These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

PLATYPUS: a PLA test pattern generation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLAs which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the constrained\\/unconstrained, simple\\/multiple folding program PLEASURE and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C developed at the University of California at Berkeley. PLATYPUS uses biased random test generation as a quick preprocess followed by a deterministic

Ruey-Sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1985-01-01

2

PLATYPUS: A PLA Test Pattern Generation Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATypus (PLA Test pattern generation and logic simulation tool) is an efficient tool for large PLA's which is interfaced with other existing PLA tools such as the folding program PLEASURE [12] and the logic minimizer ESPRESSO II-C [11] developed at the University of California at Berkeley. A new algorithm is proposed based on complementation and the tautology check of a

Ruey-sing Wei; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1986-01-01

3

SOCRATES: a highly efficient automatic test pattern generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic test pattern generation system, SOCRATES, is presented. SOCRATES includes several novel concepts and techniques that significantly improve and accelerate the automatic test pattern generation process for combinational and scan-based circuits. Based on the FAN algorithm, improved implication, sensitization, and multiple backtrace procedures are described. The application of these techniques leads to a considerable reduction of the number of

Michael H. Schulz; Erwin Trischler; Thomas M. Sarfert

1988-01-01

4

A reconfigurable SAT-based automatic test pattern generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing complexity of integrated circuits and transition to Systems-on-Chip (SoC) paradigm, Automatic Test pattern Generation (ATPG) becomes a crucial tool in the Electronic Design Automation (EDA) domain. ATPG based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) has been proposed as an alternative to classical structural algorithms for generating test patterns for single stuck-at faults in combinational circuits. SAT-based ATPG provides excellent

Mona Safar; Mohamed Shalan; M. Watheq El-Kharashi; Ashraf Salem

2011-01-01

5

Test Pattern Generation for Realistic Bridge Faults in CMOS ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches have been used to balance the costof generating effective tests for IC's and the need toincrease the quality level of shipped IC's. The first approachfavors using high-level fault models to reducetest generation costs, and the second approach favorsthe use of low-level, technology-specific fault modelsthat lead to high test generation costs, but increaseddefect coverage in the tested circuits. In

F. Joel Ferguson; Tracy Larrabee

1991-01-01

6

The KARL\\/KARATE System: Automatic Test Pattern Generation Based on RT Level Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for automatic test-pattern generation (ATPG) using symbolic representations and heuristics to attack the test problem at RT level, where redesigns to increase the testability are relatively cheap. In contrast to other ATPG tools based on RT-level hardware descriptions, KARATE includes tests for primitive operators and allows the modification and redefinition of fault models. KARATE has been

Gerold Affs; Reiner W. Hartenstein; Andrea Wodtko

1988-01-01

7

Pattern Generator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students must fill in the blanks in a given pattern of shapes. This activity allows students to explore patterns on a range of difficulties. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

8

Optimizing Test Pattern Generation Using Top-Off ATPG Methodology for Stuck–AT, Transition and Small Delay Defect Faults  

E-print Network

circuits, but also in automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) to ensure that the pattern set screens all the targeted faults while still complying with the Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) memory constraints. DSM technology trends push the requirements...

Gill, Arjun

2013-05-01

9

The F-path approach for pattern generation in microprocessor testing  

E-print Network

Watson (Member) August 1991 ABSTRACT The F-Path Approach for Pattern Generation in Microprocessor Testing. (August 1991) Jose Salinas, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Fabrizio Lombardi A Fault-Path methodology... for testing microprocessors and other high density VLSI circuits, is presented. The concepts of F-path, T-path, S-path and I-path along with a processor fault model, are used to define appropriate simulation criteria for the F-path path and the pseudo...

Salinas, Jose?

2012-06-07

10

Built-in self-test for GHz embedded SRAMs using flexible pattern generator and new repair algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a built-in self-test (BIST) scheme, which consists of a flexible pattern generator and a practical on-macro two-dimensional redundancy analyzer, for GHz embedded SRAMs. In order to meet the system requirements and to detect a wide variety of faults or performance degradation resulting from recent technology advances, the microcode-based pattern generator can generate flexible patterns. A practical new

Shigeru Nakahara; Keiichi Higeta; Masaki Kohno; Toshiaki Kawamura; Keizo Kakitani

1999-01-01

11

Transition Delay Fault Test Pattern Generation Considering Supply Voltage Noise in a SOC Design  

E-print Network

or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. DAC 2007, June 4­8, 2007, San Diego, California, USA delay gate model and target as many faults per pattern as possible in order to reduce the test pattern

Tehranipoor, Mohammad

12

Test pattern generation for sequential MOS circuits by symbolic fault simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COSMOS symbolic fault simulator generates test sets for combinational and sequential MOS circuits represented at the switch level. All aspects of switch-level networks including bidirectional transistors, stored charge, different signal strengths, and indeterminate (X) logic values are captured. To generate tests for a circuit, the program derives Boolean functions representing the behavior of the good and faulty circuits over

Kyeongsoon Cho; Randal E. Bryant

1989-01-01

13

Transition-fault test generation  

E-print Network

. One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2013-02-22

14

An Evolutionary Strategy To Design An On-Chip Test Pattern Generator Without Prohibited Pattern Set (PPS)  

E-print Network

- retical framework of CA noted in [1] has provided the foundation of this work. A GA based evolution scheme (PIs) which the test designer deciphers from studying the CUT . The PF produces a large number of PPS- bines the guided search technique provided through ge- netic algorithm and the analytical framework

Ganguly, Niloy

15

Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent patterns in transaction databases, time-series databases, and many other kinds of databases has been studied popularly in data mining research. Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and\\/or long patterns.In this study, we propose a novel frequent pattern tree (FP-tree)

Jiawei Han; Jian Pei; Yiwen Yin

2000-01-01

16

Test generation for sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to test-pattern generation for synchronous sequential circuits is presented. The deterministic sequential test-generation algorithm, based on extensions to the PODEM justification algorithm, is effective for midsized sequential circuits and can be used in conjunction with an incomplete scan design approach to generate tests for very large sequential circuits. Tests for finite-state machines with a large number of states

Hi-keung Tony Ma; Srinivas Devadas; A. Richard Newton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1988-01-01

17

Crustacean motor pattern generator networks.  

PubMed

Crustacean motor pattern-generating networks have played central roles in understanding the cellular and network bases of rhythmic motor patterns for over half a century. We review here the four best investigated of these systems: the stomatogastric, ventilatory, cardiac, and swimmeret systems. Generally applicable observations arising from this work include (1) neurons with active, endogenous cell properties (endogenous bursting, postinhibitory rebound, plateau potentials), (2) nonhierarchical (distributed) network synaptic connectivity patterns characterized by high levels of inter-neuronal connections, (3) nonspiking neurons and graded transmitter release, (4) multiple modulatory inputs, (5) networks that produce multiple patterns and have flexible boundaries, and (6) peripheral properties (proprioceptive feedback loops, low-frequency muscle filtering) playing an important role in motor pattern generation or expression. PMID:15004425

Hooper, Scott L; DiCaprio, Ralph A

2004-01-01

18

Invertebrate central pattern generator circuits  

PubMed Central

There are now a reasonable number of invertebrate central pattern generator (CPG) circuits described in sufficient detail that a mechanistic explanation of how they work is possible. These small circuits represent the best-understood neural circuits with which to investigate how cell-to-cell synaptic connections and individual channel conductances combine to generate rhythmic and patterned output. In this review, some of the main lessons that have appeared from this analysis are discussed and concrete examples of circuits ranging from single phase to multiple phase patterns are described. While it is clear that the cellular components of any CPG are basically the same, the topology of the circuits have evolved independently to meet the particular motor requirements of each individual organism and only a few general principles of circuit operation have emerged. The principal usefulness of small systems in relation to the brain is to demonstrate in detail how cellular infrastructure can be used to generate rhythmicity and form specialized patterns in a way that may suggest how similar processes might occur in more complex systems. But some of the problems and challenges associated with applying data from invertebrate preparations to the brain are also discussed. Finally, I discuss why it is useful to have well-defined circuits with which to examine various computational models that can be validated experimentally and possibly applied to brain circuits when the details of such circuits become available. PMID:20603355

Selverston, Allen I.

2010-01-01

19

March Test Generation Revealed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory testing commonly faces two issues: the characterization of detailed and realistic fault models and the definition of time-efficient test algorithms. Among the different types of algorithms proposed for testing static random access memories, march tests have proven to be faster, simpler, and regularly structured. The majority of the published march tests have been manually generated. Unfortunately, the continuous evolution

Alfredo Benso; Alberto Bosio; Stefano Di Carlo; Giorgio Di Natale; Paolo Prinetto

2008-01-01

20

Fastrac Gas Generator Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator was intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter, Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic modes were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations occurred in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included the turbine inlet manifold simulator, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

1999-01-01

21

Observation-based test set generation  

E-print Network

When circuits are manufactured, there are unavoidable defects that occur in a small but significant portion of the products. Input test patterns that can detect these defects are uniquely generated for each circuit in advance of their production...

Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

2013-02-22

22

Identification of Bacteria by Patterns Generated from Odor Spectra  

E-print Network

We use the power density spectra obtained by fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) to generate new, highly distinguishable, types of patterns based on the average slope of the spectra in different frequency ranges. Such plots can be considered as "fingerprints" of bacterial odors. Three different ways of pattern generation are tested, including a simple binary version. The obtained patterns are simple enough to identify the situation by the naked eye without a pattern recognizer.

Hung-Chih Chang; Laszlo B. Kish; Maria D. King; Chiman Kwan

2009-02-09

23

Impact of Multiple-Detect Test Patterns on Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the impact of multiple-detect test patterns on outgoing product quality. It introduces an ATPG tool that generates multiple-detect test patterns while maximizing the coverage of node-to- node bridging defects. Volume data obtained by testing a production ASIC with these new multiple- detect patterns shows increased defect screening capability and very good agreement with the bridging coverage estimated

Brady Benware; Chris Schuermyer; Sreenevasan Ranganathan; Robert Madge; Prabhu Krishnamurthy; Nagesh Tamarapalli; Kun-han Tsai; Janusz Rajski

2003-01-01

24

Intersecting Circuits Generate Precisely Patterned Retinal Waves  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that produce stage III waves and desynchronize ON and OFF RGC firing remain obscure. Using dual patch clamp recordings, we find that ON and OFF RGCs receive sequential excitatory input from ON and OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), respectively. This input sequence is generated by crossover circuits, in which ON CBCs control glutamate release from OFF CBCs via diffusely stratified inhibitory amacrine cells. In addition, neighboring ON CBCs communicate directly and indirectly through lateral glutamatergic transmission and gap junctions, both of which are required for wave initiation and propagation. Thus, intersecting lateral excitatory and vertical inhibitory circuits give rise to precisely patterned stage III retinal waves. PMID:23830830

Akrouh, Alejandro; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

2013-01-01

25

A Unified Interface for Scan Test Generation Based on STIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Standard Test Interface Language (STIL) was developed for universal pattern interchange form test generation tools output to tester input. We extend the usage of STIL to the various input files of a test generation tool we developed, thus using one language where traditional test tools use five or more. This significantly reduces engineering time to learn the required languages,

Peter Wohl; John A. Waicukauski

1997-01-01

26

Grout gas generation test plan  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are detailed procedures for measuring the rate of gas generation by grout made from synthetic tanks wastes or actual tank material. Objective is to measure the rate of gas generation for various gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, etc.) produced when grout, prepared using tank waste, is heated at 65 C. Experiments will also be conducted using grout from synthetic tank waste, as practice. Purpose is to provide data for evaluation of safety risks presented by gas generation in the grout vault after making grout with tank waste, as verification/confirmation for gas generation rates for the ANL testing.

Person, J.C.

1995-01-04

27

Modelling a Respiratory Central Pattern Generator Neuron in Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

Modelling a Respiratory Central Pattern Generator Neuron in Lymnaea stagnalis Sharene D. Bungay Sue Ann Campbell 1 Introduction Lymnaea stagnalis, often termed the great pond snail Excitatory Biphasic Figure 1: Central pattern generator that controls respiration in the Lymnaea stagnalis

Campbell, Sue Ann

28

Tests of randomness for spatial point patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New tests of randomness for spatial point patterns are introduced. These test statistics are then compared in a power study with the existing alternatives. These results of the power study suggest that one of the tests proposed is extremely powerful again...

S. I. Doguwa

1990-01-01

29

Testing Whether and When Abstract Symmetric Patterns Produce Affective Responses  

PubMed Central

Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

2013-01-01

30

Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

2012-01-01

31

Automating test program generation in STIL - expectations and experiences using IEEE 1450 [standard test interface language  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the International Test Conference 2002 several low cost test solutions were presented. All of these solutions promised to establish a close link between automatic test pattern generation, ATE based testing and fault diagnosis\\/analysis by using the IEEE 1450 standard test interface language (STIL). However, the reality is different. This paper describes the integration of a STIL based tester into

Helmut Lang; B. Pande; H. Ahrens

2003-01-01

32

Procedural Content Generation Using Patterns as Objectives  

E-print Network

previously analysed the classic game Super Mario Bros. (SMB) [3] and suggested a collection of patterns a significant amount of variation. In the prototype the representation is relying on existing content in SMB-patterns are extracted from the original SMB levels. A level is simply a sequence (or string) of micro

Togelius, Julian

33

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns  

E-print Network

higher resolution. Current wavelengths in use have gone into the deep ultraviolet region #3;3#4;. Under this situation, many schemes have been proposed to beat the diffraction limit #3;4?7#4;. A potential scheme that generated a great deal of in... truncated 2D Fourier series with a penalty deposition. It can approximate any two-dimensional pattern in principle. As an example, we consider the test function F#1;x,y#2; = #14;h if ? #4;2 2#6;0xc , 2#6;0yc #4;2 0 elsewhere. #15; #1...

Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2007-01-01

34

Generation and use of test data sets in IDS testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodologies for testing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are still at early stages. One issue in IDS testing is how to generate test data sets. Until now the common method of generating test data is simulating it. There are however downsides to this approach. Other methods may generate more realistic test data sets, but have other downsides. This paper describes four

Vidar Evenrud Seeberg

35

A comparison between 8-bit and 10-bit luminance resolution when generating low-contrast sinusoidal test pattern on an LCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological images are today mostly displayed on monitors, but much is still unknown regarding the interaction between monitor and viewer. Issues like monitor luminance range, calibration, contrast resolution and luminance distribution need to be addressed further. To perform vision research of high validity to the radiologists, test images should be presented on medical displays. One of the problems has been

Patrik Sund; Magnus Båth; Linda Ungsten; Lars Gunnar Månsson

2007-01-01

36

Improving Test Pattern Compactness in SAT-based ATPG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) is one of the core problems in testing of digital circuits. ATPG algorithms based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) turned out to be very powerful, due to recent advances in SAT- based proof engines. SAT-based ATPG clearly outper- forms classical approaches especially for hard-to-detect faults. But due to the SAT provers, a major drawback of the

Stephan Eggersglüß; Rolf Drechsler

2007-01-01

37

Computer Generated Islamic Star Patterns Craig S. Kaplan  

E-print Network

Computer Generated Islamic Star Patterns Craig S. Kaplan Department of Computer Science://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/csk/tile/ Abstract Islamic star patterns are a beautiful and highly geometric art form. Many analyses have been done of the most famous and most beautiful forms of geometric art is the Islamic star pattern. Mathematically

Kaplan, Craig S.

38

The Automatic Efficient Test Generator (AETG) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is expensive, tedious and time consuming. Thus, the problem of making testing more efficient and mechanical, without losing its effectiveness, is very important. The Automatic Efficient Test Generator (AETG) is a new tool that mechanically generates efficient test sets from user defined test requirements. It is based on algorithms that use ideas from statistical experimental design theory to

D. M. Cohen; S. R. Dalal; A. Kajla; G. C. Patton

1994-01-01

39

Generating Circuit Tests by Exploiting Designed Behavior  

E-print Network

This thesis describes two programs for generating tests for digital circuits that exploit several kinds of expert knowledge not used by previous approaches. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently ...

Shirley, Mark Harper

1988-12-01

40

Generation of the patterns in gaseous detonations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem addressed here is the mode of formation of the first initial regular pattern and its spacing in a detonation front. It is generally accepted that these patterns derive from a self-sustaining process of formation of Mach stems by colliding blast waves and blast waves from secondary local explosions initiated by these Mach stems. The reason for the very first explosions and their spacing, however, are not known. It is shown here that this is caused by temperature perturbations as they are introduced with any kind of ignition. A steady mode of perturbation is derived which initiates the first local explosions at the extreme end of the combustion zone. They are substitutes for what is considered unrealistic asymptotic decrease. The concept is shown to be in agreement with measurements of the reaction time and of the spacing of soot patterns.

Schultz-Grunow, F.

41

Generating Software Test Data by Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for automatic software test data generation. This research extends previous work on dynamic test data generation where the problem of test data generation is reduced to one of minimizing a function. In our work, the function is minimized by using one of two genetic algorithms in place of the local minimization

Christoph C. Michael; Gary Mcgraw; Michael Schatz

2001-01-01

42

Automated Test-Form Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

2011-01-01

43

Whisker Deafferentation and Rodent Whisking Patterns: Behavioral Evidence for a Central Pattern Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the absence of explicit stimulation, rats emit patterns of rhythmic whisking movements. Because of their stereotyped nature and their persistence after sensory denervation and cortical ablation, whisking movements have been assumed to reflect the output of a central pattern generator (CPG). How- ever, identification of a movement pattern as the product of a CPG requires evidence that its

Puhong Gao; Roberto Bermejo; H. Philip

2001-01-01

44

Automatic Generation of Test Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The'syntaxmachine'discussedhereautomaticallygenerates random test cases for any suitably defined programming language.'Thetestcasesitproducesaresyntacticallyvalidprograms. But theyarenot'meaningful,\\

Kenneth V. Hanford

1970-01-01

45

Plan Generation for GUI Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have become nearly ubiquitous as a means of interacting with software systems. GUIs are typically highly com- plex pieces of software, and testing their correct- ness poses a large challenge. In this paper, we present a new approach to automatic testing of GUIs that builds on AI planning techniques. The motivating idea is that GUI test

Atif M. Memon; Martha E. Pollack; Mary Lou Soffa

2000-01-01

46

Test generation for highly sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors address the problem of generating test sequences for stuck-at faults in nonscan synchronous sequential circuits. They present a novel test procedure that exploits both the structure of the combinational logic in the circuit as well as the sequential behavior of the circuit. In contrast to previous approaches, the authors decompose the problem of sequential test generation into three

Abhijit Ghosh; Srinivas Devadas; A. R. Newton

1989-01-01

47

Functional test generation for path delay faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel test generation technique for path delay faults, based on the growth (G) and disappearance (D) faults of programmable logic arrays (PLA). The circuit is modeled as a PLA that is prime and irredundant with respect to every output. Certain tests for G faults, generated by using known efficient methods are transformed into tests for path delay

Mandyam-komar Srinivas; Vishwani D. Agrawal; Michael L. Bushnell

1995-01-01

48

Multithreaded Java program test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ConTest, a tool for detecting synchronization faults in multithreaded Java, programs. The program under test is seeded with a sleep?, yield?, or priority? primitive at shared memory accesses and synchronization events. At run time, ConTest makes random or coverage-based decisions as to whether the seeded primitive is to be executed. Thus, the probability of finding concurrent faults is

Orit Edelstein; Eitan Farchi; Yarden Nir; Gil Ratsaby; Shmuel Ur

2001-01-01

49

The Same Core Rhythm Generator Underlies Different Rhythmic Motor Patterns  

PubMed Central

Rhythmically active motor circuits can generate different activity patterns in response to different inputs. In most systems, however, it is not known whether the same neurons generate the underlying rhythm for each different pattern. Thus far, information regarding the degree of conservation of rhythm generator neurons is limited to a few pacemaker-driven circuits, in most of which the core rhythm generator is unchanged across different output patterns. We are addressing this issue in the network-driven, gastric mill (chewing) circuit in the crab stomatogastric nervous system. We first establish that distinct gastric mill motor patterns are triggered by separate stimulation of two extrinsic input pathways, the ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and post-oesophageal commissure (POC) neurons. A prominent feature that distinguishes these gastric mill motor patterns is the LG protractor motor neuron activity pattern, which is tonic during the VCN-rhythm and exhibits fast rhythmic bursting during the POC-rhythm. These two motor patterns also differed in their cycle period and some motor neuron phase relationships, duty cycles and burst durations. Despite the POC- and VCN-motor patterns being distinct, rhythm generation during each motor pattern required the activity of the same two, reciprocally inhibitory gastric mill neurons (LG, Int1). Specifically, reversibly hyperpolarizing LG or Int1, but no other gastric mill neuron, delayed the start of the next gastric mill cycle until after the imposed hyperpolarization. Thus, the same circuit neurons can comprise the core rhythm generator during different versions of a network-driven rhythmic motor pattern. PMID:21832178

White, Rachel S.; Nusbaum, Michael P.

2011-01-01

50

Electronic load for testing power generating devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument tests various electric power generating devices by connecting the devices to the input of the load and comparing their outputs with a reference voltage. The load automatically adjusts until voltage output of the power generating device matches the reference.

Friedman, E. B.; Stepfer, G.

1968-01-01

51

Detection of Spatial Defect Patterns Generated in Semiconductor Fabrication Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial defect patterns generated during integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing processes contain information about potential problems in the processes. The detection of these defect patterns is crucial to improve yield and reliability in IC manufacturing. This paper proposes a multistep defect analysis approach that provides clustering results with different levels of accuracy. A defect denoising step, based on the Kth nearest-

Tao Yuan; Suk Joo Bae

2011-01-01

52

Optimal On-Line Walking Pattern Generation for Biped Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 2D walking pattern generation method is proposed for biped robots in this paper. The key feature of the proposed method is to obtain an optimal walking pattern on-line with the largest stability in the sense of zero moment point (ZMP) subject to the constraints of torque and velocity of the joint actuators. With the aids of a 3-link

Hao Chen; Shuwen Pan; Rong Xiong; Jun Wu

2010-01-01

53

Intracellular activity in cricket neurons during generation of song patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

During production of song patterns by the semi-isolated CNS of Gryllus campestris, intracellullar recordings were made in fibers of the mesothoracic ganglion, including synaptic areas of identified wing opener and closer motor neurons. The normal calling song pattern and some transitional songs toward courtship and toward aggression were generated by the CNS in the absence of any phasic sensory timing

David R. Bentley

1969-01-01

54

Computer Generated Islamic Star Patterns Craig S. Kaplan  

E-print Network

Computer Generated Islamic Star Patterns Craig S. Kaplan Department of Computer Science Islamic star patterns are a beautiful and highly geometric art form whose original design techniques Introduction More than a thousand years ago, Islamic artisans began to adorn architectural surfaces

Waterloo, University of

55

Random-Pattern Coverage Enhancement and Diagnosis for LSSD Logic Self-Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded linear feedback shift registers can be used for logic component self-test. The issue of test coverage is addressed by circuit modification, where necessary, of random-pattern-resistant fault nodes. Also given is a procedure that supports net-level diagnosis for structured logic in the presence of random test-pattern generation and signature analysis.

Edward B. Eichelberger; Eric Lindbloom

1983-01-01

56

Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of food particle capture due to altered particle pathways and residence times, but also for the exchange of gases, solutes and spawn. The present results confirm previous studies on flow interaction effects of various biogenic structures, and they add a deeper level of detail for a better understanding of the fine-scale effects.

Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.

2009-02-01

57

Logic verification and test generation for VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on efficient test-pattern generation, efficient redundancy identification, and efficient logic verification for scan-testable VLSI circuits. For logic verification, applicable circuits also include non-scan-testable VLSI circuits for which correspondence of memory elements between two-verified circuits can be established. New approaches to solving these problems and the systems implementing these approaches are presented. For efficient test-pattern generation of multi-level combinational circuits, a new front-end heuristic test pattern generator, VICTOR-III, a new line-justification algorithm for the D-algorithm and its derivatives, DIJUST, and a method for test-set compaction, BUSIM, are presented. MAHJONG, a user-configurable automatic test-pattern generation system employing these techniques was developed. For efficient redundancy identification, a system of three programs: VICTOR-III, TRIP, and TAUT, to be executed in that order, is presented. The set of faults is gradually classified into the set of irredundant faults and truly redundant faults through the introduction of potentially redundant faults. For efficient logic verification, PROTEUS, a system of many logic verification programs, mostly based on newly developed algorithms, is presented. Direct comparison of these programs is performed and many important conclusions are drawn.

Wei, R.

1986-01-01

58

High Quality Compact Delay Test Generation  

E-print Network

frequency. Small delay defects that previously were benign now produce delay faults, due to reduced timing margins. This research focuses on the development of new test methods for small delay defects, within the limits of affordable test generation cost...

Wang, Zheng

2011-08-08

59

Contextual modulation of a multifunctional central pattern generator.  

PubMed

The multifunctional buccal central pattern generator in snails, which controls different oral behaviors, has been well characterized. In this work we propose a role for the group of about 40 electrotonically coupled buccal A cluster cells as a context-dependant switch for the buccal central pattern generator, modulating motor patterns that elicit different oral behaviors. We characterize these cells based on location and morphology, and provide evidence for their selective activation under two different stimuli - Listerine perfusion and intestinal nerve stimulation - triggering buccal motor patterns putatively underlying egestion and substrate cleaning. A new role for these electrotonically coupled buccal A cluster neurons is shown. They serve as a context-dependant switch that alters buccal motor patterns depending on input stimuli, thereby eliciting the appropriate behavioral response. PMID:25189372

Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Arnett, Bridgette; Murphy, A Don

2014-11-01

60

The Next Generation of Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New technology-enabled assessments offer the potential to understand more than just whether a student answered a test question right or wrong. Using multiple forms of media that enable both visual and graphical representations, these assessments present complex, multistep problems for students to solve and collect detailed information about an…

Tucker, Bill

2009-01-01

61

A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high floods occurred in the last years in many regions of the world have increased the interest of local, national and international authorities on the flood and risk assessment. In this context, the estimation of the design flood to be adopted represents a crucial factor, mainly for ungauged or poorly gauged catchments where sufficiently long discharge time series are missing. Due to the wider availability of rainfall data, rainfall-runoff models represent a possible tool to reduce the relevant uncertainty involved in the flood frequency analysis. Recently, new methodologies based on the stochastic generation of rainfall and temperature data have been proposed. The inferred information can be used as input for a continuous hydrological model to generate a synthetic time series of discharge and, hence, the flood frequency distribution at a given site. As far as the rainfall generation is concerned, for catchments of limited size, a single site model, as the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP), can be applied. It is characterized by a flexible structure in which the model parameters are broadly related to the underlying physical features observed in the rainfall field and the statistical properties of rainfall time series over a range of time scales are preserved. However, when larger catchments are considered, an extension into the two-dimensional space is required. This issue can be addressed by using the Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (STNSRP) model that, however, is not easy to be applied and requires a high computational effort. Therefore, simple techniques to obtain a spatial rainfall pattern starting from the more simple single-site NSRP are welcome. In this study, in order to take account of the spatial correlation that is needed when spatial rainfall patterns should be generated, the practical method of the rank correlation proposed by Iman and Conover (IC), was applied. The method is able to introduce a desired level of correlation between data, keeping its simplicity in the application. Moreover the method can be used for all types of input probability distribution and it allows the marginal distributions to remain intact. The IC method was applied to hourly and daily rainfall time series. In the second case, a temporal disaggregation technique has been carried out to obtain the hourly data. To test the proposed methodology, rainfall data from one catchment located in the Upper Tiber River Basin was considered. At first, long stochastic rainfall time series were generated through the NSRP model for several sites, then the IC method was applied to generate spatially correlated rainfall time series. The main statistics of these time series were compared both with the observed data and with ones generated by using the more complex STNSRP model. In particular, results were expressed in terms of depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves obtained for the areal mean rainfall that are of upmost importance for the design flood estimation. The high performance shown by the IC approach in reproducing the observed data along with its simplicity of application make it a valuable tool for the estimation of spatial rainfall patterns.

Tarpanelli, Angelica; Franchini, Marco; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Moramarco, Tommaso

2010-05-01

62

Test Set Compression Through Alternation Between Deterministic and Pseudorandom Test Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new reseeding technique that reduces the storage required for the seeds as well as the test application\\u000a time by alternating between ATPG and reseeding to optimize the seed selection. The technique avoids loading a new seed into\\u000a the PRPG whenever the PRPG can be placed in a state that generates test patterns without explicitly loading a

Ahmad A. Al-Yamani; Edward J. McCluskey

2010-01-01

63

Generating Test Data From Statebased Specifications 1  

E-print Network

Generating Test Data From State­based Specifications 1 A. Jefferson Offutt 1 , Shaoying Liu 2 testing in industry is conducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system level testing techniques are only described informally. This paper presents formal

Offutt, Jeff

64

Digital holographic moiré pattern for optical numerical code generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper low frequency moiré fringe patterns are used as secure numerical code generator. These moiré patterns are experimentally obtained by the superposition of two sinusoidal gratings with slightly different pitches. The Bi12TiO20 photorefractive crystal sample is used as holographic medium An optical numerical base was defined with patterns representing 0,1 and -1 digits like bits. Then, the complete set of these optical bits are combined to form bytes, where a numerical sequence is represented. The results show that the proposed numerical code could be used as standard numerical identification in robotic vision or in transmition of security numerical keys.

de Oliveira, G. N.; de Oliveira, M. E.; da Rocha Freire, R. B., Jr.; dos Santos, P. A. M.

2014-07-01

65

Test Generators: Teacher's Tool or Teacher's Headache?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of test generation programs. Includes setting up, printing exams and "bells and whistles." Reviews eight computer packages for Apple and IBM personal computers. Compares features, costs, and usage. (CW)

Eiser, Leslie

1988-01-01

66

Thrombin generation test in microfluidic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrombin generation test is one of the diagnostic tests currently in use as a universal method for measuring hemostatic disorders. We envisioned that conventional monitoring of thrombin generation could be miniaturized resulting in a time-saving, accurate, easy-to-operate, and cost-efficient test. For the translation of the conventional thrombin generation test to microfluidic devices, our focus was directed to parameters such as the detection limit, temperature, protein-surface interactions (i.e., hydrophilicity of microchannels), and mixing behavior. Scaling down to microchannels (e.g., capillaries) resulted in volume reduction and allowed us to study the effect of a microchannel surface (either hydrophilic or hydrophobic) on the thrombin activity. Finally, the use of a micromixer enabled us to perform efficient on-chip mixing, resulting in the successful measurement of a thrombin generation in a microfluidic device.

Koch, Kaspar; van Berkel, Sander S.; van de Wal, Marloes M. E. B.; Nieuwland, Pieter J.; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.

2009-05-01

67

Feedback with Computer-Generated Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of computer-generated testing to provide the immediate feedback aspect in a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) course with large enrollment and only a limited number of teaching assistants available. (SL)

Hilgendorf, Allan F.; Larchez, Mark

1978-01-01

68

Split circuit model for test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, the D-algorithm has been successfully used to generate tests for sequential circuits and combinational circuits. There are 5-valued and 9-valued circuit models used for the D-algorithm. The disadvantage of a model with lower value count is its inability to assign a more precise value for a test generation requirement without some undue assumptions or decisions which may

Wu-Tung Cheng

1988-01-01

69

.Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding  

E-print Network

l .Heat Generation Patterns and Temperature Profiles in_ Electroslag Welding ) · T. DEBROY, J in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslao refinino process operating

Eagar, Thomas W.

