print Network

    Bian, Kun

    2013-12-10

    This dissertation focuses on improving the accuracy and efficiency of path delay test generation using a Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solver. As part of this research, one of the most commonly used SAT solvers, MiniSat, was integrated into the path...

  13. Testing a Student Generated Hypothesis Using Student Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Herle M.; Vaughan, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We describe an activity that allows students to experience the full process of a statistical investigation, from generating the research question, to collecting data and testing a hypothesis. Implementation of the activity is described both with and without use of clickers, handheld remotes that allow instant data collection.

  14. In-Situ Pressure Testing of Steam Generator Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cordelia K

    2002-01-01

    The anatomist John Hunter said, 'But why think? Why not try the experiment?' His words are applicable to in-situ pressure testing as a means of performing condition monitoring of steam generator tubes. Other methods of performing condition monitoring include the application of theoretical burst and leakage equations (deterministic methods), probabilistic analyses, and tube pull. The deterministic and probabilistic methods must

  15. ScriptEase: Generative Design Patterns for Computer Role-Playing Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Mcnaughton; Maria Cutumisu; Duane Szafron; Jonathan Schaeffer; James Redford; Dominique Parker

    2004-01-01

    Recently, some researchers have argued that generative design patterns (GDPs) can leverage the obvious design re-use that characterizes traditional design patterns into code re-use. This paper provides additional evidence that GDPs are both useful and productive. Specifically, the current state-of-the-art in the domain of computer games is to script individual game objects to provide the desired interactions for each game

  16. Customized Message Generation and Speech Synthesis in Response to Characteristic Behavioral Patterns of Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-joon Lee; Jong C. Park

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for a user-friendly human-computer interaction system that can respond to various characteristics\\u000a of a user in terms of behavioral patterns, mental state, and personalities. In this paper, we present a system that generates\\u000a appropriate natural language spoken messages with customization for user characteristics, taking into account the fact that\\u000a human behavioral patterns usually reveal one’s

  17. Quantum properties of transverse pattern formation in second-harmonic generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bache; P. Scotto; R. Zambrini; M. San Miguel; M. Saffman

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the spatial quantum noise properties of the one-dimensional transverse pattern formation instability in intracavity second-harmonic generation. The Q representation of a quasi-probability distribution is implemented in terms of nonlinear stochastic Langevin equations. We study these equations through extensive numerical simulations and analytically in the linearized limit. Our study, made below and above the threshold of pattern formation, is

  18. Direct pattern formation of bacterial cells using micro-droplets generated by electrohydrodynamic forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Han Kim; Dae-Young Lee; Jungho Hwang; Hyo-Il Jung

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial cells were patterned efficiently on a nutrient-coated membrane in a direct, rapid, and cost-effective manner using\\u000a electro-hydrodynamically generated micro-droplets. By varying the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the bacterial printing\\u000a solution, uniform droplets were obtained. Escherichia coli cells were directly printed onto a membrane filter, followed by overnight incubation on an agar plate which created line\\u000a patterns of bacterial

  19. Stridulatory pattern generation in acridid grasshoppers: metathoracic interneurons in Stenobothrus rubicundus (Germar 1817).

    PubMed

    Schütze, H; Elsner, N

    2001-09-01

    Stridulation was elicited in tethered gomphocerine grasshoppers of the species Stenobothrus rubicundus in order to identify interneurons of the stridulation pattern generator, and describe their morphological and physiological properties. Nine types of such neurons could be found and characterized; eight of those could additionally be compared to corresponding neuron types previously known from other species. As shown in detail for one selected type, the neurons of the stridulation pattern generator are very similar in their anatomical appearance, and possess similar physiological qualities at least in two species with similar stridulation patterns. Stridulation interneurons of species with largely different stridulatory motor patterns have a similar morphology, but show a different activation timing throughout the stridulation. Nevertheless, special properties such as resetting or initiation capability of certain stridulation interneurons seem to be conserved throughout the species. The results suggest that the stridulation pattern generator of different species consists of a uniform set of interneurons that change their activity pattern to produce species-specific song movements. PMID:11730300

  20. Automated Test Case Generation for an Autopilot Requirement Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Rungta, Neha; Feary, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Designing safety-critical automation with robust human interaction is a difficult task that is susceptible to a number of known Human-Automation Interaction (HAI) vulnerabilities. It is therefore essential to develop automated tools that provide support both in the design and rapid evaluation of such automation. The Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) enables the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. ADEPT supports a number of analysis capabilities, thus enabling the detection of HAI vulnerabilities early in the design process, when modifications are less costly. In this paper, we advocate the introduction of a new capability to model-based prototyping tools such as ADEPT. The new capability is based on symbolic execution that allows us to automatically generate quality test suites based on the system design. Symbolic execution is used to generate both user input and test oracles user input drives the testing of the system implementation, and test oracles ensure that the system behaves as designed. We present early results in the context of a component in the Autopilot system modeled in ADEPT, and discuss the challenges of test case generation in the HAI domain.

  1. Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  3. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Fastrac Gas Generator Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine is being developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help meet the goal of substantially reducing the cost of access to space. This engine relies on a simple gas-generator cycle, which burns a small amount of RP-1 and oxygen to provide gas to drive the turbine and then exhausts the spent fuel. The Fastrac program envisions a combination of analysis, design and hot-fire evaluation testing. This paper provides the supporting thermal analysis of the gas generator design. In order to ensure that the design objectives were met, the evaluation tests have started on a component level and a total of 15 tests of different durations were completed to date at MSFC. The correlated thermal model results will also be compared against hot-fire thermocouple data gathered.

  4. Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Daisuke; Hongu, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to the control object, and generally, the damper has been designed by linear control theory as pole placement method, optimal control method or H infinity control method, and all the rest. On the other hand, on walking of animate beings like mammals or insects, both side feet have appropriate phase relations; moreover, it is possible to keep moving on irregular ground. That is, algorithms for the walking would be embedded into the animate beings to control the complicated and redundant bodies with ease and robustness. In biological study, the Central Pattern Generators in bodies playing a significant role in the walking have been learned over the last few decades, and some studies said that some animate beings are able to control their feet by using the generators without their brains in the walking. Moreover, mathematical models of the pattern generators have been proposed, and some researchers have been studying to realize walking of biped-robots using the pattern generators embedded in a computer. In this study, the algorithm is installed into a controller for the active mass damper; furthermore, validation of the controller is performed by numerical simulation.

  5. On the New Application of Call Patterns to CPM Testing of Prolog Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingzhong Zhao; Tianlong Gu; Junyan Qian; Guoyong Cai

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Information on call patterns is known to be useful for analysis and optimization of Prolog programs. Several call patterns\\u000a semantics exists for Prolog or for the subset of Prolog. In this paper we propose a method to apply the call patterns semantics\\u000a to CPM testing of Prolog programs. The method can be viewed as an attempt to improve the testing

  6. Generation of optical crystals and quasicrystal beams: Kaleidoscopic patterns and phase singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. F.; Liang, H. C.; Lin, Y. C.; Tzeng, Y. S.; Su, K. W.; Huang, K. F. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-15

    We explore the feasibility of the generation of pseudonondiffracting optical beams related to crystal and quasicrystal structures. It is experimentally confirmed that optical crystal and quasicrystal beams can be remarkably generated with a collimated light to illuminate a high-precision mask with multiple apertures regularly distributed on a ring. We also found that exotic kaleidoscopic patterns can be exhibited with the high-order quasicrystal beams. More importantly, the structures of phase singularities in optical quasicrystal beams are manifested.

  7. Testing of ground conductors with artificially generated lightning current

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, J.M. [USA CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States)] [USA CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Alternative conductors for lightning protection applications favorable for use in mobile systems have been tested to demonstrate high levels of protection against maximal lightning events. The method of determining the survivability of the down conductors was to expose each type of conductor to maximal lightning events generated by a large Marx capacitor bank. Each type of conductor was tested until mechanical failure occurred or until it survived four exposures to the lightning event. A test to determine the effect of physical damage on conductor performance was also conducted. A theory attributing interstrand or intraconductor magnetic forces, rather than ohmic heating, as the primary cause of conductor failure is proposed. Results indicate that two types of tested conductor exist which can provide protection against maximal lightning events, yet have properties that lend themselves to mobile application.

  8. Diffractive elements for generating microscale laser beam patterns: a Y2K problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teiwes, Stephan; Krueger, Sven; Wernicke, Guenther K.; Ferstl, Margit

    2000-03-01

    Lasers are widely used in industrial fabrication for engraving, cutting and many other purposes. However, material processing at very small scales is still a matter of concern. Advances in diffractive optics could provide for laser systems that could be used for engraving or cutting of micro-scale patterns at high speeds. In our paper we focus on the design of diffractive elements which can be used for this special application. It is a common desire in material processing to apply 'discrete' as well as 'continuous' beam patterns. Especially, the latter case is difficult to handle as typical micro-scale patterns are characterized by bad band-limitation properties, and as speckles can easily occur in beam patterns. It is shown in this paper that a standard iterative design method usually fails to obtain diffractive elements that generate diffraction patterns with acceptable quality. Insights gained from an analysis of the design problems are used to optimize the iterative design method. We demonstrate applicability and success of our approach by the design of diffractive phase elements that generate a discrete and a continuous 'Y2K' pattern.

  9. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  10. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  11. Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Iba; Junichi Hongu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to

  12. Oscillatory command input to the motor pattern generators of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Robertson; Maurice Moulins

    1984-01-01

    1.In the rock lobsterHomarus gammarus, the gastric rhythm controls the chewing movements of three cuticular teeth in the stomach (gastric mill). The rhythmic motor output (Fig. 3) arises from a network of neurones, the gastric pattern generator (GPG), located within the stomatogastric ganglion. In addition our in vitro recordings indicate that in each of the two commissural ganglia there is

  13. Acquisition of adaptive walking behaviors using machine learning with Central Pattern Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sato; K. Watanabe; H. Igarashi

    2010-01-01

    Recently, biologically inspired approaches have received much attention for robot control. A typical example of them is control of rhythmic behaviors by Central Pattern Generator (CPG). However, this control has a problem that there are few theories to determine parameters of CPG. For this reason, they are determined experimentally. In this paper, we propose a combination method of Genetic Algorithm

  14. Detailed Model of Intersegmental Coordination in the Timing Network of the Leech Heartbeat Central Pattern Generator

    E-print Network

    Calabrese, Ronald

    Detailed Model of Intersegmental Coordination in the Timing Network of the Leech Heartbeat Central of intersegmental coordination in the timing network of the leech heartbeat central pattern generator. J problem of interseg- mental coordination of oscillatory neuronal networks, we have studied the leech

  15. Scaling Issues for VLSI Implementations of Biologically Accurate Neurons and Central Pattern Generators

    E-print Network

    Ayers, Joseph

    in Robotics Utilizing central pattern generators for control of robotic locomotion has been an active research topic [6]. Mimicking the locomotion of animal models allows a robot to robustly deal with obstacles Lobster and Lamprey robots for aquatic mine and object detection [8][9]. Neuromorphic sensors were used

  16. Real-time 3D SLAM for Humanoid Robot considering Pattern Generator Information

    E-print Network

    Davison, Andrew

    , the robot odometry and inertial sensing to aid visual mapping within a standard EKF framework. To ourReal-time 3D SLAM for Humanoid Robot considering Pattern Generator Information Olivier Stasse robotics and SLAM (Simultaneous Lo- calisation and Mapping) are certainly two of the most significant

  17. One-eighth look-up table method for effectively generating computer-generated hologram patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungjin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Nam-Young; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-05-01

    To generate ideal digital holograms, a computer-generated hologram (CGH) has been regarded as a solution. However, it has an unavoidable problem in that the computational burden for generating CGH is very large. Recently, many studies have been conducted to investigate different solutions in order to reduce the computational complexity of CGH by using particular methods such as look-up tables (LUTs) and parallel processing. Each method has a positive effectiveness about reducing computational time for generating CGH. However, it appears to be difficult to apply both methods simultaneously because of heavy memory consumption of the LUT technique. Therefore, we proposed a one-eighth LUT method where the memory usage of the LUT is reduced, making it possible to simultaneously apply both of the fast computing methods for the computation of CGH. With the one-eighth LUT method, only one-eighth of the zone plates were stored in the LUT. All of the zone plates were accessed by indexing method. Through this method, we significantly reduced memory usage of LUT. Also, we confirmed the feasibility of reducing the computational time of the CGH by using general-purpose graphic processing units while reducing the memory usage.

  18. Shape matching utilizing indexed hypotheses generation and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Rajiv; Grosky, William I.

    1989-01-01

    An indexing mechanism is developed as part of an overall scheme called SMITH (shape matching utilizing indexed hypothesis generation and testing) for two-dimensional model-based object recognition. The approach is based on a dynamic programming implementation of attributed string matching, is computationally efficient, and works effectively for both nonoccluded and occluded shapes. Another advantage of this technique is that models may be inserted or deleted with relatively little cost.

  19. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. PMID:25081852

  20. Testing of the Mark 101 magnetic flux compression generator

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.L.; Fowler, C.M.; King, J.C.; Martinez, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mark 101 explosive flux compression generator is a line-initiated, vacuum/magnetically insulated, helical generator. This device offered some unique challenges in transforming the theoretical design into a testable experiment. The two main reasons for this are that in theory an eight-turn, four-wire Mark 101 possesses a terminal dL/dt of approx.0.5 ..cap omega.. and operates with electric fields which are greater than the threshold for electron field emission. With this in mind, we designed an integral vacuum-jacket-generator configuration with a passive load inductance of less than or equal to0.5 ..mu..H. The generator contained approx.8 ..mu..H of initial inductance. The field emission required the stator to be entirely sealed within the vacuum jacket. The open, helical stator resulted in the presence of non-trivial leakage fields and voltages. To accommodate these fields, the vacuum chamber for the generator was segmented and axially insulated with rings of acrylic, similar to stacked-ring diodes. We made no attempt to break the azimuthal metal surfaces due to the physical difficulty this would incur. Diagnostics included an input current Rogowski loop, a load Rogowski loop, two dB/dt probes in the load, a Faraday fiber-optic current sensor, and two dB/dt probes in the region between the stator winding and the vacuum jacket to measure the leakage azimuthal and axial magnetic fields. The results of explosive tests are presented.

  1. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  2. Patterning of colloidal quantum dots for the generation of surface plasmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, Dae-Young; Suh, Hwansoo; Kim, Jineun; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Jaesoong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-10-01

    Patterning of colloidal quantum dot (QD) of a nanometer resolution is important for potential applications in micro- or nanophotonics. Several patterning techniques such as polymer composites, molecular key-lock methods, inkjet printing, and the microcontact printing of QDs have been successfully developed and applied to various plasmonic applications. However, these methods are not easily adapted to conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible processes because of either limits in fabrication resolutions or difficulties in sub-100-nm alignment. Here, we present an adaptation of a conventional lift-off method for the patterning of colloidal QDs. This simple method can be later applied to CMOS processes by changing electron beam lithography to photolithography for building up photon-generation elements in various planar geometries. Various shapes formed by colloidal QD clusters such as straight lines, rings, and dot patterns with sub-100-nm size could be fabricated. The patterned structures show sub-10-nm positioning with good fluorescence properties and well-defined sidewall profiles. To demonstrate the applicability of our method, we present a surface plasmon generator from a QD cluster.

  3. Flexibility of the axial central pattern generator network for locomotion in the salamander.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, D; Knüsel, J; Crespi, A; Lamarque, S; Mathou, A; Ijspeert, A J; Cabelguen, J M

    2015-03-15

    In tetrapods, limb and axial movements are coordinated during locomotion. It is well established that inter- and intralimb coordination show considerable variations during ongoing locomotion. Much less is known about the flexibility of the axial musculoskeletal system during locomotion and the neural mechanisms involved. Here we examined this issue in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii, which is capable of locomotion in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Kinematics of the trunk and electromyograms from the mid-trunk epaxial myotomes were recorded during four locomotor behaviors in freely moving animals. A similar approach was used during rhythmic struggling movements since this would give some insight into the flexibility of the axial motor system. Our results show that each of the forms of locomotion and the struggling behavior is characterized by a distinct combination of mid-trunk motor patterns and cycle durations. Using in vitro electrophysiological recordings in isolated spinal cords, we observed that the spinal networks activated with bath-applied N-methyl-d-aspartate could generate these axial motor patterns. In these isolated spinal cord preparations, the limb motor nerve activities were coordinated with each mid-trunk motor pattern. Furthermore, isolated mid-trunk spinal cords and hemicords could generate the mid-trunk motor patterns. This indicates that each side of the cord comprises a network able to generate coordinated axial motor activity. The roles of descending and sensory inputs in the behavior-related changes in axial motor coordination are discussed. PMID:25540227

  4. A simple and rapid method for generating patterned co-cultures with stable interfaces.

    PubMed

    Javaherian, Sahar; Li, Katherine J; McGuigan, Alison P

    2013-07-01

    In native tissues, different cell types are organized into defined structures and architectures that are critical for correct tissue function. In vitro cellular patterning methods enable control over the spatial organization of cells, permitting, to some extent, the reproduction of native tissue structures and the generation of a more "in vivo-like" culture platform. While this is advantageous for applications such as drug screening, existing patterning methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and low-throughput. Here, we describe a novel medium-throughput patterning strategy for generating spatially controlled co-cultures of two cell types based on differential deposition of BSA solution in a tilted plate. Our method allows generation of homotypic and heterotypic co-cultures that are stable for at least seven days in culture. The reproducibility and consistency of this patterning technique, together with its low cost and ease of use, make it a promising cell culture platform for medium- to high-throughput screening using high-content imaging. PMID:23834381

  5. D0 Experimental Area Emergency Backup Power and Generator Test

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    The DO experimental area has a generator designated as emergency power. This generator provides power for critical loads and starts automatically upon loss of commercial power. This note concerns the testing of this generator. A list of loads is attached to this note. One of the loads on the emergency power grid is a 10KVA Uninterruptable Power Supply(UPS). The UPS powers the cryogenic controls and Oxygen deficiency hazard equipment(ODH) and has a minimum rating of 20 minutes while on its batteries(to cover the transfer time to/from the emergency generator). Jan 23,1991 at 1640 hrs this system was tested under the supervision of the Terry Ross, Marv Johnson, Dan Markley, Kelly Dixon, and John Urbin. The power feeder to the emergency power grid at DO was disconnected. The generator responded immediately and was supplying power to the emergency power grid in less than 10 seconds. During the 10 seconds that there was no power on the emergency grid the UPS switched on its inverter and provided uninterrupted power to the cryogenic control system and the ODH system. All of the motorized equipment shut off instrument air compressor, vacuum pumps 1 and 2, insulating vacuum blower, glycol cooling pumps, cooling tower fan, and Exhaust Fan 7(EF7). Upon reengagement of power to the grid from the emergency generator, all of the motorized loads started back up with the exception of vacuum pumps 1 and 2, and the UPS inverter turned off. Vacuum pumps 1 and 2 were delay started 20 seconds by the cryogenic control system as not to cause too large of a surge in power by all of the inductive loads starting at once. The DO building elevator which is also on emergency power was test run while the emergency generator was on line with all other emergency loads. The emergency generator current was 140 amps with all loads on line and running except the building elevator. This load of 140 amps is 27% of the generator's capacity. The cryogenic control and ODH system continued to function properly throughout the entire test due to the UPS responding correctly to each power situation. The cryogenic control system isolated both the Utility(UV) and insulating(IV) vacuum systems as to preserve their vacua while the pumps were off. Once the vacuum pumps were reestablished the IV and UV vacua were put back on line to their respective pumps by the cryogenic control system. The instrument air is backed up by a high pressure trailer, regulated down to instrument air pressure and switches automatically on line through a check valve. During the time that the instrument air compressor was off, instrument air never went below 80 psig (high pressure regulator setting).

