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1

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

2

A note on certain test score relationships and their implications for research in teacher selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in educational psychology courses at Oklahoma A. & M. College were given Cardall's Test of Practical Judgment, Horrocks and Troyer's test.––A study of Sam Smith, and the Otis Gamma (Intelligence) Test. Since the inter-test coefficients of correlation were all low or moderate, it is concluded that these 3 are independent measures and that each of the first two tests

Roy Gladstone

1952-01-01

3

Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

Pisano, Mark C.

4

Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

5

Item Bias and Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The connection between item bias and test scores was investigated using a simulation approach. Two samples of hypothetical examinees were simulated using an item response theory model. The two samples were identical, except that the mean theta value 1 sample was 5 less than the other. The simulated tests consisted of 50 items with characteristics…

Scheuneman, Janice Dowd

6

More than Just Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

Levin, Henry M.

2012-01-01

7

More than Just Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

Levin, Henry M.

2012-01-01

8

Interpreting Scores from Standardized Achievement Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses of the variety of scores generated by standardized achievement tests are discussed. Desirable characteristics of scales, raw score scales, percent of correct items, percentile ranks, grade equivalents, normal curve equivalents, and scale scores are considered. The various meanings and purposes of each type of score are discussed. It is…

Green, Donald Ross

9

Prediction of productivity from personality test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relationship between the quantity of nonacademic achievements and personality test scores. The total nonacademic score-the dependent variable-was derived from 9 nonacademic achievement scales on the American College Test. The predictor variables consisted of 14 scale scores from the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) and 1 academic aptitude measure. The relationship between the predictor and dependent variables was analyzed by

Charles F. Elton; Harriett A. Rose

1974-01-01

10

Statistics Scores and Testing Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the scores students earned on their statistics final examinations and the number of minutes students required to complete the exams. In a previous study, K. Bridges (1985) extended the range of interest in this relationship from a single study to a course-based series, examining…

Kennedy, Robert L.; McCallister, Corliss J.

11

Patterns of change in personality test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the pattern of change occurring in personaltiy test scores for a sample of 130 college females. It was predicted that degree of change would be related to (1) ability measures, (2) original status in personality test scores, and (3) college majors. Although significant differences were found between 3 groups of Ss in degree of change, none of the predictions

Charles F. Elton

1969-01-01

12

Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test

van der Linden, Wim J.

2006-01-01

13

Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

2011-01-01

14

Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

2009-01-01

15

Intelligence Test Scores and Business Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and two business men attending the Babson Statistical Conference at Wellesley Hills took the Bureau of Personnel Research Test VI. The correlation of the years spent in school and the test score was .44. The questions arose: Does outstanding success in business depend primarily on intelligence? To what extent may it be assumed that the brighter a man

W. V. Bingham; W. T. Davis

1924-01-01

16

The Black-White Test Score Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests…

Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

17

Relationship between scores on developing cognitive abilities test and scores on medical college admissions test for nontraditional premedical students.  

PubMed

The relationship of students' performance on the Developing Cognitive Abilities Test (DCAT), a test of scholastic aptitude, and their subsequent performance on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) were examined for 122 nontraditional premedical students who participated in a medical educational preparatory program. A stepwise multiple regression analysis produced moderate, though significant multiple correlations among subscores on the two tests. While there were a few exceptions, for the most part all of the subscores on the Developing Cognitive Abilities Test made a significant contribution to the regression equation in the prediction of scores on MCAT subtests. Implications for the value of the Developing Cognitive Abilities Test as an admissions tool as well as providing direction for possible intervention are discussed. PMID:2236420

Henry, P; Bardo, H R

1990-08-01

18

The Registered Holistic Scoring Method for Scoring Student Essays. New Jersey's Statewide Testing System High School Proficiency Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Registered Holistic Scoring Method, which has been used for one year to score the ninth grade writing test of the New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, is described. Registered Holistic Scoring was developed from the previous holistic approach in order to provide more reliable scoring guidelines year after year. Two trained evaluators…

Bloom, Diane S.