70

Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits display complex activity patterns both spontaneously and when responding to a stimulus or generating a motor output. How are these two forms of activity related? We develop a procedure called FORCE learning for modifying synaptic strengths either external to or within a model neural network to change chaotic spontaneous activity into a wide variety of desired activity patterns. FORCE learning works even though the networks we train are spontaneously chaotic and we leave feedback loops intact and unclamped during learning. Using this approach, we construct networks that produce a wide variety of complex output patterns, input-output transformations that require memory, multiple outputs that can be switched by control inputs, and motor patterns matching human motion capture data. Our results reproduce data on pre-movement activity in motor and premotor cortex, and suggest that synaptic plasticity may be a more rapid and powerful modulator of network activity than generally appreciated. PMID:19709635

Sussillo, David; Abbott, L. F.

2009-01-01

71

Directed test generation using symbolic grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present CESE, a tool that combines exhaustive enumer- ation of test inputs from a structured domain with symbolic execution driven test generation. We target programs whose valid inputs are determined by some context free grammar. We abstract the concrete input syntax with symbolic gram- mars, where some original tokens are replaced with symbolic constants. This reduces the set of

Rupak Majumdar; Ru-gang Xu

2007-01-01

72

Testing and Troubleshooting Automatically Generated Source Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools allowing engineers to model the real-time behavior of systems that control many types of NASA systems have become widespread. These tools automatically generate source code that is compiled, linked, then downloaded into computers controlling everything from wind tunnels to space flight systems. These tools save hundreds of hours of software development time and allow engineers with thorough application area knowledge but little software development experience to generate software to control the systems they use daily. These systems are verified and validated by simulating the real-time models, and by other techniques that focus on the model or the hardware. The automatically generated source code is typically not subjected to rigorous testing using conventional software testing techniques. Given the criticality and safety issues surrounding these systems, the application of conventional and new software testing and troubleshooting techniques to the automatically generated will improve the reliability of the resulting systems.

Henry, Joel

1998-01-01

73

Geothermal test generator unit: third electric generator in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helical rotary screw expander was developed as a geothermal fluid ; prime mover for driving a generator adapted for reverse operation from a ; relatively new type of air and gas compressor developed in Sweden as the Lysholm ; rotary-screw compressor. Test runs were made at Cerro Prieto and indicate a ; great potential for practical applications on a

1973-01-01

74

Formal methods for test case generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

2011-01-01

75

Differential effects of octopamine and tyramine on the central pattern generator for Manduca flight.  

PubMed

The biogenic amine, octopamine, modulates a variety of aspects of insect motor behavior, including direct action on the flight central pattern generator. A number of recent studies demonstrate that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects invertebrate locomotor behaviors, including insect flight. However, it is not clear whether the central pattern generating networks are directly affected by both amines, octopamine and tyramine. In this study, we tested whether tyramine affected the central pattern generator for flight in the moth, Manduca sexta. Fictive flight was induced in an isolated ventral nerve cord preparation by bath application of the octopamine agonist, chlordimeform, to test potential effects of tyramine on the flight central pattern generator by pharmacological manipulations. The results demonstrate that octopamine but not tyramine is sufficient to induce fictive flight in the isolated ventral nerve cord. During chlordimeform induced fictive flight, bath application of tyramine selectively increases synaptic drive to depressor motoneurons, increases the number of depressor spikes during each cycle and decreases the depressor phase. Conversely, blocking tyramine receptors selectively reduces depressor motoneuron activity, but does not affect cycle by cycle elevator motoneuron spiking. Therefore, octopamine and tyramine exert distinct effects on the flight central pattern generating network. PMID:19137318

Vierk, R; Pflueger, H J; Duch, C

2009-03-01

76

Fast hologram pattern generation by radial symmetric interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fast hologram pattern generation method by radial symmetric interpolation. In spatial domain, concentric redundancy of each point hologram is removed by substituting the calculation of wave propagation with interpolation and duplication. Also the background mask which represents stationary point in temporal domain is used to remove temporal redundancy in hologram video. Frames are grouped in predefined time interval and each group shares the background information, and hologram pattern of each time is updated only for the foreground part. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is proved by simulation and experiment.

Lee, S.; Wey, H. C.; Nam, D. K.; Park, D. S.; Kim, C. Y.

2012-10-01

77

Fast hologram pattern generation by wave field translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fast hologram pattern generation method to overcome accumulation problem of point source based method. Proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, 2D projection of wave field for 3D object is calculated by radial symmetric interpolation (RSI) method to the multiple reference depth planes. Then in the second step, each 2D wave field is translated toward SLM plane by FFT based algorithm. Final hologram pattern is obtained by adding them. The effectiveness of method is proved by computer simulation and optical experiment. Experimental results show that proposed method is 3878 times faster than analytic method, and 226 times faster than RSI method.

Lee, S.; Wey, H. C.; Nam, D. K.; Park, D. S.

2013-09-01

78

Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

1995-01-01

79

THE IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING OF INTERACTION PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a method for identifying and assessing the significance of interaction patterns among various chemicals and chemical classes of importance to regulatory toxicologists. To this end, efforts were made to assemble and evaluate experimental data on toxicologically...

80

Heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in electroslag welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formulation is presented to calculate, in three dimensions, the important process parameters such as the voltage profiles,\\u000a heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown\\u000a that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslag refining process\\u000a operating with equivalent slag,

T. Debroy; J. Szekely; T. W. Eagar

1980-01-01

81

Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation: pattern generation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) waves directed onto neural structures have been shown to dynamically modulate neural activity and excitability, opening up a range of possible systems and applications where the non-invasiveness, safety, mm-range resolution and other characteristics of FUS are advantageous. As in other neuro-stimulation and modulation modalities, the highly distributed and parallel nature of neural systems and neural information processing call for the development of appropriately patterned stimulation strategies which could simultaneously address multiple sites in flexible patterns. Here, we study the generation of sparse multi-focal ultrasonic distributions using phase-only modulation in ultrasonic phased arrays. We analyse the relative performance of an existing algorithm for generating multifocal ultrasonic distributions and new algorithms that we adapt from the field of optical digital holography, and find that generally the weighted Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm leads to overall superior efficiency and uniformity in the focal spots, without significantly increasing the computational burden. By combining phased-array FUS and magnetic-resonance thermometry we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous generation of tightly focused multifocal distributions in a tissue phantom, a first step towards patterned FUS neuro-modulation systems and devices.

Hertzberg, Yoni; Naor, Omer; Volovick, Alexander; Shoham, Shy

2010-10-01

82

Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation: pattern generation algorithms.  

PubMed

Focused ultrasound (FUS) waves directed onto neural structures have been shown to dynamically modulate neural activity and excitability, opening up a range of possible systems and applications where the non-invasiveness, safety, mm-range resolution and other characteristics of FUS are advantageous. As in other neuro-stimulation and modulation modalities, the highly distributed and parallel nature of neural systems and neural information processing call for the development of appropriately patterned stimulation strategies which could simultaneously address multiple sites in flexible patterns. Here, we study the generation of sparse multi-focal ultrasonic distributions using phase-only modulation in ultrasonic phased arrays. We analyse the relative performance of an existing algorithm for generating multifocal ultrasonic distributions and new algorithms that we adapt from the field of optical digital holography, and find that generally the weighted Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm leads to overall superior efficiency and uniformity in the focal spots, without significantly increasing the computational burden. By combining phased-array FUS and magnetic-resonance thermometry we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous generation of tightly focused multifocal distributions in a tissue phantom, a first step towards patterned FUS neuro-modulation systems and devices. PMID:20720281

Hertzberg, Yoni; Naor, Omer; Volovick, Alexander; Shoham, Shy

2010-10-01

83

Heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in electroslag welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formulation is presented to calculate, in three dimensions, the important process parameters such as the voltage profiles, heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslag refining process operating with equivalent slag, electrode and other geometrical variables. Calculations show that the heat generation patterns are highly sensitive to the geometrical location of the electrode in the slag and that a relatively minor error in the alignment of the electrode can cause a major asymmetry in the heat generation pattern. The temperature fields in the slag and the metal phases are calculated in three dimensions and the roles played by various factors on the heat balance are assessed. The computation accounts for the transport of heat from the slag to the metal phase by the liquid metal drops, the energy loss due to electrolysis and the energy required for the heating of the cold slag charge. Using the computed values of the weld rate the possible decrease in the heat input due to a) the decrease of the plate gap and b) the use of multiple electrodes is calculated. The values of heat input obtained from independent experiments are compared with model predictions. Possible effects of imposing an external magnetic field during the welding are examined.

Debroy, T.; Szekely, J.; Eagar, T. W.

1980-12-01

84

Test Data Regeneration : Generating New Test Data from Existing Test Data  

E-print Network

Test Data Regeneration : Generating New Test Data from Existing Test Data Shin Yoo, Mark Harman the automated generation of additional test cases. This paper introduces search-based test data regeneration of both efficiency and effectiveness. The empirical evaluation shows that test data regeneration can be up

Singer, Jeremy

85

SNAP-III--THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR ENVIRONMENTAL TEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of simulated space vehicle vibration, acceleration and shock ;\\u000a on the operation and efficiency of a SNAP-III thermoelectric generator are ;\\u000a described. The test specifications were developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratories ;\\u000a for the third stage and payload of the Vega Vehicle. (auth)

1959-01-01

86

Next-generation test of cosmic inflation  

E-print Network

The increasing precision of cosmological datasets is opening up new opportunities to test predictions from cosmic inflation. Here we study the impact of high precision constraints on the primordial power spectrum and show how a new generation of observations can provide impressive new tests of the slow-roll inflation paradigm, as well as produce significant discriminating power among different slow-roll models. In particular, we consider next-generation measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies and (especially) polarization, as well as new Lyman-$\\alpha$ measurements that could become practical in the near future. We emphasize relationships between the slope of the power spectrum and its first derivative that are nearly universal among existing slow-roll inflationary models, and show how these relationships can be tested on several scales with new observations. Among other things, our results give additional motivation for an all-out effort to measure CMB polarization.

Benjamin Gold; Andreas Albrecht

2003-01-03

87

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

88

The principle that generates dissimilar patterns inside aggregates of organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena that occur across the board, in animate and inanimate systems. In this paper, we rely on the constructal law to explain the generation of patterns (shapes, structures) in aggregates of organisms-pedestrian crowds and stony corals. In pedestrian crowds a variety of patterns are often observed, from ‘chaotic’ appearances to spontaneous organization in lanes of uniform walking direction. Stony corals and other organisms also present intraspecific variability in shape. We show that flow systems develop in time patterns which provide easier access to the nutrients and space, within a set of constraints imposed by each situation. Flow systems have the freedom to morph their shape in search for architectures that allows them to have greater access to the space that they inhabit. We identify the mechanisms allowing pedestrians to evolve in space and time. We also show that stony corals may develop branched or spherical shapes, depending on which shape performs best in response to the environmental conditions. The constructal law allows systems with complex internal flows to be described and understood for a unified view.

Miguel, Antonio F.; Bejan, Adrian

2009-03-01

89

Temperature-Dependent Regulation of Vocal Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W.

2008-01-01

90

Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion: Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathophysiological Considerations  

PubMed Central

This article provides a perspective on major innovations over the past century in research on the spinal cord and, specifically, on specialized spinal circuits involved in the control of rhythmic locomotor pattern generation and modulation. Pioneers such as Charles Sherrington and Thomas Graham Brown have conducted experiments in the early twentieth century that changed our views of the neural control of locomotion. Their seminal work supported subsequently by several decades of evidence has led to the conclusion that walking, flying, and swimming are largely controlled by a network of spinal neurons generally referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. It has been subsequently demonstrated across all vertebrate species examined, from lampreys to humans, that this CPG is capable, under some conditions, to self-produce, even in absence of descending or peripheral inputs, basic rhythmic, and coordinated locomotor movements. Recent evidence suggests, in turn, that plasticity changes of some CPG elements may contribute to the development of specific pathophysiological conditions associated with impaired locomotion or spontaneous locomotor-like movements. This article constitutes a comprehensive review summarizing key findings on the CPG as well as on its potential role in Restless Leg Syndrome, Periodic Leg Movement, and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation. Special attention will be paid to the role of the CPG in a recently identified, and uniquely different neurological disorder, called the Uner Tan Syndrome. PMID:23403923

Guertin, Pierre A.

2013-01-01

91

Generation of arbitrary complex quasi-non-diffracting optical patterns.  

PubMed

Due to their unique ability to maintain an intensity distribution upon propagation, non-diffracting light fields are used extensively in various areas of science, including optical tweezers, nonlinear optics and quantum optics, in applications where complex transverse field distributions are required. However, the number and type of rigorously non-diffracting beams is severely limited because their symmetry is dictated by one of the coordinate system where the Helmholtz equation governing beam propagation is separable. Here, we demonstrate a powerful technique that allows the generation of a rich variety of quasi-non-diffracting optical beams featuring nearly arbitrary intensity distributions in the transverse plane. These can be readily engineered via modifications of the angular spectrum of the beam in order to meet the requirements of particular applications. Such beams are not rigorously non-diffracting but they maintain their shape over large distances, which may be tuned by varying the width of the angular spectrum. We report the generation of unique spiral patterns and patterns involving arbitrary combinations of truncated harmonic, Bessel, Mathieu, or parabolic beams occupying different spatial domains. Optical trapping experiments illustrate the opto-mechanical properties of such beams. PMID:24104114

Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Petrov, Dmitri; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Torner, Lluis

2013-09-23

92

An Experimental Study on Software Structural Testing: Deterministic versus Random Input Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fault revealing power of different test patterns derived from ten structural test criteria currently referred to in unit testing is investigated. Experiments performed on four programs that are pieces of a real-life software system from the nuclear field are reported. Three test input generation techniques are studied: (1) deterministic choice, (2) random selection based on an input probability distribution

Pascale Thévenod-fosse; Hélène Waeselynck; Yves Crouzet

1991-01-01

93

Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics to compose the photomask pattern. Image profiles are enhanced with phase shifting in the pattern generator, and features below 200 nm are reliably printed. The Sigma7500 extends the SLM-based architecture with improvements to CD uniformity and placement accuracy, resulting from an error budget-based methodology. Among these improvements is a stiffer focus stage design with digital servos, resulting in improved focus stability. Tighter climate controls and improved dose control reduce drift during mask patterning. As a result, global composite CD uniformity below 5 nm (3?) has been demonstrated, with placement accuracy below 10 nm (3?) across the mask. Self-calibration methods are used to optimize and monitor system performance, reducing the need to print test plates. The SLM calibration camera views programmed test patterns, making it possible to evaluate image metrics such as CD uniformity and line edge roughness. The camera is also used to characterize image placement over the optical field. A feature called ProcessEqualizer TM has been developed to correct long-range CD errors arising from process effects on production photomasks. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for pattern-dependent errors related to local pattern density, as well as for systematic pattern-independent errors such as radial CD signatures. Corrections are made in the pixel domain in the advanced adjustments processor, which also performs global biasing, stamp distortion compensation, and corner enhancement. In the Sigma7500, the mask pattern is imaged with full edge addressability in each writing pass, providing the means of additionally improving write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Photomask write time is generally under two hours in the 2-pass mode, compared to three hours with 4-pass writing. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suitable for 2 nd layer patterning in advanced PSM applications. Improvements in alignment algorithms and writing accuracy have resulted in first-to-second level overlay below 15 nm (mean+3?).

Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Rosling, Mats; Carlqvist, Per; Askebjer, Per; Karlin, Tord; Sallander, Jesper; Österberg, Anders

2006-10-01

94

Test factoring with amock: generating readable unit tests from system tests  

E-print Network

Automated unit tests are essential for the construction of reliable software, but writing them can be tedious. If the goal of test generation is to create a lasting unit test suite (and not just to optimize execution of ...

Glasser, David Samuel

2007-01-01

95

Single synapse information coding in intraburst spike patterns of central pattern generator motor neurons.  

PubMed

Burst firing is ubiquitous in nervous systems and has been intensively studied in central pattern generators (CPGs). Previous works have described subtle intraburst spike patterns (IBSPs) that, despite being traditionally neglected for their lack of relation to CPG motor function, were shown to be cell-type specific and sensitive to CPG connectivity. Here we address this matter by investigating how a bursting motor neuron expresses information about other neurons in the network. We performed experiments on the crustacean stomatogastric pyloric CPG, both in control conditions and interacting in real-time with computer model neurons. The sensitivity of postsynaptic to presynaptic IBSPs was inferred by computing their average mutual information along each neuron burst. We found that details of input patterns are nonlinearly and inhomogeneously coded through a single synapse into the fine IBSPs structure of the postsynaptic neuron following burst. In this way, motor neurons are able to use different time scales to convey two types of information simultaneously: muscle contraction (related to bursting rhythm) and the behavior of other CPG neurons (at a much shorter timescale by using IBSPs as information carriers). Moreover, the analysis revealed that the coding mechanism described takes part in a previously unsuspected information pathway from a CPG motor neuron to a nerve that projects to sensory brain areas, thus providing evidence of the general physiological role of information coding through IBSPs in the regulation of neuronal firing patterns in remote circuits by the CNS. PMID:21865472

Brochini, Ludmila; Carelli, Pedro V; Pinto, Reynaldo D

2011-08-24

96

System Test Pattern Language Copyright 1996 AG Communication Systems Corporation  

E-print Network

test the system grows with every release, so that executing all of the tests would require more than the development schedule allows for a new feature release. #12; System Test Pattern Language 08/12/96 Page 2 of the system to prior releases, and the evaluation of the release of the system according to criteria set

Schmidt, Douglas C.

97

Magnetic Patterning of Permanent-Magnet Rotors for Microscale Motor/Generators  

E-print Network

Magnetic Patterning of Permanent-Magnet Rotors for Microscale Motor/Generators I. Zana* , F, USA Abstract We present and characterize a process to pattern magnetic poles on small permanent-magnet magnetization patterns. Keywords: permanent magnet, magnetic patterning, electric generator, FEMLAB finite

98

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

99

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

100

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

101

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

102

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

103

Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode  

E-print Network

Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned Airy beams is generated by a liquid crystal (LC) cell, where one electrode is patterned by a photomask Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with binary-phase patterned electrode. Both

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

104

Area-based tests for association between spatial patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Edge effects pervade natural systems, and the processes that determine spatial heterogeneity (e.g. physical, geochemical,\\u000a biological, ecological factors) occur on diverse spatial scales. Hence, tests for association between spatial patterns should\\u000a be unbiased by edge effects and be based on null spatial models that incorporate the spatial heterogeneity characteristic\\u000a of real-world systems. This paper develops probabilistic pattern association tests that

Susan L. Maruca; Geoffrey M. Jacquez

2002-01-01

105

Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

Volkovskii, A.; Brugioni, S.; Levi, R.; Rabinovich, M.; Selverston, A.; Abarbane, H. D. I.

2005-01-01

106

Semisoft Decision Decoding Based on Correspondence between Error Patterns and the Relative Test Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-soft decision decoding algorithm based on the correspondence between error patterns and the relative test patterns for binary linear block codes over AWGN channel is presented. The proposed algorithm improves coding gain by 0.8 dB without computing weighted Hamming distances.

Hsin-Kun Lai; Erl-Huei Lu

2007-01-01

107

Using ordered partial decision diagrams for manufacture test generation  

E-print Network

Because of limited tester time and memory, a primary goal of digital circuit manufacture test generation is to create compact test sets. Test generation programs that use Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) as their primary functional...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2004-09-30

108

Two improved algorithms with which to obtain contoured windows for fringe patterns generated by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fringe patterns generated by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry are full of high-spatial-frequency and high-contrast speckle noise. Filtering with contoured windows has proved to be an efficient approach to filtering out speckle noise while retaining the fringe patterns. Furthermore, with contoured windows the contoured correlation fringe pattern method can be used to derive smooth, normalized, consistent fringes. Contoured windows previously were determined

Qifeng Yu; Xia Yang; Sihua Fu; Xiangyi Sun

2005-01-01

109

Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications  

E-print Network

Test Generation and Animation Based on Object-Oriented Specifications Th`ese pr´esent´ee et;Abstract The goal of this thesis is the development of support for test generation and animation based generation and animation based on OCL specifications. For test generation, we have implemented several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Generating semantic annotations for frequent patterns with context analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a fundamental data mining task, frequent pattern mining has widespread applications in many difierent domains. Re- search in frequent pattern mining has so far mostly focused on developing e-cient algorithms to discover various kinds of frequent patterns, but little attention has been paid to the important next step { interpreting the discovered frequent patterns. Although some recent work has

Qiaozhu Mei; Dong Xin; Hong Cheng; Jiawei Han; Chengxiang Zhai

2006-01-01

111

Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males in vivo (advertisement and amplectant call), as well as one call pattern (release call) that is common for juvenile males and females in vivo but rare for adult males. Female brains also produced fictive release call. The production of male calls is androgen dependent in Xenopus; to test the effects of androgens on the CPG, we examined fictive calling in the brains of testosterone-treated females. Both fictive male advertisement call and release call were produced. This suggests that all Xenopus possess a sexually undifferentiated pattern generator for release call. Androgen exposure leads to a gain-of-function, allowing the production of male-specific call types without prohibiting the production of the undifferentiated call pattern. We also demonstrate that the CPG is located in the brainstem and seems to rely on the same nuclei in both males and females. Finally, we identified endogenous serotonergic inputs to both the premotor and motor nuclei in the brainstem that may regulate vocal activity in vivo. PMID:17287524

Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; Yamaguchi, Ayako

2008-01-01

112

Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt  

E-print Network

Generating Test Data from SOFL Specifications \\Lambda A. Jefferson Offutt ISSE Department, 4A4@cs.hiroshima­cu.ac.jp Abstract Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from the source code, control flow graphs, design representations

Offutt, Jeff

113

The generation of antiphase oscillations and synchrony by a rebound-based vertebrate central pattern generator.  

PubMed

Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left-right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

Li, Wen-Chang; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

2014-04-23

114

The Generation of Antiphase Oscillations and Synchrony by a Rebound-Based Vertebrate Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left–right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

2014-01-01

115

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-12-01

116

Using the WWW Test Pattern to check HTML Client Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web Test Pattern is a Web site that was conceived as a general-purpose test bench so that users and developers can check for HTML compliance. While still under construction, it already includes a standard suite of tests for text, audio, graphics, meta-links, animations, forms and tables. The URL is http:\\/\\/www.uark.edu\\/?wrg\\/. There is a tiled background to the

Hal Berghel

1995-01-01

117

Electrochemical generation of conducting polymer patterns on plasma modified surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an appropriate mask, we have developed a versatile method for obtaining patterned conducting polymers by first depositing a thin, patterned plasma polymer layer onto a metal-sputtered electrode, and then performing electropolymerization of monomers such as pyrrole.

Liming Dai; Albert W. H. Mau; Xiaoyi Gong; Hans J. Griesser

1997-01-01

118

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...response during the required tests. If a permeation device is used for generation of a test...Generation Verification Ammonia Permeation device. Similar to system described...reference 4. Hydrogen sulfide Permeation device system described in...

2011-07-01

119

Pattern-Generating Role for Motoneurons in a Rhythmically Active Neuronal Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of motoneurons in central motor pattern generation was investigated in the feeding system of the pond snail Lym- naea stagnalis, an important invertebrate model of behavioral rhythm generation. The neuronal network responsible for the three-phase feeding motor program (fictive feeding) has been characterized extensively and divided into populations of cen- tral pattern generator (CPG) interneurons, modulatory interneu- rons,

Kevin Staras; Gyorgy Kemenes; Paul R. Benjamin

1998-01-01

120

The Automatic Ecient Test Generator (AETG) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is expensive, tedious and time con- suming. Thus, the problem of making testing more ef- cient and mechanical, without losing its eectiveness, is very important. The Automatic Ecient Test Gen- erator (AETG) is a new tool that mechanically gener- ates ecient test sets from user dened test require- ments. It is based on algorithms that use ideas from

D. M. Cohen; S. R. Dalal; A. Kajla; G. C. Patton

1994-01-01

121

The New Generation of Standardized Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-stakes testing is one of the hottest topics in education today. Although most states use some form of testing, fewer than half administer tests linked to state education standards and goals, often called criterion referenced tests. Fewer still use statewide tests with high stakes for both the students enrolled in the public schools and the…

Lynd, Christine

122

Dot patterns from second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in polycrystalline ZnSe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a comparative study of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in single-crystal and polycrystalline ZnSe, the polycrystalline material showed a dot pattern in the SHG as well as in the SFG output. No such pattern was found in the output from the single-crystal ZnSe sample. The second-harmonic and also the sum-frequency dot pattern, resembling a diffraction pattern, could

Tran Duc Chinh; Wolfgang Seibt; Kai Siegbahn

2001-01-01

123

Deviant Response Patterns and Comparability of Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses theoretical and methodological problems relating to the comparison of test results of individuals and groups with differing cultural backgrounds. Develops a statistic by which deviance of score patterns can be quantified and which indicates whether a person's score can be compared with the scores in a specific group. (Author/GC)

Van der Flier, Henk

1982-01-01

124

"MSTGen": Simulated Data Generator for Multistage Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multistage testing, or MST, was developed as an alternative to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for applications in which it is preferable to administer a test at the level of item sets (i.e., modules). As with CAT, the simulation technique in MST plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of tests. "MSTGen," a new MST…

Han, Kyung T.

2013-01-01

125

Patterns of rock fragment cover generated by tillage erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively cultivated areas in the upper part of the Guadalentin catchment (southeast Spain) show a systematic spatial pattern of surface rock fragment cover (Rc). The objective of this paper is to quantify and to explain this spatial rock fragment cover pattern. Therefore, a map of an intensively cultivated area of 5 km2 was digitised, and for each pixel total topographic

Jean Poesen; Bas van Wesemael; Gerard Govers; José Martinez-Fernandez; Philippe Desmet; Karel Vandaele; Timothy Quine; Greet Degraer

1997-01-01

126

Generation of Test Based on Test Ontology Larisa Soldatova, Riichiro Mizoguchi  

E-print Network

Generation of Test Based on Test Ontology Larisa Soldatova, Riichiro Mizoguchi ISIR, Osaka: In this paper design of test generation systems (TGS) based on a test ontology is discussed. Top level concepts of the test ontology are described. Suggested test ontology permits to analyze process of test composition

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

127

The chaining approach for software test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing is very labor intensive and expensive and accounts for a significant portion of software system development cost. If the testing process could be automated, the cost of developing software could be significantly reduced. Test data generation in program testing is the process of identifying a set of test data that satisfies a selected testing criterion, such as statement

Roger Ferguson; Bogdan Korel

1996-01-01

128

Wavelet transform for detection of partial fringe patterns induced by defects in nondestructive testing of holographic interferometry and electronic speckle pattern interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic interferometry (HI) and electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are widely used in nondestructive testing. In the HI and ESPI measurement techniques, the deformations are made visible as fringe patterns while an inspected sample is loaded. Defects will lead to typical local deformations deviating from the global deformation. To achieve automatic detection of the defect characteristics, the wavelet transform method is used. Wavelets can be used to generate a multiresolution analysis of a signal and they are very sensitive to the changes in a transient signal or an abrupt signal if suitable wavelets are chosen. These changes correspond to the partial fringe patterns caused by the local defects in HI and ESPI nondestructive testing. We demonstrate how the Morlet wavelet is used to detect the defect-induced partial fringe patterns from the global fringe pattern in HI and ESPI nondestructive testing.

Li, Xide

2000-10-01

129

Generation of Crystal-Structure Transverse Patterns via a Self-Frequency-Doubling Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories.

Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V.

2013-01-01

130

Generation of crystal-structure transverse patterns via a self-frequency-doubling laser.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories. PMID:23336067

Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V

2013-01-01

131

Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes. PMID:19492006

Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M.

2008-01-01

132

Generation of Crystal-Structure Transverse Patterns via a Self-Frequency-Doubling Laser  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories. PMID:23336067

Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V.

2013-01-01

133

The Role of Test Protocols in Automated Test Generation for Embedded-Core-Based System ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular testing is an attractive approach to testing large system ICs, especially if they are built from pre-designed reusable embedded cores. This paper describes an automated modular test development approach. The basis of this approach is that a core or module test is dissected into a test protocol and a test pattern list. A test protocol describes in detail how

Erik Jan Marinissen

2002-01-01

134

Females and males are highly similar in language performance and cortical activation patterns during verb generation  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the existence of sex differences in cortical activation during verb generation when performance is controlled for. Methods 20 male and 20 female healthy adults underwent fMRI using a covert verb generation task (BD-VGT) and its event-related version (ER-VGT) that allowed for intra-scanner recordings of overt responses. Task-specific activations were determined using the following contrasts: BD-VGT covert generation>finger-tapping; ER-VGT overt generation>repetition; ER-VGT overt>covert generation. Lateral cortical regions activated during each contrast were used for calculating language lateralization index scores. Voxelwise regressions were used to determine sex differences in activation, with and without controlling for performance. Each brain region showing male/female activation differences for ER-VGT overt generation>repetition (isolating noun-verb association) was defined as a region of interest (ROI). For each subject, the signal change in each ROI was extracted, and the association between ER-VGT activation related to noun-verb association and performance was assessed separately for each sex. Results Males and females performed similarly on language assessments, had similar patterns of language lateralization, and exhibited similar activation patterns for each fMRI task contrast. Regression analysis controlling for overt intra-scanner performance either abolished (BD-VGT) or reduced (ER-VGT) the observed differences in activation between sexes. The main difference between sexes occurred during ER-VGT processing of noun-verb associations, where males showed greater activation than females in the right middle/superior frontal gyrus (MFG/SFG) and the right caudate/anterior cingulate gyrus (aCG) after controlling for performance. Better verb generation performance was associated with increased right caudate/aCG activation in males and with increased right MFG/SFG activation in females. Conclusions Males and females exhibit similar activation patterns during verb generation fMRI, and controlling for intra-scanner performance reduces or even abolishes sex differences in language-related activation. These results suggest that previous findings of sex differences in neuroimaging studies that did not control for task performance may reflect false positives. PMID:21676387

Allendorfer, Jane B.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Siegel, Miriam; Banks, Christi L.; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2011-01-01

135

Techniques for testing the quality of parallel pseudorandom number generators  

SciTech Connect

Ensuring that pseudorandom number generators have good randomness properties is more complicated in a multiprocessor implementation than in the uniprocessor case. We discuss simple extensions of uniprocessor testing for SIMD parallel streams, and develop in detail a repeatability test for the SPMD paradigm. Examples of the application of these tests to an additive tagged-Fibonacci generator are also given.

Cuccaro, S.A.; Mascagni, M.; Pryor, D.V. [Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

136

Automatically Generating Realistic Test Input From Web Services Mustafa Bozkurt  

E-print Network

for software testers. Realistic test data generation for certain input types is hard to automate and therefore to a quadratic growth trend. FIGURE 1: Growth in papers on web service testing [9] A recent survey by Bozkurt etAutomatically Generating Realistic Test Input From Web Services Mustafa Bozkurt CREST Centre

Harman, Mark

137

Search-based software test data generation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of metaheuristic search techniques for the automatic genera- tion of test data has been a burgeoning interest for many researchers in recent years. Previous attempts to automate the test generation process have been limited, having been constrained by the size and complexity of software, and the basic fact that in general, test data generation is an un- decidable

Phil Mcminn

2004-01-01

138

A knitting pattern recognition and stitch symbol generating system for knit designing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a system for supporting a knit designing is described. This system generates stitch symbols from a knitting pattern image. There are 24 kinds of stitch symbols. Each of them represents a basic simple pattern of a knitting.To implement this system on the computer, a method for recognizing string structure from a knitting pattern image and a method

T. Miyazaki; Y. Shimajiri; M. Yamada; H. Seki; H. Itoh

1995-01-01

139

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs  

E-print Network

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow specification-based soft- ware testing has focused on the automated generation of test cases. Before a software system can be tested, it must be set up according to the input requirements of the test cases. This setup

Leow, Wee Kheng

140

Incremental Mining of Frequent Patterns Without Candidate Generation or Support Constraint  

E-print Network

Incremental Mining of Frequent Patterns Without Candidate Generation or Support Constraint William Cheung and Osmar R. Zaïane University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada {wcheung, zaiane of FP- Tree to improve storage compression and allow frequent pattern mining without generation

Zaiane, Osmar R.