  6. Octopamine modulates a central pattern generator associated with egg-laying in the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Lange, Angela B

    2014-04-01

    Egg-laying in Locusta migratoria involves the control of a variety of complex behavioural patterns including those that regulate digging of the oviposition hole and retention of eggs during digging. These two behavioural patterns are under the control of central pattern generators (CPGs). The digging and egg-retention CPGs are coordinated and integrated with overlapping locations of neural substrate within the VIIth and VIIIth abdominal ganglia of the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, the egg-retention CPG of the VIIth abdominal ganglion is involved in both egg-retention and protraction of the abdomen during digging. The biogenic amine, octopamine, has peripheral effects on oviduct muscle, relaxing basal tension of the lateral and upper common oviduct and enabling egg passage. Here we show that octopamine also modulates the pattern of the egg-retention CPG by altering the motor pattern that controls the external ventral protractor of the VIIth abdominal segment. There is no change in the motor pattern that goes to the oviducts. Octopamine decreased the frequency of the largest amplitude action potential and decreased burst duration while leading to an increase in cycle duration and interburst interval. The effects of octopamine were greatly reduced in the presence of the ?-adrenergic blocker, phentolamine, indicating that the action of octopamine was via a receptor. Thus, octopamine orchestrates events that can lead to oviposition, centrally inhibiting the digging behavior and peripherally relaxing the lateral and common oviducts to enable egg-laying. PMID:24530620

  7. Investigation, Analysis, and Testing of Self-contained Oxygen Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, Christopher P.; Haas, Jon P.; Starritt, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Self Contained Oxygen Generators (SCOGs) have widespread use in providing emergency breathing oxygen in a variety of environments including mines, submarines, spacecraft, and aircraft. These devices have definite advantages over storing of gaseous or liquid oxygen. The oxygen is not generated until a chemical briquette containing a chlorate or perchlorate oxidizer and a solid metallic fuel such as iron is ignited starting a thermal decomposition process allowing gaseous oxygen to be produced. These devices are typically very safe to store, easy to operate, and have primarily only a thermal hazard to the operator that can be controlled by barriers or furnaces. Tens of thousands of these devices are operated worldwide every year without major incident. This report examines the rare case of a SCOG whose behavior was both abnormal and lethal. This particular type of SCOG reviewed is nearly identical to a flight qualified version of SCOG slated for use on manned space vehicles. This Investigative Report is a compilation of a NASA effort in conjunction with other interested parties including military and aerospace to understand the causes of the particular SCOG accident and what preventative measures can be taken to ensure this incident is not repeated. This report details the incident and examines the root causes of the observed SCOG behavior from forensic evidence. A summary of chemical and numerical analysis is provided as a background to physical testing of identical SCOG devices. The results and findings of both small scale and full scale testing are documented on a test-by-test basis along with observations and summaries. Finally, conclusions are presented on the findings of this investigation, analysis, and testing along with suggestions on preventative measures for any entity interested in the safe use of these devices.

  8. Guided Waves Damage Identification in Beams with Test Pattern Dependent Series Neural Network Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. LIEW; M. VEIDT

    In regression neural networks for pattern recognition of preprocessed guided waves signals in beams, a trained network produced large errors when identifying a test pattern not found in the training set. To improve the accuracy of results, a new neural network procedure was introduced where progressive training was performed in a series combined network with the integration of a weight-range

  9. Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2009-07-01

    We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

  10. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  11. An Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation1 Joseph M. Wolf

    E-print Network

    Klenke, Robert H.

    An Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation1 Joseph M. Wolf Lori M. Kaufman Robert H and ASC-9201822. #12;An Analysis of Fault Partitioned Parallel Test Generation Abstract Generation of test generation process is to simply divide the processing of the fault list across multiple processors. Each

  12. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  13. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502 Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  17. Jartege: a Tool for Random Generation of Unit Tests for Java Classes

    E-print Network

    programs, the JUnit framework [JUn,BG98] allows the developer to write an oracle for each test case cases, and on the other hand as a test oracle. Jartege randomly generates test cases, which consist irrelevant test cases, and on the other hand as a test oracle. Jartege randomly generates test cases, which

  18. A rule-based expert system for automatic control rod pattern generation for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.S.; Lin, C. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu 30043 (TW))

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on an expert system for generating control rod patterns that has been developed. The knowledge is transformed into IF-THEN rules. The inference engine uses the Rete pattern matching algorithm to match facts, and rule premises and conflict resolution strategies to make the system function intelligently. A forward-chaining mechanism is adopted in the inference engine. The system is implemented in the Common Lisp programming language. The three-dimensional core simulation model performs the core status and burnup calculations. The system is successfully demonstrated by generating control rod programming for the 2894-MW (thermal) Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The computing time is tremendously reduced compared to programs using mathematical methods.

  19. Two-phase Flow Patterns in High Temperature Generator of Absorption Chiller / Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kanuma, Hitoshi; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Takeishi, Masayuki

    There is a lack of information about vapor-liquid two-phase flow patterns determined using void signals in high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. Sensing void fraction has been hampered because lithium bromide aqueous solution of strong alkalinity is employed as working fluid at high temperature and high level of vacuum. New void sensor applicable to such difficult conditions was developed. The void Fractions at 48 locations in a high temperature generator were measured simultaneously in both cooling and heating operations. Analysis of void signals detected reveals that the most violent boiling occurs at the upper part of rear plate of combustion chamber and the first line of vertical tubes located in the flue. The flow patterns are strongly affected by the system pressure difference between the cooling and heating operations: there appear bubbly, slug and froth flows in the cooling operation, but only bubbly flow in the heating operation.

  20. Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Kuo; K. L. Vodopyanov; M. M. Fejer; D. M. Simanovskii; X. Yu; J. S. Harris; D. Bliss; D. Weyburne

    2006-01-01

    We have generated an ultrabroad mid-infrared continuum by using single-pass optical parametric generation (OPG) in orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs). The spectrum spans more than an octave, from 4.5 to 10.7 µm, measured 20 dB down from the peak. The 17.5 mm long, 0.5 mm thick, all-epitaxially-grown OP-GaAs sample with a 166.6-µm quasi-phase-matching period was pumped with 3.1-3.3 µm wavelength, 1 ps

  1. Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing an Automated Modelling Tool

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Hong

    - 1 - Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing Brookes University, Oxford OX33 1HX, UK Email: hzhu@brookes.ac.uk ABSTRACT Generation of adequate test cases is difficult and expensive, especially for testing software systems whose input is structurally

  2. Logic Design for On-Chip Test Clock Generation - Implementation Details and Impact on Delay Test Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Beck; Olivier Barondeau; Martin Kaibel; Frank Poehl; Xijiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses delay test for SOC devices with high frequency clock domains. A logic design for on-chip high-speed clock generation, implemented to avoid expensive test equipment, is described in detail. Techniques for on-chip clock generation, meant to reduce test vector count and to increase test quality, are discussed. ATPG results for the proposed techniques are given.

  3. Evaluations of various TPG circuits for use in two-pattern testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Furuya; Susumu Yamazaki; M. Sato

    1994-01-01

    Transition coverage has already been proposed as a measure of two-pattern test capabilities of TPG circuits for use in BIST. This paper investigates experimentally the relationships between transition coverages and actual stuck-open fault coverages in order to reveal what kind of circuits are appropriate for two-pattern testing. Fault simulation was performed using conventional (n-stage) LFSR, 2n-stage LFSR, and one-dimensional cellular

  4. An amplitude scintillation test pattern standard for evaluating GPS receiver performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kintner; B. M. Ledvina; E. R. de Paula

    2005-01-01

    A GPS L1 amplitude scintillation test pattern based on measured GPS signal amplitudes is proposed as a first step toward developing a standard. The 300 s test pattern is created from a GPS signal experiencing moderate amplitude scintillations (0.3 < S4 < 0.6) as measured at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, during January 2001. By scaling the signal amplitudes to larger S4

  5. Key Bifurcations of Bursting Polyrhythms in 3-Cell Central Pattern Generators

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Jeremy; Schwabedal, Justus; Clewley, Robert; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

    2014-01-01

    We identify and describe the key qualitative rhythmic states in various 3-cell network motifs of a multifunctional central pattern generator (CPG). Such CPGs are neural microcircuits of cells whose synergetic interactions produce multiple states with distinct phase-locked patterns of bursting activity. To study biologically plausible CPG models, we develop a suite of computational tools that reduce the problem of stability and existence of rhythmic patterns in networks to the bifurcation analysis of fixed points and invariant curves of a Poincaré return maps for phase lags between cells. We explore different functional possibilities for motifs involving symmetry breaking and heterogeneity. This is achieved by varying coupling properties of the synapses between the cells and studying the qualitative changes in the structure of the corresponding return maps. Our findings provide a systematic basis for understanding plausible biophysical mechanisms for the regulation of rhythmic patterns generated by various CPGs in the context of motor control such as gait-switching in locomotion. Our analysis does not require knowledge of the equations modeling the system and provides a powerful qualitative approach to studying detailed models of rhythmic behavior. Thus, our approach is applicable to a wide range of biological phenomena beyond motor control. PMID:24739943

  6. Quantum properties of transverse pattern formation in second-harmonic generation

    E-print Network

    M. Bache; P. Scotto; R. Zambrini; M. San Miguel; M. Saffman

    2002-02-27

    We investigate the spatial quantum noise properties of the one dimensional transverse pattern formation instability in intra-cavity second-harmonic generation. The Q representation of a quasi-probability distribution is implemented in terms of nonlinear stochastic Langevin equations. We study these equations through extensive numerical simulations and analytically in the linearized limit. Our study, made below and above the threshold of pattern formation, is guided by a microscopic scheme of photon interaction underlying pattern formation in second-harmonic generation. Close to the threshold for pattern formation, beams with opposite direction of the off-axis critical wave numbers are shown to be highly correlated. This is observed for the fundamental field, for the second harmonic field and also for the cross-correlation between the two fields. Nonlinear correlations involving the homogeneous transverse wave number, which are not identified in a linearized analysis, are also described. The intensity differences between opposite points of the far fields are shown to exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics, revealing the quantum nature of the correlations. We observe twin beam correlations in both the fundamental and second-harmonic fields, and also nonclassical correlations between them.

  7. Phase relationships between segmentally organized oscillators in the leech heartbeat pattern generating network.

    PubMed

    Masino, Mark A; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2002-03-01

    Motor pattern generating networks that produce segmentally distributed motor outflow are often portrayed as a series of coupled segmental oscillators that produce a regular progression (constant phase differences) in their rhythmic activity. The leech heartbeat central pattern generator is paced by a core timing network, which consists of two coupled segmental oscillators in segmental ganglia 3 and 4. The segmental oscillators comprise paired mutually inhibitory oscillator interneurons and the processes of intersegmental coordinating interneurons. As a first step in understanding the coordination of segmental motor outflow by this pattern generator, we describe the functional synaptic interactions, and activity and phase relationships of the heart interneurons of the timing network, in isolated nerve cord preparations. In the timing network, most (approximately 75%) of the coordinating interneuron action potentials were generated at a primary spike initiation site located in ganglion 4 (G4). A secondary spike initiation site in ganglion 3 (G3) became active in the absence of activity at the primary site. Generally, the secondary site was characterized by a reluctance to burst and a lower spike frequency, when compared with the primary site. Oscillator interneurons in G3 inhibited spike activity at both initiation sites, whereas oscillator interneurons in G4 inhibited spike activity only at the primary initiation site. This asymmetry in the control of spike activity in the coordinating interneurons may account for the observation that the phase of the coordinating interneurons is more tightly linked to the G3 than G4 oscillator interneurons. The cycle period of the timing network and the phase difference between the ipsilateral G3 and G4 oscillator interneurons were regular within individual preparations, but varied among preparations. This variation in phase differences observed across preparations implies that modulated intrinsic membrane and synaptic properties, rather than the pattern of synaptic connections, are instrumental in determining phase within the timing network. PMID:11877527

  8. Volume electric dipole origin of second-harmonic generation from metallic membrane with noncentrosymmetric patterns.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yong; Moloney, Jerome V

    2009-09-15

    We analytically study second-harmonic (SH) generation from thin metallic films with subwavelength noncentrosymmetric patterns. Because the thickness of the film is much smaller than the SH wavelength, retardation effects are negligible. The far-field SH intensities are thus dominated by an effective electric dipole. It is further demonstrated that internal bulk SH polarization density is comparable with its surface counterpart. The electric dipole, consequently, originates from the entire volume of the metallic membrane. PMID:19756124

  9. Five types of nonspiking interneurons in local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system

    PubMed Central

    Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen; Weller, Cynthia; Wright, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative analysis of the different nonspiking interneurons in the local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system. Within each local circuit, these interneurons control the firing of the power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons that drive swimmeret movements. Fifty-four of these interneurons were identified during physiological experiments with sharp microelectrodes and filled with dextran Texas red, Neurobiotin, or both. Five types of neurons were identified on the basis of combinations of physiological and anatomical characteristics. Anatomical categories were based on 16 anatomical parameters measured from stacks of confocal images obtained from each neuron. The results support the recognition of two functional classes: inhibitors of power stroke (IPS) and inhibitors of return stroke (IRS). The IPS class of interneuron has three morphological types with similar physiological properties. The IRS class has two morphological types with physiological properties and anatomical features different from the IPS neurons but similar within the class. Three of these five types have not been previously identified. Reviewing the evidence for dye coupling within each type, we conclude that each type of IPS neuron and one type of IRS neuron occur as a single copy in each local pattern-generating circuit. The last IRS type includes neurons that might occur as a dye-coupled pair in each local circuit. Recognition of these different interneurons in the swimmeret pattern-generating circuits leads to a refined model of the local pattern-generating circuit that includes synaptic connections that encode and decode information required for intersegmental coordination of swimmeret movements. PMID:23615552

  10. Process generating the ditribution pattern of eggs of the common cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiro Kobayashi

    1966-01-01

    Summary  The process generating the negative binomial in the distribution pattern of eggs of the common cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae crucivora, was investigated by releasing the female adults in a net house where cabbages were planted.\\u000a \\u000a The distribution of butterflies visited and laid an egg or more per plant followed thePoisson series under the uniform light condition, while that of eggs laid

  11. Local network parameters can affect inter-network phase lags in central pattern generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Jones; N. Kopell

    2006-01-01

    Weakly coupled phase oscillators and strongly coupled relaxation oscillators have different mechanisms for creating stable\\u000a phase lags. Many oscillations in central pattern generators combine features of each type of coupling: local networks composed\\u000a of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators are weakly coupled to similar local networks. This paper analyzes the phase lags\\u000a produced by this combination of mechanisms and shows how

  12. The 3D linear inverted pendulum mode: a simple modeling for a biped walking pattern generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuuji Kajita; Fumio Kanehiro; Kenji Kaneko; Kazuhito Yokoi; Hirohisa Hirukawa

    2001-01-01

    For 3D walking control of a biped robot we analyze the dynamics of a 3D inverted pendulum in which motion is constrained to move along an arbitrarily defined plane. This analysis yields a simple linear dynamics, the 3D linear inverted pendulum mode (3D-LIPM). Geometric nature of trajectories under the 3D-LIPM and a method for walking pattern generation are discussed. A

  13. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Code-coverage Based Test Vector Generation for SystemC Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alair Dias Jr.; Diógenes Cecilio da Silva Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for the automatic test vector generation for SystemC combinational designs based on code coverage analysis which is complementary to the functional testing. The method uses coverage information to generate test vectors capable of covering the portions of code not exercised by the black-box testing. Vectors are generated using an instrumented code followed by a numerical

  15. Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests Christophe Hurlin and Valrie Mignony