19

Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

1980-01-01

20

Test scores and efficiency ratings of machinists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervisors and assistant supervisors rated 174 machinists on 4 job traits––quality of performance, quantity of performance, rate of learning, and job knowledge. All men rated were administered the Adult Placement Test (mental alertness test developed by the author), the Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test, the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test, and the Mac-Quarrie Mechanical Aptitude Test. The Adult Placement Test

Rose G. Anderson

1947-01-01

21

Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

2006-01-01

22

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nevada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Nevada's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in both subjects. Trends in average (mean) test scores

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

23

Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

24

Measuring the Appropriateness of Multiple-Choice Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriateness indexes (statistical formulas) for detecting suspiciously high or low scores on aptitude tests were presented, based on a simulation of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) with 3,000 simulated scores--2,800 normal and 200 suspicious. The traditional index--marginal probability--uses a model for the normal examinee's test-taking…

Levine, Michael V.; Rubin, Donald B.

25

The Generalizability of Motivation Filtering in Improving Test Score Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accountability for educational quality is a priority at all levels of education. Low-stakes testing is one way to measure the quality of education that students receive and make inferences about what students know and can do. Aggregate test scores from low-stakes testing programs are suspect, however, to the degree that these scores are influenced…

Wise, Vicki L.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

2006-01-01

26

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Arkansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Arkansas's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) went up in math at grades 4 and 8. In reading, the percentages scoring proficient on the state test went up…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

27

Empathy test scores of union leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents evidence pertaining to the validity and reliability of a recently devised test designed to assess empathic or massempathic ability. The Empathy Test employing a ranking technique is composed of three parts: I. various types of music, II. titles of 15 current well-known magazines. III. ten commonly annoying experiences. Subjects used in this validation were 64 business agents

Raymond H. Van Zelst

1952-01-01

28

Using the Attention Network Test to predict driving test scores.  

PubMed

Driving is a complex multi-factorial task that taps underlying mechanisms of cognition and attention. Not surprisingly, therefore, many tests of cognition and attention are significantly associated with driving outcomes. In this article, we introduce driving researchers and clinicians with an interest in driving to the Attention Network Test (ANT), which to our knowledge has not previously been used in driving research. It is a recently developed test that is based on a neural network model of the human attention system. It combines elements of Posner's cuing paradigm [Posner, M.I., 1980. Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32, 3-25.] with the Eriksen & Eriksen flanker task [Eriksen, B.A., Eriksen, C.W., 1974. Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics 16, 143-149.], and provides measures of three distinct functions of attention: alerting, orienting, and executive function. Our results demonstrate that the ANT has very good concurrent validity with the Useful Field of View (UFOV), and that it is comparable to UFOV in its ability to predict road test scores for a simulated drive. These findings suggest that further investigation of the usefulness of the ANT as a tool for driving researchers and clinicians is merited. PMID:19114140

Weaver, Bruce; Bédard, Michel; McAuliffe, Jim; Parkkari, Marie

2008-10-11

29

Pictures Speak Louder than Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Person Test, if given at regular intervals during periods of remediation, may show clear evidence of improvement in behavior and attitude of learning disabled students. (CL)

McCabe, Deborah; Hilmo, Joellen

1985-01-01

30

Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

Jacks, Meredith

2011-01-01

31

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

32

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Wisconsin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Wisconsin's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in math at grades 4 and 8 and in reading at grade 8. In grade 4 reading, the percentage scoring

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

33

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Ohio's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and grade 8 math. In grade 8 reading, the percentage of students scoring proficient…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

34

Making Sense of Test Scores. Assessment Brief. Number 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is challenging for parents and the general public to make sense of the reports on test scores that appear in the mass media. This article offers some things for readers to consider as they bring a critical eye to what is read in the papers. Usually reports on test scores in the media are quite short and focus on one or two aspects of test

Bergman, Lincoln

2004-01-01

35

Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of…

Tanner, John R.