141

Central pattern generator incorporating the actuator dynamics for a hexapod robot  

E-print Network

Central pattern generator incorporating the actuator dynamics for a hexapod robot Valeri A. Makarov pattern generator (CPG) for controlling hexapodal robots. We show that the ring composed of six Toda-Rayleigh units coupled to the limb actuators reproduces the most common hexapodal gaits. We provide an electrical

Ebeling, Werner

142

TestU01: A C Library for Empirical Testing of Random Number Generators  

E-print Network

- tics]--Random number generation, statistical software General Terms: Algorithms, Experimentation Additional Key Words and Phrases: Statistical software, random number generators, random num- ber tests

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

143

Testing for coevolutionary diversification: linking pattern with process.  

PubMed

Coevolutionary diversification is cited as a major mechanism driving the evolution of diversity, particularly in plants and insects. However, tests of coevolutionary diversification have focused on elucidating macroevolutionary patterns rather than the processes giving rise to such patterns. Hence, there is weak evidence that coevolution promotes diversification. This is in part due to a lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which coevolution can cause speciation and the difficulty of integrating results across micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In this review, we highlight potential mechanisms of coevolutionary diversification, outline approaches to examine this process across temporal scales, and propose a set of minimal requirements for demonstrating coevolutionary diversification. Our aim is to stimulate research that tests more rigorously for coevolutionary diversification. PMID:24314843

Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Johnson, Marc T J

2014-02-01

144

On the Automated Generation of Program Test Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software validation through testing will continue to be a very important tool for ensuring correctness of large scale software systems. Automation of testing tools can greatly enhance their power and reduce testing cost. In this paper, techniques for automated test data generation are discussed. Given a program graph, a set of paths are identified to satisfy some given testing criteria.

C. V. Ramamoorthy; Siu-bun F. Ho; Wen-Tsuen Chen

1976-01-01

145

Spin wave excitation patterns generated by spin torque oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) are nanoscale devices that can convert a direct current into short wavelength spin wave excitations in a ferromagnetic layer. We show that arrays of STNO can be used to create directional spin wave radiation similarly to electromagnetic antennas. Combining STNO excitations with planar spin waves also creates interference patterns. We show that these interference patterns are static and have information on the wavelength and phase of the spin waves emitted from the STNO. We describe a means of actively controlling spin wave radiation patterns with the direct current flowing through STNO, which is useful in on-chip communication and information processing and could be a promising technique for studying short wavelength spin waves in different materials.

Macià, F.; Hoppensteadt, F. C.; Kent, A. D.

2014-01-01

146

Automatic test generation using genetically-engineered distinguishing sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault-oriented sequential circuit test generator isdescribed in which various types of distinguishing sequencesare derived, both statically and dynamically,to aid the test generation process. A two-phase algorithmis used during test generation. The first phaseactivates the target fault, and the second phase propagatesthe fault effects (FE's) from the flip-flops withassistance from the distinguishing sequences. Thisstrategy improves the propagation of FE's to

Michael S. Hsiao; Elizabeth M. Rudnick; Janak H. Patel

1996-01-01

147

Patterns as Objectives for Level Generation Steve Dahlskog  

E-print Network

type of game and especially the classic Super Mario Bros. (SMB) [27]. This approach is based on a previ- ous article where we analyzed SMB-levels to find 23 different reoccurring patterns of 5 "families of SMB we implemented a prototype based on evolutionary Permission to make digital or hard copies of all

Togelius, Julian

148

Personalized Power Saving Profiles Generation Analyzing Smart Device Usage Patterns  

E-print Network

life by almost 90 percent. Some related privacy issues are also addressed and privacy preserving usage; Privacy; Usage pattern. I. INTRODUCTION The Android smartphones and tablets are being adopted feature powerful CPU, HD camera, various sensors and GPS. The application developers exploit the features

Gesbert, David

149

HIV Testing Patterns Among Urban YMSM of Color.  

PubMed

The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of youth reporting testing at a greater frequency than recommended guidelines. There were no differences between less frequent and more frequent testers on sexual risk behaviors. Most (80%) youth cited reassurance of HIV-negative status as a reason for testing. Further, over half of the sample reported numerous other reasons for HIV testing, which spanned individual, partner, social, and structural levels of influence. Approximately half of respondents indicated that peers, family members, and counselors influenced their motivation to get tested. Of concern, their first HIV test occurred approximately 2 years after their first sexual experience with another male. These results indicate the need to consider developmental issues as well as comprehensive, multilevel efforts to ensure that YMSM of color test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended frequency but not less than this or too frequently. PMID:24973260

Leonard, Noelle R; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V; Aregbesola, Temi

2014-12-01

150

An experimental study on the influence of fluid flow pattern on microbubble generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical properties of generated microbubbles induced by different fluid flow patterns were investigated\\u000a experimentally. Image processing method has been used to find microbubble size distribution and to determine\\u000a bubbles’ roundness as well. Three types of flow patterns were produced by changing microbubble generator\\u000a configuration in order to improve bubbles’ size distribution. These different geometrical configurations\\u000a of designed microbubble generator were

N. M. Nouri; A. Sarreshtehdari; E. Maghsoudi; A. Moosaie

2008-01-01

151

A test case generation approach for conformance testing of SDL systems1  

E-print Network

1 A test case generation approach for conformance testing of SDL systems1 C. Bourhfir2 , E This paper presents an approach for automatic executable test case and test sequence generation for a protocol modeled by an SDL system. Our methodology uses a uni- fied method which tests an Extended Finite

Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

152

32 nm imprint masks using variable shape beam pattern generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32, 22 and 16 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is a unique method that has been designed from the beginning to enable precise overlay for creating multilevel devices. A photocurable low viscosity monomer is dispensed dropwise to meet the pattern density requirements of the device, thus enabling imprint patterning with a uniform residual layer across a field and across entire wafers. Further, S-FIL provides sub-100 nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multi-element, high quality projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of templates. For sub-32 nm device manufacturing, one of the major technical challenges remains the fabrication of full-field 1x templates with commercially viable write times. Recent progress in the writing of sub-40 nm patterns using commercial variable shape e-beam tools and non-chemically amplified resists has demonstrated a very promising route to realizing these objectives, and in doing so, has considerably strengthened imprint lithography as a competitive manufacturing technology for the sub 32nm node. Here we report the first imprinting results from sub-40 nm full-field patterns, using Samsung's current flash memory production device design. The fabrication of the template is discussed and the resulting critical dimension control and uniformity are discussed, along with image placement results. The imprinting results are described in terms of CD uniformity, etch results, and overlay.

Selinidis, Kosta; Thompson, Ecron; Schmid, Gerard; Stacey, Nick; Perez, Joseph; Maltabes, John; Resnick, Douglas J.; Yeo, Jeongho; Kim, Hoyeon; Eynon, Ben

2008-05-01

153

Test Generation with Inputs, Outputs, and Quiescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies testing based on labelled transition systems, using the assumption that implementations communicate with their environment via inputs and outputs. Such implementations are formalized by restricting the class of transition systems to those systems that can always accept input actions, as in input\\/output automata. Implementation relations, formalizing the notion of conformance of these implementations with respect to labelled

Jan Tretmans

1996-01-01

154

Interference pattern generation in evanescent electromagnetic waves for nanoscale lithography using waveguide diffraction gratings  

SciTech Connect

The generation of interference patterns of evanescent electromagnetic waves with an essentially subwavelength period using dielectric waveguide diffraction gratings is considered. Using simulations within the framework of the electromagnetic theory, the possibility of obtaining high-quality interference patterns due to enhancement of evanescent diffraction orders under resonance conditions is demonstrated. The contrast of the interference patterns in the case of TE polarisation of the incident wave is close to unity. The field intensity in the near-field interference maxima exceeds the intensity of the incident wave by 25-100 times. The possibility of generation of the interference patterns of evanescent waves corresponding to higher diffraction orders is shown. The use of higher orders reduces the requirements to the fabrication technology and allows generation of interference patterns with a high spatial frequency, using diffraction gratings with a low spatial frequency. Examples of generating interference patters with periods six times smaller than those of the used diffraction gratings are presented. (nanolithography)

Bezus, E A; Doskolovich, L L; Kazanskii, N L [Institute for Image Processing Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31

155

Automatic GUI test generation for smartphone applications - an evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an evaluation where we studied the effectiveness of automatic test generation for graphical user interface (GUI) testing of smartphone applications. To describe the context of our evaluation, the tools and the test model library we have developed for the evaluation are also presented. The library contains test models for basic S60 applications, such as camera,

Antti Jääskeläinen; Mika Katara; Antti Kervinen; Mika Maunumaa; Tuula Pääkkönen; Tommi Takala; Heikki Virtanen

2009-01-01

156

Generation and patterning of Si nanoparticles by femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties of nanoparticles are highly sensitive in respect to particle shapes, sizes, and localization on a sample. This demands for a fully controlled fabrication process. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to generate and transfer nanoparticles from a bulk target towards a collector substrate is a promising approach. This process allows a controlled fabrication of spherical nanoparticles with a very smooth surface. Several process parameters can be varied to achieve the desired nanoparticle characteristics. In this paper, the influence of two of these parameters, i.e. the applied pulse energy and the laser beam shape, on the generation of Si nanoparticles from a bulk Si target are studied in detail. By changing the laser intensity distribution on the target surface one can influence the dynamics of molten material inducing its flow to the edges or to the center of the focal spot. Due to this dynamics of molten material, a single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian beam shape generates multiple spherical nanoparticles from a bulk Si target. The statistical properties of this process, with respect to number of generated nanoparticles and laser pulse energy are investigated. We demonstrate for the first time that a ring-shaped intensity distribution on the target surface results in the generation of a single silicon nanoparticle with a controllable size. Furthermore, the generated silicon nanoparticles presented in this paper show strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Theoretical simulations as well as optical scattering measurements of single silicon nanoparticles are discussed and compared.

Zywietz, Urs; Reinhardt, Carsten; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.; Birr, Tobias; Chichkov, Boris N.

2014-01-01

157

Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

2009-01-01

158

Next-Generation Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the most-significant health care problems of the new millennium, and the clinical microbiology laboratory plays a central role in optimizing the therapeutic management of patients with infection. This minireview explores the potential value of innovative methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms that could provide valuable alternatives to existing methodologies in the very near future. PMID:23486706

Dunne, W. Michael

2013-01-01

159

A Pulse-Type Hardware CPG Model for Generation and Transition of Quadruped Locomotion Pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of our research is to clarify information processing functions of living organisms by neural networks using pulse-type hardware neuron models and applying pulse-type hardware neural networks to engineered models. It is known that locomotion such as walking by a living organism is generated and transited by CPG (Central Pattern Generator) in the central nervous system. We investigate a pulse-type hardware CPG model using coupled oscillator composed of pulse-type hardware neuron models. A CPG model is need to generate and control quadruped locomotion. In this paper, we describe generation and transition of oscillation patterns, corresponding to quadruped locomotion patterns. As a result, it is shown that generation and transition of oscillation patterns are possible by giving external inputs of one pulse to the CPG model.

Hata, Keiko; Sekine, Yoshifumi; Nakabora, Yoshifumi; Saeki, Katsutoshi

160

Simple as a Game: Generation of Controllable Radio Interference for Protocol Testing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

interference patterns, but are costly. A second group consists of commercial off-the-shelf radios such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth transmitters that have problems limiting the inter- ference to a particular 802.15.4 channel. Wi-FiSimple as a Game: Generation of Controllable Radio Interference for Protocol Testing in Wireless

Wichmann, Felix

161

Accelerated Articles Generation of Micrometer-Sized Patterns for  

E-print Network

developed a technique for generating masks that we call "rapid prototyping".4 This technique uses high-resolution printing (widely available com- mercially in photoshops) to make photomasks. Rapid prototyping routinely: it presently is not applicable for smaller lines. Rapid prototyping is useful for making stamps for certain

Prentiss, Mara

162

Minimum Description Length Principle: Generators are Preferable to Closed Patterns  

E-print Network

they have been exten- sively studied (Pasquier et al. 1999; Zaki & Hsiao 2002; Pan et al. 2003; Wang, Han, American Association for Artificial Intelli- gence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. et al. 1999 is an item that is not a full-support item and whose union with the root of the tree is not a generator

Wong, Limsoon

163

Converging Laser Generated Ultrasonic Waves using Annular Patterns Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a contactless method to focus laser generated bulk and surface ultrasound waves in the thermo-elastic coupling mode by annular shaped illumination. By using a spatial light modulator (SLM) the beam profile of a pulsed picoseconds laser was shaped to annular forms flexibly and further rings with a thickness of 50 ?m and a generation energy as low as 2 mJ were generated on the surface of aluminum plates. The annular shapes have been used to focus acoustic waves toward the center. In this work, a photorefractive adaptive interferometer set up based on Two-Wave Mixing in a fast BSO crystal was used to probe and detect the converging acoustic pulses at the center of the laser generated rings. By moving the detection point about 1 mm out of the ring epicenter, the amplitude of bulk and surface waves drop quickly which shows the converging evidence of the acoustic waves in the ring center. For a 3 mm thick aluminum plate, the ring size from 1 mm to 10 mm was scanned. The optimum ring diameter and the focal length of the acoustic waves along the central axis were found. Applications of this technique in subsurface defects detection as well as sample thickness measurement are investigated.

Zamiri, S.; Reitinger, B.; Bauer, S.; Burgholzer, P.

2014-06-01

164

The brainstem esophagomotor network pattern generator: A rodent model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence reviewed in this essay supports the following working model of the central function generator for esophageal peristalsis in the rat: solitarial subnucleus centralis (NTSc) neurons operate in a dual capacity as esophagomotor reflex interneurons and as command neurons programming respective outputs from nucleus ambiguus compact formation (AMBc) motoneurons during secondary and primary peristalsis. In both conditions, there is

Detlef Bieger

1993-01-01

165

Area-based tests for association between spatial patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge effects pervade natural systems, and the processes that determine spatial heterogeneity (e.g. physical, geochemical, biological, ecological factors) occur on diverse spatial scales. Hence, tests for association between spatial patterns should be unbiased by edge effects and be based on null spatial models that incorporate the spatial heterogeneity characteristic of real-world systems. This paper develops probabilistic pattern association tests that are appropriate when edge effects are present, polygon size is heterogeneous, and the number of polygons varies from one classification to another. The tests are based on the amount of overlap between polygons in each of two partitions. Unweighted and area-weighted versions of the statistics are developed and verified using scenarios representing both polygon overlap and avoidance at different spatial scales and for different distributions of polygon sizes. These statistics were applied to Soda Butte Creek, Wyoming, to determine whether stream microhabitats, such as riffles, pools and glides, can be identified remotely using high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery. These new ``spatially explicit'' techniques provide information and insights that cannot be obtained from the spectral information alone.

Maruca, Susan L.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

166

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs  

E-print Network

Heuristic Search with Reachability Tests for Automated Generation of Test Programs Wee Kheng Leow research on au- tomated specification-based testing by proposing a scheme that combines the setup process, test execution, and test val- idation into a single test program for testing the behavior of object

Leow, Wee Kheng

167

A simple approach for stochastic generation of spatial rainfall patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRainfall scenarios are of considerable interest for design flood and flood risk analysis. To this end, the stochastic generation of continuous rainfall sequences is often coupled with the continuous hydrological modelling. In this context, the spatial and the temporal rainfall variability represents a significant issue, especially for basins in which the rainfall field cannot be approximated through the use of a single station. Therefore, methodologies for the spatially and temporally correlated rainfall generation are welcome. An example of such a methodology is the well-established Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (STNSRP), a modification of the single-site Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (NSRP) approach, designed to incorporate specific features to reproduce the rainfall spatial cross-correlation. In order to provide a simple alternative to the STNSRP, a new method of generating synthetic rainfall time series with pre-set spatial-temporal correlation is proposed herein. This approach relies on the single-site NSRP model, which is used to generate synthetic hourly independent rainfall time series at each rain gauge station with the required temporal autocorrelation (and several other appropriately selected statistics). The rank correlation method of Iman and Conover (IC) is then applied to these synthetic rainfall time series in order to introduce the same spatial cross-correlation that exists between the observed time series. This combination of the NSRP model with the IC method consents the reproduction of the observed spatial-temporal variability of a rainfall field. In order to verify the proposed procedure, four sub-basins of the Upper Tiber River basin are investigated whose basin areas range from 165 km2 to 2040 km2. Results show that the procedure is able to preserve both the rainfall temporal autocorrelation at single site and the rainfall spatial cross-correlation at basin scale, and its performance is comparable with that of the STNSRP model for rainfall field generation. Given its simple formal structure (based on well established methods: i.e. NSRP and IC), we believe that the proposed approach can be conveniently utilized to generate spatially and temporally correlated rainfall scenarios.

Tarpanelli, A.; Franchini, M.; Brocca, L.; Camici, S.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

2012-11-01

168

Automated Security Test Generation with Formal Threat Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security attacks typically result from unintended behaviors or invalid inputs. Security testing is labor intensive because a real-world program usually has too many invalid inputs. It is highly desirable to automate or partially automate security-testing process. This paper presents an approach to automated generation of security tests by using formal threat models represented as Predicate\\/Transition nets. It generates all attack

Dianxiang Xu; Manghui Tu; Michael Sanford; Lijo Thomas; Daniel Woodraska; Weifeng Xu

2012-01-01

169

Generation of field patterns through model-based parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the performance of any antenna is altered when placed on an aircraft, the need to accurately characterize the antenna system including the platform effects is critical. The process of experimentally identifying the platform effects of an antenna is difficult and time consuming, since it involves a very large number of measurements of the radiated/scattered fields. This paper identifies a new model based estimation technique that will reduce the number of measurements needed to characterize the antenna system. The model which is determined from a set of field measurements captures the essence of the behavior of the antenna system. Additional field pattern data is then attainable from the model. The new technique is demonstrated on two systems and the results are compared with Prony's estimation technique.

Schmidt, Alexander M.; Karle, Thomas A.; Pflug, Donald R.

1999-06-01

170

Line resolution pattern: a new intrinsic resolution test pattern for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Routine measurement of spatial resolution of a gamma camera is normally performed through the use of a four-quadrant bar phantom or one of several commercially available resolution phantoms. These phantoms all provide a qualitative index of system resolution with the inherent assumption that any change in intrinsic resolution would be apparent in the bar/hole pattern image. However on nine gamma cameras, comparison of intrinsic resolution determined from the line spread function by NEMA standards and from visual estimation of a four-quadrant bar phantom image showed poor correlation. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a new test pattern which would provide a more accurate estimate of resolution. We developed a line resolution phantom (LRP) which consisted of a 16-cm-diameter lead disk with a series of horizontal and vertical slits. This phantom permits a quantitative estimate of intrinsic resolution (to within 0.5 mm) from a visual examination of the LRP image. Evaluation on nine gamma cameras showed good agreement between results obtained with the LRP and measurement of resolution from the line spread function. The LRP is a simple and inexpensive test phantom which should find applications in quality control and acceptance testing.

O'Connor, M.K.; Oswald, W.M.

1988-11-01

171

ERTG: A test generator for error-rate testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept called intelligible testing has been recently proposed to improve yields for a class of error tolerant systems, including audio, speech, graphics, video, and digital communications. Error rate, defined as the percentage of clock cycles for which the value at a circuit's outputs deviates from the corresponding error-free value, has been identified as a key measure of error

Shideh Shahidi; Sandeep K. Gupta

2007-01-01

172

Tests and evaluation of multihundred watt thermoelectric generators at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multihundred watt (MHW) thermoelectric generator, based on silicon-germanium thermoelectric technology, delivers a nominal power output of 150 watts with an efficiency of about 6%. The two Voyager space probes each use three such generators assembled in tandem on a boom. A total of seven MHW type thermoelectric generators were tested at JPL in support of the Voyager project. The tests consisted of: (1) parametric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of the devices over a wide range of output voltage for different values of input power, different operating ambients (air, vacuum), and different internal environments (argon, helium, xenon, mixture of these gases, and vacuum) at different pressures to allow evaluation of the influences of both gas and pressure on the performance of the generator; (2) tests to determine the transient behavior of the generators; and (3) operation of the generator in conjunction with the Voyager spacecraft.

Rouklove, P.

1977-01-01

173

Quantitative Analysis of the Drosophila Segmentation Regulatory Network Using Pattern Generating Potentials  

PubMed Central

Cis-regulatory modules that drive precise spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression are central to the process of metazoan development. We describe a new computational strategy to annotate genomic sequences based on their “pattern generating potential” and to produce quantitative descriptions of transcriptional regulatory networks at the level of individual protein-module interactions. We use this approach to convert the qualitative understanding of interactions that regulate Drosophila segmentation into a network model in which a confidence value is associated with each transcription factor-module interaction. Sequence information from multiple Drosophila species is integrated with transcription factor binding specificities to determine conserved binding site frequencies across the genome. These binding site profiles are combined with transcription factor expression information to create a model to predict module activity patterns. This model is used to scan genomic sequences for the potential to generate all or part of the expression pattern of a nearby gene, obtained from available gene expression databases. Interactions between individual transcription factors and modules are inferred by a statistical method to quantify a factor's contribution to the module's pattern generating potential. We use these pattern generating potentials to systematically describe the location and function of known and novel cis-regulatory modules in the segmentation network, identifying many examples of modules predicted to have overlapping expression activities. Surprisingly, conserved transcription factor binding site frequencies were as effective as experimental measurements of occupancy in predicting module expression patterns or factor-module interactions. Thus, unlike previous module prediction methods, this method predicts not only the location of modules but also their spatial activity pattern and the factors that directly determine this pattern. As databases of transcription factor specificities and in vivo gene expression patterns grow, analysis of pattern generating potentials provides a general method to decode transcriptional regulatory sequences and networks. PMID:20808951

Richards, Adam; McCutchan, Michael; Wakabayashi-Ito, Noriko; Hammonds, Ann S.; Celniker, Susan E.; Kumar, Sudhir; Wolfe, Scot A.; Brodsky, Michael H.; Sinha, Saurabh

2010-01-01

174

Using Static Analysis To Improve Automatic Test Generation  

E-print Network

was completely formalized by 22,7,15] and is also standardized within 12]. Test cases can be automaticallyUsing Static Analysis To Improve Automatic Test Generation Marius Bozga1 , Jean-Claude Fernandez2-Claude.Fernandez@imag.fr tel: +(33) (0)4 76 82 72 14 fax: +(33) (0)4 76 82 72 87 Abstract. Conformance testing is still

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

40 CFR 53.22 - Generation of test atmospheres.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...system shall be sufficiently stable to obtain stable response readings from the test analyzer during the required tests. If a permeation device is used for generation of a test atmosphere, the device, as well as the air passing over it, shall be...

2012-07-01

176

Generating Minimal Fault Detecting Test Suites for Boolean Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New coverage criteria for Boolean expressions are regularly introduced with two goals: to detect specific classes of realistic faults and to produce as small as possible test suites. In this paper we investigate whether an approach targeting specific fault classes using several reduction policies can achieve that less test cases are generated than by previously introduced testing criteria. In our

Gordon Fraser; Angelo Gargantini

2010-01-01

177

Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ?  

E-print Network

Generating Tests from UML Specifications Jeff Offutt and Aynur Abdurazik ? George Mason University, Fairfax VA 22030, USA Abstract. Although most industry testing of complex software is con­ ducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system level testing

Offutt, Jeff

178

A Nine-Valued Circuit Model for Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine-valued circuit model for test generation is introduced which takes care of multiple and repeated effects of a fault in sequential circuits. Using this model test sequences can be determined which allow multiple and repeated effects of faults on the internal state of a sequential circuit. Thus valid test sequences are derived where other known procedures, like the D-algorithm,

Peter Muth

1976-01-01

179

A self-testing quantum random number generator  

E-print Network

A central issue in randomness generation is to estimate the entropy of the output data generated by a given device. Here we present a protocol for self-testing quantum random number generation, in which the entropy of the raw data can be monitored in real-time. In turn, this allows the user to adapt the randomness extraction procedure, in order to continuously generate high quality random bits. Using a fully optical implementation, we demonstrate that our protocol is practical and efficient, and illustrate its self-testing capacity.

Tommaso Lunghi; Jonatan Bohr Brask; Charles Ci Wen Lim; Quentin Lavigne; Joseph Bowles; Anthony Martin; Hugo Zbinden; Nicolas Brunner

2014-10-10

180

Design of a Central Pattern Generator for Bionic-robot Joint with Angular Frequency Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an artificial central pattern generator (CPG) for bionic-robot joint control. The neural oscillator adopted to produce rhythmic pattern is specially designed from original sin-cosine oscillator model. An amplitude neural estimator consisted of two neurons is presented to provide sensor feedback to CPG control. The artificial CPG can adapt itself to the physical system parameters variety by rhythmic

Daibing Zhang; Dewen Hu; Linchen Shen; Haibin Xie

2006-01-01

181

Generation of the Central Masticatory Pattern and Its Modification by Sensory Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian mastication results from the interaction of an intrinsic rhythmical neural pattern and sensory feedback generated by the interaction of the effecter system (muscles, bones, joints, teeth, soft tissues) with food. The main variables that explain variation in the pattern of human mastication are the subjects themselves, their age, the type of food being eaten, and time during a sequence

James P. Lund; Arlette Kolta

2006-01-01

182

Central Pattern Generation and the Motor Infrastructure for Suck, Respiration, and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the current report is to review experimental findings on centrally patterned movements and sensory and descending modulation of central pattern generators (CPGs) in a variety of animal and human models. Special emphasis is directed toward speech production muscle systems, including the chest wall and orofacial complex during…

Barlow, Steven M.; Estep, Meredith

2006-01-01

183

Dynamic control of a central pattern generator circuit: a computational model of the snail feeding network  

E-print Network

­Huxley models, Lymnaea stagnalis Abstract Central pattern generators (CPGs) are networks underlying rhythmic to the rhythmogenic circuit. In the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, the extrinsic slow oscillator the CPG-driven motor pattern underlying feeding in the pond snail, Lymnaea (Fig. 1). One type of cell

Feng, Jianfeng

184

Test Input Generation for Red-Black Trees using Abstraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the problem of test input generation for code that manipulates complex data structures. Test inputs are sequences of method calls from the data structure interface. We describe test input generation techniques that rely on state matching to avoid generation of redundant tests. Exhaustive techniques use explicit state model checking to explore all the possible test sequences up to predefined input sizes. Lossy techniques rely on abstraction mappings to compute and store abstract versions of the concrete states; they explore under-approximations of all the possible test sequences. We have implemented the techniques on top of the Java PathFinder model checker and we evaluate them using a Java implementation of red-black trees.

Visser, Willem; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Pelanek, Radek

2005-01-01

185

TTCN-3 Test Case Generation from Message Sequence Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario-based testing, manual as automatic, is applicable for black-box and specific white-box testing for communication proto- cols and distributed systems. UML models provide scenario descrip- tions by sequence diagrams respectively MSCs. Thus, the combination of TTCN-3, as test description language, and UML by MSC to specify and automatically generate test cases has to be considered. The work in this paper

Michael Ebner

2004-01-01

186

Approaches to test set generation using binary decision diagrams  

E-print Network

This research pursues the use of powerful BDD-based functional circuit analysis to evaluate some approaches to test set generation. Functional representations of the circuit allow the measurement of information about faults that is not directly...

Wingfield, James

2004-09-30

187

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

188

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

189

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7900 Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

191

Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

Conner, David A.

1989-01-01

192

Accurate resistive bridge fault modeling, simulation, and test generation  

E-print Network

ACCURATE RESISTIVE BRIDGE FAULT MODELING, SIMULATION, AND TEST GENERATION A Thesis by VIJAY RAMESH SAR-DESSAI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ACCURATE RESISTIVE SRIDGE FAULT MODELING, SIMULATION, AND TEST GENERATION A Thesis by VIJAY RAMESH SAR-DESSAI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Sar-Dessai, Vijay Ramesh

2012-06-07

193

Effects of Differences in Working Memory Capacity on Patterns of Word Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, it has been reported that WM (working memory) is concerned with word generation, but many points regarding the relationship between the individual differences of WM capacity and the patterns of word generation remain unclear. This study is to investigate these unclear points by using three types of word fluency task with different…

Kawamura, Mimpei; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Morioka, Shu

2012-01-01

194

TALN 2003, Batz-sur-Mer, 1114 juin 2003 Generation of natural responses through syntactic patterns  

E-print Network

TALN 2003, Batz-sur-Mer, 11­14 juin 2003 Generation of natural responses through syntactic patterns´en´eration de texte, Patrons syntaxiques, Paraphrases Question-answering, Natural Language Generation, Syntactic by searching a large collection of documents. The subject of this research is to formulate complete and natural

Kosseim, Leila

195

Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned

John O. Dabiri; Sean P. Colin; John H. Costello; Morteza Gharib

2005-01-01

196

Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Immigrant and Later Generation Mexican American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrant Mexican women's drinking patterns were compared with those of Mexican women in Mexico, other United States Latinas, later-generation Mexican-American women, and male immigrants. Changes in the direction of greater permissiveness and rationalization of alcohol use among later-generation Mexican-American women are demonstrated. (JMM)

Gilbert, M. Jean

1987-01-01

197

Flexibility of Motor Pattern Generation Across Stimulation Conditions by the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that “locomotor-like” rhythmic patterns can be evoked in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord by several means, including pharmacological neuromodulation and electrical stimulation of various pathways. Recent studies have used stimulation of afferent pathways to evoke rhythmic patterns, relying on synaptic activation of interneuronal systems rather than global imposition of neuromodulatory state by pharmacological agents. We use the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord with attached hindlimb to examine the muscle activation patterns evoked by stimulation of these different pathways and evaluate whether stimulation of these pathways all evoke the same patterns. We find that the patterns evoked by bath application of serotonin (5-HT) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) consisted of alternation between hip flexors and extensors and similar alternation was observed in the patterns evoked by electrical stimulation of the cauda equina (CE) or contralateral fifth lumbar (L5) dorsal nerve root. In contrast, the knee extensor/hip flexor rectus femoris (RF) and knee flexor/hip extensor semitendinosus (ST) were activated differentially across stimulation conditions. In 5-HT/NMDA patterns, RF was active in late flexion and ST in late extension. In CE patterns, these two muscles switched places with RF typically active in late extension and ST active in flexion. In L5 patterns, ST was activated in extension and RF was silent or weakly active during flexion. There were also systematic differences in the consistency of rhythms evoked by each stimulation method: patterns evoked by electrical stimulation of CE or L5 were less consistently modulated with the rhythm when compared with 5-HT/NMDA-evoked patterns. All differences were preserved following deafferentation, demonstrating that they reflect intrinsic properties of spinal systems. These results highlight the intrinsic flexibility of motor pattern generation by spinal motor circuitry which is present from birth and provides important information to many studies examining spinal pattern generating networks. PMID:20089814

Klein, David A.; Patino, Angelica

2010-01-01

198

Pattern of Sertoli cell degeneration in cryptorchid prepubertal testes.  