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -sectional independence hypothesis. Within this second generation of tests, two main approaches are distinguishedSecond Generation Panel Unit Root Tests Christophe Hurlin and Valérie Mignony August 2006 Abstract review of the ...rst generation panel unit root tests, this paper focuses on the tests belonging

  16. Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

    2006-03-01

    An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi IITe 3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

  17. Mobile testing complex based on an explosive magnetic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Kozlov, A. V.; Gusev, A. N.; Shurupova, N. P.; Zavalova, V. E.; Chulkov, A. N.; Bazelyan, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile testing complex prototype on the basis of an explosive magnetic generator (MTC EMG) is developed to simulate a lightning current pulse. The main element of this complex is a current pulse generator comprising a EMG with a pulse transformer for energy release into the load. The electric chain of the MTC EMG is theoretically analyzed taking into consideration energy losses in active resistances in the primary circuit of the transformer and the inductive-resistive nature of the load, which resulted in the minimization of energy losses in the primary circuit depending on the electric chain parameters. It was found that, if the energy losses are minimized, the efficiency of transferring the EMG energy into the load exceeds 50%. As a result of the field tests of the MTC EMG, its basic characteristics were determined and the waveforms of the current pulses and voltages in the load were obtained. It is shown that the results of the mathematical simulation of current pulses in the load are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Automatic Test Case Generation Using Multi-protocol Test Method Soo-in Lee, Yongbum Park, and Myungchul Kim

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ben

    Automatic Test Case Generation Using Multi-protocol Test Method Soo-in Lee, Yongbum Park, mckim}@icu.ac.kr Abstract - A method for testing multi-protocol implementation under test (IUT) with a single test suite has been proposed in the literature. It tests a multi-protocol IUT in an integrated way

  19. Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets. PMID:20545409

  20. Temporal vocal features suggest different call-pattern generating mechanisms in mice and bats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations in various inter-individual encounters and with high call rates. However, it is so far virtually unknown how these vocal patterns are generated. On the one hand, these vocal patterns could be embedded into the normal respiratory cycle, as happens in bats and other mammals that produce similar call rates and frequencies. On the other, mice could possess distinct vocal pattern generating systems that are capable of modulating the respiratory cycle, which is what happens in non-human and human primates. In the present study, we investigated the temporal call patterns of two different mammalian species, bats and mice, in order to differentiate between these two possibilities for mouse vocalizations. Our primary focus was on comparing the mechanisms for the production of rapid, successive ultrasound calls of comparable frequency ranges in the two species. Results We analyzed the temporal call pattern characteristics of mice, and we compared these characteristics to those of ultrasonic echolocation calls produced by horseshoe bats. We measured the distributions of call durations, call intervals, and inter-call intervals in the two species. In the bat, and consistent with previous studies, we found that call duration was independent of corresponding call intervals, and that it was negatively correlated with the corresponding inter-call interval. This indicates that echolocation call production mechanisms in the bat are highly correlated with the respiratory cycle. In contrast, call intervals in the mouse were directly correlated with call duration. Importantly, call duration was not, or was only slightly, correlated with inter-call intervals, consistent with the idea that vocal production in the mouse is largely independent of the respiratory cycle. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ultrasonic vocalizations in mice are produced by call-pattern generating mechanisms that seem to be similar to those that have been found in primates. This is in contrast to the production mechanisms of ultrasonic echolocation calls in horseshoe bats. These results are particularly interesting, especially since mouse vocalizations have recently attracted increased attention as potential indicators for the degree of progression of several disease patterns in mouse models for neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders of humans. PMID:24020588

  1. SSME Seal Test Program: Test results for sawtooth pattern damper seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and transverse force coefficients for 11, sawtooth-pattern, and damper-seal configurations were examined. The designation damper seal uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation sawtooth-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or dams. All seals use the same smooth rotor and have the same, constant, minimum clearance. The stators examined the consequences of changes in the following design parameters: (1) axial-groove depth; (2) number of teeth: (3) number of sawtooth sections; (4) number of spacer elements; (5) dam width; (6) axially aligned sawtooth sections versus axially-staggered sawtooth sections; and (7) groove geometry. It is found that none of the sawtooth-pattern seal performs as well as the best round-hole-pattern seal. Maximum damping configurations for the sawtooth and round-hole-pattern stators have comparable stiffness performance. Several of the sawtooth pattern stators outperformed the best round-hole pattern seal.

  2. Augmenting Automatically Generated Unit-Test Suites with Regression Oracle Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xie

    2006-01-01

    A test case consists of two parts: a test input to exercise the program under test and a test oracle to check the correctness of the test execution. A test oracle is often in the form of executable assertions such as in the JUnit test- ing framework. Manually generated test cases are valuable in exposing program faults in the current

  3. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  4. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Tulsky, David S.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Weintraub, Sandra; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18–85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test–retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test–retest reliability. There was also evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity; the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other processing speed tests (i.e., WAIS-IV Coding, Symbol Search and Processing Speed Index), small significant correlations with measures of working memory (i.e., WAIS-IV Letter-Number Sequencing and PASAT), and non-significant correlations with a test of vocabulary comprehension (i.e., PPVT-IV). Finally, analyses comparing and combining scores on the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test with other measures of simple reaction time from the NIHTB-CB indicated that a Processing Speed Composite score performed better than any test examined in isolation. The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test exhibits several strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages, 3–85 years), it is short and easy to administer, and it has high construct validity. PMID:24960594

  5. Humanlike stable bipedal walking with a large stride by the height variation of the center of mass using an evolutionary optimized central pattern generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Dae Hong; Chang-Soo Park; Jong-Hwan Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes human-like stable bipedal walking with a large stride by the height variation of the center of mass (COM) using an evolutionary optimized central pattern generator (CPG). A modifiable walking pattern generator (MWPG) is utilized to generate a walking pattern for the bipedal robot. For the height variation of the COM, its height trajectory is generated by the

  6. Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

  7. Efficient second harmonic generation using nonlinear substrates patterned by nano-antenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Doron; Scheuer, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    We study theoretically various design considerations for efficient generation of second harmonic using a nonlinear substrate patterned with nano-antennas. The analysis is focused on a gap Bowtie nano-antenna array recessed in LiNbO? which is shown to be preferable over on surface structures due to field enhancement, field profile and linear and non-linear polarization considerations. In addition, we develop the nano-antenna counterpart of the Boyd-Klienmann model in order to analyze the impact of a Gaussian shaped fundamental beam on the generated second harmonic. Finally, we show that the dielectric properties of the substrate lead to preferable directions for the incident fundamental harmonic and the emission of the second harmonic. Our analyses lead to several design rules which can enhance second and high harmonic generation from nano-antennas arrays by several orders of magnitude. PMID:24514468

  8. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build up of filter cake on the disks and therefore the performance of the filter. The filter performed well with the simulant. Very little drop in production was noticed between the 5 and 10 wt% insoluble solids feed. Increasing to 15 wt% had a more pronounced impact due to the rheology of the feed. Acid cleaning was used to clean the filter disks in-situ and restore filtration rate to almost 90% of the initial clean disk rate. Eighty liters of 0.2 M nitric acid in conjunction with water rinses were used to clean the filter in less than 2 hours. Filter testing was completed after 1000 hours of operation were performed on the final filter assembly configuration. The total run time for the testing was over 1500 hours. At the end of the test, the sludge washing was performed successfully from approximately 5.6 M to less than 1 M sodium.

  9. Patch-test reaction patterns in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis often need to be patch tested in order to detect possible contact sensitization. However, it is unknown whether immunologic or other peculiarities of atopic skin are related to altered patch-test reaction patterns. Our study was aimed at answering this question, because patch-test reaction patterns are of considerable practical importance in the reading and interpretation of patch tests. Therefore, we compared patterns of patch-test reactions in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis and in control patients matched for sex, age, reason for testing and test centre. Patch-test results from 9 centres (2322 patients with a disposition to atopic dermatitis and 2126 matched controls) were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were tested with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, potassium dichromate, lanolin alcohol, formaldehyde and mercury ammonium chloride. Patch tests applied for 1 day with readings on days 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated in order to cover the early phase of the reactions. Not unexpectedly, we found that, compared to the matched controls, patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis tended to have more doubtful and irritant reactions on day 1. As a new observation, it turned out that they had less reactions of crescendo pattern and more strong reactions on day 3. All these differences were slight/insignificant. A higher skin irritability in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis is a likely explanation. In conclusion, standard methods for patch testing can be applied in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but minor differences in reaction patterns should be considered. PMID:14996068

  10. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  11. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, Sajiya; Allen, Dane; Youker, Joseph; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2013-12-01

    Small groups of interneurons, abbreviated by CPG for central pattern generators, are arranged into neural networks to generate a variety of core bursting rhythms with specific phase-locked states, on distinct time scales, which govern vital motor behaviors in invertebrates such as chewing and swimming. These movements in lower level animals mimic motions of organs in higher animals due to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Hence, various neurological diseases can be linked to abnormal movement of body parts that are regulated by a malfunctioning CPG. In this paper, we, being inspired by recent experimental studies of neuronal activity patterns recorded from a swimming motion CPG of the sea slug Melibe leonina, examine a mathematical model of a 4-cell network that can plausibly and stably underlie the observed bursting rhythm. We develop a dynamical systems framework for explaining the existence and robustness of phase-locked states in activity patterns produced by the modeled CPGs. The proposed tools can be used for identifying core components for other CPG networks with reliable bursting outcomes and specific phase relationships between the interneurons. Our findings can be employed for identifying or implementing the conditions for normal and pathological functioning of basic CPGs of animals and artificially intelligent prosthetics that can regulate various movements.

  12. Elevated dopamine alters consummatory pattern generation and increases behavioral variability during learning

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mark A.; Yin, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of dopamine in controlling behavior remains poorly understood. In this study we examined licking behavior in an established hyperdopaminergic mouse model—dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice. DAT KO mice showed higher rates of licking, which is due to increased perseveration of licking in a bout. By contrast, they showed increased individual lick durations, and reduced inter-lick intervals. During extinction, both KO and control mice transiently increased variability in lick pattern generation while reducing licking rate, yet they showed very different behavioral patterns. Control mice gradually increased lick duration as well as variability. By contrast, DAT KO mice exhibited more immediate (within 10 licks) adjustments—an immediate increase in lick duration variability, as well as more rapid extinction. These results suggest that the level of dopamine can modulate the persistence and pattern generation of a highly stereotyped consummatory behavior like licking, as well as new learning in response to changes in environmental feedback. Increased dopamine in DAT KO mice not only increased perseveration of bouts and individual lick duration, but also increased the behavioral variability in response to the extinction contingency and the rate of extinction. PMID:26029064

  13. Assembly-free genome comparison based on next-generation sequencing reads and variable length patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), a large amount of short read data has been generated. If a reference genome is not available, the assembly of a template sequence is usually challenging because of repeats and the short length of reads. When NGS reads cannot be mapped onto a reference genome alignment-based methods are not applicable. However it is still possible to study the evolutionary relationship of unassembled genomes based on NGS data. Results We present a parameter-free alignment-free method, called Under2¯, based on variable-length patterns, for the direct comparison of sets of NGS reads. We define a similarity measure using variable-length patterns, as well as reverses and reverse-complements, along with their statistical and syntactical properties. We evaluate several alignment-free statistics on the comparison of NGS reads coming from simulated and real genomes. In almost all simulations our method Under2¯ outperforms all other statistics. The performance gain becomes more evident when real genomes are used. Conclusion The new alignment-free statistic is highly successful in discriminating related genomes based on NGS reads data. In almost all experiments, it outperforms traditional alignment-free statistics that are based on fixed length patterns. PMID:25252700

  14. On numerical turbulence generation for test-particle simulations

    E-print Network

    Tautz, R C

    2013-01-01

    A modified method is presented to generate artificial magnetic turbulence that is used for test-particle simulations. Such turbulent fields are obtained from the superposition of a set of wave modes with random polarizations and random directions of propagation. First, it is shown that the new method simultaneously fulfils requirements of isotropy, equal mean amplitude and variance for all field components, and vanishing divergence. Second, the number of wave modes required for a stochastic particle behavior is investigated by using a Lyapunov approach. For the special case of slab turbulence, it is shown that already for 16 wave modes the particle behavior agrees with that shown for considerably larger numbers of wave modes.

  15. Micropunching lithography for generating micro- and submicron-patterns on polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Liu, Xinchuan; Luo, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymers have attracted great attention since the discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977(1). They offer the advantages of low weight, easy tailoring of properties and a wide spectrum of applications(2,3). Due to sensitivity of conducting polymers to environmental conditions (e.g., air, oxygen, moisture, high temperature and chemical solutions), lithographic techniques present significant technical challenges when working with these materials(4). For example, current photolithographic methods, such as ultra-violet (UV), are unsuitable for patterning the conducting polymers due to the involvement of wet and/or dry etching processes in these methods. In addition, current micro/nanosystems mainly have a planar form(5,6). One layer of structures is built on the top surfaces of another layer of fabricated features. Multiple layers of these structures are stacked together to form numerous devices on a common substrate. The sidewall surfaces of the microstructures have not been used in constructing devices. On the other hand, sidewall patterns could be used, for example, to build 3-D circuits, modify fluidic channels and direct horizontal growth of nanowires and nanotubes. A macropunching method has been applied in the manufacturing industry to create macropatterns in a sheet metal for over a hundred years. Motivated by this approach, we have developed a micropunching lithography method (MPL) to overcome the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. Like the macropunching method, the MPL also includes two operations (Fig. 1): (i) cutting; and (ii) drawing. The "cutting" operation was applied to pattern three conducting polymers(4), polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophen)-poly(4-styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI). It was also employed to create Al microstructures(7). The fabricated microstructures of conducting polymers have been used as humidity(8), chemical(8), and glucose sensors(9). Combined microstructures of Al and conducting polymers have been employed to fabricate capacitors and various heterojunctions(9,10,11). The "cutting" operation was also applied to generate submicron-patterns, such as 100- and 500-nm-wide PPy lines as well as 100-nm-wide Au wires. The "drawing" operation was employed for two applications: (i) produce Au sidewall patterns on high density polyethylene (HDPE) channels which could be used for building 3D microsystems(12,13,14), and (ii) fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars on HDPE substrates to increase the contact angle of the channel(15). PMID:22805740

  16. Fuel cell drive system with hydrogen generation in test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Schmidt, H.; Grube, T.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.; Tschauder, A.

    In the future, drive systems for vehicles with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) may be the environmentally more acceptable alternative to conventional drives with internal combustion engines. The energy carrier may not be gasoline or diesel, as in combustion engines today, but methanol, which is converted on-board into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in a reforming reaction with water. After removal of carbon monoxide in a gas-cleaning step, the conditioned synthesis gas is converted into electricity in a fuel cell using air as the oxidant. The electric energy thus generated serves to supply a vehicle's electric drive system. Based on the process design for a test drive system, a test facility was prepared and assembled at Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ). Final function tests with the PEMFC and the integrated compact methanol reformer (CMR) were carried out to determine the performance and the dynamic behaviour. With regard to the 50-kW(H 2)-compact methanol reformer, a special design of catalytic burner was constructed. The burner units, with a total power output of 16 kW, were built and tested under different states of constant and alternating load. If selecting a specific catalyst loading of 40 g Pt/m 2, the burner emissions are below the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) standard. The stationary performance test of the CMR shows a specific hydrogen production of 6.7 m N3/(kg cat h) for a methanol conversion rate of 95% at 280°C. Measurements of the transient behaviour of the CMR clearly show a response time of about 20 s, reaching 99% of the hydrogen flow demand due to the limited performance of the test facility control system. Simulations have been carried out in order to develop a control strategy for hydrogen production by the CMR during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Based on the NEDC, an optimized energy management for the total drive system was evaluated and the characteristic data for different peak load storage systems are described.

  17. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  18. Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell–cell interactions with microscale resolution. Scope of the review We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Major conclusions Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell–cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell–cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. General significance Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. PMID:20655984

  19. Models of central pattern generators for quadruped locomotion. II. Secondary gaits.

    PubMed

    Buono, P L

    2001-04-01

    We continue the analysis of the network of symmetrically coupled cells modeling central pattern generators (CPG) for quadruped locomotion proposed by Golubitsky, Stewart, Buono and Collins by studying secondary gaits. Secondary gaits are modeled by output signals from the CPG where each cell emits one of two different output signals along with exact phase shifts. Examples of secondary gaits are transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and canter. We classify secondary gaits that bifurcate when the Poincaré map of a primary gait has a real eigenvalue crossing the unit circle. In particular, we show that periodic solutions modeling transverse gallop and rotary gallop bifurcate from primary gaits. Moreover, we find gaits from period-doubling bifurcations and analyze plausible footfall patterns. Numerical simulations are performed using the Morris-Lecar equations as cell dynamics. PMID:11374123

  20. Efficient generation of diffraction-limited multi-sheet pattern for biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Partha Pratim; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; Mohan, Kavya

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate a new technique to generate multiple light-sheets for fluorescence microscopy. This is possible by illuminating the cylindrical lens using multiple copies of Gaussian beams. A diffraction grating placed just before the cylindrical lens splits the incident Gaussian beam into multiple beams traveling at different angles. Subsequently, this gives rise to diffraction-limited light-sheets after the Gaussian beams pass through the combined cylindrical lens-objective sub-system. Direct measurement of field at and around the focus of objective lens shows multi-sheet pattern with an average thickness of 7.5 ?m and inter-sheet separation of 380 ?m. Employing an independent orthogonal detection sub-system, we successfully imaged fluorescently-coated yeast cells (?4???m) encaged in agarose gel-matrix. Such a diffraction-limited sheet-pattern equipped with dedicated detection system may find immediate applications in the field of optical microscopy and fluorescence imaging. PMID:25680162

  1. Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe Sc, Berkeley Spring 2007 #12;Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Copyright c 2007 by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe #12;Abstract Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving

  2. An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data generation method

  3. An Experiment in Automatic Generation of Test Suites for Protocols with Verification Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-claude Fernandez; Claude Jard; Thierry Jéron; César Viho

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment in automatic generation of test suites for protocol testing. We report the results gained with generation of test suites based on advanced verification techniques applied to a real industrial protocol. In this experiment, several tools have been used: the commercial tool GEODE (VERILOG) was used for the generation of finite state graph models

  4. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Distinct inspiratory rhythm and pattern generating mechanisms in the preBötzinger complex.