2011-01-01

36

Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race\\/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had substantial predictive validity, accounting for about 16% of the variance in

Stephen G. Sireci; Eileen Talento-Miller

2006-01-01

37

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

38

Resistance Training Increases the Variability of Strength Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Informal observations made while conducting a meta-analysis of resistance training programs suggested that the between-person variation in strength test scores is greater after training than before. This study treated the informal observation as a hypothe...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2009-01-01

39

Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

2003-01-01

40

The Effect of Background Music on Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Would the playing of background music positively affect the scores on a reading comprehension test?\\u000aA statistical analysis of pretest scores from the Degree of Reading Power test revealed that both classes were of equal reading ability at the onset of the study.\\u000aThe

Ann S. DeMers

1996-01-01

41

Distinctive Feature Scoring of the California Consonant Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated a distinctive feature scoring technique for List 1 of the California Consonant Test for the purpose of improving test reliability in this test used to identify errors in speech recognition made by adult listeners (N=50) with high frequency sensorineural hearing loss. (DB)

Feeney, M. Patrick

1990-01-01

42

Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

Tully, Susannah

2008-01-01

43

The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test

Echternacht, Gary

44

The impact of prepregnancy obesity on children's cognitive test scores.  

PubMed

To examine the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and cognitive test scores of children at early primary school age. A descriptive observational design was used. Study subjects consist of 3,412 US children aged 60-83 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother and Child Survey. Cognitive test scores using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition and mathematics tests were used as the outcomes of interest. Association with maternal prepregnancy obesity was examined using the ordinary least square regression controlling for intrauterine, family background, maternal and child factors. Children of obese women had 3 points (0.23 SD units) lower peabody individual achievement test (PIAT) reading recognition score (p = 0.007), and 2 points (0.16 SD units) lower PIAT mathematics scores (p < 0.0001), holding all other factors constant. As expected, cognitive test score was associated with stimulating home environment (reading: ? = 0.15, p < 0.0001, and math: ? = 0.15, p < 0.0001), household income (reading: ? = 0.03, p = 0.02 and math: ? = 0.04, p = 0.004), maternal education (reading: ? = 0.42, p = 0.0005, and math: ? = 0.32, p = 0.008), and maternal cognitive skills (reading: ? = 0.11, p < 0.0001, and math: ? = 0.09, p < 0.0001). There was a significant association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores that could not be explained by other intrauterine, family background, maternal, and child factors. Children who live in disadvantaged postnatal environments may be most affected by the effects of maternal prepregnancy obesity. Replications of the current study using different cohorts are warranted to confirm the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores. PMID:22350633

Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J; Reagan, Patricia B; Fang, Muriel Z

2013-02-01

45

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles North Dakota's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentage of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

46

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

47

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

48

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

49

Increase in Spatial Visualization Test Scores During Engineering Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to discover if there was change or growth in the students' ability as measured by the spatial visualizing test. If so, we were also concerned in finding those experiential factors which were related to the change. High school and college counselors will note with interest that while high scores on the spatial visualization test

Mary F. Blade; Walter S. Watson

1955-01-01

50

American College Testing Program Scores as an Index of Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between American College Testing Program (ACT) and California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM) scores were explored. Four hundred and thirty-four undergraduate subjects of both sexes were selected from a midwestern university. Pearson product moment correlation (r) and Kendall rank correlation coefficient (tau) were used to measure…

Wilkins, Elizabeth M.; And Others

51

RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

52

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

53

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. New Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles New Mexico's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 math and grade 8 reading and math. In grade 4 reading, the percentage basic on NAEP …

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

54

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on NAEP than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

55

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

56

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alabama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Alabama's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

57

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Montana's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 reading. In grade 8 math, however, the percentage proficient…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

58

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nebraska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Nebraska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the percentages reaching the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grade 4 in both reading and math. At grade 8, however, the percentages…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

59

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles Florida's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

60

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

61

The Probability of Obtaining Two Statistically Different Test Scores as a Test Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new test index is defined as the probability of obtaining two randomly selected test scores (PDTS) as statistically different. After giving a concept definition of the test index, two simulation studies are presented. The first analyzes the influence of the distribution of test scores, test reliability, and sample size on PDTS within classical…

Muller, Jorg M.