PubMed

Seventy-three testicular biopsies from 54 children (aged 2 months-14 years) with undescended testes were examined by light and electron microscopy. The biopsies included abdominal, inguinally fixed, inguinally moveable, and retractile testes. Alterations in Sertoli cell morphology were found in all biopsies. The alterations included dilated elements of rough endoplasmic reticulum, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, mitochondria with poorly preserved cristae, increase in electron density of the matrix, elongation of the nuclei, and irregularities of the nuclear membrane. According to the numerical appearance of these cells and to the extent of lesions in single Sertoli cells, seven phases in the continuous process of tubular alteration were distinguished. The most severe tubular damaged (phase VII) occurred when the seminiferous epithelium consisted exclusively of necrotic cells. All phases of tubular alterations were seen regularly in each of the biopsies investigated. Germ cells occurred only in phases I-IV and were never observed in tubules in phases V-VII. Significant differences became evident between inguinal and retractile testes by morphometric evaluation. It was demonstrated that the number of germ cells per cross-sectioned tubule (S/T value) correlated negatively with the percentage of tubules in phases V-VII. In contrast to inguinal testes, a complete absence of Sertoli cells and an S/T value less than 0.1 were never found in retractile testes and the percentage of tubules in phases V-VII was reduced significantly compared with inguinal testes. Our findings indicate that (i) maldescended testis in patients between 1 and 15 years-of-age is associated with a special pattern of Sertoli cell degeneration; (ii) Sertoli cell degeneration is a continuous process, which can lead eventually to complete dissolution of the seminiferous epithelium; (iii) total degeneration is not related to age but is dependent on testicular position; (iv) a defined phase of degeneration excludes germ cell development, and therefore enhanced Sertoli cell degeneration in cryptorchid testes must also account for the reduction in germ cell number. PMID:1347512

Rune, G M; Mayr, J; Neugebauer, H; Anders, C; Sauer, H

1992-02-01

199

Does CAC testing alter downstream treatment patterns for cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Objectives To assess if coronary artery calcium (CAC) scans influence treatment patterns as reflected by subsequent rates of cardiac imaging and therapeutic interventions, and their effect on ischemic events downstream. Study Design Longitudinal observational study from January 1, 2005, through August 31, 2011, using a large managed-care medical and pharmacy claims database. Methods Two cohorts were evaluated: CAC patients who received CAC testing, and Reference patients, subject to preauthorization, who were denied CAC scans. Patients were adults less than 65 years old. Index date was CAC scan date for CAC and pre-authorization request date for Reference. Patients were stratified into high-risk and non-high-risk categories; outcomes were analyzed only for non-high-risk where CAC scores could potentially modify risk classification. Cardiac imaging, coronary revascularizations, and pharmaceutical interventions were evaluated for 6 months post index and adverse ischemic events were assessed using all available follow-up time. Results The study included 2679 CAC and 1135 Reference patients. Among non-high-risk patients, similar proportions of both groups received an imaging test within 6 months (23.2% vs 23.8%, respectively; P = .5); revascularization rates and pharmaceutical utilization were similar. Adverse events were rare. Agesex adjusted incidence rate ratio for adverse events was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.36-3.38) among CAC relative to Reference. High-risk patients, considered inappropriate for CAC testing, represented 20.2% and 23.5% of CAC and Reference, respectively (P <.05). Conclusions Patients having CAC scans were not associated with fewer downstream ischemic events nor with reduced subsequent imaging and therapeutic interventions among non-high-risk patients. Results also indicated inappropriate testing of high-risk patients. PMID:25295796

Chi, Wiinie Chia-Hsuan; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Barron, John; Kasravi, Barsam; Power, Thomas; Redberg, Rita

2014-01-01

200

Once-through testing of the CRBRP prototype steam generator  

SciTech Connect

The prototype steam generator for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) was designed, built, and tested by Rockwell International. A portion of these tests, performed by the Energy Technology Engineering Center during early 1983, had the specific objective of supporting the design of a hockey-stick-type steam generator for use in the once-through cycle mode, including demonstration of steady-state operation, startup and shutdown in a once-through mode, and stable operation at low power. Eighteen steady-state performance tests were performed at power levels from 33 to 70 MWt, which represented 20 to 42 percent full power per tube of a commercial design. Pretest predictions are compared with test results. Startup and shutdown operations under a full-liquid condition in the steam generator are described. Steam generator tube inlet orifices, removed during the CRBRP test program, were not replaced for these tests. Therefore, dynamic instability was encountered during certain tests, and the results are compared with the DYNAM code for predicting flow instability conditions. Sodium and steam temperature maldistributions cause by testing at off-design conditions for this unit are also discussed.

Kim, K.; Gabler, M.J.; Carlson, R.D.

1987-01-01

201

Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

2007-05-25

202

Evaluation of Auto-Test Generation Strategies and Platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the test effort takes a significant part of the software development lifecycle, efficient test strategies are a precondition for reduction of development costs and time. In this respect two main issues exist: firstly, the tuning of the test track from test case identification to evaluation, secondly, the reduction of number of test cases to be processed and evaluated. Both aspects were considered in the work presented in this paper. For reduction of the effort related to the test track two test automation tools have been applied: DCRTT for C and SmartG for Java. While DCRTT is ready for industrial use at high degree of automation of all test steps, SmartG is a prototype exploiting the identifcation of path sets by random testing. DCRTT only requires provision of the source files and then delivers test drivers, a filtered and reduced set of test cases, related test results and detailed information on data ranges and observed exceptions. The manual effort is reduced to test evaluation. DCRTT identifies a significantly reduced set of test cases left for manual evaluation. The selection criteria are based on block coverage, decision coverage and occurrence of exceptions when generating inputs from the valid and invalid data range. One or more test cases may be collected for each basket of such a criterion and element of a function's structure. It is of high importance how well such automated strategies do work. Therefore a number of investigations have been performed, evaluating the achieved coverage and number of reported exceptions. Three test modes have been considered: random and lattice-based test generation for module testing and operational testing imposing the complete main program to representative operational conditions.

Gerlich, R.; Gerlich, R.; Boll, T.; Mayer, J.

2007-08-01

203

?-Adrenergic agents modulate the activity of the spinal pattern generator for ejaculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord transection at a thoracic level activates fictive ejaculation (FE) in the male rat. It has earlier been demonstrated that fictive motor patterns may be activated by pharmacological means and that the noradrenergic system seems to be particularly efficient in triggering locomotor fictive patterns in spinal animals. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that the spinal noradrenergic

M Carro-Juárez; G Rodríguez-Manzo

2006-01-01

204

A Test Generation Framework for Distributed Fault-Tolerant Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavyweight formal methods such as theorem proving have been successfully applied to the analysis of safety critical fault-tolerant systems. Typically, the models and proofs performed during such analysis do not inform the testing process of actual implementations. We propose a framework for generating test vectors from specifications written in the Prototype Verification System (PVS). The methodology uses a translator to produce a Java prototype from a PVS specification. Symbolic (Java) PathFinder is then employed to generate a collection of test cases. A small example is employed to illustrate how the framework can be used in practice.

Goodloe, Alwyn; Bushnell, David; Miner, Paul; Pasareanu, Corina S.

2009-01-01

205

Dynamic test input generation for multiple-fault isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work is Causal Reasoning has provided practical techniques for multiple fault diagnosis. These techniques provide a hypothesis/measurement diagnosis cycle. Using probabilistic methods, they choose the best measurements to make, then update fault hypotheses in response. For many applications such as computers and spacecraft, few measurement points may be accessible, or values may change quickly as the system under diagnosis operates. In these cases, a hypothesis/measurement cycle is insufficient. A technique is presented for a hypothesis/test-input/measurement diagnosis cycle. In contrast to generating tests a priori for determining device functionality, it dynamically generates tests in response to current knowledge about fault probabilities. It is shown how the mathematics previously used for measurement specification can be applied to the test input generation process. An example from an efficient implementation called Multi-Purpose Causal (MPC) is presented.

Schaefer, Phil

1990-01-01

206

Optically definable reaction-diffusion-driven pattern generation of Ag-Au nanoparticles on templated surfaces.  

PubMed

We introduce a new lithographic method for the generation of 2D patterns of composite nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag and Au by taking recourse to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches. Micrometer-scale and submicrometer-scale patterned Ag foils of commercially available compact disks (CDs) and digital versatile disks (DVDs), respectively, were used as templates. The galvanic replacement reaction of Ag by HAuCl(4) in the presence of the dye coatings on the foils led to the formation of patterned NP composites of Ag and Au, in addition to the formation of AgCl. The resultant structures appeared in the form of cross patterns of particles with micrometer and submicrometer dimensions. The AgCl crystals thus formed could be removed by using either a saturated NaCl solution or aqueous ammonia. In addition, AgCl could be converted to Ag by electrochemical reduction, thus generating Ag-coated Au NPs. Interestingly, the digital writing on CDs led to the formation of tertiary imprints on the patterns, based on the original writing patterns. This provided an additional handle in generating hierarchical patterns using light in combination with a chemical reaction diffusion process and the nearly parallel line patterns originally present in commercial CDs. The reactions could be carried out in aqueous solution, and the method does not require any additional curing. Also, the density of patterned particles is scalable on the basis of the choice of the original line patterns as present in CDs and DVDs. PMID:21899314

Gogoi, Sonit Kumar; Borah, Sankar Moni; Dey, Krishna Kanti; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

2011-10-18

207

Optical testing of cylindrical surfaces with computer-generated holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands for highly accurate cylinders require more high-precision testing techniques. The existing methods of testing cylindrical surfaces can not ensure the highly-accuracy, efficiency, convenience and the overall cost. In order to acquire highly accurate cylindrical surfaces conveniently at a low cost, a new Fizeau interferometric optical testing utilizing CGH which is fabricated onto a wedge-shaped substrate is designed. In this test, a slit filter is placed in the center of the cylindrical curvature to filter out the undesired diffraction orders which occur when the beam hits the CGH. Meanwhile, the front side of the wedge-shaped substrate is as the reference flat, and the CGH is written onto the inclined surface, so that the real fringe pattern can not be affected by its reflected beam. Moreover, the design of cylindrical surfaces under test tilting and off-center relative to the diffraction surface of the CGH results that the required rays for interference can be obtained effectively from the pinhole filter in the interferometer. Furthermore, high-accuracy CGH in this test can be processed by conventional microlithography equipments. Corresponding to a cylindrical surface with 60mm in diameter and f-number of 1/7, the test has been successfully designed and optimized in Zemax whose testing accuracy is prior to 0.0019?. Better interference pattern can be obtained because all the other disturbing rays image outside of aperture in a radius of 2mm. Experiment shows the method is efficient and predominant.

Wang, Wei; Guo, Pei-ji

2013-08-01

208

Direct pattern formation of bacterial cells using micro-droplets generated by electrohydrodynamic forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial cells were patterned efficiently on a nutrient-coated membrane in a direct, rapid, and cost-effective manner using\\u000a electro-hydrodynamically generated micro-droplets. By varying the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the bacterial printing\\u000a solution, uniform droplets were obtained. Escherichia coli cells were directly printed onto a membrane filter, followed by overnight incubation on an agar plate which created line\\u000a patterns of bacterial

Ju-Han Kim; Dae-Young Lee; Jungho Hwang; Hyo-Il Jung

2009-01-01

209

Second harmonic generation in a low-loss orientation-patterned GaAs waveguide.  

PubMed

The technology of low-loss orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) waveguided crystals was developed and realized by reduction of diffraction scattering on the waveguide pattern. The propagation losses in the OP-GaAs waveguide were estimated to be as low as 2.1 dB/cm, thus demonstrating the efficient second harmonic generation at 1621 nm under an external pumping. PMID:23938493

Fedorova, K A; McRobbie, A D; Sokolovskii, G S; Schunemann, P G; Rafailov, E U

2013-07-15

210

Automated Generation and Assessment of Autonomous Systems Test Cases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning verification and validation testing of autonomous spacecraft routinely culminates in the exploration of anomalous or faulted mission-like scenarios using the work involved during the Dawn mission's tests as examples. Prioritizing which scenarios to develop usually comes down to focusing on the most vulnerable areas and ensuring the best return on investment of test time. Rules-of-thumb strategies often come into play, such as injecting applicable anomalies prior to, during, and after system state changes; or, creating cases that ensure good safety-net algorithm coverage. Although experience and judgment in test selection can lead to high levels of confidence about the majority of a system's autonomy, it's likely that important test cases are overlooked. One method to fill in potential test coverage gaps is to automatically generate and execute test cases using algorithms that ensure desirable properties about the coverage. For example, generate cases for all possible fault monitors, and across all state change boundaries. Of course, the scope of coverage is determined by the test environment capabilities, where a faster-than-real-time, high-fidelity, software-only simulation would allow the broadest coverage. Even real-time systems that can be replicated and run in parallel, and that have reliable set-up and operations features provide an excellent resource for automated testing. Making detailed predictions for the outcome of such tests can be difficult, and when algorithmic means are employed to produce hundreds or even thousands of cases, generating predicts individually is impractical, and generating predicts with tools requires executable models of the design and environment that themselves require a complete test program. Therefore, evaluating the results of large number of mission scenario tests poses special challenges. A good approach to address this problem is to automatically score the results based on a range of metrics. Although the specific means of scoring depends highly on the application, the use of formal scoring - metrics has high value in identifying and prioritizing anomalies, and in presenting an overall picture of the state of the test program. In this paper we present a case study based on automatic generation and assessment of faulted test runs for the Dawn mission, and discuss its role in optimizing the allocation of resources for completing the test program.

Barltrop, Kevin J.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Horvath, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

211

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2001-03-14

212

Postembryonic development of centrally generated flight motor patterns in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.  

PubMed

This study analyses the maturation of centrally generated flight motor patterns during metamorphosis of Manduca sexta. Bath application of the octopamine agonist chlordimeform to the isolated central nervous system of adult moths reliably induces fictive flight patterns in wing depressor and elevator motoneurons. Pattern maturation is investigated by chlordimeform application at different developmental stages. Chlordimeform also induces motor patterns in larval ganglia, which differ from fictive flight, indicating that in larvae and adults, octopamine affects different networks. First changes in motoneuron activity occur at the pupal stage P10. Rhythmic motor output is induced in depressor, but not in elevator motoneurons at P12. Adult-like fictive flight activity in motoneurons is observed at P16 and increases in speed and precision until emergence 2 days later. Pharmacological block of chloride channels with picrotoxin also induces fictive flight in adults, suggesting that the pattern-generating network can be activated by the removal of inhibition, and that proper network function does not rely on GABA(A) receptors. Our results suggest that the flight pattern-generating network becomes gradually established between P12 and P16, and is further refined until adulthood. These findings are discussed in the context of known physiological and structural CNS development during Manduca metamorphosis. PMID:19924416

Vierk, Ricardo; Duch, Carsten; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

2010-01-01

213

Focal High Cell Density Generates a Gradient of Patterns in Self-Organizing Vascular Mesenchymal Cells  

PubMed Central

In embryogenesis, structural patterns, such as vascular branching, may form via a reaction-diffusion mechanism in which activator and inhibitor morphogens guide cells into periodic aggregates. We previously found that vascular mesenchymal cells (VMC) spontaneously aggregate into nodular structures and that morphogen pairs regulate the aggregation into patterns of spots and stripes. To test the effect of a focal change in activator morphogen on VMC pattern formation, we created a focal zone of high cell density by plating a second layer VMC within a cloning ring over a confluent monolayer. After 24 hours, the ring was removed, and pattern formation monitored by phase-contrast microscopy. At days 2–8, the patterns progressed from uniform distributions to swirl, labyrinthine, and spot patterns. Within the focal high-density zone and a narrow halo zone, cells aggregated into spot patterns; in the outermost zone of the plate, cells formed a labyrinthine pattern. Area occupied by aggregates was significantly greater in the outermost zone than in the HDZ or halo. The rate of pattern progression within the HDZ increased as a function of its plating density. Thus, focal differences in cell density may drive pattern formation gradients in tissue architecture, such as vascular branching. PMID:22797747

Cheng, Henry; Reddy, Aneela; Sage, Andrew; Lu, Jinxiu; Garfinkel, Alan; Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

2012-01-01

214

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation consists of viewgraph which review the test program and the results of the tests for the Gas Generator (GG) component for the Fastrac Engine. Included are pictures of the Fastrac (MC-1) Engine and the GG, diagrams of the flight configuration, and schematics of the LOX, and the RP-1 systems and the injector assembly. The normal operating parameters are reviewed, as are the test instrumentation. Also shown are graphs of the hot gas temperature, and the test temperature profiles. The results are summarized.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

215

Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to the control object, and generally, the damper has been designed by linear control theory as pole placement method, optimal control method or H infinity control method, and all the rest. On the other hand, on walking of animate beings like mammals or insects, both side feet have appropriate phase relations; moreover, it is possible to keep moving on irregular ground. That is, algorithms for the walking would be embedded into the animate beings to control the complicated and redundant bodies with ease and robustness. In biological study, the Central Pattern Generators in bodies playing a significant role in the walking have been learned over the last few decades, and some studies said that some animate beings are able to control their feet by using the generators without their brains in the walking. Moreover, mathematical models of the pattern generators have been proposed, and some researchers have been studying to realize walking of biped-robots using the pattern generators embedded in a computer. In this study, the algorithm is installed into a controller for the active mass damper; furthermore, validation of the controller is performed by numerical simulation.

Iba, Daisuke; Hongu, Junichi

2011-04-01

216

Predictors of cognitive test patterns in autism families.  

PubMed

In a case-control study of cognitive performance, tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, and pragmatic language were administered to the parents and siblings of 90 community-ascertained probands with autism (AU group) and to the parents and siblings of 40 similarly ascertained probands with trisomy 21 Down syndrome (DS group). The two samples were comparable for age and parents' education; both groups were well-educated and had above-average intelligence. AU parents scored slightly but significantly lower on the WAIS-R Full Scale and Performance IQ, on two subtests (Picture Arrangement and Picture Completion), and on the Word Attack Test (reading nonsense words) from the Woodcock-Johnson battery. There were no differences between AU and DS siblings. As in earlier studies, AU parents, more often than DS parents, reported a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties; we were not able to replicate this in siblings. AU parents who reported such difficulties scored significantly lower on Verbal IQ, spelling, and the nonsense reading test. AU parents without a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties often had a Verbal IQ that exceeded Performance IQ by more than one standard deviation. AU siblings with early language-related difficulties had similar findings: lower Verbal IQ, poorer spelling, and poorer reading scores, compared to AU siblings without such a history. Parents with a positive history also scored worse on a measure of pragmatic language,the Pragmatic Rating Scale, but not on measures of social-related components of the broader autism phenotype. We propose that cognitive differences in a subset of autism family members are manifestations of the language-related component of the broader autism phenotype, and separate from the social-related component. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there are several genes that may interact to cause autism which segregate independently and have distinguishable manifestations in family members. The hypothesis would be further supported by finding different patterns of genetic loci linked to autism in families where one or both parents has language difficulties. PMID:10576540

Folstein, S E; Santangelo, S L; Gilman, S E; Piven, J; Landa, R; Lainhart, J; Hein, J; Wzorek, M

1999-10-01

217

Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

2009-01-01

218

Experiments with Test Case Generation and Runtime Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software testing is typically an ad hoc process where human testers manually write many test inputs and expected test results, perhaps automating their execution in a regression suite. This process is cumbersome and costly. This paper reports preliminary results on an approach to further automate this process. The approach consists of combining automated test case generation based on systematically exploring the program's input domain, with runtime analysis, where execution traces are monitored and verified against temporal logic specifications, or analyzed using advanced algorithms for detecting concurrency errors such as data races and deadlocks. The approach suggests to generate specifications dynamically per input instance rather than statically once-and-for-all. The paper describes experiments with variants of this approach in the context of two examples, a planetary rover controller and a space craft fault protection system.

Artho, Cyrille; Drusinsky, Doron; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Pasareanu, Corina; Rosu, Grigore; Visser, Willem; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

219

Generation of optical crystals and quasicrystal beams: Kaleidoscopic patterns and phase singularity  

SciTech Connect

We explore the feasibility of the generation of pseudonondiffracting optical beams related to crystal and quasicrystal structures. It is experimentally confirmed that optical crystal and quasicrystal beams can be remarkably generated with a collimated light to illuminate a high-precision mask with multiple apertures regularly distributed on a ring. We also found that exotic kaleidoscopic patterns can be exhibited with the high-order quasicrystal beams. More importantly, the structures of phase singularities in optical quasicrystal beams are manifested.

Chen, Y. F.; Liang, H. C.; Lin, Y. C.; Tzeng, Y. S.; Su, K. W.; Huang, K. F. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

2011-05-15

220

The SCC testing of nuclear steam generator tubing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrity of heat-exchanger tubes in a nuclear reaction system is crucial for the safe operation of a power plant. In order to study the corrosion behavior of certain alloys, constant extension rate (CERT) tests were performed on alloy 690 and alloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubing specimens. In this article, the CERT test results (such as maximum stress achieved and crack morphology) are correlated to tubing microstructure, chemistry, and manufacturing processes.

Doherty, P. E.; Sarver, J. M.; Miglin, B. P.

1996-05-01

221

Testing and Functions of the J2X Gas Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I, NASA s new solid rocket based crew launch vehicle, is a two stage in line rocket that has made its waytothe forefront of NASA s endeavors. The Ares I s Upper Stage (US) will be propelled by a J-2X engine which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The J-2X is a variation based on two of its predecessor s, the J-2 and J-2S engines. ET50 is providing the design support for hardware required to run tests on the J-2X Gas Generator (GG) that increases the delivery pressure of the supplied combustion fuels that the engine burns. The test area will be running a series of tests using different lengths and curved segments of pipe and different sized nozzles to determine the configuration that best satisfies the thrust, heat, and stability requirements for the engine. I have had to research the configurations that are being tested and gain an understanding of the purpose of the tests. I then had to research the parts that would be used in the test configurations. I was taken to see parts similar to the ones used in the test configurations and was allowed to review drawings and dimensions used for those parts. My job over this summer has been to use the knowledge I have gained to design, model, and create drawings for the un-fabricated parts that are necessary for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator Phase IIcTest.

Miller, Nicholas

2009-01-01

222

Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing  

E-print Network

Proceedings IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1990 Generating Pseudo-Exhaustive Vectors for External Testing S. Hellebrand, H.-J. Wunderlich, O. F. Haberl Institute of Computer Design. Germany Abstract In the past years special chips for external test have been suc- cessfully used

Hellebrand, Sybille

223

Generating Litmus Tests for Contrasting Memory Consistency Models  

E-print Network

for systematically comparing hardware memory models specified using both operational and axiomatic styles. Given two specification is operational or axiomatic. When there is an observable behavior in one memory modelGenerating Litmus Tests for Contrasting Memory Consistency Models Sela Mador-Haim, Rajeev Alur

Martin, Milo M. K.

224

Efficient Path Delay Test Generation with Boolean Satisfiability  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on improving the accuracy and efficiency of path delay test generation using a Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solver. As part of this research, one of the most commonly used SAT solvers, MiniSat, was integrated into the path...

Bian, Kun

2013-12-10

225

The Design of an Automated Unit Test Code Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of a framework for automated unit test code generation in a .NET managed code environment, using XSLT, XML and the C# programming language. The primary knowledge and coding skills required for developing and using the framework are XSLT, XML, and C#. The framework is most useful in a software development

Gary Fix

2009-01-01

226

Program Evaluation and the Generation and Testing of Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesis generation and testing is outlined as an additional domain for program evaluators. Program evaluation involves a thorough analysis of the processes that contribute to change (or a lack of change) among program recipients. This process of change is analyzed in two ways: (1) treating programs as naturally occurring field studies; and (2)…

Sharp, D. E. Ann; And Others

227

Deflectometer with synthetically generated reference circle for aspheric surface testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deflectometer with a synthetically generated reference circle is proposed for aspheric surface testing. Rotation and translation movements are combined to realize laser scanning and make the measurement of the aspheric surface in polar coordinates. It effectively improves the measurement precision for aspheric surfaces with large relative aperture. The measuring equipment is calibrated using a defocused standard spherical surface, and

Qun Hao; Qiudong Zhu; Yongtian Wang

2005-01-01

228

Holographic nondestructive testing by an optically generated zone plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement for holographic nondestructive testing in the field of information processing is proposed. It makes use of an optically generated zone plate for obtaining an interferometric hologram of an object suffering a deformation. This allows quick data acquisition and can be used outside laboratory conditions. Experimental results are discussed, and a brief mathematical analysis from the point of view

N. Rodriguez; R. D. Torroba; Mario Gallardo; Mario Garavaglia

1986-01-01

229

Testing a Student Generated Hypothesis Using Student Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an activity that allows students to experience the full process of a statistical investigation, from generating the research question, to collecting data and testing a hypothesis. Implementation of the activity is described both with and without use of clickers, handheld remotes that allow instant data collection.

McGowan, Herle M.; Vaughan, Joel

2012-01-01

230

Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage

Praitoon Chaiwongsa; Nithiroth Pornsuwancharoen; Preecha P. Yupapin

2009-01-01

231

Gait pattern generation with knee stretch motion for biped robot using toe and heel joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new alternative methodology to generate gait pattern with a knee stretched motion for biped robot utilizing toe and heel joints. During walking sequence, human heels act as passive joints that create some support area which enhances the stability of human walking. This research tries to replace human-heel like mechanism with a heel joint in the biped

Nandha Handharu; Jungwon Yoon; Gabsoon Kim

2008-01-01

232

Predator shadows: complex life histories as generators of spatially patterned indirect interactions across ecosystems  

E-print Network

, which often switch between distinct ecosystems during their life cycle, and so can be channels, dragonflies) can be abundant and effective predators during one or more life stages, and so provide conduitsPredator shadows: complex life histories as generators of spatially patterned indirect interactions

Holt, Robert D.

233

Detailed Model of Intersegmental Coordination in the Timing Network of the Leech Heartbeat Central Pattern Generator  

E-print Network

Detailed Model of Intersegmental Coordination in the Timing Network of the Leech Heartbeat Central of intersegmental coordination in the timing network of the leech heartbeat central pattern generator. J problem of interseg- mental coordination of oscillatory neuronal networks, we have studied the leech

Calabrese, Ronald

234

homeostasis and central pattern generation in the metathoracic ganglion of the locust  

E-print Network

K+ homeostasis and central pattern generation in the metathoracic ganglion of the locust Corinne I in the nervous system and therefore disruption of K+ homeostasis can have important consequences for neuronal- induced failure of neural function coincides with a loss in K+ homeostasis (Rounds, 1967; Erulkar

Robertson, Meldrum

235

Algorithm for Computer Aided Design Curve Shape Form Generation of Knitting Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knitting industry CAD\\/CAM system's development needs a solution of some problems related to the computer representation of the designed objects. One of them is a generation of curve shape form knitting pattern and its transformation to knitting rows and stitches. This is an important problem for the FF knitting method because the knitted product's shape must be the same

Elena Zaharieva-Stoyanova

2006-01-01

236

Real-time 3D SLAM for Humanoid Robot considering Pattern Generator Information  

E-print Network

Real-time 3D SLAM for Humanoid Robot considering Pattern Generator Information Olivier Stasse robotics and SLAM (Simultaneous Lo- calisation and Mapping) are certainly two of the most significant its own world map on the fly will be a significant enabling technology. Meanwhile, SLAM techniques

Davison, Andrew

237

Generation of mask patterns for diffractive optical elements using Mathematica{sup T}{sup M}  

SciTech Connect

The generation of binary and grayscale masks used in the fabrication of diffractive optical elements is usually performed using a proprietary piece of software or a computer-aided drafting package. Once the pattern is computed or designed, it must be output to a plotting or imaging system that will produce a reticle plate. This article describes a number of short Mathematica modules that can be used to generate binary and grayscale patterns in a PostScript-compatible format. Approaches to ensure that the patterns are directly related to the function of the element and the design wavelength are discussed. A procedure to preserve the scale of the graphic output when it is transferred to another application is given. Examples of surfaces for a 100 mm effective focal length lens and an Alvarez surface are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

OShea, D.C. [School of Physics and Center for Optical Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States)] [School of Physics and Center for Optical Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States)

1996-07-01

238

Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments  

SciTech Connect

This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

1991-01-01

239

Automatic Multitone Alternate Test Generation For RF Circuits Using Behavioral Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, it has been difficult to perform test generation for complex RF subsystems due to the cost of repeated system level simulation necessary for running a test generation algorithm. In this paper, a new test generation method for RF sub-systems driven by behavioral models is presented. The test generator produces an optimized multi-tone test stimulus (alternate test) from

Achintya Halder; Soumendu Bhattacharya; Abhijit Chatterjee

2003-01-01

240

Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

1977-01-01

241

Thermal Analysis and Testing of Fastrac Gas Generator Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fastrac Engine is being developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help meet the goal of substantially reducing the cost of access to space. This engine relies on a simple gas-generator cycle, which burns a small amount of RP-1 and oxygen to provide gas to drive the turbine and then exhausts the spent fuel. The Fastrac program envisions a combination of analysis, design and hot-fire evaluation testing. This paper provides the supporting thermal analysis of the gas generator design. In order to ensure that the design objectives were met, the evaluation tests have started on a component level and a total of 15 tests of different durations were completed to date at MSFC. The correlated thermal model results will also be compared against hot-fire thermocouple data gathered.

Nguyen, H.

1998-01-01

242

A systematic approach for extracting verification patterns from an OPC test mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) is a crucial step in Semiconductor manufacturing for technology of dimensions below the exposure wavelength. Light from the exposure source is diffracted when passing through mask dimensions below the exposure wavelength causing patterns on wafer to differ from the intent patterns. During OPC the design intent layout patterns are modified to compensate for light diffractions so that the final wafer patterns match the design intent patterns. OPC achieves this by using OPC models that model the optical conditions, resist, and etch behavior; and an OPC recipe that controls the patterns modification process. The OPC models are calibrated from test mask structures that are developed, exposed and measured when starting to set up the manufacturing process. Structures chosen to be placed on the test mask have a great impact on the capability to predict future layout patterns that were not present in the original test mask, referred to as model coverage. Test masks are usually composed of patterns used in model calibration and others used for verifying the calibrated model. In advanced technology nodes, both the feature size and the error budget are being shrunk. Hence to reach the best model coverage with acceptable accuracy, we need to ensure that the test mask contains all the possible structures in the real designs, while maintaining that the number of patterns does not consume long metrology tools time, cause extra overhead cost to the process, or delay the development cycle. This paper presents a systematic approach to optimize the number of patterns to be included in the test mask and split test patterns into calibration and verification patterns. Results from using the proposed method are compared to other methods of splitting that are based either on geometrical or random methods. The approach provided a significant reduction in model calibration time, the number of needed patterns in the test mask, and the total development process turn-around time; while maintaining the same accuracy that can be achieved from the original test patterns set.

Kamel, Mohammad K. A.; Al-Imam, Mohamed

2012-06-01

243

Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.  

PubMed

The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. PMID:25081852

González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

2014-11-01

244

Patterning of ZrO2 precursor through a gas-generated self-assembly route.  

PubMed

We designed a gas-generated self-assembly route for patterning of ZrO2 precursor films from an aqueous peroxozirconium solution. Molecular oxygen generated during the decomposition of zirconium complex selectively aggregated on the hydrophobic surface of self-assembled monolayers, which was photo-modified to be a template. This gas layer prevented the solution from attaching to the substrate, so as the deposition of zirconia precursor occurred almost entirely on the hydrophilic sites. In comparison, only isolated islands of deposits were observed on hydrophobic sites, which may be attributed to contamination or adsorption of colloids during the preparation of samples. The resolution of pattern was well improved by using such a gas-generated process. In addition, this approach can be also extended to prepare other micropatterns. PMID:17025097

Gao, Yanfeng; Masuda, Yoshitake; Koumoto, Kunihito

2006-06-01

245

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space has been a long-time goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Fastrac engine program was begun at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a 60,000-pound (60K) thrust, liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/RP), gas generator-cycle booster engine for a fraction of the cost of similar engines in existence. To achieve this goal, off-the-shelf components and readily available materials and processes would have to be used. This paper will present the Fastrac gas generator (GG) design and the component level hot-fire test program and results. The Fastrac GG is a simple, 4-piece design that uses well-defined materials and processes for fabrication. Thirty-seven component level hot-fire tests were conducted at MSFC's component test stand #116 (TS116) during 1997 and 1998. The GG was operated at all expected operating ranges of the Fastrac engine. Some minor design changes were required to successfully complete the test program as development issues arose during the testing. The test program data results and conclusions determined that the Fastrac GG design was well on the way to meeting the requirements of NASA's X-34 Pathfinder Program that chose the Fastrac engine as its main propulsion system.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, T.