    PubMed

    Kam, Kaiwen; Worrell, Jason W; Janczewski, Wiktor A; Cui, Yan; Feldman, Jack L

    2013-05-29

    In the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator, the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) produces rhythmic bursts that drive inspiratory motor output. Cellular mechanisms initiated by each burst are hypothesized to be necessary to determine the timing of the subsequent burst, playing a critical role in rhythmogenesis. To explore mechanisms relating inspiratory burst generation to rhythmogenesis, we compared preBötC and hypoglossal (XII) nerve motor activity in medullary slices from neonatal mice in conditions where periods between successive inspiratory XII bursts were highly variable and distributed multimodally. This pattern resulted from rhythmic preBötC neural population activity that consisted of bursts, concurrent with XII bursts, intermingled with significantly smaller "burstlets". Burstlets occurred at regular intervals during significantly longer XII interburst intervals, at times when a XII burst was expected. When a preBötC burst occurred, its high amplitude inspiratory component (I-burst) was preceded by a preinspiratory component that closely resembled the rising phase of burstlets. Cadmium (8 ?M) eliminated preBötC and XII bursts, but rhythmic preBötC burstlets persisted. Burstlets and preinspiratory activity were observed in ~90% of preBötC neurons that were active during I-bursts. When preBötC excitability was raised significantly, burstlets could leak through to motor output in medullary slices and in vivo in adult anesthetized rats. Thus, rhythmic bursting, a fundamental mode of nervous system activity and an essential element of breathing, can be deconstructed into a rhythmogenic process producing low amplitude burstlets and preinspiratory activity that determine timing, and a pattern-generating process producing suprathreshold I-bursts essential for motor output. PMID:23719793

  6. HIV Testing Patterns among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Typology

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Sophia A.; Stephenson, Robert; del Rio, Carlos; Wilton, Leo; Wallace, Jermel; Wheeler, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Black MSM are more likely to have unrecognized HIV infection, suggesting that testing may occur later and/or infrequently relative to current recommendations. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the HIV testing behaviors of Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia, who were participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061). Methods and Findings We conducted 29 in-depth interviews and four focus groups with a community-recruited sample. Modified grounded theory methodologies were used to guide our inductive analysis, which yielded a typology comprised of four distinct HIV testing patterns. Participants could be categorized as: (1) Maintenance Testers, who tested regularly as part of routine self-care; (2) Risk-Based Testers, whose testing depended on relationship status or sexual behavior; (3) Convenience Testers, who tested irregularly depending on what testing opportunities arose; or (4) Test Avoiders, who tested infrequently and/or failed to follow up on results. We further characterized these groups with respect to age, socioeconomic factors, identity, stigma and healthcare access. Conclusions Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of HIV testing patterns among Black MSM, and offer a framework for conceptualizing HIV testing in this group. Public health messaging must account for the diversity of Black MSM's experiences, and multiple testing approaches should be developed and utilized to maximize outreach to different types of testers. PMID:24069408

  7. The Hyper-X Antenna Radiation Pattern Tests and Radio Frequency System Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Mark W.; Kelley, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the antenna radiation pattern measurements of the Hyper-X, X-43 ship 2 aircraft. One test was conducted at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF) on January 24-January 27, 2000. A second test was done at MicroCraft in Tullahoma Tennessee by the Naval Air Weapons Center (NAWC) China Lake, California on September 8, 2001. The overall test objective was to gather qualitative antenna radiation pattern data from installed antennas on the HXRV. This objective was accomplished by collecting antenna radiation patterns at selected elevations of the HXRV. The test data was used to identify areas of RF coverage and assist in positioning the P-3 aircraft for best RF reception. The antenna pattern data presented nulls and possible low RF reception areas around the aircraft. This led to a redesign of the RF system. The redesigned system provided redundancy in case a telemetry transmitter should fail. The redesign provided more complete RF coverage within the antenna's capabilities. A second look at the flight path and necessary data collection led to a change in the beacon transponder system.

  8. Program Comprehension for User-Assisted Test Oracle Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teemu Kanstrén

    2009-01-01

    Software testing requires a test oracle that makes an assessment of the correctness of the tested program behaviour, based on a priori created model. While test automation is a popular research topic, there is only a limited amount of work in the subject of automating the process of creating test oracles. This lack of test oracle automation greatly limits the

  9. Pattern generation by two coupled time-discrete neural networks with synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Senn, W; Wannier, T; Kleinle, J; Lüscher, H R; Müller, L; Streit, J; Wyler, K

    1998-07-01

    Numerous animal behaviors, such as locomotion in vertebrates, are produced by rhythmic contractions that alternate between two muscle groups. The neuronal networks generating such alternate rhythmic activity are generally thought to rely on pacemaker cells or well-designed circuits consisting of inhibitory and excitatory neurons. However, experiments in organotypic cultures of embryonic rat spinal cord have shown that neuronal networks with purely excitatory and random connections may oscillate due to their synaptic depression, even without pacemaker cells. In this theoretical study, we investigate what happens if two such networks are symmetrically coupled by a small number of excitatory connections. We discuss a time-discrete mean-field model describing the average activity and the average synaptic depression of the two networks. Depending on the parameter values of the depression, the oscillations will be in phase, antiphase, quasiperiodic, or phase trapped. We put forward the hypothesis that pattern generators may rely on activity-dependent tuning of synaptic depression. PMID:9654770

  10. Generating Regression Unit Tests Using a Combination of Verification and Capture & Replay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Gladisch; Shmuel S. Tyszberowicz; Bernhard Beckert; Amiram Yehudai

    2010-01-01

    The combination of software verification and testing techniques is in- creasingly encouraged due to their complementary strengths. Some verification tools have extensions for test case generation. These tests are strong at detecting software faults during the implementation and verification phase, and to further increase the confidence in the final software product. However, tests generated using verification technology alone may lack

  11. Automatic Generation Of Object-Oriented Unit Tests Using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Automatic Generation Of Object-Oriented Unit Tests Using Genetic Programming Stefan Wappler, M to the benefits it promises in terms of cost saving and test quality improvement. It requires test sequences the generation of object-oriented unit tests. It employs genetic programming, a recent meta

  12. Distinct rhythmic locomotor patterns can be generated by a simple adaptive neural circuit: Biology, simulation, and VLSI implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Ryckebusch; Mike Wehr; Gilles Laurent

    1994-01-01

    Rhythmic motor patterns can be induced in leg motor neurons of isolated locust thoracic ganglia by bath application of pilocarpine. We observed that the relative phases of levators and depressors differed in the three thoracic ganglia. Assuming that the central pattern generating circuits underlying these three segmental rhythms are probably very similar, we developed a simple model circuit that can

  13. Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar R. T. Liu,1

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar R. T. Liu,1 S s : 87.10. e, 47.54. r, 82.40.Ck, 05.45. a I. INTRODUCTION The origin of pigmentation patterns on animal application to biological systems may not simply be of academic interest. Amongst the myriad of pigment

  14. Examining Runoff Generation Across Scale: A Test of Mixing Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. L.; Roulet, N. T.

    2004-05-01

    As water moves through the landscape, it transports biogeochemical nutrients and contaminants to the stream channel. The physical processes that deliver water to the stream channel vary in both space and time. As a result, modelling of runoff generation and nutrient budgets remains a challenge. Mixing models are used to help define different sources or end-members of water (e.g. groundwater and soil waters) that mix together to make up stream water. The application of mixing models has focused on the analysis of runoff from headwater basins. However, as water moves downstream, changes in stream chemistry will indicate if the relative importance of end-member contributions changes with location. Furthermore, the geochemical definition of end-members could potentially vary with location. In this research we apply a mixing model to stream discharge taken from a series of forested basins at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec to evaluate both the changing importance of end-member contributions and the validity of their geochemical definitions across scale. In this study, a mixing-model is created from analysis of stream water chemistry collected from the largest basin (1.5 km2) located furthest downstream. The model is then applied to 8 additional locations located upstream that represent progressively smaller basin areas. For each basin, we test if the same mixing-model can reproduce the observed stream chemistry. The number of contributing end-members is estimated by the mixing-model analysis but their physical interpretation relies on independent field sampling of groundwater and soil waters. This study provides a cross-basin application of end-member-mixing-analysis. The results will be used in a cross-basin analysis of runoff generation.

  15. Differential proliferation rates generate patterns of mechanical tension that orient tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanlan; Tournier, Alexander L; Hoppe, Andreas; Kester, Lennart; Thompson, Barry J; Tapon, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Orientation of cell divisions is a key mechanism of tissue morphogenesis. In the growing Drosophila wing imaginal disc epithelium, most of the cell divisions in the central wing pouch are oriented along the proximal–distal (P–D) axis by the Dachsous-Fat-Dachs planar polarity pathway. However, cells at the periphery of the wing pouch instead tend to orient their divisions perpendicular to the P–D axis despite strong Dachs polarization. Here, we show that these circumferential divisions are oriented by circumferential mechanical forces that influence cell shapes and thus orient the mitotic spindle. We propose that this circumferential pattern of force is not generated locally by polarized constriction of individual epithelial cells. Instead, these forces emerge as a global tension pattern that appears to originate from differential rates of cell proliferation within the wing pouch. Accordingly, we show that localized overgrowth is sufficient to induce neighbouring cell stretching and reorientation of cell division. Our results suggest that patterned rates of cell proliferation can influence tissue mechanics and thus determine the orientation of cell divisions and tissue shape. PMID:24022370

  16. Activation by p-chloroamphetamine of the spinal ejaculatory pattern generator in anaesthetized male rats.

    PubMed

    Stafford, S A; Bowery, N G; Tang, K; Coote, J H

    2006-07-01

    In urethane-anesthetized male rats, a branch of the hypogastric nerve was shown, anatomically and electrophysiologically, to supply the vas deferens. Recordings from this nerve revealed a low level of tonic activity, which was predominantly efferent motor activity. Administration of p-chloroamphetamine i.v., elicited a rhythmic burst of neuronal activity, coherent with rhythmic pressure increases in the vas deferens and contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles, which together comprise ejaculation. This response to p-chloroamphetamine was still present after complete transection of the spinal cord at T8-T9. These data indicate that p-chloroamphetamine is capable of activating the spinal neuronal circuits that generate the pattern of autonomic and somatic responses similar to those of sexual climax. Furthermore based on the best documented action of p-chloroamphetamine, the results suggest that the excitability of the pattern generator is regulated by serotonergic, dopaminergic or noradrenergic receptors in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We conclude this animal model will enable robust studies of the pharmacology and physiology of central neural mechanisms involved in ejaculation and sexual climax. PMID:16580147

  17. Control of traveling-wave oscillations and bifurcation behavior in central pattern generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Alexandra S.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Understanding synchronous and traveling-wave oscillations, particularly as they relate to transitions between different types of behavior, is a central problem in modeling biological systems. Here, we address this problem in the context of central pattern generators (CPGs). We use contraction theory to establish the global stability of a traveling-wave or synchronous oscillation, determined by the type of coupling. This opens the door to better design of coupling architectures to create the desired type of stable oscillations. We then use coupling that is both amplitude and phase dependent to create either globally stable synchronous or traveling-wave solutions. Using the CPG motor neuron network of a leech as an example, we show that while both traveling and synchronous oscillations can be achieved by several types of coupling, the transition between different types of behavior is dictated by a specific coupling architecture. In particular, it is only the “repulsive” but not the commonly used phase or rotational coupling that can explain the transition to high-frequency synchronous oscillations that have been observed in the heartbeat pattern generator of a leech. This shows that the overall dynamics of a CPG can be highly sensitive to the type of coupling used, even for coupling architectures that are widely believed to produce the same qualitative behavior.

  18. Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition algorithms on single session testing

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in response to sleep loss. PMID:22959616

  19. Grey-box GUI Testing: Efficient Generation of Event Sequences

    E-print Network

    Arlt, Stephan; Bertolini, Cristiano; Memon, Atif M; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs), due to their event driven nature, present a potentially unbounded space of all possible ways to interact with software. During testing it becomes necessary to effectively sample this space. In this paper we develop algorithms that sample the GUI's input space by only generating sequences that (1) are allowed by the GUI's structure, and (2) chain together only those events that have data dependencies between their event handlers. We create a new abstraction, called an event-dependency graph (EDG) of the GUI, that captures data dependencies between event handler code. We develop a mapping between EDGs and an existing black-box user-level model of the GUI's workflow, called an event-flow graph (EFG). We have implemented automated EDG construction in a tool that analyzes the bytecode of each event handler. We evaluate our "grey-box" approach using four open-source applications and compare it with the current state-of-the-art EFG approach. Our results show that using the EDG reduc...

  20. Resolution improvement and pattern generator development for the maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies have been studied. The dependence of the throughput with the exposure field size and the speed of the mechanical stage has been investigated. In order to perform maskless lithography, different micro-fabricated pattern generators have been developed for the MMRL system. Ion beamlet switching has been successfully demonstrated on the MMRL system. A positive bias voltage around 10 volts is sufficient to switch off the ion current on the micro-fabricated pattern generators. Some unexpected problems, such as the high-energy secondary electron radiations, have been discovered during the experimental investigation. Thermal and structural analysis indicates that the aperture displacement error induced by thermal expansion can satisfy the 3delta CD requirement for lithography nodes down to 25 nm. The cross-talking effect near the surface and inside the apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in a 3-D ray-tracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposed to reduce the cross-talking effect. In order to eliminate the surface charging effect caused by the secondary electrons, a new beam-switching scheme in which the switching electrodes are immersed in the plasma has been demonstrated on a mechanically fabricated pattern generator.

  1. Running Tests of a Combined SC Type Linear Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Hasegawa; Toshiaki Murai; Takamitsu Yamamoto

    2004-01-01

    In the superconducting maglev system, it is important to develop a non-contact on-board power source without environmental pollution such as noise and exhaust gas. We have studied a combined SC (Superconducting Coil) type linear generator as the most realistic system. The linear generator system has improved to increase output, power factor and measuring equipment. In this paper, the linear generator

  2. On Statistical Testing of Random Numbers Generators El Haje, F.1

    E-print Network

    Golubev, Yuri

    ) that apply iterative numerical algorithms to an initial seed, 1 #12;· True Random Number Generators (TRNGOn Statistical Testing of Random Numbers Generators El Haje, F.1 , Golubev, Yu.2 , Liardet, P.-Y.3- resents a serious competitor for Maurer's test in the case when the random number generator is governed

  3. A Test of the Influence of Continental Axes of Orientation on Patterns of Human Gene Flow

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    A Test of the Influence of Continental Axes of Orientation on Patterns of Human Gene Flow Sohini to investigate the spatial axes that underlie population-genetic varia- tion. We find that genetic variation. Genetic differentiation in the Americas occurs along both latitudinal and longitudi- nal axes

  4. Brief Report: Eye-Movement Patterns during an Embedded Figures Test in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keehn, Brandon; Brenner, Laurie A.; Ramos, Aurora I.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Marshall, Sandra P.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined fixation frequency and duration during an Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in an effort to better understand the attentional and perceptual processes by which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve accelerated EFT performance. In particular, we aimed to elucidate differences in the patterns of eye-movement in…

  5. Test Generation from Security Policies Specified in Or-BAC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keqin Li; Laurent Mounier; Roland Groz

    2007-01-01

    Security policy testing is a practical way to ensure security policies are correctly implemented in information or networking systems with a certain level of confidence. In this paper, we adapt model based testing techniques for formal models of security policies, and propose a two stage approach to produce test cases from a security policy specified in Or-BAC, i.e., test purpose

  6. GENETIC ACTIVITY PROFILES AND PATTERN RECOGNITION IN TEST BATTERY SELECTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-generated genetic activity profiles and pairwise matching procedures may aid in the selection of the most appropriate short-term bioassays to be used in test batteries for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a given chemical or group of chemicals. Selection of test bat...

  7. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  8. Real-Time Testing of True Random Number Generators Through Dynamic Reconfiguration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Hotoleanu; Octavian Cret; Alin Suciu; Tamas Györfi; Lucia Vacariu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hardware implementation of the widely known NIST Statistical Test Suite - a battery of statistical tests for pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) and true random number generators (TRNGs) - in a single Xilinx FPGA chip, using dynamic partial reconfiguration. The design offers a basic framework for easy integration of any additional randomness evaluation tests as well. Due

  9. Test and validation of a non-deterministic system — True Random Number Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapila Udawatta; Mehdi Ehsanian; Sergey Maidanov; Surya Musunuri

    2008-01-01

    We present a validation and test methodology for a non-deterministic system, namely a True Random Number Generator (TRNG). The TRNG testing methods at Intel have matured over time, and what we present here is the 3rd generation methodology used in our latest chipset products. In addition to well known DFT and DFV techniques, testing of a TRNG requires rigorous statistical

  10. Generating Test Data for Killing SQL Mutants: A Constraint-based Approach

    E-print Network

    Sudarshan, S.