2006-01-01

62

School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over…

Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane

2009-01-01

63

Benefits of Coaching on Test Scores Seen as Negligible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: A new study by a pair of Harvard University researchers discounts earlier findings that coaching can substantially improve student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). "There is simply insufficient evidence that large score increases are a result of a coaching program," write Rebecca…

Report on Education Research, 1983

1983-01-01

64

Small Classes Do Reduce the Test-Score Achievement Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tennessee's Project STAR, a randomized experiment involving almost 12,000 pupils, demonstrated convincingly that small classes in the early elementary (K-3) grades increase pupil performance, reduce the test-score achievement gap between or among different social groups, and can have long-lasting effects. The benefits are greater for minority…

Achilles, C. M.; Finn, J. D.; Gerber, Susan B.

65

What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

Jorgenson, Olaf

2012-01-01

66

Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…

Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

2000-01-01

67

Score test for detecting linkage to quantitative traits.  

PubMed

The two most popular methods to detect linkage of a quantitative trait to a marker are the Haseman-Elston regression method and the variance components likelihood-ratio test. In the literature, these methods are frequently compared and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are well known. In this article, we derive a score test for the variance component attributable to a specific quantitative trait locus and show that for sib-pairs it is mathematically equivalent to a recently proposed version of the Haseman-Elston method that optimally combines the sum squared and the difference squared of the centered phenotype values of the sibs. Because score tests and likelihood-ratio tetsts are equivalent for large sample sizes, the variance components likelihood-ratio test is also asymptotically equivalent to this optimal Haseman-Elston test. This fact gives a theoretical explanation of the empirical observation from simulation studies reporting similar power of the variance components likelihood-ratio test and the optimal Haseman-Elston method. Perhaps more importantly for practical purposes, the score test can also be extended in a natural way to support the simultaneous analysis of more than two subjects and multivariate phenotypes. PMID:11984866

Putter, H; Sandkuijl, L A; van Houwelingen, J C

2002-04-01

68

National Educational Development Tests as a Predictor of College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive validity of composite scores on the National Educational Development Tests (NEDT-C) scores in the prediction of College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test (CEEB-SAT) total (T) scores. The subjects were 69 students in a private college preparatory school for girls. The data consisted of NEDT-C scores obtained during the subjects' ninth grade

L. K. Doebler; S. T. Foreman

1979-01-01

69

Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998-2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2006-01-01

70

Racial segregation and the black–white test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998–2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2007-01-01

71

Nurse entrance test scores: a predictor of success.  

PubMed

A program evaluation was conducted to determine if requiring higher scores on critical thinking components of the Nurse Entrance Test would have a positive effect on the percentage of students that could be retained in a diploma nursing program. The program evaluation revealed that using the Nurse Entrance Test as a tool for admissions screening, specifically portions of the examination that predict critical thinking, was effective in helping to predict success through level I nursing courses. PMID:17108789

Ellis, Sherri Orso

72

Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

Hatcher, Donald L.

2011-01-01

73

Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

Hatcher, Donald L.

2011-01-01

74

DO COGNITIVE TEST SCORES EXPLAIN HIGHER US WAGE INEQUALITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata from the 1994-6 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), weexamine the role of cognitive skills in explaining higher wage inequality in the US. We find thatwhile the greater dispersion of cognitive test scores in the US plays a part in explaining higherUS wage inequality, higher labor market prices (i.e. higher returns to measured human capitaland cognitive performance) and greater

Francine D. Blau

2000-01-01

75

The Word Association Implications Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Word Association Implications Test (WAIT) is an experimental analogue for studying the processes by which novice clinicians learn to read between the lines of psychological data. This research explored the illogic used by poor judges on the WAIT. In a qualitative pilot study, 37 college students used a think-aloud methodology to generate 36 statements as they reasoned about the

Stephen J Dollinger

1999-01-01

76

Correlation between intelligence test scores and executive function measures.  