2000-01-01

246

Generalization of the photo process window and its application to OPC test pattern design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the early development phase up to the production phase, test pattern play a key role for microlithography. The requirement for test pattern is to represent the design well and to cover the space of all process conditions, e.g. to investigate the full process window and all other process parameters. This paper shows that the current state-of-the-art test pattern do not address these requirements sufficiently and makes suggestions for a better selection of test pattern. We present a new methodology to analyze an existing layout (e.g. logic library, test pattern or full chip) for critical layout situations which does not need precise process data. We call this method "process space decomposition", because it is aimed at decomposing the process impact to a layout feature into a sum of single independent contributions, the dimensions of the process space. This is a generalization of the classical process window, which examines defocus and exposure dependency of given test pattern, e.g. CD value of dense and isolated lines. In our process space we additionally define the dimensions resist effects, etch effects, mask error and misalignment, which describe the deviation of the printed silicon pattern from its target. We further extend it by the pattern space using a product based layout (library, full chip or synthetic test pattern). The criticality of pattern is defined by their deviation due to aerial image, their sensitivity to the respective dimension or several combinations of these. By exploring the process space for a given design, the method allows to find the most critical patterns independent of specific process parameters. The paper provides examples for different applications of the method: (1) selection of design oriented test pattern for lithography development (2) test pattern reduction in process characterization (3) verification/optimization of printability and performance of post processing procedures (like OPC) (4) creation of a sensitive process monitor.

Eisenmann, Hans; Peter, Kai; Strojwas, Andrzej J.

2003-07-01

247

Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Directions: Play the games that are listed. Do not go to another site. Be sure to take turns with your partner. First, learn to complete a pattern by playing "Which One?." Next, keep practicing patterns by playing "Pattern Mania." Finally, determine what type of pattern each set is by playing "Which pattern is it?." ...

Hinson, Mrs.

2011-10-03

248

Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

1990-01-01

249

Test results for sawtooth-pattern damper seals - Leakage and rotordynamic coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results consisting of direct and transverse force coefficients are presented for eleven sawtooth-pattern damper-seal configurations. The designation 'damper' seal refers to a seal which uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net seal damping force. The designation 'sawtooth-pattern' refers to a stator-roughness pattern whose cross section normal to the axis of the seal resembles saw teeth with the teeth direction opposing fluid motion in the direction of shaft rotation. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or 'dams'. Sawtooth-pattern seals had more damping than smooth seals but less than the round-hole-pattern seals tested previously. If damping is sacrificed, sawtooth-pattern seals can be designed to leak less than round-hole-pattern seals.

Childs, D.; Garcia, F.

1986-01-01

250

The Testing of Sliding Electrical Contacts for Homopolar Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the recent interest in homopolar generators as pulsed power supplies, the need has arisen for pulsed brush data on slip rings at high current levels and high surface velocities. Tests were conducted to examine the effect of varying the apparent area of contact on the coefficient of friction, voltage drop, and wear rate. Brush areas from 0.806-3.23 cm2were

MIRE BRENNAN; ZWY ELIEZER; WILLIAM F. WELDON; H. GRADY RYLANDER; HERBERT H. WOODSON

1979-01-01

251

Testing of the Mark 101 magnetic flux compression generator  

SciTech Connect

The Mark 101 explosive flux compression generator is a line-initiated, vacuum/magnetically insulated, helical generator. This device offered some unique challenges in transforming the theoretical design into a testable experiment. The two main reasons for this are that in theory an eight-turn, four-wire Mark 101 possesses a terminal dL/dt of approx.0.5 ..cap omega.. and operates with electric fields which are greater than the threshold for electron field emission. With this in mind, we designed an integral vacuum-jacket-generator configuration with a passive load inductance of less than or equal to0.5 ..mu..H. The generator contained approx.8 ..mu..H of initial inductance. The field emission required the stator to be entirely sealed within the vacuum jacket. The open, helical stator resulted in the presence of non-trivial leakage fields and voltages. To accommodate these fields, the vacuum chamber for the generator was segmented and axially insulated with rings of acrylic, similar to stacked-ring diodes. We made no attempt to break the azimuthal metal surfaces due to the physical difficulty this would incur. Diagnostics included an input current Rogowski loop, a load Rogowski loop, two dB/dt probes in the load, a Faraday fiber-optic current sensor, and two dB/dt probes in the region between the stator winding and the vacuum jacket to measure the leakage azimuthal and axial magnetic fields. The results of explosive tests are presented.

Freeman, B.L.; Fowler, C.M.; King, J.C.; Martinez, A.R.

1986-01-01

252

Ultrasound-mediated targeted drug delivery generated by multifocal beam patterns: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-mediated targeted drug delivery has been a subject for a dedicated research activity for several decades. Nevertheless, in vitro studies in this field of research are characterized by their inconsistencies. To improve the repeatability of such experiments, a novel approach of multifocal spot generation was investigated. A multifocal pattern of 16 spots was utilized using an iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The pattern was applied to insonate a 96-well Petri dish plate using a clinically available planar-phased array transducer with approximately 1000 elements with a central frequency of 0.55 MHz. The pattern was acoustically characterized and applied to a monolayer of human breast cancer cell line in the 96-well plate. With the help of ultrasonic contrast agents, the intracellular drug uptake was increased by an average factor of 3.5 compared with the control group. PMID:23332815

Gourevich, Dana; Hertzberg, Yoni; Volovick, Alexander; Shafran, Yaron; Navon, Gil; Cochran, Sandy; Melzer, Andreas

2013-03-01

253

Radiation pattern of Lamb waves generated by a circular magnetostrictive patch transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a circular magnetostrictive patch bonded to a plate is subjected to static biasing and dynamic actuating magnetic fields, the patch deformation generates guided waves in the plate. To fully understand the characteristics of the circular patch-based transducer, the radiation pattern of the Lamb waves for arbitrary relative orientations of the two fields was experimentally investigated. The largest Lamb wave in an aluminum plate was generated when the two field directions make some oblique angle around 70°, not when they are parallel. The experimental findings were explained by a theoretical analysis.

Lee, Ju Seung; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

2007-01-01

254

SOM-based Pattern Generator: Pattern Generation Based on the Backward Projection in a Self-Organizing Map and Its Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major feature of the self-organizing map (SOM) is a topology-preserving projection from the input layer to the competitive layer, and it has been used mainly as an analytical tool for discovering underlying rules in the given data set. Even though recent splendid progress in this area, there are few novel ideas to break such a conventional style. On the contrary, based on its distinctive nature, a new method for generating patterns through backward projection from the competitive layer to the input layer is proposed recently. Moreover, a promising technology for producing animation as a series of backward-projected patterns along with any pathways on the competitive layer is presented. Then, in order to carry out further considerations, some computer simulations with a variety of posed stick figures are tried in this paper. After training, four kinds of pathways, which correspond to different movements such as dancing, exercising and walking, are prepared. Though some of them does not contain any training samples, all of them worked well as we have intended in advance. As a result, it is found that the proposed method shows good performance and it is also confirmed its effectiveness.

Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ishiguma, Takahiro

255

Five types of nonspiking interneurons in local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system  

PubMed Central

We conducted a quantitative analysis of the different nonspiking interneurons in the local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system. Within each local circuit, these interneurons control the firing of the power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons that drive swimmeret movements. Fifty-four of these interneurons were identified during physiological experiments with sharp microelectrodes and filled with dextran Texas red, Neurobiotin, or both. Five types of neurons were identified on the basis of combinations of physiological and anatomical characteristics. Anatomical categories were based on 16 anatomical parameters measured from stacks of confocal images obtained from each neuron. The results support the recognition of two functional classes: inhibitors of power stroke (IPS) and inhibitors of return stroke (IRS). The IPS class of interneuron has three morphological types with similar physiological properties. The IRS class has two morphological types with physiological properties and anatomical features different from the IPS neurons but similar within the class. Three of these five types have not been previously identified. Reviewing the evidence for dye coupling within each type, we conclude that each type of IPS neuron and one type of IRS neuron occur as a single copy in each local pattern-generating circuit. The last IRS type includes neurons that might occur as a dye-coupled pair in each local circuit. Recognition of these different interneurons in the swimmeret pattern-generating circuits leads to a refined model of the local pattern-generating circuit that includes synaptic connections that encode and decode information required for intersegmental coordination of swimmeret movements. PMID:23615552

Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen; Weller, Cynthia; Wright, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

256

Five types of nonspiking interneurons in local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system.  

PubMed

We conducted a quantitative analysis of the different nonspiking interneurons in the local pattern-generating circuits of the crayfish swimmeret system. Within each local circuit, these interneurons control the firing of the power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons that drive swimmeret movements. Fifty-four of these interneurons were identified during physiological experiments with sharp microelectrodes and filled with dextran Texas red, Neurobiotin, or both. Five types of neurons were identified on the basis of combinations of physiological and anatomical characteristics. Anatomical categories were based on 16 anatomical parameters measured from stacks of confocal images obtained from each neuron. The results support the recognition of two functional classes: inhibitors of power stroke (IPS) and inhibitors of return stroke (IRS). The IPS class of interneuron has three morphological types with similar physiological properties. The IRS class has two morphological types with physiological properties and anatomical features different from the IPS neurons but similar within the class. Three of these five types have not been previously identified. Reviewing the evidence for dye coupling within each type, we conclude that each type of IPS neuron and one type of IRS neuron occur as a single copy in each local pattern-generating circuit. The last IRS type includes neurons that might occur as a dye-coupled pair in each local circuit. Recognition of these different interneurons in the swimmeret pattern-generating circuits leads to a refined model of the local pattern-generating circuit that includes synaptic connections that encode and decode information required for intersegmental coordination of swimmeret movements. PMID:23615552

Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen; Weller, Cynthia; Wright, Terrence M; Mulloney, Brian

2013-07-01

257

Application of wavelet transform for fault pattern recognition and analysis of power system generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-capacity turbine-generator set has been widely used in power system as an important power supply and its operating condition is under mal-condition, so keeping it running in safety status is essential. A novel approach using wavelet neural network is proposed for transient vibration signal processing and fault pattern classification. In signal acquiring, the occurrence of transient signal makes the

Kang Shanlin; Kang Yuzhe; Zhang Huanzhen

2009-01-01

258

Key bifurcations of bursting polyrhythms in 3-cell central pattern generators  

E-print Network

We identify and describe the key qualitative rhythmic states in various 3-cell network motifs of a multifunctional central pattern generator (CPG). Such CPGs are neural microcircuits of cells whose synergetic interactions produce multiple states with distinct phase-locked patterns of bursting activity. To study biologically plausible CPG models, we develop a suite of computational tools that reduce the problem of stability and existence of rhythmic patterns in networks to the bifurcation analysis of fixed points and invariant curves of a Poincar\\'e return maps for phase lags between cells. We explore different functional possibilities for motifs involving symmetry breaking and heterogeneity. This is achieved by varying coupling properties of the synapses between the cells and studying the qualitative changes in the structure of the corresponding return maps. Our findings provide a systematic basis for understanding plausible biophysical mechanisms for the regulation of rhythmic patterns generated by various CPGs in the context of motor control such as gait-switching in locomotion. Our analysis does not require knowledge of the equations modeling the system and provides a powerful qualitative approach to studying detailed models of rhythmic behavior. Thus, our approach is applicable to a wide range of biological phenomena beyond motor control.

Jeremy Wojcik; Robert Clewley; Justus Schwabedal; Andrey L. Shilnikov

2013-12-28

259

Use of the SMPTE test pattern in picture archiving and communication systems.  

PubMed

In 1985 the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) published a Recommended Practice (RP-133) entitled Specifications for Medical Diagnostic Imaging Test Pattern for Television Monitors and Hard-copy Cameras. Since that time the SMPTE monochrome test pattern has been applied to the acceptance testing and quality control of video and image display systems, and hard-copy (film) recorders. The major features of the test pattern will be discussed along with applications and the problems demonstrated with the pattern. Furthermore, the test pattern will be used to demonstrate that color displays may exhibit only one-half of the resolution of a monochrome monitor whereas the display contrast (due to limited dynamic range) may be only 10 to 20% of that obtained with a monochrome display. PMID:1554759

Gray, J E

1992-02-01

260

Enhancement of an inhibitory input to the feeding central pattern generator in Lymnaea stagnalis during conditioned taste-aversion learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the neuronal mechanism of a conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) learning in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, we examined the synaptic connection between the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell and the cerebral giant cell (CGC), the former is an interneuron in central pattern generator for the feeding response and the latter is a regulatory neuron to the central pattern generator.

Satoshi Kojima; Hiroshi Nanakamura; Shin Nagayama; Yutaka Fujito; Etsuro Ito

1997-01-01

261

Generating tactile afferent stimulation patterns for slip and touch feedback in neural prosthetics.  

PubMed

Current prosthetic limbs are limited by a lack of tactile feedback. Slip feedback is particularly important to inform grip. Object slip is marked by both a change in the normal grip force applied and a change in force tangential to the fingertips. In this study, we demonstrate that a new multi-axial tactile sensor composed of gold nanoparticle strain gauges is able to record slip and reconstruct the X, Y, and Z forces incident on the sensor's surface due to a slipping object. We entered the X, Y, and Z force components generated by the slip event into a noisy leaky integrate and fire model to simulate the firing responses of SA1 and FA1 afferents. We also recorded a uniaxial normal force input representative of tactile contact. A single set of SA1 model and FA1 model parameters generated realistic firing patterns for both the slip and normal force recordings. These results suggest that canonical SA1 and FA1 afferent models could be used to generate biomimetic electrical stimulation patterns for both slip and touch stimuli. When used to activate the tactile afferents of an amputee, these electrical stimulation patterns could create natural and distinguishable slip and touch percepts for closed loop control of an upper limb neural prosthesis. PMID:24111087

Rager, Danielle M; Alvares, Darren; Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J; Morley, John W; Lovell, Nigel H; Vickery, Richard M

2013-01-01

262

From Spinal Central Pattern Generators to Cortical Network: Integrated BCI for Walking Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Success in locomotor rehabilitation programs can be improved with the use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Although a wealth of research has demonstrated that locomotion is largely controlled by spinal mechanisms, the brain is of utmost importance in monitoring locomotor patterns and therefore contains information regarding central pattern generation functioning. In addition, there is also a tight coordination between the upper and lower limbs, which can also be useful in controlling locomotion. The current paper critically investigates different approaches that are applicable to this field: the use of electroencephalogram (EEG), upper limb electromyogram (EMG), or a hybrid of the two neurophysiological signals to control assistive exoskeletons used in locomotion based on programmable central pattern generators (PCPGs) or dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNNs). Plantar surface tactile stimulation devices combined with virtual reality may provide the sensation of walking while in a supine position for use of training brain signals generated during locomotion. These methods may exploit mechanisms of brain plasticity and assist in the neurorehabilitation of gait in a variety of clinical conditions, including stroke, spinal trauma, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. PMID:22272380

Cheron, G.; Duvinage, M.; De Saedeleer, C.; Castermans, T.; Bengoetxea, A.; Petieau, M.; Seetharaman, K.; Hoellinger, T.; Dan, B.; Dutoit, T.; Sylos Labini, F.; Lacquaniti, F.; Ivanenko, Y.

2012-01-01

263

Analysis of the central pattern generator for swimming in the mollusk Clione.  

PubMed

The pteropod mollusk Clione limacina swims by rhythmic movements of two wings. The central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming, located in the pedal ganglia, is formed by three groups of interneurons. The interneurons of the groups 7 and 8 are of crucial importance for rhythm generation. They are endogenous oscillators capable of generating rhythmic activity with a range of frequencies typical of swimming after extraction from the ganglia. This endogenous rhythmic activity is enhanced by serotonin. The interneurons 7 and 8 produce one prolonged action potential (about 100 ms in duration) per cycle. Prolonged action potentials contribute to determining the duration of the cycle phases. The interneurons of two groups inhibit one another determining their reciprocal activity. The putative transmitters of groups 7 and 8 interneurons are glutamate and acetylcholine, respectively. Transition from one phase to the other is facilitated by the plateau interneurons of group 12 that contribute to termination of one phase and to initiation of the next phase. Maintaining the rhythm generation and transition from one phase to the other is also promoted by postinhibitory rebound. The redundant organization of the swimming generator guarantees the high reliability of its operation. Generation of the swimming output persisted after the inhibitory input from interneurons 8 to 7 had been blocked by atropine. Activity of the swimming generator is controlled by a set of command neurons that activate, inhibit or modulate the operation of the swimming CPG in relation to a behaviorally relevant context. PMID:9928301

Arshavsky, Y I; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N; Panchin, Y V; Popova, L B; Sadreyev, R I

1998-11-16

264

A criterion study of solar irradiation patterns for the performance testing of thermosyphon solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Taiwan test standard was established in 1989 using outdoor daily efficiency test methods. This test standard has been implemented for 12 years with satisfactory results. However, it was also found from field applications that the pattern of solar irradiation would affect the result of the performance test. In the present study, we used a distribution factor Ri defined as

J. M Chang; M. C Shen; B. J Huang

2002-01-01

265

Implementation of a data packet generator using pattern matching for wearable ECG monitoring systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

2014-01-01

266

Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

267

Deflectometer with synthetically generated reference circle for aspheric surface testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deflectometer with a synthetically generated reference circle is proposed for aspheric surface testing. Rotation and translation movements are combined to realize laser scanning and make the measurement of the aspheric surface in polar coordinates. It effectively improves the measurement precision for aspheric surfaces with large relative aperture. The measuring equipment is calibrated using a defocused standard spherical surface, and it achieves a precision of ?/5- ?/10 (?=0.6328 ?m) , which is close to the precision of the interferometric method ( ?/20). This testing technique based on laser deflectometry is capable of measuring most kinds of aspheric surfaces, especially those with large asphericity and those of concave shapes. The feasibility of the technique is shown and experimental results are presented.

Hao, Qun; Zhu, Qiudong; Wang, Yongtian

2005-07-01

268

Assembly-free genome comparison based on next-generation sequencing reads and variable length patterns  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), a large amount of short read data has been generated. If a reference genome is not available, the assembly of a template sequence is usually challenging because of repeats and the short length of reads. When NGS reads cannot be mapped onto a reference genome alignment-based methods are not applicable. However it is still possible to study the evolutionary relationship of unassembled genomes based on NGS data. Results We present a parameter-free alignment-free method, called Under2¯, based on variable-length patterns, for the direct comparison of sets of NGS reads. We define a similarity measure using variable-length patterns, as well as reverses and reverse-complements, along with their statistical and syntactical properties. We evaluate several alignment-free statistics on the comparison of NGS reads coming from simulated and real genomes. In almost all simulations our method Under2¯ outperforms all other statistics. The performance gain becomes more evident when real genomes are used. Conclusion The new alignment-free statistic is highly successful in discriminating related genomes based on NGS reads data. In almost all experiments, it outperforms traditional alignment-free statistics that are based on fixed length patterns. PMID:25252700

2014-01-01

269

Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator models.  

PubMed

Small groups of interneurons, abbreviated by CPG for central pattern generators, are arranged into neural networks to generate a variety of core bursting rhythms with specific phase-locked states, on distinct time scales, which govern vital motor behaviors in invertebrates such as chewing and swimming. These movements in lower level animals mimic motions of organs in higher animals due to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Hence, various neurological diseases can be linked to abnormal movement of body parts that are regulated by a malfunctioning CPG. In this paper, we, being inspired by recent experimental studies of neuronal activity patterns recorded from a swimming motion CPG of the sea slug Melibe leonina, examine a mathematical model of a 4-cell network that can plausibly and stably underlie the observed bursting rhythm. We develop a dynamical systems framework for explaining the existence and robustness of phase-locked states in activity patterns produced by the modeled CPGs. The proposed tools can be used for identifying core components for other CPG networks with reliable bursting outcomes and specific phase relationships between the interneurons. Our findings can be employed for identifying or implementing the conditions for normal and pathological functioning of basic CPGs of animals and artificially intelligent prosthetics that can regulate various movements. PMID:24387584

Jalil, Sajiya; Allen, Dane; Youker, Joseph; Shilnikov, Andrey

2013-12-01

270

Micropunching lithography for generating micro- and submicron-patterns on polymer substrates.  

PubMed

Conducting polymers have attracted great attention since the discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977(1). They offer the advantages of low weight, easy tailoring of properties and a wide spectrum of applications(2,3). Due to sensitivity of conducting polymers to environmental conditions (e.g., air, oxygen, moisture, high temperature and chemical solutions), lithographic techniques present significant technical challenges when working with these materials(4). For example, current photolithographic methods, such as ultra-violet (UV), are unsuitable for patterning the conducting polymers due to the involvement of wet and/or dry etching processes in these methods. In addition, current micro/nanosystems mainly have a planar form(5,6). One layer of structures is built on the top surfaces of another layer of fabricated features. Multiple layers of these structures are stacked together to form numerous devices on a common substrate. The sidewall surfaces of the microstructures have not been used in constructing devices. On the other hand, sidewall patterns could be used, for example, to build 3-D circuits, modify fluidic channels and direct horizontal growth of nanowires and nanotubes. A macropunching method has been applied in the manufacturing industry to create macropatterns in a sheet metal for over a hundred years. Motivated by this approach, we have developed a micropunching lithography method (MPL) to overcome the obstacles of patterning conducting polymers and generating sidewall patterns. Like the macropunching method, the MPL also includes two operations (Fig. 1): (i) cutting; and (ii) drawing. The "cutting" operation was applied to pattern three conducting polymers(4), polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophen)-poly(4-styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI). It was also employed to create Al microstructures(7). The fabricated microstructures of conducting polymers have been used as humidity(8), chemical(8), and glucose sensors(9). Combined microstructures of Al and conducting polymers have been employed to fabricate capacitors and various heterojunctions(9,10,11). The "cutting" operation was also applied to generate submicron-patterns, such as 100- and 500-nm-wide PPy lines as well as 100-nm-wide Au wires. The "drawing" operation was employed for two applications: (i) produce Au sidewall patterns on high density polyethylene (HDPE) channels which could be used for building 3D microsystems(12,13,14), and (ii) fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars on HDPE substrates to increase the contact angle of the channel(15). PMID:22805740

Chakraborty, Anirban; Liu, Xinchuan; Luo, Cheng

2012-01-01

271

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

1990-01-01

272

Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell–cell interactions with microscale resolution. Scope of the review We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Major conclusions Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell–cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell–cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. General significance Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. PMID:20655984

Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

2010-01-01

273

Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi IITe 3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

2006-03-01

274

SMPTE Test Pattern For Certification Of Medical Diagnostic Display Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the invention of x-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, rapid advances have been made in the radiological detection of body abnormalities. This was very evident in the 1960's and 70's when the marriage of computers to radiology gave birth to a new generation of imaging modalities such as computerized tomography, ultrasound, digital radiographic imaging, nuclear medicine, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Many of these devices employ digital computer techniques for signal manipulation, and the resultant analog diagnostic images are displayed on television monitors for viewing and on imaging cathode-ray tubes for a photographic hard copy.

Lisk, Kenneth G.

1984-08-01

275

Distinct inspiratory rhythm and pattern generating mechanisms in the preB?tzinger Complex  

PubMed Central

In the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator, the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) produces rhythmic bursts that drive inspiratory motor output. Cellular mechanisms initiated by each burst are hypothesized to be necessary to determine the timing of the subsequent burst, playing a critical role in rhythmogenesis. To explore mechanisms relating inspiratory burst generation to rhythmogenesis, we compared preBötC and hypoglossal (XII) nerve motor activity in medullary slices from neonatal mice in conditions where periods between successive inspiratory XII bursts were highly variable and distributed multimodally. This pattern resulted from rhythmic preBötC neural population activity that consisted of bursts, concurrent with XII bursts, intermingled with significantly smaller “burstlets”. Burstlets occurred at regular intervals during significantly longer XII interburst intervals, at times when a XII burst was expected. When a preBötC burst occurred, its high amplitude inspiratory component (I-burst) was preceded by a preinspiratory component that closely resembled the rising phase of burstlets. Cadmium (8 ?M) eliminated preBötC and XII bursts, but rhythmic preBötC burstlets persisted. Burstlets and preinspiratory activity were observed in ~90% of preBötC neurons that were active during I-bursts. When preBötC excitability was raised significantly, burstlets could leak through to motor output in medullary slices and in vivo in adult anesthetized rats. Thus, rhythmic bursting, a fundamental mode of nervous system activity and an essential element of breathing, can be deconstructed into a rhythmogenic process producing low amplitude burstlets and preinspiratory activity that determine timing, and a pattern-generating process producing suprathreshold I-bursts essential for motor output. PMID:23719793

Kam, Kaiwen; Worrell, Jason W.; Janczewski, Wiktor A.; Cui, Yan; Feldman, Jack L.

2013-01-01

276

Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Generation of the Lobster Gastric Mill Motor Pattern  

PubMed Central

The lobster gastric mill central pattern generator (CPG) is located in the stomatogastric ganglion and consists of 11 neurons whose circuitry is well known. Because all of the neurons are identifiable and accessible, it can serve as a prime experimental model for analyzing how microcircuits generate multiphase oscillatory spatiotemporal patterns. The neurons that comprise the gastric mill CPG consist of one interneuron, five burster neurons and six tonically firing neurons. The single interneuron (Int 1) is shared by the medial tooth subcircuit (containing the AM, DG and GMs) and the lateral teeth subcircuit (LG, MG and LPGs). By surveying cell-to-cell connections and the cooperative dynamics of the neurons we find that the medial subcircuit is essentially a feed forward system of oscillators. The Int 1 neuron entrains the DG and AM cells by delayed excitation and this pair then periodically inhibits the tonically firing GMs causing them to burst. The lateral subcircuit consists of two negative feedback loops of reciprocal inhibition from Int 1 to the LG/MG pair and from the LG/MG to the LPGs. Following a fast inhibition from Int 1, the LG/MG neurons receive a slowly developing excitatory input similar to that which Int 1 puts onto DG/AM. Thus Int 1 plays a key role in synchronizing both subcircuits. This coordinating role is assisted by additional, weaker connections between the two subsets but those are not sufficient to synchronize them in the absence of Int 1. In addition to the experiments, we developed a conductance-based model of a slightly simplified gastric circuit. The mathematical model can reproduce the fundamental rhythm and many of the experimentally induced perturbations. Our findings shed light on the functional role of every cell and synapse in this small circuit providing a detailed understanding of the rhythm generation and pattern formation in the gastric mill network. PMID:19893763

Selverston, Allen I.; Szucs, Attila; Huerta, Ramon; Pinto, Reynaldo; Reyes, Marcelo

2009-01-01

277

Precise colocalization of interacting structural and pigmentary elements generates extensive color pattern variation in Phelsuma lizards  

PubMed Central

Background Color traits in animals play crucial roles in thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage, and visual communication, and are amenable to objective quantification and modeling. However, the extensive variation in non-melanic pigments and structural colors in squamate reptiles has been largely disregarded. Here, we used an integrated approach to investigate the morphological basis and physical mechanisms generating variation in color traits in tropical day geckos of the genus Phelsuma. Results Combining histology, optics, mass spectrometry, and UV and Raman spectroscopy, we found that the extensive variation in color patterns within and among Phelsuma species is generated by complex interactions between, on the one hand, chromatophores containing yellow/red pteridine pigments and, on the other hand, iridophores producing structural color by constructive interference of light with guanine nanocrystals. More specifically, we show that 1) the hue of the vivid dorsolateral skin is modulated both by variation in geometry of structural, highly ordered narrowband reflectors, and by the presence of yellow pigments, and 2) that the reflectivity of the white belly and of dorsolateral pigmentary red marks, is increased by underlying structural disorganized broadband reflectors. Most importantly, these interactions require precise colocalization of yellow and red chromatophores with different types of iridophores, characterized by ordered and disordered nanocrystals, respectively. We validated these results through numerical simulations combining pigmentary components with a multilayer interferential optical model. Finally, we show that melanophores form dark lateral patterns but do not significantly contribute to variation in blue/green or red coloration, and that changes in the pH or redox state of pigments provide yet another source of color variation in squamates. Conclusions Precisely colocalized interacting pigmentary and structural elements generate extensive variation in lizard color patterns. Our results indicate the need to identify the developmental mechanisms responsible for the control of the size, shape, and orientation of nanocrystals, and the superposition of specific chromatophore types. This study opens up new perspectives on Phelsuma lizards as models in evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:24099066

2013-01-01

278

Digital pattern generator: an electron-optical MEMS for massively parallel reflective electron beam lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digital pattern generator (DPG) is a complex electron-optical MEMS that pixelates the electron beam in the reflective electron beam lithography (REBL) e-beam column. It potentially enables massively parallel printing, which could make REBL competitive with optical lithography. The development of the REBL DPG, from the CMOS architecture, through the lenslet modeling and design, to the fabrication of the MEMS device, is described in detail. The imaging and printing results are also shown, which validate the pentode lenslet concept and the fabrication process.

Grella, Luca; Carroll, Allen; Murray, Kirk; McCord, Mark A.; Tong, William M.; Brodie, Alan D.; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Fuge; Kidwingira, Françoise; Kojima, Shinichi; Petric, Paul; Bevis, Christopher F.; Vereecke, Bart; Haspeslagh, Luc; Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

2013-07-01

279

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining  

E-print Network

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining Jian, object-relational DBMS, data warehouse sys- tems, etc. We believe that benchmarking data mining mining systems as well. Frequent pattern mining forms a core component in mining associations

Pei, Jian

280

Centrifuge Model tests on Failure Pattern of Group Column Type Deep Mixing Improved Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Mixing Method (DMM), a deep in-situ stabilization technique using cement and\\/or lime as a stabilizing agent, is often applied to improve soft soils. Among several improvement patterns, the group column type DMM improved ground has been extensively used to treat subsoil of lightweight structures. A series of centrifuge model tests was performed to investigate the failure pattern of

Masaki Kitazume; Kenji Maruyama

281

1995 International Test Conference, Oct. 23-25, 1995 SYNTHESIS OF MAPPING LOGIC FOR GENERATING  

E-print Network

TRANSFORMED PSEUDO-RANDOM PATTERNS FOR BIST Nur A. Touba and Edward J. McCluskey Center for Reliable Computing generator may not provide a sufficiently high fault coverage. This paper presents a new technique for synthesizing combinational mapping logic to transform the set of patterns that are generated. The goal

Stanford University

282

Experience With The SMPTE Test Pattern In Quality Control Of Magnetic Resonance Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMPTE test pattern has proven to be an effective tool for calibrating and monitoring the image display devices of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. Linearity and size adjustments of video displays are particulary important because of the proximity of magnetic fields. The 5% and 95% intensity levels of the test pattern are extremely useful for adjusting the grayscale of both video displays and multiformat hardcopy devices. An appropriate sequence of operations for adjusting and monitoring image display devices is recommended.

Bronskill, Michael J.