    Generating Test Data for Killing SQL Mutants: A Constraint-based Approach Shetal Shah, S. Sudarshan of error. To minimize human effort in testing, our techniques generate a test suite containing small.e., it kills all non-equivalent mutations in this subclass. I. INTRODUCTION SQL queries are very widely used

  11. An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data

  12. Automated Test Generation for Access Control Policies via Change-Impact Analysis

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    Automated Test Generation for Access Control Policies via Change-Impact Analysis Evan Martin North- impact analysis. Our experimental results show that Cirg can effectively generate tests to achieve high- erates tests for access control policies by leveraging change- impact analysis. We have implemented

  13. Automating the Generation and Sequencing of Test Cases from Model-Based Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Dick; Alain Faivre

    1993-01-01

    Formal specifications contain a great deal of information that can be exploited in the testing of an implementation, either for the generation of test-cases, for sequencing the tests, or as an oracle in verifying the tests. This papers presents automatic techniques for partition analysis in state-based specifications, specifically VDM. Test domains for individual operations are calculated by reduction of their

  14. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  15. Correlation of hierarchal Upper Silurian stacking patterns generated by Milankovitch orbital forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Mauriello, D.J.; Ketterer, M.W. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Upper Silurian Wills Creek Formation in Pennsylvania and Maryland is entirely divisible into meter-scale allocycles. Stacking patterns of these allocycles reveal a hierarchy consistent with predictions based on the Milankovitch model of orbital forcing. Asymmetrical Sixth-Order cycles (PACs), bounded by surfaces produced by precessional sea-level rises, are divisible into a lower highstand portion and an upper lowstand portion separated by a sharp sea-level fall surface produced by a rapid sea-level drop within the precessional cycle. Sixth-Order cycles may be genetically grouped into Fifth-Order (100 ky.) and subsequently, Fourth-Order (400 ky.) cycles, each of which exhibits a distinct internal symmetry. Fifth-Order cycles, on average three to four meters in thickness, are composed of a basal transgressive portion consisting of two PACs followed by two or three successively regressive PACs. Four Fifth-Order cycles constitute a complete Fourth-Order cycle, in which the second Fifth-Order cycle contains facies representing the deepest or least restricted paleoenvironments. In each case, the fundamental Sixth-Order cycles were generated by the precessional signal modulated by orbital eccentricity variations. Over distances in excess of 100 km, Wills Creek facies change laterally from nearshore marine to fluvial coastal plain. Stacking patterns in these distinct facies are identical, and thus correlative, indicating the basin-wide extent of the stratigraphic events which produced these patterns. These correlations demonstrate that Milankovitch-driven eustatic sea-level fluctuations were occurring during the Late Silurian.

  16. RegC: a new registration control process for photomasks after pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graitzer, Erez; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Cohen, Avi; Vladimir, Dmitriev; Avizemer, Dan

    2011-05-01

    As the lithography roadmap unfolds on its path towards ever smaller geometries, the pattern placement (Registration) requirements are increasing dramatically. This trend is further enhanced by anticipating the impact of innovative process solutions as double patterning where mask to mask overlay on the wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration error. In previous work1 a laser based registration control (RegC) process in the mask periphery (outside the exposure field) was presented. While providing a fast and effective improvement of registration, the limitation of writing with the laser outside of the active area limits the registration improvement to ~25%. The periphery process can be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allows fine tuning of the mask registration. In this work we will show registration correction results where the full mask area is being processed. While processing inside the exposure field it is required to maintain the CD Uniformity (CDU) neutral .In order to maintain the CDU neutral several different laser writing steps are utilized. A special algorithm and software were developed in order to compute the process steps required for maintaining the CDU neutral from one side while correcting for mask placement errors on the other side. By applying the correction process inside the active area improvements of up to 50% of the 3S registration and values as low as 3 nm 3S after scale and ortho correction have been achieved. These registration improvements have been achieved while maintaining the CDU signature of the mask as measured by areal imaging with WLCDTM (Wafer Level CD Metrology tool from Carl Zeiss SMS).

  17. Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2008-05-01

    The problem of controlling locomotion is an area in which neuroscience and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this article, I will review research carried out on locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e. neural circuits capable of producing coordinated patterns of high-dimensional rhythmic output signals while receiving only simple, low-dimensional, input signals. The review will first cover neurobiological observations concerning locomotor CPGs and their numerical modelling, with a special focus on vertebrates. It will then cover how CPG models implemented as neural networks or systems of coupled oscillators can be used in robotics for controlling the locomotion of articulated robots. The review also presents how robots can be used as scientific tools to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of biological CPGs. Finally, various methods for designing CPGs to control specific modes of locomotion will be briefly reviewed. In this process, I will discuss different types of CPG models, the pros and cons of using CPGs with robots, and the pros and cons of using robots as scientific tools. Open research topics both in biology and in robotics will also be discussed. PMID:18555958

  18. Overlapping gene coexpression patterns in human medullary thymic epithelial cells generate self-antigen diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Sheena; Michel, Chloé; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Harder, Nathalie; Rohr, Karl; Wild, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Kyewski, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of numerous tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential to safeguard self-tolerance. A distinct feature of promiscuous gene expression is its mosaic pattern (i.e., at a given time, each self-antigen is expressed only in 1–3% of mTECs). How this mosaic pattern is generated at the single-cell level is currently not understood. Here, we show that subsets of human mTECs expressing a particular TRA coexpress distinct sets of genes. We identified three coexpression groups comprising overlapping and complementary gene sets, which preferentially mapped to certain chromosomes and intrachromosomal gene clusters. Coexpressed gene loci tended to colocalize to the same nuclear subdomain. The TRA subsets aligned along progressive differentiation stages within the mature mTEC subset and, in vitro, interconverted along this sequence. Our data suggest that single mTECs shift through distinct gene pools, thus scanning a sizeable fraction of the overall repertoire of promiscuously expressed self-antigens. These findings have implications for the temporal and spatial (re)presentation of self-antigens in the medulla in the context of tolerance induction. PMID:23980163

  19. Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator

    PubMed Central

    Day, Nancy F.; Terleski, Kyle L.; Nykamp, Duane Q.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

  20. Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator

    PubMed Central

    Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications. PMID:23755009

  1. Demonstration of full-field patterning of 32 nm test chips using EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandentop, Gilroy; Chandhok, Manish; Putna, Ernisse S.; Younkin, Todd R.; Clarke, James S.; Carson, Steven; Myers, Alan; Leeson, Michael; Zhang, Guojing; Liang, Ted; Murachi, Tetsunori

    2009-03-01

    EUV lithography is considered one of the options for high volume manufacturing (HVM) of 16 nm MPU node devices [1]. The benefits of high k1(~0.5) imaging enable EUVL to simplify the patterning process and ease design rule restrictions. However, EUVL with its unique imaging process - reflective optics and masks, vacuum operation, and lack of pellicle, has several challenges to overcome before being qualified for production. Thus, it is important to demonstrate the capability to integrate EUVL into existing process flows and characterize issues which could hamper yield. A patterning demonstration of Intel's 32 nm test chips using the ADT at IMEC [7] is presented, This test chip was manufactured using processes initially developed with the Intel MET [2-4] as well as masks made by Intel's mask shop [5,6]. The 32 nm node test chips which had a pitch of 112.5 nm at the trench layer, were patterned on the ADT which resulted in a large k1 factor of 1 and consequently, the trench process window was iso-focal with MEEF = 1. It was found that all mask defects detected by a mask pattern inspection tool printed on the wafer and that 90% of these originated from the substrate. We concluded that improvements are needed in mask defects, photospeed of the resist, overlay, and tool throughput of the tool to get better results to enable us to ultimately examine yield.

  2. Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

  3. Efficient Online Tests for True Random Number Generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Schindler

    2001-01-01

    \\u000a General problems and difficulties are discussed which have to be considered when testing true random numbers. Requirements\\u000a are formulated which appropriate online tests should fulfill. Then we propose an online test procedure which meets these requirements.

  4. Using aberration test patterns to optimize the performance of EUV aerial imaging microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Miyakawa, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Han, Hak-Seung; Huh, Sungmin

    2009-06-16

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a prototype EUV-wavelength zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements of EUV reticles. To simplify and improve the alignment procedure we have created and tested arrays of aberration-sensitive patterns on EUV reticles and we have compared their images collected with the AIT to the expected shapes obtained by simulating the theoretical wavefront of the system. We obtained a consistent measure of coma and astigmatism in the center of the field of view using two different patterns, revealing a misalignment condition in the optics.

  5. Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stéphane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

  6. Stuck-at-fault test set compaction 

    E-print Network

    Vanfickell, Jason Michael

    2013-02-22

    Proper testing of manufactured digital circuits is critical to ensuring the number of defective parts is minimized. Automated test pattern generation tools are created in order to produce test patterns that can be applied with the intention...

  7. Dynamic contrast enhancement in widefield microscopy using projector-generated illumination patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Samson, Edward; Mar Blanca, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We present a simple and cost-effective optical protocol to realize contrast-enhancement imaging (such as dark-field, optical-staining and oblique illumination microscopy) of transparent samples on a conventional widefield microscope using commercial multimedia projectors. The projector functions as both light source and mask generator implemented by creating slideshows of the filters projected along the illumination planes of the microscope. The projected optical masks spatially modulate the distribution of the incident light to selectively enhance structures within the sample according to spatial frequency thereby increasing the image contrast of translucent biological specimens. Any amplitude filter can be customized and dynamically controlled so that switching from one imaging modality to another involves a simple slide transition and can be executed at a keystroke with no physical filters and no moving optical parts. The method yields an image contrast of 89 96% comparable with standard enhancement techniques. The polarization properties of the projector are then utilized to discriminate birefringent and non-birefringent sites on the sample using single-shot, simultaneous polarization and optical-staining microscopy. In addition to dynamic pattern generation and polarization, the projector also provides high illumination power and spectral excitation selectivity through its red-green-blue (RGB) channels. We exploit this last property to explore the feasibility of using video projectors to selectively excite stained samples and perform fluorescence imaging in tandem with reflectance and polarization reflectance microscopy.

  8. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning process testing in model steam generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Jr. Swan; A. A. Katterhenry; S. Mostovoy; P. Latash; G. S. Gerzen

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion related problems in PWR power plant steam generators have caused high maintenance costs, increased radiation exposure to plant personnel, and reduced unit availability. Two cleaning methods were investigated for their ability to clean deposits from steam generators thereby increasing the integrity of the steam generators and reducing personnel radiation exposure, due to reduced maintenance. First, an on-line chemical cleaning

  9. Digital generator for adjustment and testing of electrical prospecting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Dravich, P.P.

    1994-05-01

    The block diagram is described of a circuit that generates a digital signal representing a sum of exponents with initial values and attenuation constants against the background of sinusoidal noise of a given frequency and amplitude.

  10. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  11. Test results and commercialization plans for long life Stirling generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond M. Erbeznik; Maurice A. White

    1996-01-01

    The RemoteGenTM family of free-piston Stirling generators has been developed specifically to circumvent previously encountered commercialization barriers by providing long life, high reliability, cost effective mass production and market relevance. These generators have demonstrated major advances in life and reliability for high-efficiency dynamic power systems. Design innovations enable the 350 W RG-350 to be manufactured in various quantities for costs

  12. Automatic Generation of Complex LTL Specifications Through Patterns and Composite Propositions

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    classifications and patterns, i.e., high­level ab­ stractions that describe common behavior, have been used pattern is considered. Based on a se­ lected pattern, SPS provides a specification for each type of scope and concurrent behavior to represent pattern and scope parameters. In this work, we provide definitions

  13. Using Patterns and Composite Propositions to Automate the Generation of Complex LTL

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    classifications and patterns, i.e., high-level abstractions that describe common behavior, have been used pattern is considered. Based on a selected pattern, SPS provides a specification for each type of scope and concurrent behavior to represent pattern and scope parameters. In this work, we provide definitions

  14. Design and acceptance test of a hydrazine gas generator for use with an arcjet thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, M. D.; Roy, M. J.; Driscoll, R. J.; Kammerer, H. G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1993-06-01

    A hydrazine gas generator has been designed and acceptance tested for use in BPD's laboratory testing of arcjet propulsion units. Modification of an existing 0.2 lbf monopropellant thruster design allowed for the rapid design, fabrication and acceptance testing of the gas generator unit. This paper presents the background of the monopropellant thruster design and describes the modifications to the design which resulted in the successful test series to demonstrate compliance with the BPD requirements.

  15. Equivalence of robust delay-fault and single stuck-fault test generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Saldanha; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    1992-01-01

    A link between the problems of robust delay-fault and single stuck-fault test generation is established. In particular, it is proved that all the robust test vector pairs for any path delay-fault in a network are directly obtained by all the test vectors for a corresponding single stuck-fault in a modified network. Since single stuck-fault test generation is a well solved

  16. Dark Current Characterization of the CMOS APS Imagers with Test Patterns Fabricated Using a 0.18 CMOS Technology

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong Duk

    #12;Dark Current Characterization of the CMOS APS Imagers with Test Patterns Fabricated Using a 0 been investigated in the CMOS APS with test patterns fabricated with the 0.18 CMOS technology. We sensors (APS), fabricated using a standard CMOS process, have advantages of low power consumption, low

  17. A Test Generation Framework for Distributed Fault-Tolerant Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Pasareanu, Corina

    The Space Shuttle's data processing system has four gen- eral purpose computers (GPC) that operate and proofs performed during such analysis do not inform the testing process of actual implementations. We that the system can handle and a testing regime should validate that the system does indeed process

  18. MEMS Spring Probe for Next Generation Wafer Level Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kee-keun Lee; Bruce C. Kim

    2003-01-01

    MEMS spring probe was fabricated for a nondestructive contact and testing of ultra small pitch devices. The probes have high suspension from the bottom planar surface, high elastic spring constant, and low interface contact resistivity. All contacts take place simultaneously. The contact interface area of the fabricated probe was 70 ?m2. Low RF signal loss was observed from RF testing.

  19. CSL Technical Note January 2005 Automated Test Generation with SAL

    E-print Network

    Schmitt, Peter H.

    Moura and John Rushby Computer Science Laboratory SRI International Menlo Park CA 94025 USA and Automation 18 3.1 Boundary Coverage and Meaningful Impact Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3 is available for beta testing now from http: //sal.csl.sri.com/pre-release; following some planned refinements

  20. PACOGEN : Automatic Generation of Pairwise Test Configurations from Feature Models

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    --Feature models are commonly used to specify variability in software product lines. Several tools support feature and that can be used to test the product line. In this paper we propose PACOGEN to analyze feature models or tool support the testing activity in software product line engineering. The size of the variability

  1. Model-Based Test Case Generation for Smart Cards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Philipps; Alexander Pretschner; Oscar Slotosch; Ernst Aiglstorfer; Stefan Kriebel; Kai Scholl

    2003-01-01

    Testing denotes a set of activities that aim at discovering discrepancies between actual and intended behaviors of a system. Often, the intended behavior is known only implicitly, which renders the process of testing unstructured, unmotivated in its details, and barely reproducible. The use of explicit and executable models to describe the intended behavior promises to solve these problems. We use

  2. The next generation of microbiological testing of poultry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbiological testing of food products is a common practice of food processors to ensure compliance with food safety criteria. Sampling on its own is of limited value, but when applied regularly at different stages of the food chain, microbiology testing can be an integral part of a quality contr...

  3. Testing dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs

    E-print Network

    Ruiwale, Sameer Jagadish

    1998-01-01

    ] and [15]. It achieves fault coverage by configuring groups of logic blocks as test pattern generators (TPGs) and output response analyzers (ORAs), and another group as blocks under test (BUTs). The logic blocks are then reconfigured repeatedly to test...

  4. Design of personalized test paper generating system of educational telenet based on genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ou-Yang; Hong-Fang Luo

    2009-01-01

    When generating test paper, traditional distant education online examination system either merely extracts the same test questions from item bank or extracts test questions at random, or select test questions according to some classifications of student. It can not individually varies and give custom made scheme according to student's learning situation. This paper improved the traditional genetic algorithm and proposed

  5. Generating Random Parallel Test Forms Using CTT in a Computer-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John A.; Gibson, Wade M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure for automated-test-forms assembly based on Classical Test Theory (CTT). The procedure uses stratified random-content sampling and test-form preequating to ensure both content and psychometric equivalence in generating virtually unlimited parallel forms. Extends the usefulness of CTT in automated test construction. (Author/SLD)

  6. AETGSM Web: A Web Based Service for Automatic Efficient Test Generation from Functional Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha R. Dalal; Ashish Jain; Gardner C. Patton; Manish Rathi; Paul D. Seymour

    1998-01-01

    AETG Web is a web based service developed by Bell- core researchers for enabling model based testing. In model based testing, the functional test requirements of the system are first modeled and then testcases based on this model are created or generated. AETG Web employs a web based user interface to model the functional requirements of the System Under Test,

  7. Use of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers test pattern in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Joel E.

    1991-05-01

    In 1985 the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) published a Recommended Practice (RP-133) entitled Specifications for Medical Diagnostic Imaging Test Pattern for Television Monitors and Hard-copy Cameras. Since that time the SMPTE monochrome test pattern has been applied to the acceptance testing and quality control of video and image display systems, and hard-copy (film) recorders. The major features of the test pattern will be discussed along with applications and the problems demonstrated with the pattern. Furthermore, the test pattern will be used to demonstrate that color displays may exhibit only one-half of the resolution of a monochrome monitor while the display contrast (due to limited dynamic range) may be only 10 to 20 of that obtained with a monochrome display.