PubMed

In this study, some executive function measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], verbal fluency, and Trial Making Test [TMT], Form A and Form B) were correlated with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores. Fifty 13- to 16-year-old normal children were selected. It was found that verbal fluency tests correlated about 0.30 with Verbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Full Scale IQ. In the WCST only Perseverative Errors negatively correlated with Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ. Two correlations were found to be significant with regard to the TMT: TMT Form B Errors negatively correlated with WISC-R Vocabulary subtest; and TMT Form A Time negatively correlated with Performance IQ. These results support the assumption that traditional intelligence tests are not appropriately evaluating executive functions. PMID:14590565

Ardila, A; Pineda, D; Rosselli, M

2000-01-01

77

Effect of Milk Age, Storage, and Testing Temperatures upon the Wisconsin Mastitis Test Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin MasLitis Test (WMT) scores were determined on milk samples of vary- ing cell counts for five days. The samples were subjected to different conditions of storage and testing, and irrespective of these conditions, the daily decrease of WMT score was, with one exception, significant (p --~ .05). After a 29-hr storage period, there was no significant (p ~ .05)

D. Kroger; D. E. Jasper

1967-01-01

78

The Use of Confidence Intervals When Interpreting Test Scores. EREAPA Publication Series No. 93-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person's obtained score on a test provides an estimate of the individual's "true" score on that test. The obtained score is considered to have two parts, the true component and the error component. Classical test theory assumes that obtained scores for an individual over multiple administrations of the same test will lie symmetrically around the…

Wheeler, Patricia H.

79

An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

Walter, Richard Barry

80

Bias in consensus scoring, with examples from ability emotional intelligence tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus scoring occurs when the scoring key for a test is based upon the responses of the norm group. Consensus scoring is an attractive alternative to traditional methods of creating a scoring key for ability tests, especially useful when experts disagree about the correct answers to test items, as they do in the area of emotions and emotion perception. Of

Kimberly A. Barchard; James A. Russell

2006-01-01

81

Money Improves Test Scores--Even State-Level SATs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three former secretaries of education--William Bennett, Lauro Cavazos, and Terrel Bell--have touted state-level SAT scores as proof that educational financing does not matter. Recently, Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman adjusted scores for participation rate and detected a very strong relationship between expenditures and SAT scores. Bigger…

Bracey, Gerald W.

1996-01-01

82

Reporting Diagnostic Scores in Educational Testing: Temptations, Pitfalls, and Some Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…

Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.

2010-01-01

83

The Influence of Sex, Education and Age on Test Scores on the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of sex, education and age on the total test score on the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test (SweSA T), a test used in the selection process to colleges and universities in Sweden since 1977. Its use has so far been limited to one of four quota groups consisting of applicants 25 years or older and with

Kenny Bränberg; Widar Henriksson; Hans Nyquist; Ingemar Wedman

1990-01-01

84

The Graduate Management Admission Test: Technical Report on Test Development and Score Interpretation for GMAT Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on test development, test administration, and score interpretation for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). The GMAT, first administered in 1954, provides objective measures of an applicant's abilities for use in admissions decisions by graduate management schools. It is currently composed of five…

Schrader, William B.

85

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

86

Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Reading Items: Implications for Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how the use of automated scoring procedures for short-answer reading tasks can affect the constructs being assessed. In particular, it highlights ways in which the development of scoring algorithms intended to apply the criteria used by human raters can lead test developers to reexamine and even refine the constructs they wish to assess. The article also points

Nathan T. Carr; Xiaoming Xi

2010-01-01

87

Variability of Test Scores and the Split-Half Reliability Coefficient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study indicate that the correlation between half-test scores over repeated splits, over persons, and over repeated testings resulting in different sets of observed scores, is given by Kuder-Richardson Formula 21. (RF)

Zimmerman, Donald W.

1970-01-01

88

Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

2012-01-01

89

The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

2011-01-01

90

The Relationship Between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders. Error response patterns revealed a steady, age-related increase in the ability to use

John D. Rich; William Fullard; Willis Overton

2011-01-01

91

A scoring system for lung function tests in infants.  