1984-08-01

283

Patterns of word-list generation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been described as exhibiting greater impairment on tests of category fluency than letter fluency. This has been offered as evidence that this condition represents pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that this pattern of differential impairment is dependent on the specific semantic categories and initial letters selected, and is not specific to AD and aMCI. A total of 40 cognitively normal older adults, 74 MCI patients-25 "amnestic single domain" (aMCI), 27 "amnestic multiple domain", and 22 non-amnestic-and 29 AD patients were tested with multiple forms of semantic-category and initial-letter fluency tasks. The pattern of deficits within and across groups was highly dependent on the specific categories and letters chosen. Overall, aMCI patients did not demonstrate greater impairment in category than letter fluency. In fact, the level and pattern of their performance resembled that of cognitively normal older adults much more than AD patients. MCI patients with deficits in multiple cognitive domains performed most like AD patients. These findings indicate that verbal fluency performance is highly influenced by the specific tasks used, and impairment on semantic fluency is not characteristic of pure amnestic MCI. PMID:19301196

Brandt, Jason; Manning, Kevin J

2009-07-01

284

Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing an Automated Modelling Tool  

E-print Network

- 1 - Generating Structurally Complex Test Cases by Data Mutation: A Case Study of Testing Brookes University, Oxford OX33 1HX, UK Email: hzhu@brookes.ac.uk ABSTRACT Generation of adequate test cases is difficult and expensive, especially for testing software systems whose input is structurally

Zhu, Hong

285

TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357  

SciTech Connect

The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build up of filter cake on the disks and therefore the performance of the filter. The filter performed well with the simulant. Very little drop in production was noticed between the 5 and 10 wt% insoluble solids feed. Increasing to 15 wt% had a more pronounced impact due to the rheology of the feed. Acid cleaning was used to clean the filter disks in-situ and restore filtration rate to almost 90% of the initial clean disk rate. Eighty liters of 0.2 M nitric acid in conjunction with water rinses were used to clean the filter in less than 2 hours. Filter testing was completed after 1000 hours of operation were performed on the final filter assembly configuration. The total run time for the testing was over 1500 hours. At the end of the test, the sludge washing was performed successfully from approximately 5.6 M to less than 1 M sodium.

Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

2011-02-02

286

An efficient approach to pseudo-exhaustive test generation for BIST design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the built-in self-test (BIST) methodology, the two major problems which must be addressed are test generation and response analysis. An efficient, unified solution to the problem of test generation is presented. A design procedure that is computationally efficient and produces test generation circuitry with low hardware overhead is proposed. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by detailed comparisons

Chien-In H. Chen; Gerald E. Sobelman

1989-01-01

287

Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals. PMID:18262186

Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

2008-01-01

288

Automatic Test Case Generation Using Multi-protocol Test Method Soo-in Lee, Yongbum Park, and Myungchul Kim  

E-print Network

Automatic Test Case Generation Using Multi-protocol Test Method Soo-in Lee, Yongbum Park, mckim}@icu.ac.kr Abstract - A method for testing multi-protocol implementation under test (IUT) with a single test suite has been proposed in the literature. It tests a multi-protocol IUT in an integrated way

Lee, Ben

289

Phase response characteristics of model neurons determine which patterns are expressed in a ring circuit model of gait generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the relative contributions to pattern-generation of the intrinsic properties of individual neurons and of their connectivity, we examined a ring cir- cuit composed of four complex physiologically based os- cillators. This circuit produced patterns that correspond to several quadrupedal gaits, including the walk, the bound, and the gallop. An analysis using the phase response curve (PRC)

Carmen C. Canavier; Robert J. Butera; R. O. Dror; Douglas A. Baxter; J. W. Clark; John H. Byrne

1997-01-01

290

Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

2006-01-01

291

NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test.  

PubMed

The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18-85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test-retest reliability. There was also evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity; the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other processing speed tests (i.e., WAIS-IV Coding, Symbol Search and Processing Speed Index), small significant correlations with measures of working memory (i.e., WAIS-IV Letter-Number Sequencing and PASAT), and non-significant correlations with a test of vocabulary comprehension (i.e., PPVT-IV). Finally, analyses comparing and combining scores on the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test with other measures of simple reaction time from the NIHTB-CB indicated that a Processing Speed Composite score performed better than any test examined in isolation. The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test exhibits several strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages, 3-85 years), it is short and easy to administer, and it has high construct validity. PMID:24960594

Carlozzi, Noelle E; Tulsky, David S; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Weintraub, Sandra; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard C

2014-07-01

292

GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

293

21 CFR 874.1120 - Electronic noise generator for audiometric testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification. An electronic noise generator for audiometric testing is a device that consists of a swept frequency generator, an amplifier, and an earphone. It is intended to introduce a masking noise into the non-test ear during an audiometric...

2012-04-01

294

A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

2014-01-01

295

Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe  

E-print Network

Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe Sc, Berkeley Spring 2007 #12;Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving Dynamometer Copyright c 2007 by Stephen Rehmeyer Pepe #12;Abstract Testing Small Wind Turbine Generators: Design of a Driving

Kammen, Daniel M.

296

Ontology-Based Test Case Generation For Simulating Complex Production Automation Systems  

E-print Network

. The innovative approach uses a dynamic generic generator script based on an ontology data model of the testing generation process. Keywords - test case generation, ontology, production automation simulation, explicit parameters. The innovative approach models system and test know- how in an ontology-based data model

297

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt  

E-print Network

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Je erson O utt Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data generation method

Offutt, Jeff

298

Figure 1. A texture metamorphosis sequence is generated from the leftmost to the rightmost. Pattern-based Texture Metamorphosis  

E-print Network

Figure 1. A texture metamorphosis sequence is generated from the leftmost to the rightmost. Pattern-based Texture Metamorphosis Ziqiang Liu Ce Liu Heung-Yeung Shum Yizhou Yu Microsoft Research Asia Zhejiang}@microsoft.com yyz@cs.uiuc.edu Abstract In this paper, we study texture metamorphosis, or how to generate texture

Oishi, Takeshi

299

Reification of Executable Test Scripts in Formal Specicifation-Based Test Generation: The Java Card Transaction Mechanism Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automatic generation of test cases from formal specification is a very promising way both to give a rationale for deciding\\u000a the scope of testing and to reduce the time for test design and coding. In order to achieve this purpose, formal specification-based\\u000a methods must solve the problem of executable test script generation from abstract test cases and automatic verdict assignment.

Fabrice Bouquet; Bruno Legeard

2003-01-01

300

Enhancing Students' Learning Process Through Self-Generated Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of new technologies in higher education has surprisingly emphasized students' tendency to adopt a passive behavior in class. Participation and interaction of students are essential to improve academic results. This paper describes an educational experiment aimed at the promotion of students' autonomous learning by requiring them to generate test type questions related to the contents of the course. The main idea is to make the student feel part of the evaluation process by including students' questions in the evaluation exams. A set of applications running on our university online learning environment has been developed in order to provide both students and teachers with the necessary tools for a good interaction between them. Questions uploaded by students are visible to every enrolled student as well as to each involved teacher. In this way, we enhance critical analysis skills, by solving and finding possible mistakes in the questions sent by their fellows. The experiment was applied over 769 students from 12 different courses. Results show that the students who have actively participated in the experiment have obtained better academic performance.

Sanchez-Elez, Marcos; Pardines, Inmaculada; Garcia, Pablo; Miñana, Guadalupe; Roman, Sara; Sanchez, Margarita; Risco, Jose Luis

2013-03-01

301

Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials  

PubMed Central

For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators. PMID:24303193

Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

2013-01-01

302

Emergent Central Pattern Generator Behavior in Gap-Junction-Coupled Hodgkin-Huxley Style Neuron Model  

PubMed Central

Most models of central pattern generators (CPGs) involve two distinct nuclei mutually inhibiting one another via synapses. Here, we present a single-nucleus model of biologically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with random gap junction coupling. Despite no explicit division of neurons into two groups, we observe a spontaneous division of neurons into two distinct firing groups. In addition, we also demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified version of the model, highlighting the importance of afterhyperpolarization currents (IAHP) to CPGs utilizing gap junction coupling. The properties of these CPGs also appear sensitive to gap junction conductance, probability of gap junction coupling between cells, topology of gap junction coupling, and, to a lesser extent, input current into our simulated nucleus. PMID:23365558

Memelli, Heraldo; Solomon, Irene C.

2012-01-01

303

Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator  

PubMed Central

The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications. PMID:23755009

Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

2013-01-01

304

A novel technique of optical interference to generate equispaced fringe pattern of concentric ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the upcoming of the next-generation large-capacity CDs and DVDs using a blue-violet laser, the track's pitch will continue to decrease. The conventional methods for pregrooves will have a technique challenge to meet tiny-pitch specs at low cost. In order to get an equispaced fringe pattern with concentric-ring structure by using optical interference lithography, a novel optical-interference method is proposed with the use of a plane wave plus a conical wave along the same optical-axis (Z) propagation. Based on the optical interference analysis with the two waves, plane and conical waves, the resulting intensity varies consinusoidally with the phase difference, as modulated by the optical path difference between the plane and conical waves. The constructive and destructive interference will occur in the interference light field, only depending on if in phase or out of phase for the two waves. The concentric-ring structure of equispaced fringe pattern can be produced, and the fringe period depends on the wavelength of the light beams and conical constant of the conical wavefront as well. The novel optical interference system has been modeled and simulated with a kind of Mach-Zender interferometer arrangement by commercial optical code. The optical simulation results are proved to have a good agreement with that as given by the theoretical analysis.

Wang, Min; Thibault, Simon

2005-08-01

305

Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator  

PubMed Central

Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

Day, Nancy F.; Terleski, Kyle L.; Nykamp, Duane Q.

2013-01-01

306

Different patterns of language activation in post-stroke aphasia are detected by overt and covert versions of the verb generation fMRI task  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Post-stroke language functions depend on the relative contributions of the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Thus, we aimed to identify the neural correlates of overt and covert verb generation in adult post-stroke aphasia. Material/Methods Sixteen aphasic LMCA stroke patients (SPs) and 32 healthy controls (HCs) underwent language testing followed by fMRI while performing an overt event-related verb generation task (ER-VGT) isolating activations related to noun-verb semantic processing or to articulation and auditory processing, and a covert block design verb generation task (BD-VGT). Results BD-VGT activation patterns were consistent with previous studies, while ER-VGT showed different patterns in SPs relative to HCs including less left-hemispheric involvement during semantic processing and predominantly right-sided activation related to articulation and auditory processing. ER-VGT intra-scanner performance was positively associated with activation during semantic associations in the left middle temporal gyrus for HCs (p=0.031) and left middle frontal gyrus for SPs (p=0.042). Increased activation in superior frontal/cingulate gyri was associated with better intra-scanner performance (p=0.020). Lesion size negatively impacted verbal fluency tested with Controlled Oral Word Association Test (p=0.0092) and the Semantic Fluency Test (p=0.033) and trended towards a negative association with verb generation performance on the event-related verb generation task (p=0.081). Conclusions Greater retention of pre-stroke language skills is associated with greater involvement of the left hemisphere with different cortical recruitment patterns observed in SPs versus HCs. Post-stroke verbal fluency may depend more upon the structural and functional integrity of the dominant left hemisphere language network rather than the shift to contralateral homologues. PMID:22367124

Allendorfer, Jane B.; Kissela, Brett M.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2012-01-01

307

Generating test data from state-based specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although the majority of software testing in industry is conducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system-level testing techniques are only described informally. This paper presents formal testing criteria for system level testing that are based on formal specifications of the software. Software testing can only be formalized

A. Jefferson Offutt; Shaoying Liu; Aynur Abdurazik; Paul Ammann

2003-01-01

308

Alternative splicing generates metabotropic glutamate receptors inducing different patterns of calcium release in Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed Central

A splice variant of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1a, named mGluR1c, was isolated. Compared to mGluR1a, the predicted mGluR1c protein is 302 amino acids shorter at its C-terminal end. Despite this difference, mGluR1c activates phospholipase C in Xenopus oocytes with a pharmacological profile identical to that of mGluR1a. However, in contrast to the large fast transient responses induced by mGluR1a, mGluR1c receptors elicit a small more slowly generated long-lasting oscillatory current, suggesting that these two receptors do not generate the same pattern of Ca2+ release in Xenopus oocytes. In situ hybridization data show that mGluR1c mRNA is expressed at a lower level than the other splice variants of mGluR1. Some differences in the regional distribution of these transcripts were observed in the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, and the striatum. Images PMID:1438218

Pin, J P; Waeber, C; Prezeau, L; Bockaert, J; Heinemann, S F

1992-01-01

309

Dynamic contrast enhancement in widefield microscopy using projector-generated illumination patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and cost-effective optical protocol to realize contrast-enhancement imaging (such as dark-field, optical-staining and oblique illumination microscopy) of transparent samples on a conventional widefield microscope using commercial multimedia projectors. The projector functions as both light source and mask generator implemented by creating slideshows of the filters projected along the illumination planes of the microscope. The projected optical masks spatially modulate the distribution of the incident light to selectively enhance structures within the sample according to spatial frequency thereby increasing the image contrast of translucent biological specimens. Any amplitude filter can be customized and dynamically controlled so that switching from one imaging modality to another involves a simple slide transition and can be executed at a keystroke with no physical filters and no moving optical parts. The method yields an image contrast of 89 96% comparable with standard enhancement techniques. The polarization properties of the projector are then utilized to discriminate birefringent and non-birefringent sites on the sample using single-shot, simultaneous polarization and optical-staining microscopy. In addition to dynamic pattern generation and polarization, the projector also provides high illumination power and spectral excitation selectivity through its red-green-blue (RGB) channels. We exploit this last property to explore the feasibility of using video projectors to selectively excite stained samples and perform fluorescence imaging in tandem with reflectance and polarization reflectance microscopy.

Carlo Samson, Edward; Mar Blanca, Carlo

2007-10-01

310

Electrical activation of the pocket scratch central pattern generator in the turtle.  

PubMed

1. A low-spinal, immobilized turtle displays a fictive scratch reflex in hindlimb motor neurons in response to tactile stimulation of the shell (17, 19). Turtles exhibit three forms of the scratch reflex: rostral, pocket, and caudal. Each form is elicited by tactile stimulation of a different receptive field on the body surface. The ventral-posterior pocket (VPP) cutaneous nerve innervates the ventral-posterior portion of the pocket scratch receptive field (Fig. 1). Natural stimulation within the VPP nerve's receptive field evoked a pocket scratch reflex (Fig. 2A). Electrical stimulation of this nerve elicited robust pocket scratch reflexes (Fig. 2, B and C). 2. A single electrical pulse to the VPP nerve delivered at a voltage (greater than 5 V, 0.1 ms) that activated all the axons in the nerve was termed a "maximal" pulse. A single maximal pulse did not evoke a scratch motor response. It raised the excitability of the pocket scratch central pattern generator for several seconds, however. We revealed such excitability changes by applying maximal pulses to the VPP nerve at multisecond intervals (Figs. 5 and 6). When we delivered maximal pulses with interpulse intervals of less than or equal to 5 s, the first pulse produced no motor response and the second pulse evoked one or more cycles of pocket scratch. 3. A stimulus pulse applied to the VPP nerve was used as a probe for studying changes in the excitability of the pocket scratch CPG following scratch motor patterns. In a rested preparation, the stimulus pulse did not activate motor output. In contrast, the stimulus pulse evoked one or two cycles of pocket scratch activity if delivered within 2.5 s after the cessation of rhythmic pocket scratch motor activity (Figs. 7-9). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pocket scratch CPG has elevated excitability for seconds following the cessation of pocket scratch motor output. A single pulse applied to the VPP nerve evoked no response if delivered after the cessation of rostral scratch motor activity, however (Fig. 9D). 4. We used a train of maximal pulses to the VPP nerve to probe the form-specificity of the changes in the excitability following a rostral scratch motor pattern (Fig. 10). We set the stimulus parameters so that the train evoked one or two cycles of a pocket scratch motor pattern in a preparation that had rested for over 1 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3236064

Currie, S N; Stein, P S

1988-12-01

311

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01

312

BALLERINA: Automatic Generation and Clustering of Efficient Random Unit Tests for Multithreaded Code  

E-print Network

BALLERINA: Automatic Generation and Clustering of Efficient Random Unit Tests for Multithreaded.gross@inf.ethz.ch Abstract--Testing multithreaded code is hard and expensive. A multithreaded unit test creates two or more present BALLERINA, a novel technique for automated random generation of efficient multithreaded tests

Marinov, Darko

313

Feedback flow to improve model-based OPC calibration test patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process models are responsible for the prediction of the latent image in the resist in a lithographic process. In order for the process model to calculate the latent image, information about the aerial image at each layout fragment is evaluated first and then some aerial image characteristics are extracted. These parameters are passed to the process models to calculate wafer latent image. The process model will return a threshold value that indicates the position of the latent image inside the resist, the accuracy of this value will depend on the calibration data that were used to build the process model in the first place. The calibration structures used in building the models are usually gathered in a single layout file called the test pattern. Real raw data from the lithographic process are measured and attached to its corresponding structure in the test pattern, this data is then applied to the calibration flow of the models. In this paper we present an approach to automatically detect patterns that are found in real designs and have considerable aerial image parameters differences with the nearest test pattern structure, and repair the test patterns to include these structures. This detect-and-repair approach will guarantee accurate prediction of different layout fragments and therefore correct OPC behavior.

Tawfic, Walid A.; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Madkour, Karim; Fathy, Rami; Kusnadi, Ir; Bailey, George E.

2007-03-01

314

Nanophotonic reservoir computing with photonic crystal cavities to generate periodic patterns.  

PubMed

Reservoir computing (RC) is a technique in machine learning inspired by neural systems. RC has been used successfully to solve complex problems such as signal classification and signal generation. These systems are mainly implemented in software, and thereby they are limited in speed and power efficiency. Several optical and optoelectronic implementations have been demonstrated, in which the system has signals with an amplitude and phase. It is proven that these enrich the dynamics of the system, which is beneficial for the performance. In this paper, we introduce a novel optical architecture based on nanophotonic crystal cavities. This allows us to integrate many neurons on one chip, which, compared with other photonic solutions, closest resembles a classical neural network. Furthermore, the components are passive, which simplifies the design and reduces the power consumption. To assess the performance of this network, we train a photonic network to generate periodic patterns, using an alternative online learning rule called first-order reduced and corrected error. For this, we first train a classical hyperbolic tangent reservoir, but then we vary some of the properties to incorporate typical aspects of a photonics reservoir, such as the use of continuous-time versus discrete-time signals and the use of complex-valued versus real-valued signals. Then, the nanophotonic reservoir is simulated and we explore the role of relevant parameters such as the topology, the phases between the resonators, the number of nodes that are biased and the delay between the resonators. It is important that these parameters are chosen such that no strong self-oscillations occur. Finally, our results show that for a signal generation task a complex-valued, continuous-time nanophotonic reservoir outperforms a classical (i.e., discrete-time, real-valued) leaky hyperbolic tangent reservoir (normalized root-mean-square errors=0.030 versus NRMSE=0.127). PMID:24807033

Fiers, Martin Andre Agnes; Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Wyffels, Francis; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

2014-02-01

315

Generation of Pairwise Test Sets Using a Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise testing is a combinatorial technique used to reduce the number of test case inputs to a system in situations where exhaustive testing with all possible inputs is not possible or prohibitively expensive. Given a set of input parameters where each parameter can take on one of a discrete set of values, a pairwise test set consists of a collection

James D. Mccaffrey

2009-01-01

316

Pattern-information analysis: from stimulus decoding to computational-model testing.  

PubMed

Pattern-information analysis has become an important new paradigm in functional imaging. Here I review and compare existing approaches with a focus on the question of what we can learn from them in terms of brain theory. The most popular and widespread method is stimulus decoding by response-pattern classification. This approach addresses the question whether activity patterns in a given region carry information about the stimulus category. Pattern classification uses generic models of the stimulus-response relationship that do not mimic brain information processing and treats the stimulus space as categorical-a simplification that is often helpful, but also limiting in terms of the questions that can be addressed. We can address the question whether representations are consistent across different stimulus sets or tasks by cross-decoding, where the classifier is trained with one set of stimuli (or task) and tested with another. Beyond pattern classification, a major new direction is the integration of computational models of brain information processing into pattern-information analysis. This approach enables us to address the question to what extent competing computational models are consistent with the stimulus representations in a brain region. Two methods that test computational models are voxel receptive-field modeling and representational similarity analysis. These methods sample the stimulus (or mental-state) space more richly, estimate a separate response pattern for each stimulus, and can generalize from the stimulus sample to a stimulus population. Computational models that mimic brain information processing predict responses from stimuli. The reverse transform can be modeled to reconstruct stimuli from responses. Stimulus reconstruction is a challenging feat of engineering, but the implications of the results for brain theory are not always clear. Exploratory pattern analyses complement the confirmatory approaches mentioned so far and can reveal strong, unexpected effects that might be missed when testing only a restricted set of predefined hypotheses. PMID:21281719

Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

2011-05-15

317

Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

2010-01-01

318

Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition algorithms on single session testing  

PubMed Central

There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in response to sleep loss. PMID:22959616

St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

2012-01-01

319

PWR steam generator chemical cleaning process testing in model steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion related problems in PWR power plant steam generators have caused high maintenance costs, increased radiation exposure to plant personnel, and reduced unit availability. Two cleaning methods were investigated for their ability to clean deposits from steam generators thereby increasing the integrity of the steam generators and reducing personnel radiation exposure, due to reduced maintenance. First, an on-line chemical cleaning

F. E. Jr. Swan; A. A. Katterhenry; S. Mostovoy; P. Latash; G. S. Gerzen

1984-01-01

320

Design and use of an electronic speckle pattern interferometer for testing of turbine parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and application of an electronic speckle pattern interferometer for the vibration testing of turbine rotor blades are discussed. The interferometer was designed to meet the requirements of ease of interpretation, insensitivity to background disturbances, high measuring speed, simple operation and acceptable cost. The technique is based on the holographic principle, with both reference and image waves impinging on

O. J. Lokberg; P. Svenke

1981-01-01

321

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1)  

E-print Network

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1 98 Abstract The aim of this work is to develop a methodology for integrating climate change scenarios into quantitative hazard assessment and especially their precipitation component. The effects of climate change

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

A test of spatial memory and movement patterns of bumblebees at multiple  

E-print Network

A test of spatial memory and movement patterns of bumblebees at multiple spatial and temporal of Toronto, Toronto, Ontorio M5S 3G5, Canada Naive bumblebee foragers appear to use movement rules at small as the scales increase. One strategy for efficient foraging used by bumblebees is near-far search, involving

Thomson, James D.

323

Detection of Unmotivated Test Takers through an Analysis of Response Patterns: Beyond Person-Fit Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The identification of patterned responding in unmotivated test takers was investigated through the formation of a novel method. The proposed method relied on marginal proportions of answer choice options as well as the transitional proportions between responses on item pairs. A chi square analysis was used to determine the degree of significance…

Twiste, Tara L.

2011-01-01

324

MULTICORR: A Computer Program for Fast, Accurate, Small-Sample Testing of Correlational Pattern Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program presented computes a chi-square statistic for testing pattern hypotheses on correlation matrices. The statistic is based on a multivariate generalization of the Fisher r-to-z transformation. This statistic has small sample performance which is superior to an analogous likelihood ratio statistic obtained via the analysis of covariance…

Steiger, James H.

1979-01-01

325

CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by

C. K. Cheng; K. K. Yuen; K. M. Lam; S. M. Lo

2005-01-01

326

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale  

PubMed Central

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13?×?107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production. PMID:24289275

2013-01-01

327

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13 × 107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production.

Ho, Jian-Wei; Wee, Qixun; Dumond, Jarrett; Tay, Andrew; Chua, Soo-Jin

2013-12-01

328

Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale.  

PubMed

We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13?×?107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production. PMID:24289275

Ho, Jian-Wei; Wee, Qixun; Dumond, Jarrett; Tay, Andrew; Chua, Soo-Jin

2013-01-01

329

Modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in rats with central pattern generator hardware.  

PubMed

We report on the modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in rats with central pattern generator (CPG) hardware made of silicon neurons. The neurons are made to compete through mutually inhibitory synapses to provide timed electrical oscillations that stimulate the peripheral end of vagus nerve at specific points of the respiratory cycle: the inspiratory phase (?(1)), the early expiratory phase (?(2)) and the late expiratory phase (?(3)). In this way the CPG hardware mimics the neuron populations in the brainstem which through connections with cardiac vagal motoneurones control respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Here, we time the output of the CPG hardware from the phrenic nerve activity recorded from rats while monitoring heart rate changes evoked by vagal nerve stimulation (derived from ECG) controlled by the CPG. This neuroelectric stimulation has the effect of reducing the heart rate and increasing the arterial pressure. The artificially induced RSA strongly depends on the timing of pulses within the breathing cycle. It is strongest when the vagus nerve is stimulated during the inspiratory phase (?(1)) or the early expiratory phase (?(2)) in which case the heart rate slows by 50% of the normal rate. Heart rate modulation is less when the same exact stimulus is applied during the late expiratory phase (?(3)). These trials show that neurostimulation by CPG hardware can augment respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The CPG hardware technology opens a new line of therapeutic possibilities for prosthetic devices that restore RSA in patients where respiratory-cardiac coupling has been lost. PMID:23026190

Nogaret, Alain; Zhao, Le; Moraes, Davi J A; Paton, Julian F R

2013-01-15

330

A DISTINCTIVE LAYERING PATTERN OF MOUSE DENTATE GRANULE CELLS IS GENERATED BY DEVELOPMENTAL AND ADULT NEUROGENESIS  

PubMed Central

New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work we aimed to systematically quantify the relative position of dentate granule cells generated at different ages. We used 5’-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and retroviral methodologies to birth-date cells born in the embryonic, early postnatal and adult hippocampus and assessed their final position in the adult mouse granule cell layer. We also quantified both developmental and adult-born cohorts of neural progenitor cells that contribute to the pool of adult progenitor cells. Our data confirm that the outside-in layering of the dentate gyrus continues through adulthood and that early-born cells constitute most of the adult dentate gyrus. We also found that a substantial fraction of the dividing cells in the adult dentate gyrus were derived from early-dividing cells and retained BrdU, suggesting that a subpopulation of hippocampal progenitors divides infrequently from early development on. PMID:20886617

Mathews, Emily A.; Morgenstern, Nicolas A.; Piatti, Veronica C.; Zhao, Chunmei; Jessberger, Sebastian; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Gage, Fred H.

2010-01-01

331

GENERATION OF DYNAMIC STANDARD TEST ATMOSPHERES FOR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS BY USING THE DIFFUSION VIAL METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diffusion vial was calibrated to generate standard test atmospheres for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and styrene. The vial was placed into a temperature-controlled chamber in a standards generator, and the diffusion rates for the test compounds were experimentally determined by mass loss and time. The test concentration data were correlated by using a gas chromatograph that was previously calibrated with

Brian Worthington; Allan R. Rey

1991-01-01

332

Research on Intelligent Test Paper Generation Based on MultiVariable Asymptotic Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of question database is an important part of digitized campus construction. In this article, the current problems which has been existed in present intelligent strategies of test paper generating was analyzed, a new model of intelligent test paper was proposed. A new strategy of intelligently generation of test paper was used in this thesis. In order to identify

Jing-Mei Li; Jing Li; Jian-Pei Zhang; Nan Ding

2010-01-01

333

CTy: a Haskell DSL for Specifying and Generating Combinatoric Test-cases  

E-print Network

CTy: a Haskell DSL for Specifying and Generating Combinatoric Test-cases I.S.W.B. Prasetya J: a Haskell DSL for Specifying and Generating Combinatoric Test-cases I.S.W.B. Prasetya J. Amorim T.E.J. Vos A. Baars Abstract. The Classification Tree Method (CTM) is a popular approach in functional testing

Utrecht, Universiteit

334

An Incomplete Scan Design Approach to Test Generation for Sequential Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incomplete scan design approach to sequential test generation is presented. This approach represents a significant departure from previous methods. First, using an efficient sequential testing algorithm, test sequences are generated for a large number of possible faults in the given sequential circuit. A minimal subset of memory elements is then found, which if made observable and controllable will result

Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Srinivas Devadas; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1988-01-01

335

Converged Testing Scenarios for Assuring Quality of Experience on Next Generation Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of next generation networks ultimately depends on satisfying the high expectations of network users.Testing converged network equipment demands converged testing scenario. This paper is envisioned to address the need for converged test solutions designed to help assess Quality of Experience (QoE) on next generation networks.

STANISLAV MILANOVIC; NIKOS E. MASTORAKIS

2004-01-01

336

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda  

E-print Network

An Integrated Automatic Test Data Generation System A. Jefferson Offutt \\Lambda Department of Computer Science Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 January 21, 1996 Abstract The Godzilla automatic test data generator is an integrated collection of tools that implements a relatively new test data

Offutt, Jeff

337

High-level test generation using physically-induced faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-level fault modeling and testing philosophy is proposed which is aimed at ensuring full detection of low- level, physical faults, as well as the industry-standard sin- gle stuck-line (SSL) faults. A set of independent functional faults and the corresponding functional tests are derived (induced) from the circuit under test; of particular interest are SSL-induced functional faults or SIFs. We

Mark C. Hansen; John P. Hayes

1995-01-01

338

Experiments and viscoelastic analysis of peel test with patterned strips for applications to transfer printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer printing is an exceptionally sophisticated approach to assembly and micro-/nanofabrication that relies on a soft, elastomeric 'stamp' to transfer solid, micro-/nanoscale materials or device components from one substrate to another, in a large-scale, parallel fashion. The most critical control parameter in transfer printing is the strength of adhesion between the stamp and materials/devices. Conventional peel tests provide effective and robust means for determining the interfacial adhesion strength, or equivalently the energy release rate, and its dependence on peel speed. The results presented here provide analytic solutions for tests of this type, performed using viscoelastic strips with and without patterns of relief on their surfaces, and validated by systematic experiments. For a flat strip, a simple method enables determination of the energy release rate as a function of the peel speed. Patterned strips can be designed to achieve desired interfacial properties, with either stronger or weaker adhesion than that for a flat strip. The pattern spacing influences the energy release rate, to give values that initially decrease to levels smaller than those for a corresponding flat strip, as the pattern spacing increases. Once the spacing reaches a critical value, the relief self-collapses onto the substrate, thereby significantly increasing the contact area and the strength of adhesion. Analytic solutions capture not only these behaviors, as confirmed by experiment, but also extend to strips with nearly any pattern geometry of cylindrical pillars.