  8. Visualized representation of visual search patterns for a visuospatial attention test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Chuan Huang; Tsui-Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Cancellation tests have been widely used in clinical practice and in research to evaluate visuospatial attention, visual scanning\\u000a patterns, and neglect problems. The aim of the present work is to present a visualized interface for the visuospatial attentional\\u000a assessment system that can be employed to monitor and analyze attention performance and the search strategies used during\\u000a visuospatial processing of target

  9. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  10. Analytical methods for establishing least cost search patterns for fault isolation in testing procedures 

    E-print Network

    Howie, Thomas Fisher

    1970-01-01

    , FAULT ISOLATION IN TESTING Pl(OOEDUi&ES A Tbr sis by Tbor res FIslre: Norrie Anpr ovr-'. . 3 as to s'tyle and con tent by: inert o r rJr Par" '". r ilt3 (lie r. "r er') a s e e ABSTBACT Analytical &'methods for Es'Lablishing Least Cost Sea ch... Patterns for Fault Isolation in Testing Procedures Thomas F. Howie, B. S, , Louisian State University Directed by: Dr. A. |i&. Nor*ham This thesis pre ent- an adaptation of the s!ost fre- quenLlv referenced methods of analytica &ly deter!?ining sear...

  11. A sequential nonparametric pattern classification algorithm based on the Wald SPRT. [Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poage, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A sequential nonparametric pattern classification procedure is presented. The method presented is an estimated version of the Wald sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). This method utilizes density function estimates, and the density estimate used is discussed, including a proof of convergence in probability of the estimate to the true density function. The classification procedure proposed makes use of the theory of order statistics, and estimates of the probabilities of misclassification are given. The procedure was tested on discriminating between two classes of Gaussian samples and on discriminating between two kinds of electroencephalogram (EEG) responses.

  12. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  13. Automatically generated acceptance test: A software reliability experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protzel, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    This study presents results of a software reliability experiment investigating the feasibility of a new error detection method. The method can be used as an acceptance test and is solely based on empirical data about the behavior of internal states of a program. The experimental design uses the existing environment of a multi-version experiment previously conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which the launch interceptor problem is used as a model. This allows the controlled experimental investigation of versions with well-known single and multiple faults, and the availability of an oracle permits the determination of the error detection performance of the test. Fault interaction phenomena are observed that have an amplifying effect on the number of error occurrences. Preliminary results indicate that all faults examined so far are detected by the acceptance test. This shows promise for further investigations, and for the employment of this test method on other applications.

  14. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults 

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  15. NEXT GENERATION SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING VIA DNA MICROARRAYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current SBIR solicitation states that the EPA is seeking ?better sampling, analysis, and monitoring technologies? to improve hazardous waste management.  Development of new methods for testing contaminated sediments is an area of particular concern because many industri...

  16. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  17. Simple yet efficient NMEA sentence generator for testing GPS reception firmware and hardware

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sinivee

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a A simple device for generating NMEA sequences for testing embedded GPS reception firmware and hardware is described. Device\\u000a can work in standalone mode and also in conjunction with control software. Configuration program can be used to generate test\\u000a strings without tester hardware as well.

  18. Short-circuit tests on a high-voltage, cable-wound hydropower generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan G. Johansson; Bertil Larsson

    2004-01-01

    Data from measurements on the first Powerformer generator installed in Porjus, Sweden, will be presented. The generator has a rating of 45 kV and 11 MVA. In total, the machine has been running more than 13700 h (October 2001) and has been exposed to a number of different tests including short-circuit tests on the terminal at 100% magnetization. Experience and

  19. Decade Quad design and testing status [pulsed power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sincerny; K. Childers; D. Kortbawi; I. Roth; C. Stallings; J. Riordan; B. Hoffman; L. Schlitt; C. Myers

    1997-01-01

    The Decade Quad (DQ) is a high power generator that will be built at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahoma, Tennessee by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA). The DQ will consist of four independent command triggered pulsed power modules. The building at AEDC has been completed and has the capacity to accommodate up to four DQ machines for

  20. Test results for second-generation low thrust bipropellant engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwende, M. A.; Schulte, G.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the development priorities, design features, and performance of second-generation, low-thrust (10 N) thrusters for satellite orbit and attitude correction maneuvers. Detailed information is presented for the qualification trials of a related, 4-N thruster. The bipropellant fuels used are MMH and MON-1.

  1. Control of oscillation periods and phase durations in half-center central pattern generators: a comparative mechanistic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Daun; Jonathan E. Rubin; Ilya A. Rybak

    2009-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) consisting of interacting groups of neurons drive a variety of repetitive, rhythmic behaviors\\u000a in invertebrates and vertebrates, such as arise in locomotion, respiration, mastication, scratching, and so on. These CPGs\\u000a are able to generate rhythmic activity in the absence of afferent feedback or rhythmic inputs. However, functionally relevant\\u000a CPGs must adaptively respond to changing demands, manifested

  2. Design and construction of model steam generators for corrosion testing of alternative materials. [PWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Krupowicz; J. E. Casteel; B. W. Kinyon

    1981-01-01

    This topical report describes the design and construction of two model steam generators which were built to test the corrosion resistance of contemporary and alternative steam generator materials under secondary water conditions. The models include several new design features rendering them more representative of actual steam generators. Extensive thermal and hydraulic analyses of the models are also presented and discussed.

  3. Development and testing of a domestic woodstove thermoelectric generator with natural convection cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rida Y. Nuwayhid; Alan Shihadeh; Nesreen Ghaddar

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator was fitted to the side of a domestic woodstove. The generator was driven using one or more thermoelectric modules designed to give significant power at a reasonable cost. The thermoelectric generator was air cooled by natural convection using a commercially available heat sink. Testing was undertaken under a controlled woodstove firing rate and temperatures, and open circuit

  4. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    SciTech Connect

    Garbett, K; Mendler, O J; Gardner, G C; Garnsey, R; Young, M Y

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated.

  5. Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid.

    PubMed

    Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and reproducible genomic changes can be induced during the early stages of the life of nascent allopolyploid species. In a previous study, it was shown that following allopolyploidization, cytosine methylation changes can affect up to 11% of the wheat genome. However, the methylation patterns around transposable elements (TEs) were never studied in detail. We used transposon methylation display (TMD) to assess the methylation patterns of CCGG sites flanking three TE families (Balduin, Apollo, and Thalos) in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid. In addition, transposon display (TD), using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme, was applied to search for genomic rearrangements at the TE insertion sites. We observed that up to 54% of CCGG sites flanking the three TE families showed changes in methylation patterns in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, where hypermethylation was predominant. Over 70% of the changes in TMD patterns occurred in the first two generations of the newly formed allohexaploid. Furthermore, analysis of 555 TE insertion sites by TD and 18 cases by site-specific PCR revealed a full additive pattern in the allohexaploid, an indication for lack of massive rearrangements. These data indicate that following allopolyplodization, DNA-TE insertion sites can undergo a significantly high level of methylation changes compared with methylation changes of other genomic sequences. PMID:21217805

  6. Sub-wavelength pattern generation by laser direct writing via repeated irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein-Wiele, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Peter

    2013-01-14

    A simple technique is presented allowing the fabrication of high density periodic patterns via direct laser ablation. Applying fluence control for reducing the ablated feature sizes combined with lateral translation of an interference pattern between two (or more) irradiation cycles, sub-wavelength period patterns (< 200 nm) are created. Variation of the amount and direction of translation and the applied intensities during subsequent irradiation steps leads to variable pattern design as demonstrated for polymeric and silicon samples. PMID:23388955

  7. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Ferrell; D. A. Moody

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71).

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Ferrell; Donald A. Moody

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, CodeofFederalRegulations, ‘‘Part 71’’ (10 CFR 71). Results of

  9. Automatic Generation of Rasch-Calibrated Items: Figural Matrices Test GEOM and Endless-Loops Test EC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The future of test construction for certain psychological ability domains that can be analyzed well in a structured manner may lie--at the very least for reasons of test security--in the field of automatic item generation. In this context, a question that has not been explicitly addressed is whether it is possible to embed an item response theory…

  10. TESTING RANDOM NUMBER GENERATORS Pierre L'Ecuyer

    E-print Network

    L'Ecuyer, Pierre

    ). A generator is defined by a finite set of states S, a transition function f : S ! S, a probabil­ ity be finite. If the aim of the gen­ erator is to produce (approximations of) U(0; 1) random variates, then U will be a finite set of real numbers be­ tween 0 and 1. The smallest positive integer ae such that s ae+n = sn

  11. Coupling relationship between the central pattern generator and the cerebral cortex with time delay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Brain activity is a cooperative process among neurons and involves the coupling relationship, which is crucial to perform operational tasks in various specialized areas of the nervous system. A finite signal transmission speed along the axons results in a space-dependent time delay. The central pattern generator (CPG) can in principle produce basic locomotor rhythm in the absence of inputs from higher brain centers and peripheral sensory feedback. To study the dynamic performance of CPG with time delay and its coupling relationship with the cerebral cortex, a new CPG model with time delay and a model of the neural mass model (NMM) and the CPG are developed. The coupling model is based on biological experimental results. Bifurcation theories and maximal Lyapunov exponent are used to analyze the dynamic performance. From the results, some CPGs are suggested to be embedded in limbs and composed of the parameters space which corresponds to the one of the cerebral cortex. This embodiment of humans can reduce the burden of the brain and simplify the control of the locomotion. The results also show that the phase diagram of the CPG cannot keep the limit cycle, and that the state of the NMM becomes increasingly chaotic as time delay increases. This finding implies that a person with slow reaction can easily lose the stability of his or her locomotion. PMID:26157515

  12. Generation and regulation of multiple focuses by tight focusing of patterned vector optical field array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenghou; Cai, Mengqiang; Zhang, Huihui; Qian, Shengxia; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian; Optical Field Regulation Team

    2014-03-01

    We have numerically studied the tight focusing of patterned vector optical field array based on the modified Richard-Wolf diffracting integration. By tailoring the spatial arrangement and the polarization distribution of the individual vector optical field, sub-wavelength multiple focal spots with different arrangement can be easily realized. The size of the focal spots, the distance between different focal spots and the arrangement of focal spots can all be regulated by varying the parameters of VOFs. Focal spots with the arrangement of hexagon, rectangle or rhombus can be obtained depending on the different setting conditions of PVOF. To check the numerical results, we experimentally generated the PVOFs according to the numerical conditions, and utilize the tightly focused optical fields to ablate the single crystal silicon wafer surface. Based on SEM images of the ablated sample surface, we find that the experiment results, which indirectly measured the intensity distribution and the size of the focal spots, agree with the numerical results very well. The tight focusing of PVOF opens a new window for regulating the focal intensity distribution due to the control diversity. As a result, it can be very flexible and helpful in many applications, such as micro-nano parallel fabrication and optical manipulation, etc.

  13. The contribution of a central pattern generator in a reflex-based neuromuscular model

    PubMed Central

    Dzeladini, Florin; van den Kieboom, Jesse; Ijspeert, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of central pattern generators (CPGs) controlling locomotion in vertebrates is widely accepted, the presence of specialized CPGs in human locomotion is still a matter of debate. An interesting numerical model developed in the 90s’ demonstrated the important role CPGs could play in human locomotion, both in terms of stability against perturbations, and in terms of speed control. Recently, a reflex-based neuro-musculo-skeletal model has been proposed, showing a level of stability to perturbations similar to the previous model, without any CPG components. Although exhibiting striking similarities with human gaits, the lack of CPG makes the control of speed/step length in the model difficult. In this paper, we hypothesize that a CPG component will offer a meaningful way of controlling the locomotion speed. After introducing the CPG component in the reflex model, and taking advantage of the resulting properties, a simple model for gait modulation is presented. The results highlight the advantages of a CPG as feedforward component in terms of gait modulation. PMID:25018712

  14. Genetic Algorithm-Based Test Data Generation for Multiple Paths via Individual Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Dunwei

    2014-01-01

    The application of genetic algorithms in automatically generating test data has aroused broad concerns and obtained delightful achievements in recent years. However, the efficiency of genetic algorithm-based test data generation for path testing needs to be further improved. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model of generating test data for multiple paths coverage. Then, a multipopulation genetic algorithm with individual sharing is presented to solve the established model. We not only analyzed the performance of the proposed method theoretically, but also applied it to various programs under test. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the efficiency of generating test data for many paths' coverage significantly. PMID:25691894

  15. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  16. Coordination of Cellular Pattern-Generating Circuits that Control Limb Movements: The Sources of Stable Differences in Intersegmental Phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie R. Jones; Brian Mulloney; Tasso J. Kaper; Nancy Kopell

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal mechanisms in nervous systems that keep intersegmental phase lags the same at different frequencies are not well understood. We investigated biophysical mechanisms that permit local pattern-generating circuits in neighboring segments to maintain stable phase differences. We use a modified version of an existing model of the crayfish swimmeret system that is based on three known coordinating neurons and hypothesized

  17. Differences in Walking Pattern during 6-Min Walk Test between Patients with COPD and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Annegarn, Janneke; Spruit, Martijn A.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Willems, Paul J. B.; van Bool, Coby; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Meijer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%). Conclusions/Significance COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD. PMID:22624017

  18. Specification-Based Test Generation for Security-Critical Systems Using Mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Wimmel; Jan Jürjens

    2002-01-01

    In specification-based testing, test sequences are generated from an abstract system specification to provide confidence in\\u000a the correctness of an implementation. For security-critical systems, finding tests likely to detect possible vulnerabilities\\u000a is particularly difficult, as they usually involve subtle and complex execution scenarios and consideration of domain-specific\\u000a concepts such as cryptography and random numbers. We present research aiming to generate

  19. Automatic test case generation from requirements specifications for real-time embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Cunning; J. W. Rozenblit

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents continuing research toward automatic generation of test cases from requirements specifications for event-oriented, real-time embedded systems. The requirements documentation and test case generation activities make up the initial steps in our method to realize model-based codesign. In this codesign method, test cases are used to validate system models and prototypes against the requirements specification. This ensures coherence

  20. High Voltage Square Wave Generator for Motor Coil Insulation Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya Tong Yu; Shesha H. Jayaram

    2008-01-01

    Applications of solid state driver for medium or high voltage motor are widespread. However, due to high switching frequency as well as high dV\\/dt, increased dielectric stresses and thermal stresses are applied on the insulation system; thus leading to the insulation failure of the motor. In order to test the insulation performance of the motor under the above stress conditions,

  1. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  2. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  3. Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Mendler; K. Takeuchi; M. Y. Young

    1987-01-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model

  4. Genetic testing behavior and reporting patterns in electronic medical records for physicians trained in a primary care specialty or subspecialty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Lester, William T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize important patterns of genetic testing behavior and reporting in modern electronic medical records (EMRs) at the institutional level. Materials and methods Retrospective observational study using EMR data of all 10?715 patients who received genetic testing by physicians trained in a primary care specialty or subspecialty at an academic medical center between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Results Patients had a mean±SD age of 38.3±15.8?years (median 36.1, IQR 30.0–43.8). The proportion of female subjects in the study population was larger than in the general patient population (77.2% vs 55.0%, p<0.001) and they were younger than the male subjects in the study (36.5±13.2 vs 44.6±21.2?years, p<0.001). Approximately 1.1% of all patients received genetic testing. There were 942 physicians who ordered a total of 15?320 genetic tests. By volume, commonly tested genes involved mutations for cystic fibrosis (36.7%), prothrombin (13.7%), Tay–Sachs disease (6.7%), hereditary hemochromatosis (4.4%), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (4.1%). EMRs stored reports as free text with categorical descriptions of mutations and an average length of 269.4±153.2 words (median 242, IQR 146–401). Conclusions In this study, genetic tests were often ordered by a diverse group of physicians for women of childbearing age being evaluated for diseases that may affect potential offspring. EMRs currently serve primarily as a storage warehouse for textual reports that could potentially be transformed into meaningful structured data for next-generation clinical decision support. Further studies are needed to address the design, development, and implementation of EMRs capable of managing the critical genetic health information challenges of the future. PMID:22511017

  5. Machine Learning in Value-Based Software Test Data Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Software engineering research and practice thus far are primarily conducted in a value-neutral setting where each artifact in software development such as requirement, use case, test case, and defect, is treated as equally important during a software system development process. There are a number of shortcomings of such value-neutral software engineering. Value-based software engineering is to integrate value considerations into

  6. A test of the perceived norms model to explain drinking patterns among university student athletes.

    PubMed

    Thombs, D L

    2000-09-01

    The author tested the ability of perceived drinking norms to discriminate among drinking patterns in a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student athletes. He used an anonymous questionnaire to assess 297 athletes, representing 18 teams, at a public university in the Midwest. Alcohol use patterns showed considerable variation, with many athletes (37.1%) abstaining during their season of competition. A discriminant function analysis revealed that higher levels of alcohol involvement are disproportionately found among athletes who began drinking regularly at an early age. Perceived drinking norms were less important in the discrimination of student athlete drinker groups. Women and those with higher grade point averages were somewhat more likely to refrain from in-season drinking than other survey respondents. PMID:11016131

  7. A New Framework for Analyzing Test Generation and Diagnosis Algorithms for Wiring Interconnects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najmi T. Jarwala; Chi W. Yau

    1989-01-01

    A novel framework for analyzing test generation and diagnosis algorithms for wiring interconnect are presented. A property of test vector sets, called diagonal independence, which guarantees the diagnostic resolution of the vector test set is identified. The failing responses or syndromes are classified into aliasing and confounding syndromes, and this classification permits precise analysis of the diagnostic capabilities of different

  8. Realistic fault modeling and quality test generation of combined delay faults 

    E-print Network

    Thadhlani, Ajaykumar A

    2001-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the circuit. Due to the signal integrity problem, the testing of VLSI-chips is becoming more complex. A static test vector generated to test a defect in an integrated chip can be found ineffective under the effect of capacitively...