PubMed

Measurements of thoracic gas volume (TGV), airway resistance (Raw), and airway conductance (Gaw) were calculated in a group of 42 normal infants using a whole-body plethysmograph. Maximum expiratory flow at functional residual capacity was measured in a separate group of 108 normal infants. Using data obtained from these infants the following regression equations were calculated: Gaw (L.s-1.cmH2O) = -0.0475 + 0.00164 x length (cm) square root of TGV (mL1/2) = -3.22 + 0.263 x length (cm) VmaxFRC (mL.s-1) = -173 + 5.2 x length (cm). The standard errors of prediction are a measure of the scatter of individual results from the normal population about the true regression line. They were used to define limits of the normal ranges for these tests of lung function, and to develop a scoring system. This approach is preferable to expressing results as percent predicted, which gives no indication of how likely a measurement is to be within normal limits. PMID:1480440

Hampton, F; Beardsmore, C S; Morgan, W; Williams, A; Taussig, L; Thompson, J R

1992-11-01

92

The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

2013-01-01

93

Test-Day Genetic Analysis of Condition Score and Heart Girth in Holstein Friesian Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to estimate heritability for condi- tion score and heart girth using a test-day model, to investigate the genetic relationships between condition score, heart girth, and milk yield traits and to analyze the genetic relationships of condition score and heart girth measured at different stages of lactation. Cows from 25 dairy herds were scored for body condition and

L. Gallo; P. Carnier; M. Cassandro; R. Dal Zotto; G. Bittante

2001-01-01

94

Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

1994-11-01

95

Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

Zavodny, Madeline

2013-01-01

96

Estimating the Percentage of the Population With Abnormally Low Scores (or Abnormally Large Score Differences) on Standardized Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A Generic Method With Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the rarity or abnormality of an individual's test scores (or test score differences) is fundamental in interpreting the results of a neuropsychological assessment. If a standardized battery of tests is administered, the question arises as to what percentage of the healthy population would be expected to exhibit one or more abnormally low test scores (and, in general, j

John R. Crawford; Paul H. Garthwaite; Catherine B. Gault

2007-01-01

97

Evaluating the Impact of Test Accommodations on Test Scores of LEP Students & Non-LEP Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a quasi-experimental analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, this project examined the effects of the use of accommodations with students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and non-LEP students and whether the use of accommodations affected the validity of test score interpretations. Major accommodations examined were extra time, and extra…

Hafner, Anne L.

98

Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores  

Cancer.gov

About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

99

Transiency, Test Scores, and the Public: One School District's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research documents that transient students who change schools frequently oftensuffer from low academic achievement. This article investigates standardized group measures by disentangling elementary achievement scores. Located in a highly transient area outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Main Street School had their fifth grade Pennsylvania…

Sanderson, D.R.

2004-01-01

100

Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.  

PubMed

Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

2001-01-01

101

A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes…

Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

1976-01-01

102

Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

103

Comparing an Individual's Test Score Against Norms Derived from Small Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard method for comparing an individual's test score with a normative sample involves converting the score to a z score and evaluating it using a table of the area under the normal curve. When the norma- tive sample is small, a more appropriate method is to treat the individual as a sample of N = 1 and use a

J. R. Crawford; David C. Howell

1998-01-01

104

IMPACT OF INTER-INTERVIEWER VARIATION ON ANALYTICAL RATING SCORES AND DISCOURSE IN ORAL INTERVIEW TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, research has suggested that test performances and test scores are collaboratively achieved through interviewing\\/scoring processes and that some test-takers might be in unfair situations caused by the paired interviewer. Most of these studies, however, have employed only holistic scores and little has been known about which analytic categories (e.g. pronunciation, grammar, fluency) are vulnerable to

FUMIYO NAKATSUHARA

105

Arkansas Teacher Testing: A Penny for Your Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher testing began in Arkansas when the governor threatened to veto a 1% sales tax if a teacher testing bill were not passed. With enactment of Act 76 in 1983, an instrument was developed for field testing in 1984 over objections of the Arkansas Education Association. The test, the Arkansas Educational Skills Assessment, is comprised of 50…

Kennedy, Robert L.