Chen, Hang; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yin; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2013-08-01

339

Patterns of Death in the First and Second Generation Immigrants from Selected Middle Eastern Countries in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrant studies in the United States (US) have rarely covered the Middle Eastern population (ME), and have never distinguished\\u000a the first and second generations born in the US. This study aims to describe the mortality patterns of ME immigrants by origin,\\u000a acculturation, and generation. Death certificates issued from 1997 through 2004 were used to calculate, for Middle Eastern\\u000a immigrants, the

Kiumarss Nasseri; Lawrence H. Moulton

2011-01-01

340

An Empirical Study of Pairwise Test Set Generation Using a Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise test set generation is the process of producing a subset of all possible test case inputs to a system in situations where exhaustive testing is not possible or is prohibitively expensive. For a given system under test with a set of input parameters where each parameter can take on one of a discrete set of values, a pairwise test

James D. McCaffrey

2010-01-01

341

Generating Test Cases for GUI Responsibilities Using Complete Interaction Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing graphical user interfaces (GUI) is a difficult problem due to the fact that the GUI possesses a large number of states to be tested, the input space is extremely large due to different permutations of inputs and events which affect the GUI, and complex GUI dependencies which may exist. There has been little systematic study of this problem yielding

Lee J. White; Husain Almezen

2000-01-01

342

The Combinatorial Design Approach to Automatic Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combinatorial design method substantially reduces testing costs. The authors describe an application in which the method reduced test plan development from one month to less than a week. In several experiments, the method demonstrated good code coverage and fault detection ability

David M. Cohen; Siddhartha R. Dalal; Jesse Parelius; Gardner C. Patton

1996-01-01

343

Wavelet transform for detection of partial fringe patterns induced by defects in nondestructive testing of holographic interferometry and electronic speckle pattern interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holographic interferometry (HI) and electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are widely used in nondestructive testing. In the HI and ESPI measurement techniques, the deformations are made visible as fringe patterns while an inspected sample is loaded. Defects will lead to typical local deformations deviating from the global deformation. To achieve automatic detection of the defect characteristics, the wavelet transform method

Xide Li

2000-01-01

344

Experiment data report for semiscale Mod1 test S-28-2 (steam generator tube rupture test). [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-2 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 936 kPa and 558 K

M. L. Patton; K. E. Sackett

1977-01-01

345

Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod1 test S-28-6 (steam generator tube rupture test)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-6 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-6 was conducted from initial conditions of 15,770 kPa and 557 K to

M. L. Patton; K. E. Sackett; C. E. Coppin

1977-01-01

346

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

347

IDENTIFICATION OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FROM STANDSTILL TEST DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a robust frequency converter controller for high dynamic performance of a synchronous generator re- quires an accurate dynamic model of the electromagnetic part. In this paper a new procedure for identifying the trans- fer functions of Park's -axis model of a synchronous gen- erator has been developed. It will be shown that the param- eters of this

M. J. Hoeijmakers

2002-01-01

348

Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid.  

PubMed

Rapid and reproducible genomic changes can be induced during the early stages of the life of nascent allopolyploid species. In a previous study, it was shown that following allopolyploidization, cytosine methylation changes can affect up to 11% of the wheat genome. However, the methylation patterns around transposable elements (TEs) were never studied in detail. We used transposon methylation display (TMD) to assess the methylation patterns of CCGG sites flanking three TE families (Balduin, Apollo, and Thalos) in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid. In addition, transposon display (TD), using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme, was applied to search for genomic rearrangements at the TE insertion sites. We observed that up to 54% of CCGG sites flanking the three TE families showed changes in methylation patterns in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, where hypermethylation was predominant. Over 70% of the changes in TMD patterns occurred in the first two generations of the newly formed allohexaploid. Furthermore, analysis of 555 TE insertion sites by TD and 18 cases by site-specific PCR revealed a full additive pattern in the allohexaploid, an indication for lack of massive rearrangements. These data indicate that following allopolyplodization, DNA-TE insertion sites can undergo a significantly high level of methylation changes compared with methylation changes of other genomic sequences. PMID:21217805

Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

2011-01-01

349

Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test  

PubMed Central

Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

2014-01-01

350

Influence of bromine substitution pattern on the singlet oxygen generation efficiency of two-photon absorbing chromophores.  

PubMed

A molecular engineering strategy based on rational variations of the bromine substitution pattern in two-photon absorbing singlet oxygen sensitizers allows studying the relations that exist between the positioning of an inter-system crossing promoter on the charge-transfer chromophore and its ability to generate singlet oxygen. PMID:22744649

Lanoë, Pierre-Henri; Gallavardin, Thibault; Dupin, Aurore; Maury, Olivier; Baldeck, Patrice L; Lindgren, Mikael; Monnereau, Cyrille; Andraud, Chantal

2012-08-21

351

Molecular Underpinnings of Motor Pattern Generation: Differential Targeting of Shal and Shaker in the Pyloric Motor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterned activity generated by the pyloric circuit in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster, Panulirus interrup- tus, results not only from the synaptic connectivity between the 14 component neurons but also from differences in the intrinsic properties of the neurons. Presumably, differences in the com- plement and distribution of expressed ion channels endow these neurons with many of

Deborah J. Baro; Amir Ayali; Lauren French; Nathaniel L. Scholz; Jana Labenia; Cathy C. Lanning; Katherine Graubard; Ronald M. Harris-Warrick

2000-01-01

352

Generating Test Cases for Web Services Using Data Perturbation  

E-print Network

-scale software applications for e-commerce, entertainment, and numerous other activities [13]. They run that are dif- ferent from traditional applications. A service subscriber has to use black-box testing because

Offutt, Jeff

353

COTTAGE: Test Data Generation based on Consistency Techniques  

E-print Network

of imperative programs containing integer, boolean and/or oat variables. A test program (with procedure calls system, as well as its versatility and exibility to di erent classes of problems (integer and/or oat

Deville, Yves

354

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

355

Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

1994-05-01

356

A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives  

PubMed Central

In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a “reshaping” function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal “reshaping” functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good “reshaping” function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

2014-01-01

357

A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.  

PubMed

In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25324773

Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

2014-01-01

358

Corticothalamic inputs control the pattern of activity generated in thalamocortical networks.  

PubMed

Absence seizures (3-4 Hz) and sleep spindles (6-14 Hz) occur mostly during slow-wave sleep and have been hypothesized to involve the same corticothalamic network. However, the mechanism by which this network transforms from one form of activity to the other is not well understood. Here we examine this question using ferret lateral geniculate nucleus slices and stimulation of the corticothalamic tract. A feedback circuit, meant to mimic the cortical influence in vivo, was arranged such that thalamic burst firing resulted in stimulation of the corticothalamic tract. Stimuli were either single shocks to mimic normal action potential firing by cortical neurons or high-frequency bursts (six shocks at 200 Hz) to simulate increased cortical firing, such as during seizures. With one corticothalamic stimulus per thalamic burst, 6-10 Hz oscillations resembling spindle waves were generated. However, if the stimulation was a burst, the network immediately transformed into a 3-4 Hz paroxysmal oscillation. This transition was associated with a strong increase in the burst firing of GABAergic perigeniculate neurons. In addition, thalamocortical neurons showed a transition from fast (100-150 msec) IPSPs to slow ( approximately 300 msec) IPSPs. The GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348 blocked the slow IPSPs and converted the 3-4 Hz paroxysmal oscillations back to 6-10 Hz spindle waves. Conversely, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin blocked spindle frequency oscillations resulting in 3-4 Hz oscillations with either single or burst stimuli. We suggest that differential activation of thalamic GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in response to varying corticothalamic input patterns may be critical in setting the oscillation frequency of thalamocortical network interactions. PMID:10864972

Blumenfeld, H; McCormick, D A

2000-07-01

359

Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments  

PubMed Central

This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin–Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development. PMID:24319408

Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothee; Joucla, Sebastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saighi, Sylvain

2013-01-01

360

Systematic generation of glass-box test cases for functional logic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ the narrowing-based execution mechanism of the func- tional logic programming language Curry in order to automatically generate a system of test cases for glass-box testing of Curry pro- grams. The test cases for a given function are computed by nar- rowing a call to that function with initially uninstantiated argu- ments. The generated test cases are produced w.r.t.

Sebastian Fischer; Herbert Kuchen

2007-01-01

361

Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As photomask pattern complexity continues to increase, it becomes more challenging to control write times of shaped e-beam tools. This raises the related concerns of increased mask costs and extended mask cycle times. A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to use high-speed DUV laser pattern generators for as many layers as possible, reserving e-beam tools for only the most critical layers. With 248 nm optics and high-NA partially coherent imaging, the Sigma7500 increases the application space available to laser pattern generators. Image profiles are steepened with phase shifting methods, and pattern fidelity is improved with on-line corner enhancement. In the Sigma architecture, mask patterns are imaged with full fidelity and addressability in each writing pass. Because of this, the Sigma7500 provides additional means to improve write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Platform improvements have resulted in a 2-pass writing accuracy that meets the 4-pass specification of the previous system. Write time is typically under two hours in 2-pass mode, compared to approximately three hours for 4-pass. The Sigma7500 can generally be used for all binary mask layers at the 90 nm technology node, and for about half the layers at 45 nm. The ProcessEqualizer TM function addresses long range CD errors arising from mask process effects. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for process errors related to local pattern density, and also to correct for static process CD signatures. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suited to 2 nd layer patterning for advanced phase shifting mask (PSM) applications down to 45 nm, with extendibility to 32 nm. Process integration is facilitated by the use of standard FEP-171 chemically amplified resist (CAR).

Sjöberg, Henrik; Karlin, Tord; Rosling, Mats; Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Newman, Tom

2006-05-01

362

Generating optimal states for a homodyne Bell test  

E-print Network

We present a protocol that produces a conditionally prepared state that can be used for a Bell test based on homodyne detection. Based on the results of Munro [PRA 1999], the state is near-optimal for Bell-inequality violations based on quadrature-phase homodyne measurements that use correlated photon-number states. The scheme utilizes the Gaussian entanglement distillation protocol of Eisert et. al. [Annals of Phys. 2004] and uses only beam splitters and photodetection to conditionally prepare a non-Gaussian state from a source of two-mode squeezed states with low squeezing parameter, permitting a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.

Sonja Daffer; Peter L. Knight

2005-04-12

363

Generating Feedback Reports for Adults Taking Basic Skills Tests  

E-print Network

Dept of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen { ereiter,swilliam}@csd.abdn.ac.uk Lesley Crichton. For example, someone using the nicotine addiction test on www.healthcalculators.org will be told whether he or she has a low, medium, or high level of nicotine addiction, together with some explanatory text

Williams, Sandra

364

Test Generation with Inputs, Outputs and Repetitive Quiescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies testing based on labelled transition systems, using the assumption that implementations communicate with their environment via inputs and outputs. Such imple- mentations are formalized by restricting the class of transition systems to those systems that can always accept input actions, as in Input\\/Output Automata. Implementation relations, formalizing the notion of correctness of these implementations with respect to

Jan Tretmans

1996-01-01

365

New generation holographic measurement system for industrial nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced achievements in holographic and speckle interferometry, physics of solid-state lasers, digital recording and image processing have created real precondistions for a rising of holographic methods of diagnostics to qualitatively new level. In the present work the general concept of universal holographic system for nondestructive researches in industrial environment is considered and results of tests of some units of this

V. S. Gurevich; M. E. Gusev; V. I. Redkorechev; V. E. Gaponov; I. V. Alexeseenko; A. M. Isaev; A. N. Malov; Yu. N. Zaharov

2005-01-01

366

Design of personalized test paper generating system of educational telenet based on genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

When generating test paper, traditional distant education online examination system either merely extracts the same test questions from item bank or extracts test questions at random, or select test questions according to some classifications of student. It can not individually varies and give custom made scheme according to student's learning situation. This paper improved the traditional genetic algorithm and proposed

Yong Ou-Yang; Hong-Fang Luo

2009-01-01

367

Test Case Generation by OCL Mutation and Constraint Solving Bernhard K. Aichernig Percy Antonio Pari Salas  

E-print Network

. This technique is gener- ally known as fault-based testing and its most prominent form is mutation testing.O.Box 3058, Macau S.A.R. China {bka,percy}@iist.unu.edu Abstract Fault-based testing is a technique where of fault-based test case generation for pre- and postcondition specifications. Here, errors are an

368

Generating Hard and Diverse Test Sets for NP-hard Graph Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluating the performance of approximation algorithms for NP-hard problems, it is often necessary to resort to empirical testing. In order to do such testing it is useful to have test instances of the problem for which the correct answer is known. We present algorithms for efficiently generating test instances for some NP-hard graph problems in such a way that

Laura A. Sanchis

1995-01-01

369

Do Means-Tested School Lunch Subsidies Change Children's Weekly Consumption Patterns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether the means-tested component of the National School Lunch Program changes beneficiaries' dietary patterns by taking advantage of variation across public school districts in the financing of and demand for lunch and nutrition programs. Using data on fifth grade public elementary school children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (2003-2004), we find significant increases in weekly rates

Larry L. Howard; Nishith Prakash

2009-01-01

370

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

371

A computer program for testing and analyzing random generation behavior in normal and clinical samples: The Mittenecker Pointing Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random sequence generation tests have proved to be a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of clinically relevant\\u000a impairments of executive functions and for the study of cognitive functioning in healthy individuals. The most prevalent variety,\\u000a random number generation, involves several limitations, however. In the original Mittenecker Pointing Test (MPT; Mittenecker,\\u000a 1958), subjects were instructed to point successively and as

Günter Schulter; Erich Mittenecker; Ilona Papousek

2010-01-01

372

Generation of Test Sequences for programmable logic array-based Finite State Machines  

E-print Network

PLA, it is possible, using the UIO Method, to generate shorter-length test sequences. It also demonstrates that test sequences thus generated, cover a wide variety of faults. If, during the synthesis of the Finite State Machine, the combinatorial parts...

Sathyanarayana, Murali Kadaba

2012-06-07

373

Voltage Dips and Short Interruption Immunity Test Generator As per IEC 61000 - 4 - 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Voltage Dips and Short Interruption Immunity Test Generator, to check the immunity of equipment against the voltage dips and short interruption, which occurs widely in low voltage mains and interface with electrical and electronics equipment connected to the mains. The output voltage waveforms of the immunity test generator are in full compliance with the standard IEC 61000

Sneha Bhavsar; Varsha A Shah; Vinod Gupta

2008-01-01

374

Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

Choudry, A.

1987-11-01

375

New generation holographic measurement system for industrial nondestructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced achievements in holographic and speckle interferometry, physics of solid-state lasers, digital recording and image processing have created real precondistions for a rising of holographic methods of diagnostics to qualitatively new level. In the present work the general concept of universal holographic system for nondestructive researches in industrial environment is considered and results of tests of some units of this equipment are presented.

Gurevich, V. S.; Gusev, M. E.; Redkorechev, V. I.; Gaponov, V. E.; Alexeseenko, I. V.; Isaev, A. M.; Malov, A. N.; Zaharov, Yu. N.

2005-06-01

376

Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

2009-01-01

377

Awk Pattern-Procedure Test from Gilly D. et al., UNIX in a Nutshell, O'Reilly, 1986  

E-print Network

Awk Pattern-Procedure Test from Gilly D. et al., UNIX in a Nutshell, O'Reilly, 1986 Print first: and that contains exactly seven fields: Reverse the order of fields: #12;Awk Pattern-Procedure Test from Gilly D. et

Cerveny, Vlastislav

378

Automated handling of programmable on-product clock generation (OPCG) circuitry for delay test vector generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although on-product clock generation (OPCG) has been used for many years, often in conjunction with logic and memory BIST, it has usually been a very manual process to identify the cut-points and the OPCG behavior to ATPG tools so they can avoid dealing directly with the OPCG logic. To support programmable OPCG logic in an ASIC methodology flow required us

Anis Uzzaman; Bibo Li; Tom Snethen; Brion Keller; Gary Grise

2007-01-01

379

Use of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers test pattern in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1985 the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) published a Recommended Practice (RP-133) entitled Specifications for Medical Diagnostic Imaging Test Pattern for Television Monitors and Hard-copy Cameras. Since that time the SMPTE monochrome test pattern has been applied to the acceptance testing and quality control of video and image display systems, and hard-copy (film) recorders. The major features of the test pattern will be discussed along with applications and the problems demonstrated with the pattern. Furthermore, the test pattern will be used to demonstrate that color displays may exhibit only one-half of the resolution of a monochrome monitor while the display contrast (due to limited dynamic range) may be only 10 to 20 of that obtained with a monochrome display.

Gray, Joel E.

1991-05-01

380

[Theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test in congenital dichromatic color vision defects].  

PubMed

In order to study the theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test for congenital dichromatic color vision defects, the spectral reflectance for the 16 color caps of the panel D-15 test was measured with a spectro-photometer. Then, the chromaticity-coordinates of each color cap were calculated using the spectral distribution of standard illuminant C. The theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test for dichromats were obtained based on the confusion lines. For this procedure, the slope of the line between the color cap and the convergence point on the CIE chromaticity diagram was obtained first. Then, the order of the arrangement was decided starting with the slope having the smallest cap number and continuing progressively. For the chromaticity coordinates of the convergence points the following values were used; x = 0.7465, y = 0.2535 for protanopia, x = 1.08, y = -0.08, x = 1.40, y = -0.40, and x = 1.70, y = -0.70 for deuteranopia, and x = 0.171, y = 0.000 for tritanopia. The results show a very clear similarity between the orientation axis obtained by simulation and the actual data. Therefore, it was confirmed that dichromats arrange the color caps in the order of the slope of the line between the color cap and the convergence point, when performing the panel D-15 test. Furthermore, it was suggested that the patterns of the panel D-15 test differ by the convergence points among dichromats even of the same type. PMID:2629498

Kandatsu, A; Okabe, T; Kitahara, K

1989-12-01

381

Physician Care Patterns and Adherence to Postpartum Glucose Testing after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Oregon  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine physicians' reported care patterns, attitudes and beliefs and predictors of adherence to postpartum testing in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods In November–December 2005, a mailed survey went to a random, cross-sectional sample of 683 Oregon licensed physicians in obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine from a population of 2171. Results Routine postpartum glucose tolerance testing by both family physicians (19.3%) and obstetrician/gynecologists physicians (35.3%) was reportedly low among the 285 respondents (42% response rate). Factors associated with high adherence to postpartum testing included physician stated priority (OR 4.39, 95% CI: 1.69–7.94) and physician beliefs about norms or typical testing practices (OR 3.66, 95% CI: 1.65–11.69). Specialty, sex of physician, years of practice, location, type of practice, other attitudes and beliefs were not associated with postpartum glucose tolerance testing. Conclusions Postpartum glucose tolerance testing following a gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy was not routinely practiced by responders to this survey. Our findings indicate that physician knowledge, attitudes and beliefs may in part explain suboptimal postpartum testing. Although guidelines for postpartum care are established, some physicians do not prioritize these guidelines in practice and do not believe postpartum testing is the norm among their peers. PMID:23071709

Hunsberger, Monica L.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Lindsay, Karen; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

2012-01-01

382

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes  

PubMed Central

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-01

383

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes.  

PubMed

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-29

384

Next-generation genetic testing for retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Molecular diagnostics for patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has been hampered by extreme genetic and clinical heterogeneity, with 52 causative genes known to date. Here, we developed a comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for the clinical molecular diagnostics of RP. All known inherited retinal disease genes (n = 111) were captured and simultaneously analyzed using NGS in 100 RP patients without a molecular diagnosis. A systematic data analysis pipeline was developed and validated to prioritize and predict the pathogenicity of all genetic variants identified in each patient, which enabled us to reduce the number of potential pathogenic variants from approximately 1,200 to zero to nine per patient. Subsequent segregation analysis and in silico predictions of pathogenicity resulted in a molecular diagnosis in 36 RP patients, comprising 27 recessive, six dominant, and three X-linked cases. Intriguingly, De novo mutations were present in at least three out of 28 isolated cases with causative mutations. This study demonstrates the enormous potential and clinical utility of NGS in molecular diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous diseases such as RP. De novo dominant mutations appear to play a significant role in patients with isolated RP, having major implications for genetic counselling. PMID:22334370

Neveling, Kornelia; Collin, Rob W.J.; Gilissen, Christian; van Huet, Ramon A.C.; Visser, Linda; Kwint, Michael P.; Gijsen, Sabine J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Wieskamp, Nienke; de Ligt, Joep; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Buckley, Michael F.; Kellner, Ulrich; Branham, Kari E.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Hoischen, Alexander; Hoyng, Carel; Klevering, B. Jeroen; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Veltman, Joris A.; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Scheffer, Hans

2012-01-01

385

Development and Demonstration of an Ada Test Generation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this project we have built a prototype system that performs Feasible Path Analysis on Ada programs: given a description of a set of control flow paths through a procedure, and a predicate at a program point feasible path analysis determines if there is input data which causes execution to flow down some path in the collection reaching the point so that tile predicate is true. Feasible path analysis can be applied to program testing, program slicing, array bounds checking, and other forms of anomaly checking. FPA is central to most applications of program analysis. But, because this problem is formally unsolvable, syntactic-based approximations are used in its place. For example, in dead-code analysis the problem is to determine if there are any input values which cause execution to reach a specified program point. Instead an approximation to this problem is computed: determine whether there is a control flow path from the start of the program to the point. This syntactic approximation is efficiently computable and conservative: if there is no such path the program point is clearly unreachable, but if there is such a path, the analysis is inconclusive, and the code is assumed to be live. Such conservative analysis too often yields unsatisfactory results because the approximation is too weak. As another example, consider data flow analysis. A du-pair is a pair of program points such that the first point is a definition of a variable and the second point a use and for which there exists a definition-free path from the definition to the use. The sharper, semantic definition of a du-pair requires that there be a feasible definition-free path from the definition to the use. A compiler using du-pairs for detecting dead variables may miss optimizations by not considering feasibility. Similarly, a program analyzer computing program slices to merge parallel versions may report conflicts where none exist. In the context of software testing, feasibility analysis plays an important role in identifying testing requirements which are infeasible. This is especially true for data flow testing and modified condition/decision coverage. Our system uses in an essential way symbolic analysis and theorem proving technology, and we believe this work represents one of the few successful uses of a theorem prover working in a completely automatic fashion to solve a problem of practical interest. We believe this work anticipates an important trend away from purely syntactic-based methods for program analysis to semantic methods based on symbolic processing and inference technology. Other results demonstrating the practical use of automatic inference is being reported in hardware verification, although there are significant differences between the hardware work and ours. However, what is common and important is that general purpose theorem provers are being integrated with more special-purpose decision procedures to solve problems in analysis and verification. We are pursuina commercial opportunities for this work, and will use and extend the work in other projects we are engaged in. Ultimately we would like to rework the system to analyze C, C++, or Java as a key step toward commercialization.

1996-01-01

386

Next-generation PIR security sensors: concept testing and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous presentations to this SPIE forum a new technology was outlined aimed at replacing pyroelectric sensors with resistance microbolometer MOEMS-based sensors capable of vastly superior performance. The technology can be implemented as either a PCB replacement to current sensors, giving extended detection range and ability to sense slow temperature change, or a 'smart' sensor with further performance enhancements and imaging capability. This paper reports the results of new laboratory and field tests of a laboratory prototype sensor and extrapolates these results to performance of production sensors. In particular, results are presented for NETD, detection range for human targets and detection of simulated electrical faults and developing fires. Previous results were reported for FPA operated without evacuation and using a low cost plastic Fresnel lens. However with wafer level packaging now becoming widely available in MEMS and CMOS foundries, much high performance can be achieved, opening up many additional applications. Performance of new FPAs designed for vacuum packaging is highlighted.

Liddiard, Kevin C.

2009-05-01

387

Affordable next-generation UGS development and testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are valuable tools for the U.S. military and border patrol, however, their utility is often limited due to their cost, size, and weight. Recently specific advances in micro power electronics, transducers, packaging, and signal processing techniques have enabled the development of a small, lightweight, and affordable UGS. Originally intended for small unit clearing/monitoring operations, a sensor has evolved to achieve detection performance comparable to state-of-the-art UGS. To meet a broader mission capability, battery life and detection capabilities have been extended and affordable networked cameras and repeaters have been developed. This paper will provide an overview of the key enabling technologies for affordable UGS, provide an overview and enhancements of this affordable UGS system, and review results of system testing.

Winston, Mark; Egerton, David; McQuiddy, John; Jones, Barry

2010-04-01

388

Interoperability test generation and minimization for communication protocols based on the multiple stimuli principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic test generation and minimization method for testing interoperability of communication protocols such as the asynchronous transfer mode\\/broadband integrated services digital network (ATM\\/B-ISDN) signaling protocol and the transmission control protocol (TCP). The method is based on a technique of composing finite-state machines (FSMs). Traditionally, the generation of inputs utilizing FSM was mostly based on sequential test

Soonuk Seol; Myungchul Kim; Samuel T. Chanson; Sungwon Kang

2004-01-01

389

Effects of Hypothesis Generation on Hypothesis Testing in Rule-Discovery Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which hypothesis generation affects hypothesis-testing performance was examined in a rule-discovery task. One hundred eight undergraduates enrolled in introductory psychology were randomly assigned to conditions in which the participants, experimenter, other participants, or no one generated hypotheses before the participants were tested on three different tasks. Hypothesis-testing performance in the experimenter-supplied condition was significantly higher than in

Dennis J. Adsit; Manuel London

1997-01-01

390

Rapid generation of multiplexed cell cocultures using acoustic droplet ejection followed by aqueous two-phase exclusion patterning.  

PubMed

The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary; Deng, Cheri X; Takayama, Shuichi

2012-09-01

391

Rapid Generation of Multiplexed Cell Cocultures Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection Followed by Aqueous Two-Phase Exclusion Patterning  

PubMed Central

The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P.; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary

2012-01-01

392

Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

Hisama, Kay K.

393

Estimation of Hydropower Generator Parameters Through Field Simulations of Standard Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four standard test procedures-the three phase short-circuit test , the field decrement test, the slip test, and the applied voltage test-for estimation of synchronous generator parameters have been implemented in a time-stepping finite-element software. In this paper, the main features of the implementation and the postprocessing of data are described. The validity of the application is demonstrated by comparison with

Johan Lidenholm; Urban Lundin

2010-01-01

394

Automated TTCN-3 Test Case Generation by Means of UML Sequence Diagrams and Markov Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to automatically generate a MCUM (Markov chain usage model) starting from an OMG UML-SD (sequence diagram) in order to derive TTCN-3 (testing and test control notation version 3) compatible test case definitions. Our approach is a combination of statistical usage testing and specification-based testing. Within this paper, special attention is given to international standardized

Matthias Beyer; Winfried Dulz; Fenhua Zhen

2003-01-01

395

System-based intelligent control applied to electronic test generation and diagnostics using fuzzyART and genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the work that was done to explore the use a system based approach to generate test vectors for electronic systems. The process that was developed takes advantage of an unsupervised neural network algorithm Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that is combined to form an optimal control system. The GA generates a population of test patterns (individuals). Each individual is provided as timed inputs to a set of behavior based simulations representing good and faulty circuits. The response of each model is recombined in the form of an image matrix with each row representing a signature of each of the different circuits. FuzzyART provides a method of image recognition, extracting those images that are distinctly different from any other. Each individual generated by the GA is evaluated and a fitness is provided by FuzzyART by the number of neuron clusters formed. New test sequences evolve with increasing fault isolation and detection. The process is repeated until a maximum number of models have been identified and separated. A selective breading algorithm was included to reduce the need for large populations, thus increasing the speed to converge to the `best test.'

Singer, Steven M.

1997-04-01

396

Low loss orientation-patterned AlGaAs waveguides for quasi phase matched second harmonic generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated all-epitaxially fabricated orientation-patterned AlGaAs waveguides with reduced waveguide core corrugation for the quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation (SHG) pumped at 1.55 ?m. The attenuation coefficient is measured to be ~4.5 dB/m at 1.55 ?m, and ~9.7 dB/cm at 780 nm. The conversion efficiency at continuous wave operation is 43%W -1 with an 8-mm long waveguide.

Yu, Xiaojun; Scaccabarozzi, Luigi; Lin, Angie C.; Fu, Jun-xian; Kuo, Paulina S.; Fejer, Martin M.; Harris, James S.

2006-02-01

397

A test of the perceived norms model to explain drinking patterns among university student athletes.  

PubMed

The author tested the ability of perceived drinking norms to discriminate among drinking patterns in a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student athletes. He used an anonymous questionnaire to assess 297 athletes, representing 18 teams, at a public university in the Midwest. Alcohol use patterns showed considerable variation, with many athletes (37.1%) abstaining during their season of competition. A discriminant function analysis revealed that higher levels of alcohol involvement are disproportionately found among athletes who began drinking regularly at an early age. Perceived drinking norms were less important in the discrimination of student athlete drinker groups. Women and those with higher grade point averages were somewhat more likely to refrain from in-season drinking than other survey respondents. PMID:11016131

Thombs, D L

2000-09-01

398

A Fortran 90 program for statistical testing of alleged thickening and/or thinning upward patterns in sequences of strata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fortran 90 program, STRATA_PATTERN_TEST, is designed to test sedimentary strata for the significance of vertical patterns. The null hypothesis of no pattern is tested against: (1) The alternative of a single thickening (or thinning) upward sequence, the program tests the null hypothesis using a parametric and/or randomization test based on Kendall's S, or equivalently Kendall's Tau. (2) The alternative of trends in g subsequences recognized a-priori, the program carries out parametric tests (where available) and randomization tests using one of 10 test statistics, each a weighted sum of the g Tau coefficients calculated for the individual subsequences. (3) The alternative of trends in g subsequences recognized post-hoc, i.e. purely on the basis of observed thickness patterns, the program carries out randomization tests using a family of 13 test statistics, each equal to the maximum value of the appropriate test statistic (defined for subsequences recognized a-priori) that is attainable by partitioning the total sequence of beds into 1, 2, … up to g subsequences. (4) The hybrid alternative g subsequences recognized a-priori, one or more exhibiting a symmetric pattern recognized post-hoc, the program carries out randomization tests. Reasons for implementing the program in Fortran 90 rather than Fortran 77 are briefly discussed.

Harper, Charles W.

2000-04-01

399

Probabilistic neural network with homogeneity testing in recognition of discrete patterns set.  

PubMed

The article is devoted to pattern recognition task with the database containing small number of samples per class. By mapping of local continuous feature vectors to a discrete range, this problem is reduced to statistical classification of a set of discrete finite patterns. It is demonstrated that the Bayesian decision under the assumption that probability distributions can be estimated using the Parzen kernel and the Gaussian window with a fixed variance for all the classes, implemented in the PNN, is not optimal in the classification of a set of patterns. We presented here the novel modification of the PNN with homogeneity testing which gives an optimal solution of the latter task under the same assumption about probability densities. By exploiting the discrete nature of patterns our modification prevents the well-known drawbacks of the memory-based approach implemented in both the PNN and the PNN with homogeneity testing, namely, low classification speed and high requirements to the memory usage. Our modification only requires the storage and processing of the histograms of input and training samples. We present the results of an experimental study in two practically important tasks: (1) the problem of Russian text authorship attribution with character n-grams features; and (2) face recognition with well-known datasets (AT&T, FERET and JAFFE) and comparison of color- and gradient-orientation histograms. Our results support the statement that the proposed network provides better accuracy (1%-7%) and is much more resistant to change of the smoothing parameter of Gaussian kernel function in comparison with the original PNN. PMID:23811385

Savchenko, A V

2013-10-01

400

Investigating the Performance of Genetic Algorithm-Based Software Test Case Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly complex and interconnected systems may suffer from intermittent or transient failures that are particularly difficult to diagnose. This research focuses on the use of genetic algorithms for automatically generating large volumes of software test cases. In particular, the paper explores two fundamental strategies for improving the performance of genetic algorithm test case breeding for high volume testing. The first

Donald J. Berndt; Alison Watkins

2004-01-01

401

Generating Test Inputs for Fault-Tree Analyzers using Imperative Predicates  

E-print Network

Generating Test Inputs for Fault-Tree Analyzers using Imperative Predicates Sasa Misailovi be used in system testing, specifically in testing a large fault-tree analyzer developed for NASA. A fault-tree analyzer takes as input a fault tree that models how combinations of failures in the components of a sys

Khurshid, Sarfraz

402

A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR GENERATING TEST CASES FOR A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE COMPILER  

E-print Network

is an extremely hard thing to do if not impossible. Therefore, the compiler writer will be satisfied if testing to be a dearth of information on compiler testing. The most complete survey I have found [SC 80] does not go-46- A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR GENERATING TEST CASES FOR A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE COMPILER by Daniel M

Berry, Daniel M.