  9. Generating Test Inputs for Fault-Tree Analyzers using Imperative Predicates

    E-print Network

    Khurshid, Sarfraz

    . An analyzer typically has tens of thousands of lines of code that performs complex computations on fault treesGenerating Test Inputs for Fault-Tree Analyzers using Imperative Predicates Sasa Misailovi be used in system testing, specifically in testing a large fault-tree analyzer developed for NASA. A fault

  10. Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main

  11. Vibration Testing of the Pluto\\/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Griffin

    2006-01-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto\\/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National

  12. Practical on-line partial discharge tests for turbine generators and motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Campbell; G. C. Stone; H. G. Sedding; G. S. Klempner; W. McDermid; R. G. Bussey

    1994-01-01

    Several utilities have found partial discharge testing to be very useful for identifying motors or generators with deteriorated stator winding insulation. Such partial discharge tests are sensitive to problems associated with overheated insulation, loose stator bars, and pollution, all of which can cause in-service failures with long associated outages and high repair\\/rewind costs. Unfortunately, the partial discharge test is not

  13. Security Test Generation using Threat Trees Aaron Marback, Hyunsook Do, Ke He, Samuel Kondamarri, Dianxiang Xu

    E-print Network

    Do, Hyunsook

    Security Test Generation using Threat Trees Aaron Marback, Hyunsook Do, Ke He, Samuel Kondamarri a major concern to the cyberspace community, so a great deal of research on security testing has been performed, and various security testing techniques have been developed. Most of these tech- niques, however

  14. Realistic fault modeling and quality test generation of combined delay faults

    E-print Network

    Thadhlani, Ajaykumar A

    2001-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the circuit. Due to the signal integrity problem, the testing of VLSI-chips is becoming more complex. A static test vector generated to test a defect in an integrated chip can be found ineffective under the effect of capacitively...

  15. Stereotypic laryngeal and respiratory motor patterns generate different call types in rat ultrasound vocalization.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    Rodents produce highly variable ultrasound whistles as communication signals unlike many other mammals, who employ flow-induced vocal fold oscillations to produce sound. The role of larynx muscles in controlling sound features across different call types in ultrasound vocalization (USV) was investigated using laryngeal muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, subglottal pressure measurements and vocal sound output in awake and spontaneously behaving Sprague-Dawley rats. Results support the hypothesis that glottal shape determines fundamental frequency. EMG activities of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles were aligned with call duration. EMG intensity increased with fundamental frequency. Phasic activities of both muscles were aligned with fast changing fundamental frequency contours, for example in trills. Activities of the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles, two muscles involved in vocal production in other mammals, are not critical for the production of rat USV. To test how stereotypic laryngeal and respiratory activity are across call types and individuals, sets of ten EMG and subglottal pressure parameters were measured in six different call types from six rats. Using discriminant function analysis, on average 80% of parameter sets were correctly assigned to their respective call type. This was significantly higher than the chance level. Since fundamental frequency features of USV are tightly associated with stereotypic activity of intrinsic laryngeal muscles and muscles contributing to build-up of subglottal pressure, USV provide insight into the neurophysiological control of peripheral vocal motor patterns. PMID:23423862

  16. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG engineering unit (EU), was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently under extended operation test at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for the ASRG EU. This paper summarizes details of the test facility design, including the mechanical mounting, heat-rejection system, argon system, control systems, and maintenance. The effort proceeded from requirements definition through design, analysis, build, and test. Initial testing and facility performance results are discussed.

  17. Octopamine mediates thermal preconditioning of the locust ventilatory central pattern generator via a cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gary A B; Shoemaker, Kelly L; Money, Tomas G A; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2006-11-22

    We investigated the role of biogenic amines in generating thermoprotection of the ventilatory motor pattern circuitry in Locusta migratoria. Levels of octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) in the metathoracic ganglion decreased during heat stress. We measured the thermosensitivity of central pattern generation in response to a ramped increase of temperature in semi-intact preparations. OA, DA, and tyramine (TA) were either bath applied or injected into the locust hemocoel 4-8 h before testing. Neither TA nor DA modified the thermotolerance of ventilatory motor pattern generation. However, OA treatment by bath applications (10(-4) M OA) or by injections into the hemocoel (2 microg/10 microl OA) mimicked heat shock preconditioning and improved the thermotolerance of the motor pattern by increasing the failure temperature and by decreasing the time taken to recover operation after a return to room temperature. Heat shock-induced thermoprotection was eradicated in locusts preinjected with epinastine (Oct betaR antagonist). Neuropil injections of the cAMP agonist and protein kinase A (PKA) activator, Sp-cAMPs, both conferred thermoprotection in control locusts and rescued thermoprotection in epinastine-treated HS locusts. Similar injections of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPs blocked the thermoprotective effect of bath-applied OA. Octopamine-mediated thermoprotection was also abolished with neuropil injections of cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating a requirement for transcription and translation. We conclude that OA has a crucial role in triggering protein synthesis-dependent physiological adaptations to protect CNS function during heat stress by activating a cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:17122036

  18. Evaluation of attenuated PSM photomask blanks with TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist on a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Kezhao; Björnborg, Charles; Karlsson, Henrik; Paulsson, Adisa; Rosendahl, Anna; Beiming, Peter; Vedenpää, Jukka; Walford, Jonathan; Newman, Tom

    2007-10-01

    Tighter requirements on mask resolution, CD and image positioning accuracy at and beyond the 45 nm technology node push the development of improved photomask blanks. One such blank for attenuated phase-shift masks (att-PSM) provides a thinner chrome film, named TF11, with higher chrome etch rate compared to the previous generation Att- PSM blank (NTAR5 chrome film) from the same supplier. Reduced stress in the chrome film also results in less image placement error induced by the material. FEP-171 is the positive chemically amplified resist (PCAR) that is most commonly used in advanced mask manufacturing with both 50 keV variable shaped e-beam (VSB) and DUV laser pattern generators. TF11 allows an FEP-171 resist film down to about 2000 Å thickness with sufficient etch resistance, while the standard resist thickness for NTAR5 is around 3000 Å. This work has experimentally evaluated the use of TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist together with a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator, the Sigma7500. First, patterning performance in resist with thicknesses from 2000 Å to 2600 Å, in steps of 100 Å, was tested with respect to swing curve and basic lithographic parameters including resolution, CD linearity, CD iso-dense bias and dose sensitivity. Patterning results on mask showed a swing minimum at around 2200 Å and a swing maximum at around 2500 Å, which correspond to reflectivity measurements for 248 nm wavelength performed by the blank supplier. It was concluded that the overall patterning performance was best close to the swing maximum. Thereafter the patterning performance using TF11 at two resist thicknesses, 2000 Å and 2550 Å, was studied in more detail and compared to performance using NTAR5 with 3200 Å resist. The evaluation showed that the Sigma7500-II offers good compatibility with TF11, especially using the optimized FEP-171 resist thickness of 2550 Å. It also showed that the patterning capability of the Sigma7500-II using TF11 and 2550 Å resist is improved compared to using NTAR5 and 3200 Å resist.

  19. Microcontact printing of axon guidance molecules for generation of graded patterns.

    PubMed

    von Philipsborn, Anne C; Lang, Susanne; Bernard, André; Loeschinger, Jürgen; David, Christian; Lehnert, Dirk; Bastmeyer, Martin; Bonhoeffer, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    Microcontact printing (microCP) of proteins has been successfully used for patterning surfaces in various contexts. Here we describe a simple 'lift-off' method to print precise patterns of axon guidance molecules, which are used as substrate for growing chick retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Briefly, the etched pattern of a silicon master is transferred to a protein-coated silicone cuboid (made from polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), which is then used as a stamp on a glass coverslip. RGC explants are placed adjacent to the pattern and cultured overnight. Fluorescent labeling of the printed proteins allows the quantitative analysis of the interaction of axons and growth cones with single protein dots and of the overall outgrowth and guidance rate in variously designed patterns. Patterned substrates can be produced in 3-4 h and are stable for up to one week at 4 degrees C; the entire protocol can be completed in 3 d. PMID:17406418

  20. Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

  1. Setting the Pace: New Insights into Central Pattern Generator Interactions in Box Jellyfish Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora) with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs) considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians. PMID:22073288

  2. Designing responsive pattern generators: stable heteroclinic channel cycles for modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Horchler, Andrew D; Daltorio, Kathryn A; Chiel, Hillel J; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of biological pattern generators is their ability to respond immediately to multisensory perturbations by modulating the dwell time at a particular phase of oscillation, which can vary force output, range of motion, or other characteristics of a physical system. Stable heteroclinic channels (SHCs) are a dynamical architecture that can provide such responsiveness to artificial devices such as robots. SHCs are composed of sequences of saddle equilibrium points, which yields exquisite sensitivity. The strength of the vector fields in the neighborhood of these equilibria determines the responsiveness to perturbations and how long trajectories dwell in the vicinity of a saddle. For SHC cycles, the addition of stochastic noise results in oscillation with a regular mean period. In this paper, we parameterize noise-driven Lotka-Volterra SHC cycles such that each saddle can be independently designed to have a desired mean sub-period. The first step in the design process is an analytic approximation, which results in mean sub-periods that are within 2% of the specified sub-period for a typical parameter set. Further, after measuring the resultant sub-periods over sufficient numbers of cycles, the magnitude of the noise can be adjusted to control the mean period with accuracy close to that of the integration step size. With these relationships, SHCs can be more easily employed in engineering and modeling applications. For applications that require smooth state transitions, this parameterization permits each state's distribution of periods to be independently specified. Moreover, for modeling context-dependent behaviors, continuously varying inputs in each state dimension can rapidly precipitate transitions to alter frequency and phase. PMID:25712192

  3. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saïghi, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin–Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development. PMID:24319408

  4. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saïghi, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development. PMID:24319408

  5. Cube corner retroreflector test and analysis. [of laser far field diffraction pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurasky, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Cube corner retroreflectors with nominal dihedral angles of 90 deg 0 min 1.5 sec were fabricated, tested, and analyzed to determine the return energy in the annular ring of the far field diffraction pattern required by the Laser Geodynamic Satellite. Performance was assessed for variations in the dihedral angles, optical surfaces, and thermal environment. Despite relatively high independent axial and radial sensitivities, the changes caused by the anticipated thermal environment were found to be negligible; however, there were substantial variations between the analytical predictions and measured performance.-

  6. Generating custom test plans for CASE{sup *}Dictionary 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, K.D. [Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Most database development organizations use a formal software development methodology that requires a certain amount of formal testing. The amount of formal testing that will be performed will vary from methodology to methodology and from site to site. If a very detailed formal test plan is required for each module in a system, the work involved to produce the test plan can be tedious and costly. After a system has been designed and developed using Oracle*CASE, there is much useful information in the CASE*Dictionary repository. If this information could be tied to specific test requirements, a test plan could be generated automatically, saving much time and resources. This paper shows how CASE*Dictionary can be used to store test plan information that can then be used to generate a specific test plan for each module based on it`s detailed data usage.

  7. Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Charles D. Griffin

    2006-06-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

  8. A Quantitative Test of Population Genetics Using Spatio-Genetic Patterns in Bacterial Colonies

    E-print Network

    Korolev, Kirill S; Nelson, David R; Foster, Kevin R; 10.1086/661897

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that population genetics theory is the cornerstone of evolutionary analyses. Empirical tests of the theory, however, are challenging because of the complex relationships between space, dispersal, and evolution. Critically, we lack quantitative validation of the spatial models of population genetics. Here we combine analytics, on and off-lattice simulations, and experiments with bacteria to perform quantitative tests of the theory. We study two bacterial species, the gut microbe Escherichia coli and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and show that spatio-genetic patterns in colony biofilms of both species are accurately described by an extension of the one-dimensional stepping-stone model. We use one empirical measure, genetic diversity at the colony periphery, to parameterize our models and show that we can then accurately predict another key variable: the degree of short-range cell migration along an edge. Moreover, the model allows us to estimate other key parameters in...

  9. Two-cornered learning classifier systems for pattern generation and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syahaneim Marzukhi; Will N. Browne; Mengjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Classifying objects and patterns to a certain category is crucial for both humans and machines, so that learnt knowledge may be applied across similar problem instances. Although autonomous learning of patterns by machines has advanced recently, it still requires humans to set up the problem at an appropriate level for the learning technique. If the problem is too complex the

  10. An enhanced algorithm for protocol conformance test sequence generation based on the UIO method

    E-print Network

    Allada, Ravindra

    1993-01-01

    in protocol conformance test generation", Manuscript, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, 1990. 41 [9] J. A. Bondy, U. S. R Murty, Graph Theory with Applications, North-Holland, New York, 1984. [10] Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest...

  11. Bearing options, including design and testing, for direct drive linear generators in wave energy converters 

    E-print Network

    Caraher, Sarah

    2011-11-22

    The key focus of this research was to investigate the bearing options most suited to operation in a novel direct drive linear generator. This was done through bearing comparisons, modelling and testing. It is fundamental ...

  12. An enhanced algorithm for protocol conformance test sequence generation based on the UIO method 

    E-print Network

    Allada, Ravindra

    1993-01-01

    An Enhanced Algorithm for Protocol Conformance Test Sequence Generation Based on the UIO Method. (December 1993) Ravindra Allada, B.E., Osmania University, Hyderabad, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara A computer protocol is a...

  13. Automated Test Data Generation using Search Based Software Engineering Mark Harman

    E-print Network

    Singer, Jeremy

    Automated Test Data Generation using Search Based Software Engineering Mark Harman CREST, King. 1. Introduction Search based optimization has been applied to a wide variety of Software Engineering, reverse engineering, refactoring, pro­ gram comprehension, service­oriented software engineer­ ing

  14. Standard test case runs for the empulse monopole fieldsolver and conductivity generation model

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Cox, D.M.

    1981-03-02

    The physical models for the conductivity generation and fieldsolver used in several LLNL beam propagation codes are presented. A generalized beam profile is presented and four standard test cases are proposed.

  15. Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

  16. Use of chaotic and random vibrations to generate high frequency test inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D. L.; Paez, T. L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper and a companion paper show the traditional limits on amplitude and frequency that can be generated in a laboratory test on a vibration exciter can be substantially extended. This is accomplished by attaching a device to the shaker that permits controlled metal to metal impacts that generate high frequency, high acceleration environment on a test surface. A companion paper (Reference 1) shows that a sinusoidal or random shaker input can be used to generate a random vibration environment on the test surface. This paper derives the three response components that occur on the test surface due to an impact on the bottom surface and the base driven response from the shaker input. These response components are used to generate impulse response functions and frequency response functions which are used in the companion paper to derive power spectral density functions for the overall response. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Additional Stability for Single-Unit Pattern Generators In: Workshop on Nature-inspired Techniques for Robotics at the 13th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    an ap- proach called single-unit pattern generators (SUPGs), which generate oscillatory patterns of activation for controlling the many moving parts of a legged robot. The extended SUPG approach employs a novel adjustment mechanism uniquely suited for SUPGs that allows fine-grained modulation of the SUPG

  18. The attention network test: a characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2008-01-01

    Background The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. Methods The sample included 157 children (M = 10 years) who performed the child version of ANT as participants of the Bergen Child Study. Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N = 45) were compared to a group of children with other diagnoses (N = 55) and a group of children without any diagnosis (N = 57). Results The group of children with ADHD showed low accuracy scores and a variable response set, indicating an inattentive response style. No differences were found between the groups on RT and accuracy measures of the alerting, orienting, and conflict networks. A high correlation between full scale IQ (FSIQ) and ANT measures was only found in the ADHD group. When FSIQ score was included as a covariate, the group differences were not statistically significant on any ANT measure. Conclusion The present study showed that accuracy and variability measures rather than measures of the three attention networks conveyed the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD. The results emphasized the importance of including these measures to extend the sensitivity of the ANT, and the importance of reporting results both with and without FSIQ as a covariate. PMID:18269768

  19. Pattern-mixture-type Estimation and Testing of Neuroblastoma Treatment Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinyu; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2014-01-01

    Sequentially randomized designs are commonly used in biomedical research, particularly in clinical trials, to assess and compare the effects of different treatment regimes. In such designs, eligible patients are first randomized to one of the initial therapies, then patients with some intermediate response (e.g. without progressive diseases) are randomized to one of the maintenance therapies. The goal is to evaluate dynamic treatment regimes consisting of an initial therapy, the intermediate response, and a maintenance therapy. In this article, we demonstrate the use of pattern-mixture model (commonly used for analyzing missing data) for estimating the effects of treatment regimes based on familiar survival analysis techniques such as Nelson-Aalen and parametric models. Moreover, we demonstrate how to use estimates from pattern-mixture models to test for the differences across treatment regimes in a weighted log-rank setting. We investigate the properties of the proposed estimators and test in a Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally we demonstrate the methods using the long-term survival data from the high risk neuroblastoma study. PMID:25750601

  20. Predicting Geochemical Behaviour of Waste Rock with Low Acid Generating Potential Using Laboratory Kinetic Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Plante; M. Benzaazoua; B. Bussière

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of contaminated neutral drainage using laboratory kinetic tests designed for acid mine drainage prediction is challenging\\u000a because of the low metal concentrations generated by low sulfide oxidation rates. Fresh and weathered samples from the Tio\\u000a mine waste rock piles were submitted to humidity cell tests. The waste rocks were demonstrated to be non-acid generating in\\u000a the long term, as

  1. Rapid Generation of Multiplexed Cell Cocultures Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection Followed by Aqueous Two-Phase Exclusion Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P.; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

  2. Automating test case generation for coverages required by FAA standard DO-178B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.; Payne, Jeffery E.; Miller, Keith W.