403

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions  

E-print Network

Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main

Xie, Tao

404

Effect of two microshear test devices on bond strength and fracture pattern in primary teeth.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the influence of two devices for application of shear load in microshear tests on bond strength and fracture pattern of primary enamel and dentin. Eighty primary molars were selected and flat enamel (40 teeth sectioned mesio-distally) and dentin (40 teeth sectioned transversally) surfaces were obtained. Both surfaces were polished to standardize the smear layer. Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond and XP Bond) were used. Polyethylene tubes was placed over the bonded surfaces and filled with composite resin. The microshear testing was performed after storage in water (24 h/37 °C) using two devices for application of microshear loads: a notched rod (Bisco Shear Bond Tester) or a knife edge (Kratos Industrial Equipment). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Bond strength data were subjected to ANOVA and chi-square test to compare the failure mode distributions (?=0.05). No significant differences were observed between the groups for dentin and enamel bond strength or fracture patterns (p>0.05). The predominant failure mode was adhesive/mixed. In conclusion, the devices for application of shear loads did not influence the bond strength values, regardless of adhesive system and substrate. PMID:24474357

Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Garcia, Eugenio Jose; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

2013-01-01

405

Manipulation of micro-particles through optical interference patterns generated by integrated photonic devices.  

PubMed

Micro-particle transport and switch governed by guided-wave optical interference are presented. The optical interference, occurring in a directional coupler and a multi-mode interferometer made by inverted rib waveguides, results in a specific evanescent field dependent on wavelength. Through a detailed theoretical analysis, the field of induced optical force shows a correlative pattern associated with the evanescent field. Experimental results demonstrate that 10 ?m polystyrene beads are propelled with a trajectory subject to the interference pattern accordingly. By launching different wavelengths, the polystyrene beads can be delivered to different output waveguide ports. Massive micro-particle manipulation is applicable. PMID:23364290

Hsu, Li-Chung; Chen, Te-Chang; Yang, Yao-Tsu; Huang, Chieh-Yang; Shen, Da-Wei; Chen, Ya-Tzu; Lee, Ming-Chang M

2013-03-21

406

Electronic speckle pattern interferometric testing of JWST primary mirror segment assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) was required to meet NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 06 requirements in the summer of 2006. These TRL06 requirements included verifying all mirror technology systems level readiness in simulated end-to-end operating conditions. In order to support the aggressive development and technology readiness schedule for the JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA), a novel approach was implemented to verify the nanometer surface figure distortion effects on an in-process non-polished beryllium mirror surface. At the time that the TRL06 requirements needed to be met, a polished mirror segment had not yet been produced that could have utilized the baselined interferometric optical test station. The only JWST mirror segment available was a finished machined segment with an acid-etched optical surface. Therefore an Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) was used in coordination with additional metrology techniques to perform interferometric level optical testing on a non-optical surface. An accelerated, rigorous certification program was quickly developed for the ESPI to be used with the unfinished optical surface of the primary mirror segment. The ESPI was quickly implemented into the PMSA test program and optical testing was very successful in quantifying the nanometer level surface figure deformation changes in the PMSA due to assembly, thermal cycling, vibration, and acoustic testing. As a result of the successful testing, the PMSA passed all NASA TRL06 readiness requirements.

Smith, Koby Z.; Chaney, David M.; Saif, Babak N.

2011-09-01

407

Cube corner retroreflector test and analysis. [of laser far field diffraction pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cube corner retroreflectors with nominal dihedral angles of 90 deg 0 min 1.5 sec were fabricated, tested, and analyzed to determine the return energy in the annular ring of the far field diffraction pattern required by the Laser Geodynamic Satellite. Performance was assessed for variations in the dihedral angles, optical surfaces, and thermal environment. Despite relatively high independent axial and radial sensitivities, the changes caused by the anticipated thermal environment were found to be negligible; however, there were substantial variations between the analytical predictions and measured performance.-

Zurasky, J. L.

1976-01-01

408

Immobilized Antibody Orientation Analysis using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence Imaging of Affinity-generated Patterns  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the capability of high-resolution surface analytical tools to distinguish immobilized antibody orientations on patterned surfaces designed for antibody affinity capture. High-fidelity, side-by-side co-patterning of protein A (antibody Fc domain affinity reagent) and fluorescein (antibody Fab domain hapten) was achieved photo-lithographically on commercial amine-reactive hydrogel polymer surfaces. This was verified from fluorescence imaging using fluorescently labeled protein A and intrinsic fluorescence from fluorescein. Subsequently, dye-labeled murine anti-fluorescein antibody (4-4-20), and antibody Fab and Fc fragments were immobilized from solution onto respective protein A- and fluorescein- co-patterned or control surfaces using antibody-ligand affinity interactions. Fluorescence assays support specific immobilization to fluorescein hapten- and protein A-patterned regions through antigen-antibody recognition and natural protein A-Fc domain interactions, respectively. Affinity-based antibody immobilization on the two different co-patterned surfaces generated side-by-side full antibody “heads-up” and “tails-up” oriented surface patterns. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis, sensitive to chemical information from the top 2-3 nm of the surface, provided ion-specific images of these antibody patterned regions, imaging and distinguishing characteristic ions from amino acids enriched in Fab domains for antibodies oriented in “heads-up” regions, and ions from amino acids enriched in Fc domains for antibodies oriented in “tails-up” regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) improved the distinct ToF-SIMS amino acid compositional and ion-specific surface mapping sensitivity for each “heads-up” versus “tails-up” patterned region. Characteristic Fab and Fc fragment immobilized patterns served as controls. This provides first demonstration of pattern-specific, antibody orientation-dependent surface maps based on antibody domain- and structure- specific compositional differences by ToF-SIMS analysis. Since antibody immobilization and orientation are critical to many technologies, orientation characterization using ToF-SIMS could be very useful and convenient for immobilization quality control and understanding methods for improving the performance of antibody-based surface capture assays. PMID:20230047

Liu, Fang; Dubey, Manish; Takahashi, Hironobu; Castner, David G.; Grainger, David W.

2010-01-01

409

Intrinsic capabilities of neural networks in the turtle spinal cord: selection and generation of motor patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks intrinsic to the turtle spinal cord respond to a tactile stimulus with a goal-directed motor response. Each motor response consists of a distinct motor pattern, i.e. a specific sequence of motor neuron and muscle activities. Intrinsic spinal networks can be examined in the absence of supraspinal networks following complete transection of the spinal cord. Spinal networks in the

Paul S. G. Stein

1990-01-01

410

Computer Generated Hologram and Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator for Optical Pattern Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the integration of an optical system for real-time position, scale, and rotation invariant pattern recognition. Specifically a Litton Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator is interfaced to a Zenith 248 microcomputer and AT&T frame...

M. W. Mayo

1987-01-01

411

Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

2011-06-01

412

A Search Based Automated Test-Data Generation Framework for Safety-Critical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a three year research program to develop an auto- mated test-data generation framework to support the testing of safety-critical software systems. The generality of the framework comes from the exploitation of domain inde- pendent search techniques, allowing new test criteria to be addressed by constructing functions that quantify the suitability of test-data against the

Nigel Tracey; John Clark; John McDermid; Keith Mander

2002-01-01

413

A Uniform Random Test Data Generator for Path Arnaud Gotlieb and Matthieu Petit  

E-print Network

. On average, we got a two-order magnitude CPU time improvement over standard Random Testing on a set of pathsA Uniform Random Test Data Generator for Path Testing 1 Arnaud Gotlieb and Matthieu Petit INRIA.Gotlieb,Matthieu.Petit}@irisa.fr Tel: +33 (0) 2 99 84 75 76 ­ Fax: +33 (0) 2 99 84 71 71 Abstract Path-oriented Random Testing (PRT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Sodium-water reaction testing in support of LMFBR steam generator development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the Large Leak Test Rig after its conversion for the second series program to test internals typical of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor steam generator. The test article instrumentation provided and the data gathered are described. An explanation of the phenomena observed is discussed. The Series II tests are dedicated to investigating intermediate-to-large sodium-water reaction (SWR)

H. H. Neely; M. J. Tessier

1981-01-01

415

Use of chaotic and random vibrations to generate high frequency test inputs  

SciTech Connect

This paper and a companion paper show the traditional limits on amplitude and frequency that can be generated in a laboratory test on a vibration exciter can be substantially extended. This is accomplished by attaching a device to the shaker that permits controlled metal to metal impacts that generate high frequency, high acceleration environment on a test surface. A companion paper (Reference 1) shows that a sinusoidal or random shaker input can be used to generate a random vibration environment on the test surface. This paper derives the three response components that occur on the test surface due to an impact on the bottom surface and the base driven response from the shaker input. These response components are used to generate impulse response functions and frequency response functions which are used in the companion paper to derive power spectral density functions for the overall response. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gregory, D. L.; Paez, T. L.

1990-01-01

416

An enhanced algorithm for protocol conformance test sequence generation based on the UIO method  

E-print Network

An Enhanced Algorithm for Protocol Conformance Test Sequence Generation Based on the UIO Method. (December 1993) Ravindra Allada, B.E., Osmania University, Hyderabad, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara A computer protocol is a...

Allada, Ravindra

2012-06-07

417

A Quantitative Test of Population Genetics Using Spatio-Genetic Patterns in Bacterial Colonies  

E-print Network

It is widely accepted that population genetics theory is the cornerstone of evolutionary analyses. Empirical tests of the theory, however, are challenging because of the complex relationships between space, dispersal, and evolution. Critically, we lack quantitative validation of the spatial models of population genetics. Here we combine analytics, on and off-lattice simulations, and experiments with bacteria to perform quantitative tests of the theory. We study two bacterial species, the gut microbe Escherichia coli and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and show that spatio-genetic patterns in colony biofilms of both species are accurately described by an extension of the one-dimensional stepping-stone model. We use one empirical measure, genetic diversity at the colony periphery, to parameterize our models and show that we can then accurately predict another key variable: the degree of short-range cell migration along an edge. Moreover, the model allows us to estimate other key parameters in...

Korolev, Kirill S; Nelson, David R; Foster, Kevin R; 10.1086/661897

2011-01-01

418

Regional patterns and correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing among youths in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among young people in Nigeria is low with implications on the epidemic control. Using the 2003 Nigerian National Demographic and Health Survey, we examined the regional prevalence, pattern and correlates of VCT for HIV among youths aged 15 to 24 in Nigeria. Analysis was based on 3573 (out of 11,050) observations using logistic regression model to estimate the effects of identified predictors of volunteering for HIV testing. Results show that national prevalence of VCT is low (2.6%) with regional variations. Generally, the critical factors associated with VCT uptake are age, sex, education, wealth index and risk perception with North (sex, education, religion, occupation and risk perception) and South (age and education) variance. It is recommended that Nigerian HIV programmers should introduce evidence based youth programmes to increase the uptake of VCT with differing approaches across the regions. PMID:22590899

Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Odimegwu, Clifford

2011-06-01

419

Experiences Integrating and Scaling a Performance Test Bed Generator with an Open Source CASE Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our experiences developing a performance test-bed generator for industrial usage by extending an open-source UML CASE tool. This tool generates client and server code, database configuration and deployment scripts from a high-level software architecture description. It automates the code generation, compilation, deployment and performance metric result collection processes. We identify a range of problems that arose from

Yuhong Cai; John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking

2004-01-01

420

Testing Methods and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems FUBUTEC 2004  

E-print Network

Testing Methods and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems FUBUTEC 2004 and Algorithms for the Next Generation of Knowledge Management Systems J. Vertommen1 , B. Vandermeulen1 , D. Van techniques which can be applied in advanced knowledge management systems (KMS) and reports results of two

421

Dust generation and drought patterns in Africa from helium-4 in a modern Cape Verde coral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that helium-4 (4He) concentrations in a modern Porites coral from Cape Verde provides a robust reconstruction of mineral dust loading over the Eastern Tropical Atlantic from mid-1950's to mid-1990's. The 4He record demonstrates pronounced increases in dust emission from North Africa associated with the severe droughts in the Sahel. Our record provides direct evidence that dust emission rates in the 1950's, prior to the onset of the Sahel droughts, were a factor of nine lower than during 1980-84. This large change in dust emission rate indicates global aerosol contents would have increased by ~45% over this period, which may have contributed to a reduction in solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. We find that dust emission from North Africa is most closely related to drought patterns, rather than to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns resulting from climate oscillations, such as North Atlantic Oscillations and El Nino/Southern Oscillation.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kreycik, P.

2008-10-01

422

Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

423

Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients  

PubMed Central

Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns—specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients. PMID:24910602

2014-01-01

424

Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Immigrant and Later Generation Mexican American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a re-analysis of a 1976 survey of alcohol patterns among Latinos in California as a basis of comparison this article summarizes what is known about the drinking practices of immigrant Mexican women. Immigrant Mexican women's alcohol-related practices are compared with those of women in several pertinent groups: Mexicans in Mexico, other U.S. Latinas and, most particularly, later

M. Jean Gilbert

1987-01-01

425

Generating Arbitrary Chemical Patterns for Multi-Point Dosing of Single Cells  

PubMed Central

Living cells reside within anisotropic microenvironments that orchestrate a broad range of polarized responses through physical and chemical cues. To unravel how localized chemical signals influence complex behaviors, tools must be developed for establishing patterns of chemical gradients that vary over subcellular dimensions. Here, we present a strategy for addressing this critical need in which an arbitrary number of chemically distinct, subcellular dosing streams are created in real time within a microfluidic environment. In this approach, cells are cultured on a thin polymer membrane that serves as a barrier between the cell-culture environment and a reagent chamber containing multiple reagent species flowing in parallel under low Reynolds number conditions. Focal ablation of the membrane creates pores that allow solution to flow from desired regions within this reagent pattern into the cell-culture chamber, resulting in narrow, chemically distinct dosing streams. Unlike previous dosing strategies, this system provides the capacity to tailor arbitrary patterns of reagents on-the-fly to suit the geometry and orientation of specific cells. PMID:23427919

Hoppe, Todd J.; Moorjani, Samira G.; Shear, Jason B.

2013-01-01

426

Pattern recognition approaches for the detection and characterization of discontinuities by eddy current testing  

SciTech Connect

Eddy current signals (ECS) generated under varied experimental conditions from different types of discontinuities like partial/through thickness holes and notches of various dimensions, fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracks, etc. in AISI type 316 stainless steel sheets/plates have been analyzed using pattern recognition (PR) approaches to understand their quality of performance for detection and characterization of several aspects of the discontinuities. The PR analyses have been carried out using linear discriminant (LD), minimum distance (MD), empirical Bayesian (EB) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) statistical classifiers, and multilayered perceptron (MLP) and Kohonen's artificial neural network (KANN). The MLP approach has been extended to eddy current images also to achieve deblurring. The practical feasibility and application potential of ANNs is demonstrated through a case study on nuclear fuel cladding tubes where both the online and the offline approaches have been implemented.

Shyamsunder, M.T.; Rajagopalan, C.; Raj, B.; Dewangan, S.K.; Rao, B.P.C.; Ray, K.K.

2000-01-01

427

Concordance of MEG and fMRI patterns in adolescents during verb generation  

PubMed Central

In this study we focused on direct comparison between the spatial distributions of activation detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and localization of sources detected by magnetoencephalography (MEG) during identical language tasks. We examined the spatial concordance between MEG and fMRI results in 16 adolescents performing a three-phase verb generation task that involves repeating the auditorily presented concrete noun and generating verbs either overtly or covertly in response to the auditorily presented noun. MEG analysis was completed using a synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) technique, while the fMRI data were analyzed using the general linear model approach with random-effects. To quantify the agreement between the two modalities, we implemented voxel-wise concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and identified the left inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral motor cortex with high CCC values. At the group level, MEG and fMRI data showed spatial convergence in the left inferior frontal gyrus for covert or overt generation versus overt repetition, and the bilateral motor cortex when overt generation versus covert generation. These findings demonstrate the utility of the CCC as a quantitative measure of spatial convergence between two neuroimaging techniques. PMID:22365747

Wang, Yingying; Holland, Scott K.; Vannest, Jennifer

2012-01-01

428

Lung respiratory rhythm and pattern generation in the bullfrog: role of neurokinin-1 and u-opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

Location of the lung respiratory rhythm generator (RRG) in the bullfrog brainstem was investigated by examining neurokinin-1 and µ-opioid receptor (NK1R, µOR) colocalization by immunohistochemistry and characterizing the role of these receptors in lung rhythm and episodic pattern generation. NK1R and µOR occurred in brainstems from all developmental stages. In juvenile bullfrogs a distinct area of colocalization was coincident with high-intensity fluorescent labeling of µOR; high-intensity labeling of µOR was not distinctly and consistently localized in tadpole brainstems. NK1R labeling intensity did not change with development. Similarity in colocalization is consistent with similarity in responses to substance P (SP, NK1R agonist) and DAMGO (µOR agonist) when bath applied to bullfrog brainstems of different developmental stages. In early stage tadpoles and juvenile bullfrogs, SP increased and DAMGO decreased lung burst frequency. In juvenile bullfrogs, SP increased lung burst frequency, episode frequency, but decreased number of lung bursts per episode and lung burst duration. In contrast, DAMGO decreased lung burst frequency and burst cycle frequency, episode frequency, and number of lung bursts per episode but increased all other lung burst parameters. Based on these results, we hypothesize that NK1R and µOR colocalization together with a metamorphosis-related increase in µOR intensity marks the location of the lung RRG but not necessarily the lung episodic pattern generator. PMID:19184042

Davies, B. L.; Brundage, C. M.; Harris, M. B.

2010-01-01

429

Neural control of hatching: fate of the pattern generator for the leg movements of hatching in post-hatching chicks.  

PubMed

Chicks from 0 to 61 days post-hatching were gently folded into the hatching position and placed in artificial glass eggs. Within 0 to 2 min they began to produce a behavior that qualitatively resembled normal hatching. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of electromyographic records showed that under these conditions the intralimb and interlimb leg motor output patterns produced during each hatching episode (the episode motor program) were those typical of normal hatching. The only major change associated with increasing post-hatching age was a gradual increase in inter-episode interval. Therefore, we conclude that the neural pattern-generating circuitry which produces the motor program for the leg movements of hatching remains functional in post-hatching chicks despite the fact that, under normal conditions, hatching behavior is never used again. PMID:6542130

Bekoff, A; Kauer, J A

1984-11-01

430

On the Analysis of Sequence Data: Testing for Disease Susceptibility Loci using Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium  

PubMed Central

Despite the numerous, successful applications of GWASs, there has been much difficulty in discovering DSLs. This is due to the fact that the GWAS approach is an indirect mapping technique, often identifying markers. For the identification of DSLs, which is required for the understanding of the genetic pathways for complex diseases, sequencing data that examines every genetic locus directly is necessary. Yet there is currently a lack of methodology targeted at the identification of the DSLs in sequencing data: existing methods localize the causal variant to a region, but not to a single variant and therefore do not allow one to identify unique loci that cause the phenotype association. Here, we have developed such a method to determine if there is evidence that an individual loci affects case-control status with sequencing data. This methodology differs from other rare variant approaches: rather than testing an entire region comprised of many loci for association with the phenotype, we can identify the individual genetic locus that causes the association between the phenotype and the genetic region. For each variant, the test determines if the pattern of LD across the other variants coincides with the pattern expected if that variant were a DSL. Power simulations show that the method successfully detects the causal variant, distinguishing it from other nearby variants (in high LD with the causal variant), and outperforms the standard tests. The efficiency of the method is especially apparent with small samples, which are currently realistic for studies due to sequence data costs. The practical relevance of the approach is illustrated by an application to a sequence dataset for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The proposed method implicated one variant (p=0.002, .062 after Bonferroni correction), which was not found by standard analyses. Code for implementation is available. PMID:22125225

Lipman, Peter J; Yip, Wai-Ki; AlChawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Mangold, Elisabeth; Lange, Christoph

2014-01-01

431

Patterning and Nonpatterning in Creative Cognition: Insights From Performance in a Random Number Generation Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the major theories of creative cognition pre-date the cognitive revolution in psychology. There is, thus, great potential in using modern cognitive assessments to understand the differential creativity of individuals. In this study, creativity was assessed in terms of originality, fluency, flexibility, and past creative achievements. The same individuals (N = 102) completed a random number generation (RNG) task

Darya L. Zabelina; Michael D. Robinson; James R. Council; Konrad Bresin

2012-01-01

432

Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied.

Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: otonielb@zeus.umich.mx; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)

2008-07-01

433

Optical generation of a circular harmonic filter for rotation and translation invariant optical pattern recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method to generate a circular harmonic filter with both rotation and translation invariance is described, which is based on a phase-shifted double-exposure (PSDE) technique. An expression for the peak correlation intensity at the origin for the correlation plane as a function of target orientation for the PSDE filter is derived. Experimental results confirming the theoretical predictions are provided.

Cheng, Yeou-Yen

1987-01-01

434

Flame patterns and combustion efficiency of Tai-Chi swirl generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the Tai-Chi swirl generator (TCSG) was utilized to modulate the flame behaviors behind a traditional nozzle. This novel TCSG nozzle significantly increases the combustion efficiency, saves the energy and reduces the carbon production. The axial momentum of the central fuel-jet is transformed to the radial momentum when the fuel jet passes through the TCSG and then the

Kuo C. San; Yuan K. Lee

2011-01-01

435

Patterns of educational attainment and employment of first and second generation immigrants in France  

E-print Network

and the analysis of school and labor market tracks of immigrants and their children. This interest results mainly and the 70s in Europe or after the reopening of the country to immigration in 1965 in the United States have on intergenerational educational mobility in France using the "Generation 92" survey respectively for native children

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Locations and patterns of meiotic recombination in two-generation pedigrees  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meiotic crossovers are the major mechanism by which haplotypes are shuffled to generate genetic diversity. Previously available methods for the genome-wide, high-resolution identification of meiotic crossover sites are limited by the laborious nature of the assay (as in sperm typing). METHODS: Several methods have been introduced to identify crossovers using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array technologies, although

Jason C Ting; Elisha DO Roberson; Duane G Currier; Jonathan Pevsner

2009-01-01

437

Microfabricated multilayer parylene-C stencils for the generation of patterned dynamic co-cultures  

E-print Network

regulator of many biological processes such as early development, stem cell differentiation, and tissue co- cultures. We generated dynamic co-cultures of murine em- bryonic stem cells in culture be stable, such as interactions in epithelial cell sheets, where cells are connected via cell­cell junctions

Dokmeci, Mehmet

438

A Comparison of the BTT and TTF Test-Generation Methods  

E-print Network

description of each method, then compare them on an industrial case study, which is a subset of the GSM 11, New Zealand marku@cs.waikato.ac.nz Abstract. This paper compares two methods of generating tests from formal speci#12;cations. The Test Template Framework (TTF) method is a framework and set of heuristics

Utting, Mark

439

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

440

NNARX Model of Speech Signal Generating System: Test Error Subject to Modeling Mode Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative analysis of different processing errors when modeling speech signal generating system simulated by neural network auto regressive with extra input (NNARX). Feed forward NNs were used. Vowels were taken to train and test models. Gradient descent algorithm (GDA) is used for the training, back propagation algorithm (BPA) for the testing, and optimal brain surgeon (OBS) for

D. Protic; M. Milosavljevic

2006-01-01

441

Test Generation and Recognition with Formal Methods Paul E. Ammann Paul E. Black  

E-print Network

* *. We defined National Institute of Standards and Technologyanother class of mutation operato* *rs cover- ing specification-based test criteria. age [13]. Test generation then is t* *he problem set to temporal logic constraints, are chosen inrfavorecognition for a refinement o* *f the mutation

Black, Paul E.

442

Design, fabrication, test qualification and price analysis of a third generation solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, test, and qualification of a third generation intermediate load solar cell module are presented. A technical discussion of the detailed module design, preliminary design review, design modifications, and environmental testing are included. A standardized pricing system is utilized to establish the cost competitiveness of this module design.

1982-01-01

443

Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase "gas generationtesting" shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

Carlsbad Field Office

2002-03-01

444

Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the project 'Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker' we have extended an existing tools infrastructure for formal modeling to export Java code so that we can use the NASA Ames tool Java Pathfinder (JPF) for test case generation. We have completed a translator from our source language RSML(exp -e) to Java and conducted initial studies of how JPF can be used as a testing tool. In this final report, we provide a detailed description of the translation approach as implemented in our tools.

Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Gao, Jimin

2003-01-01

445

Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

1991-09-01

446

The generation of biomolecular patterns in highly porous collagen-GAG scaffolds using direct photolithography  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex organization of structural proteins found within tissues and organs. Heterogeneous tissues with spatially and temporally modulated properties play an important role in organism physiology. Here we present a benzophenone (BP) based direct, photolithographic approach to spatially pattern solution phase biomolecules within collagen-GAG (CG) scaffolds and demonstrate creation of a wide range of patterns composed of multiple biomolecular species in a manner independent from scaffold fabrication steps. We demonstrate the ability to immobilize biomolecules at surface densities of up to 1000 ligands per square micron on the scaffold strut surface and to depths limited by the penetration depth of the excitation source into the scaffold structure. Importantly, while BP photopatterning does further crosslink the CG scaffold, evidenced by increased mechanical properties and collagen crystallinity, it does not affect scaffold microstructural or compositional properties or negatively influence cell adhesion, viability, or proliferation. We show that covalently photoimmobilized fibronectin within a CG scaffold significantly increases the speed of MC3T3-E1 cell attachment relative to the bare CG scaffold or non-specifically adsorbed fibronectin, suggesting that this approach can be used to improve scaffold bioactivity. Our findings, on the whole, establish the use of direct, BP photolithography as a methodology for covalently incorporating activity-improving biochemical cues within 3D collagen biomaterial scaffolds with spatial control over biomolecular deposition. PMID:21397322

Martin, Teresa A.; Caliari, Steven R.; Williford, Paul D.; Harley, Brendan A.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

447

Ecological coherence of diversity patterns derived from classical fingerprinting and Next Generation Sequencing techniques.  

PubMed

Changes in richness and bacterial community structure obtained via 454 Massively Parallel Tag Sequencing (MPTS) and Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Analysis (ARISA) were systematically compared to determine whether and how the ecological knowledge obtained from both molecular techniques could be combined. We evaluated community changes over time and depth in marine coastal sands at different levels of taxonomic resolutions, sequence corrections and sequence abundances. Although richness over depth layers or sampling dates greatly varied [??30% and 70-80% new operational taxonomic units (OTU) between two samples with ARISA and MPTS respectively], overall patterns of community variations were similar with both approaches. Alpha-diversity estimated by ARISA-derived OTU was most similar to that obtained from MPTS-derived OTU defined at the order level. Similar patterns of OTU replacement were also found with MPTS at the family level and with 20-25% rare types removed. Using ARISA or MPTS datasets with lower resolution, such as those containing only resident OTU, yielded a similar set of significant contextual variables explaining bacterial community changes. Hence, ARISA as a rapid and low-cost fingerprinting technique represents a valid starting point for more in-depth exploration of community composition when complemented by the detailed taxonomic description offered by MPTS. PMID:24147993

Gobet, Angélique; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

2014-09-01

448

Endogenous burst capability in a neuron of the gastric mill pattern generator of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus.  

PubMed

The gastric system of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion has previously been thought to include no neurons capable of endogenous bursting. We describe conditions under which one of the motorneurons, the CP cell, can burst endogenously in a free-running manner in the absence of other phasic network activity. Isolated preparations of the foregut nervous system were used, and the CP bursting was either spontaneous or was activated by continuous stimulation of an input nerve. Three criteria were applied to establish the endogenous nature of such burst generation in CP: absence of phasic input, reset of the bursting pattern by pulses of current in a characteristic phase-dependent manner, and modulation of burst rate by sustained injected current. (1) The firing of other cells which are known to be related synaptically to CP was monitored in nerve records. These other cells were either silent or fired only tonically. Cross-correlograms showed that CP bursting was not ascribable to phasic activity in these other network cells. (2) A depolarizing current pulse of sufficient strength injected intracellularly between bursts triggered a burst prematurely and reset the subsequent rhythm. A hyperpolarizing pulse during a burst terminated it and reset the subsequent rhythm. Reset behavior was similar to that described for other endogenous bursters. (3) Application of a positive-going ramp current initially caused an increase in burst rate, as described for other endogenous bursters. However, further depolarization caused a slower burst rate due to lengthening of the individual bursts, although mean firing frequency continued to increase throughout the range tested. Such free-running endogenous repetitive bursting appeared to result from the CP's ability to produce slow regenerative depolarizations ("plateau potentials"). When bursting was present, so was the plateau property, as determined by I-V analysis and by the ability of brief current pulses to trigger and terminate bursts. The previous inability to observe endogenous bursting in preparations with central input removed may be due to the usual absence of the plateau property in such preparations. CP bursting during normal gastric mill rhythms, while underlain by plateau potentials, is strongly controlled by network interactions. CP appears not to be well placed in the network to be considered a source of normal gastric rhythmicity. Nevertheless, endogenous bursting in CP may explain some of the partial gastric rhythms seen in behavioral studies, and illustrates one way that cellular properties might contribute to rhythmic behaviors. PMID:6502157

Hartline, D K; Russell, D F

1984-09-01

449

Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

1991-01-01

450

Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.  

PubMed

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

2012-01-01

451

Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns  

PubMed Central

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

2012-01-01

452

A 2D+t SPH model to study the breaking wave pattern generated by fast ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D+t approach is applied to study the wave pattern generated by high speed slender ships with a sharp stem. This allows approximating the ship motion through a set of equations which are mathematically equivalent to those governing the unsteady 2D free-surface flow generated by a deformable body in the vertical plane transverse to the ship. To describe the body deformation, a proper modeling of the solid boundaries is needed. To this purpose the fixed ghost particle technique recently developed by the authors for 2D SPH schemes is adopted. Then, an in-depth analysis of the bow breaking wave evolution is provided focusing on the different features of the plunging jet as function of the ship forward velocity. The comparison with experimental data proves the proposed SPH scheme to be robust and accurate.

Marrone, S.; Colagrossi, A.; Antuono, M.; Lugni, C.; Tulin, M. P.

2011-11-01

453

Cerebral blood flow response pattern during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the risk of temporary or permanent internal carotid artery occlusion. In 156 patients intraarterial balloon test occlusion in combination with a stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow study was performed before radiologic or surgical treatment. All 156 patients passed the clinical balloon test occlusion and underwent a xenon study in combination with a second balloon test. Quantitative flow data were analyzed for absolute changes as well as changes in symmetry. Fourteen patients exhibited reduced flow values between 20 and 30 mL/100 g per minute, an absolute decrease in flow, and significant asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery territory during balloon test occlusion. These patients would be considered at high risk for cerebral infarction if internal carotid artery occlusion were to be performed. With one exception they belonged to a group (class I) of 61 patients who showed bilateral or ipsilateral flow decrease and significant asymmetry with lower flow on the side of occlusion. The other 95 patients, who showed a variety of cerebral blood flow response patterns including ipsilateral or bilateral flow increase, were at moderate (class II) or low (class III) stroke risk. In contrast to these findings, exclusively qualitative flow analysis failed to identify the patients at high risk: a threshold with an asymmetry index of 10% revealed only 16% specificity whereas an asymmetry index of 45% showed only 61% sensitivity for detection of low flow areas (<30 mL/100 g per minute). For achieving a minimal hemodynamic related-stroke rate associated with permanent clinical internal carotid artery occlusion we suggest integration of a thorough analysis of quantitative cerebral blood flow data before and during balloon test occlusion. 68 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Witt, J.P. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Yonas, H.; Jungreis, C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01

454

Clinical features of congenital adrenal insufficiency including growth patterns and significance of ACTH stimulation test.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (P<0.05). Comorbid conditions such as obesity, mental retardation, and central precocious puberty were also prominent in this group. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of understanding the clinical symptoms as well as genetic analysis for early diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24265530

Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

2013-11-01

455

The touchscreen operant platform for testing working memory and pattern separation in rats and mice  

PubMed Central

The automated touchscreen operant chamber for rats and mice allows for the assessment of multiple cognitive domains within the same testing environment. This protocol presents the Location Dis