    1993-01-01

    Coverage testing techniques are required by the FAA for various levels of subsystem criticality at the unit testing level. Higher levels of criticality require coverage schemes that frequently require more and more test cases, particularly when the number of conditions in a decision grows. For example, if we have a decision with n conditions of the form: if (/ci/ or /c2/ or .... or /cn/) then there are 2(n) possible combinations of condition outcomes. Given the enormous number of inputs that may be required to satisfy different coverages, and given that there are no automated tools for determining these inputs (to our knowledge), we will show how one alternative testing technique, mutation testing, can be coerced into generating inputs that satisfy a code coverage scheme X, i.e., if we modify the rules for mutant generation during mutation testing, this technique will provide test cases that satisfy X.

  3. A decade's experience in chemistry maintenance of once through steam generator of fast breeder test reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Panigrahi; A. Suriyanarayanan; K. G. Subramianan; G. Srinivasan; D. Jambunathan; P. V. Ramalingam; R. P. Kapoor

    2004-01-01

    The steam generator of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam (India) is a once through Steam Generator (OTSG) which requires the feed water at high purity level. Therefore, for maintaining feed water chemistry, all volatile treatment (AVT) is adopted along with a full-flow deep bed Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) in the steam water system. Operational difficulties such as premature

  4. Pseudorandom Stimuli Generation for Testing Time-to-Digital Converters on an FPGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Mohammad Amiri; Abdelhakim Khouas; Mounir Boukadoum

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a pulse generator circuit that produces a stream of pulses at pseudorandom time intervals. The proposed circuit may serve as a stimulus generator for code density testing of time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The functional behavior of the circuit was first investigated with a software model coded in C ++. The software simulation showed that the interpulse intervals only

  5. A computer-aided environment for generating multiple-choice test items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSLAN M ITKOV; IKIFOROS K ARAMANIS

    This paper describes a novel computer-aided procedure for generating multiple-choice test items from electronic documents. In addition to employing various Natural Language Processing techniques, including shallow parsing, automatic term extraction, sentence trans- formation and computing of semantic distance, the system makes use of language resources such as corpora and ontologies. It identifies important concepts in the text and generates questions

  6. Testing Methods and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems FUBUTEC 2004

    E-print Network

    Testing Methods and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems FUBUTEC 2004 and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems J. Vertommen1 , B. Vandermeulen1 , D. Van techniques which can be applied in advanced knowledge management systems (KMS) and reports results of two

  7. In-service evaluation of motor and generator stator windings using partial discharge tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg C. Stone; Howard G. Sedding

    1995-01-01

    Partial discharges (corona) are a symptom of most types of deterioration of motor and generator stator windings rated 4 kV and above. Experience indicates that partial discharges occur years before failure. This leaves sufficient time to plan corrective maintenance to avoid the in-service failure of the motor or generator. This paper describes a new type of partial discharge test which

  8. GENERATION AND ANALYSIS OF SUBPICOSECOND DOUBLE ELECTRON BUNCH AT THE BROOKHAVEN ACCELERATOR TEST

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    GENERATION AND ANALYSIS OF SUBPICOSECOND DOUBLE ELECTRON BUNCH AT THE BROOKHAVEN ACCELERATOR TEST Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94025, USA Abstract Two compressed electron beam bunches from a single 60-MeV bunch have been generated in a reproducible manner during compression in the magnetic chicane - "dog leg

  9. TEST VECTOR GENERATION AND CLASSIFICATION USING FSM TRAVERSALS Ralph Marczynski, Mitchell A. Thornton, Stephen A. Szygenda

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    TEST VECTOR GENERATION AND CLASSIFICATION USING FSM TRAVERSALS Ralph Marczynski, Mitchell A of simulation vectors using Symbolic FSM Traversal techniques. Generated vectors are classified into three categories, Forward Inter-Frontier, Reverse Inter-Frontier, and Intra-Frontier vectors; a classification

  10. A Sequential and Iterative Testing Procedure to Identify the Nature of a Time Series Generating Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Rusticelli; Estela Bee Dagum

    2012-01-01

    An inferential approach is proposed to identify the nature of the generating process corresponding to a real time series. This new sequential and iterative testing procedure goes beyond the Box and Jenkins methodology for the identification, estimation, and validation of linear data generating processes by investigating the probabilistic structure of non-Gaussian estimated residuals {?t} for the possible presence of nonlinear

  11. Formal Specification, Verification, and Automatic Test Generation of ATM Routing Protocol: PNNI

    E-print Network

    , and generate test suites for the ATM network routing protocol called Private Network-Network Interface (PNNI were developed for each protocol using the PROMELA language; communicating EFSM's are used to model all and generates reachability graphs. It simulates two network nodes communicating with each other

  12. Optimization of Gas Generation Testing of Contact-Handled Transuranic Solidified

    SciTech Connect

    Tamara Shokes; Kevin J. Liekhus; Vivian Bowman; Eric Schweinsberg

    2006-05-18

    The Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) requires that drums containing Waste Type IV (solidified organic waste) must be evaluated by gas generation testing (GGT) because a G-value, a measure of gas generation potential, has not been determined for Waste Type IV.

  13. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  14. Directional biases and resource-dependence in dispersal generate spatial patterning in a consumer-producer model.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kurt E; Hilker, Frank M; Nisbet, Roger M

    2012-03-01

    Directional dispersal plays a large role in shaping ecological processes in diverse systems such as rivers, coastlines and vegetation communities. We describe an instability driven by directional dispersal in a spatially explicit consumer-producer model where spatial patterns emerge in the absence of external environmental variation. Dispersal of the consumer has both undirected and directed components that are functions of producer biomass. We demonstrate that directional dispersal is required for the instability, while undirected diffusive dispersal sets a lower bound to the spatial scale of emerging patterns. Furthermore, instability requires indirect feedbacks affecting consumer per capita dispersal rates, and not activator-inhibitor dynamics affecting production and mortality as is described in previous theory. This novel and less-restrictive mechanism for generating spatial patterns can arise over realistic parameter values, which we explore using an empirically inspired model and data on stream macroinvertebrates. PMID:22248081

  15. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  16. Vocal behavior and vocal central pattern generator organization diverge among toadfishes.

    PubMed

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Bass, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Among fishes, acoustic communication is best studied in toadfishes, a single order and family that includes species commonly known as toadfish and midshipman. However, there is a lack of comparative anatomical and physiological studies, making it difficult to identify both shared and derived mechanisms of vocalization among toadfishes. Here, vocal nerve labeling and intracellular in vivo recording and staining delineated the hindbrain vocal network of the Gulf toadfish Opsanus beta. Dextran-biotin labeling of the vocal nerve or intracellular neurobiotin fills of motoneurons delineated a midline vocal motor nucleus (VMN). Motoneurons showed bilaterally extensive dendritic arbors both within and lateral to the paired motor nuclei. The motoneuron activity matched that of the spike-like vocal nerve motor volley that determines the natural call duration and frequency. Ipsilateral vocal nerve labeling with biocytin or neurobiotin yielded dense bilateral transneuronal filling of motoneurons and coextensive columns of premotor neurons. These premotor neurons generated pacemaker-like action potentials matched 1:1 with vocal nerve and motoneuron firing. Transneuronal transport further revealed connectivity within and between the pacemaker-motor circuit and a rostral prepacemaker nucleus. Unlike the pacemaker-motor circuit, prepacemaker firing did not match the frequency of vocal nerve activity but instead was predictive of the duration of the vocal nerve volley that codes for call duration. Transneuronally labeled terminal-like boutons also occurred in auditory-recipient hindbrain nuclei, including neurons innervating the inner ear and lateral line organs. Together with studies of midshipman, we propose that separate premotor populations coding vocal frequency and duration with direct premotor coupling to auditory-lateral line nuclei are plesiomorphic characters for toadfishes. Unlike in midshipman, transneuronal labeling in toadfishes reveals an expansive column of pacemaker neurons that is weakly coupled to prepacemaker neurons, a character that likely depends on the extent of gap junction coupling. We propose that these and other anatomical characters contribute to neurophysiological properties that, in turn, sculpt the species-typical patterning of frequency and amplitude-modulated vocalizations. PMID:25115796

  17. Math Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Thorpe

    2006-10-10

    Students will learn the concepts of a math pattern through a tutorial, then explore the new information with interactive pattern games. Today you will learn more about patterns in mathematics. Please go to this link and complete the interactive lesson. math pattern tutorial Now go to this web site to practice identifying random patterns. pattern generator Finally, go to this web site to practice and explore. PBS Cyberchase- pattern game After the teacher has signaled, please answer the following questions. What is ...

  18. Spectral features of central pattern generation in the in vitro brain stem spinal cord preparation of the newborn rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Tarasiuk; Anthony L. Sica

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation, brain stem spinal cord preparations of 0–4-day-old rats were used to determine whether inspiratory-related discharges were modulated by a central pattern generator either during baseline conditions or during conditions of increased chemical drive. Spectral analyses were carried out on pairs of nerve activities during superfusion with normal solutions (pH = 7.4) and during superfusion with acidic

  19. What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim O'Reilly

    2007-01-01

    was the first initiative to try to define Web 2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated

  20. Veri cation of Automatically Generated Pattern-Based LTL Speci cations Salamah Salamah

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    to a tool such as Prospec, one can specify a com- plex property without being an LTL expert. The paper nitions of patterns and scopes that use CPs. Section 6 motivates the need for three auxiliary LTL

  1. Verification of Automatically Generated PatternBased LTL Specifications Salamah Salamah

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    to a tool such as Prospec, one can specify a com­ plex property without being an LTL expert. The paper definitions of patterns and scopes that use CPs. Section 6 motivates the need for three auxiliary LTL

  2. Using Fourier Analysis To Generate Believable Gait Patterns For Virtual Quadrupeds 

    E-print Network

    Cureton, Spencer

    2013-01-16

    Achieving a believable gait pattern for a virtual quadrupedal character requires a significant time investment from an animator. This thesis presents a prototype system for creating a foundational layer of natural-looking ...

  3. A central pattern-generating network contributes to "reflex-reversal"-like leg motoneuron activity in the locust.

    PubMed

    Knop, G; Denzer, L; Büschges, A

    2001-12-01

    We introduce a new rhythmic preparation of the locust mesothoracic segment that exhibits long-lasting rhythmicity without pharmacological treatment. In most experiments, isolation of the locust mesothoracic ganglion from the anterior and posterior ganglia causes episodes of patterned activity to be generated in leg motoneurons that supply the femur-tibia (FT) joint. Flexor and extensor tibiae motoneuron pools exhibit alternating bursts of activity mostly composed of doublets and triplets of bursts. Motor activity during these episodes appears to be centrally generated because it persisted after complete deafferentation in 37% of the preparations; however, proprioceptive signals from the middle leg strongly influenced the patterning of motoneuron activity. Mimicking FT joint flexion by elongating the femoral chordotonal organ during an extensor burst terminates extensor activity and initiates flexor activity. The reverse is true for a mimicked extension during a flexor burst. This motor activity represents a reflex reversal that is typically observed in the locomotor state of the stick insect walking system. Our results provide evidence that this "reversed" reflex is caused by the action of central pattern-generating networks. PMID:11731562

  4. Large-Scale Multiobjective Static Test Generation for Web-Based Testing with Integer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, M. L.; Hui, Siu Cheung; Fong, A. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Web-based testing has become a ubiquitous self-assessment method for online learning. One useful feature that is missing from today's web-based testing systems is the reliable capability to fulfill different assessment requirements of students based on a large-scale question data set. A promising approach for supporting large-scale web-based…

  5. The large contour data generation from divided image of photomask pattern of 32 nm and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Murakawa; Yoshiaki Ogiso; Toshimichi Iwai; Jun Matsumoto; Takayuki Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    The application of Mask CD-SEM for process management of photomask using two dimensional measurements as photomask patterns become smaller and more complex, [1]. Also, WPI technology application using an optical Mask inspection tool simulates wafer plane images using photomask images [2]. In order to simulate the MEEF influence for aggressive OPC and High-end photomask patterns in 32nm node and beyond,

  6. Automatic programming assessment and test data generation a review on its approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohaida Romli; Shahida Sulaiman; Kamal Zuhairi Zamli

    2010-01-01

    Automatic programming assessment has recently become an important method in assisting lecturers and instructors of programming courses to automatically mark and grade students' programming exercises as well as to provide useful feedbacks on students' programming solutions. As part of the method, test data generation process plays as an integral part to perform a dynamic testing on students' programs. To date,

  7. NNARX Model of Speech Signal Generating System: Test Error Subject to Modeling Mode Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Protic; M. Milosavljevic

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents comparative analysis of different processing errors when modeling speech signal generating system simulated by neural network auto regressive with extra input (NNARX). Feed forward NNs were used. Vowels were taken to train and test models. Gradient descent algorithm (GDA) is used for the training, back propagation algorithm (BPA) for the testing, and optimal brain surgeon (OBS) for

  8. Short Time Rated And Protected High Voltage Ac Testing Of Generator Stators Using Parallel Resonant Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Enright; Pat Bodger

    Power station generators require short duration HV ac testing of their insulation as part of their acceptance before being put into service. Depending on the value of the capacitance of the insulation, the rating of the test power supply can be large. One method of reducing this supply requirement is to compensate the capacitance with inductance. The paper describes a

  9. Generating test cases for real-time systems from logic specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dino Mandrioli; Sandro Morasca; Angelo Morzenti

    1995-01-01

    We address the problem of automated derivation of functional test cases for real-time systems, by introducing techniques for generating test cases from formal specifications written in TRIO, a language that extends classical temporal logic to deal explicitly with time measures. We describe an interactive tool that has been built to implement these techniques, based on interpretation algorithms of the TRIO

  10. Finite element calculation of fields around the end region of a turbine generator test rig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Eastham; D. Rodger; H. C. Lai; H. Nouri

    1993-01-01

    The use of surface impedance elements and the use of volume elements when modeling at test rig using the MEGA package are compared. The test rig is representative of a turbine generator. The work is supported by practical measurements. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to model 3-D fields in large-scale objects containing nonlinear conducting iron using finite elements.

  11. Honeywell STS2000 and Aerospatiale ATEC Series 6 new generation of avionics test systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linton; P. Charbonnier

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the successful joint development by Honeywell and Aerospatiale of their new generation of avionics test systems. The Honeywell STS2000 and the Aerospatiale ATEC Series 6 are VXI-based ATEs providing all the resources and technologies needed to test the new avionics of the Boeing 777 and the Airbus A330\\/A340

  12. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  13. SRG110 Stirling Generator Dynamic Simulator Vibration Test Results and Analysis Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Callahan, John

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for use as a power system for space science missions. The launch environment enveloping potential missions results in a random input spectrum that is significantly higher than historical radioisotope power system (RPS) launch levels and is a challenge for designers. Analysis presented in prior work predicted that tailoring the compliance at the generator-spacecraft interface reduced the dynamic response of the system thereby allowing higher launch load input levels and expanding the range of potential generator missions. To confirm analytical predictions, a dynamic simulator representing the generator structure, Stirling convertors and heat sources were designed and built for testing with and without a compliant interface. Finite element analysis was performed to guide the generator simulator and compliant interface design so that test modes and frequencies were representative of the SRG110 generator. This paper presents the dynamic simulator design, the test setup and methodology, test article modes and frequencies and dynamic responses, and post-test analysis results. With the compliant interface, component responses to an input environment exceeding the SRG110 qualification level spectrum were all within design allowables. Post-test analysis included finite element model tuning to match test frequencies and random response analysis using the test input spectrum. Analytical results were in good overall agreement with the test results and confirmed previous predictions that the SRG110 power system may be considered for a broad range of potential missions, including those with demanding launch environments.

  14. SRG110 Stirling Generator Dynamic Simulator Vibration Test Results and Analysis Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Vicente J.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Callahan, John

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for use as a power system for space science missions. The launch environment enveloping potential missions results in a random input spectrum that is significantly higher than historical RPS launch levels and is a challenge for designers. Analysis presented in prior work predicted that tailoring the compliance at the generator-spacecraft interface reduced the dynamic response of the system thereby allowing higher launch load input levels and expanding the range of potential generator missions. To confirm analytical predictions, a dynamic simulator representing the generator structure, Stirling convertors and heat sources was designed and built for testing with and without a compliant interface. Finite element analysis was performed to guide the generator simulator and compliant interface design so that test modes and frequencies were representative of the SRG110 generator. This paper presents the dynamic simulator design, the test setup and methodology, test article modes and frequencies and dynamic responses, and post-test analysis results. With the compliant interface, component responses to an input environment exceeding the SRG110 qualification level spectrum were all within design allowables. Post-test analysis included finite element model tuning to match test frequencies and random response analysis using the test input spectrum. Analytical results were in good overall agreement with the test results and confirmed previous predictions that the SRG110 power system may be considered for a broad range of potential missions, including those with demanding launch environments.

  15. Leak injection/detection input for B and W prototype steam generator test request

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1980-11-18

    The goal of the leak injection/detection phase of the test program on the prototype steam generator is to obtain data that can be used to specify the leak protection system for the plant unit steam generators. Both chemical and two acoustic leak detection methods (by GE and Rockwell International) are to be considered. The chemical system has been selected as the reference based on its more developed state. The acoustic methods have potential both as small leak detection systems and as intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown systems. Simulated leak injections will be made at various locations within the steam generator to determine the performance of the chemical system as specifically applied to the B and W helical coil steam generator geometry. Acoustic tests will be made to characterize the various steam generator background noise sources and to record acoustic signals during smulated leak injections, in order to predict the performance of both systems.

  16. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  17. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

  18. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

  19. Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

  20. Clinical Features of Congenital Adrenal Insufficiency Including Growth Patterns and Significance of ACTH Stimulation Test

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (P<0.05). Comorbid conditions such as obesity, mental retardation, and central precocious puberty were also prominent in this group. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of understanding the clinical symptoms as well as genetic analysis for early diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24265530