106

School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

2011-01-01

107

Improving the Reliability and Validity of Confidence-Scored Tests by Adjusting for Realism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical and dental students were administered two short confidence-scored tests on cellular and molecular biology. Increases in test reliability and predictive validity were found when test scores were adjusted for realism, but were not statistically significant. (Author/MH)

Rippey, Robert M.; Smith, Susan

1979-01-01

108

Trends in GRE Scores in Education Administration: Implications for Principal Preparation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the belief that education administration (EA) has attracted students of below-average verbal, quantitative, and analytic scores, as measured by standardized tests. The paper makes two assertions: principals as school leaders need academic credibility to relate with teachers as "critical friends," and successful principals…

Keedy, John L.; Grandy, Jerilee

109

Effect of Self-Assessment on Test Scores: Student Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied…

Ramirez, Beatriz U.

2010-01-01

110

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains materials to help Delaware educators understand and use reports from the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP). The DSTP tests are tied to the Delaware content standards that define the knowledge and skills required for students to progress beyond high school. In spring 2003, the DSTP reading, writing, and mathematics tests

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

111

A “Rearrangement Procedure” For Scoring Adaptive Tests with Review Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in many cases examinees are not allowed to revise their answers on CAT.

Elena C. Papanastasiou; Mark D. Reckase

2007-01-01

112

A Note on Recovering the Ability Distribution from Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple scheme is proposed for smoothly approximating the ability distribution for relatively long tests, assuming that the item characteristic curves (ICCs) are known or well estimated. The scheme works for a general class of ICCs and is guaranteed to completely recover the theta distribution as the test length increases. The proposed method of…

Junker, Brian W.

113

A score test for zero-inflation in multilevel count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIP) in many situations is appropriate for analyzing multilevel correlated count data with excess zeros. In this paper, a score test for assessing ZIP regression against Poisson regression in multilevel count data with excess zeros is developed. The sampling distribution and power of the score statistic test is evaluated using a simulation study. The results show

Abbas Moghimbeigi; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Kazem Mohammad; Brian McArdle

2009-01-01

114

Academic Background and Admissions Test Scores as Predictors of College Mathematics Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between admissions test scores, academic background, and college mathematics outcomes. This study investigated the predictive relationship between high school achievement, admissions test scores, selected demographic variables, and grade performance in college mathematics for 5,212 college…

Keeley, Edward J.; And Others

115

Linking Scores from Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

2005-01-01

116

Linking Scores From Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

2005-01-01

117

Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

Sawyer, Richard

2013-01-01

118

Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Strategies for Data-Driven Instructional Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to help K-12 teachers and administrators understand the nature of standardized tests and, in particular, the scores that result from them. This useful manual helps teachers develop the skills necessary to incorporate these test scores into various types of instructional decision making--a process known as "data-driven…

Mertler, Craig A.

2007-01-01

119

The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

Shaw, Tommetta

2010-01-01

120

The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School, and Racial Test Score Gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of children’s scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents’ ability and

Petra E. Todd; Kenneth I. Wolpin

2007-01-01

121

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

122

Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

2011-01-01

123

Graduate Students' Administration and Scoring Errors on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The interpretation of cognitive test scores often leads to decisions concerning the diagnosis, educational placement, and types of interventions used for children. Therefore, it is important that practitioners administer and score cognitive tests without error. This study assesses the frequency and types of examiner errors that occur during the…

Ramos, Erica; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Schermerhorn, Susan M.

2009-01-01

124

Increasing Racial Isolation and Test Score Gaps in Mathematics: A 30-Year Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although there has been progress in closing the test score gaps among student groups over past decades, that progress has stalled. Many researchers have speculated why the test score gaps closed between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, but only a few have been able to empirically study how changes in school factors and…

Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.

2010-01-01

125

Relationship Between Behavioural Traits and Performance Test Scores in Sport Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kr‰ková L., J. Mlynek, M. Halo: Relationship Between Behavioural Traits and Performance Test Scores in Sport Horses. Acta Vet. Brno 2003, 72: 429-435. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the relationship between performance test scores and the individual differences in behaviour of sport horses. Individual differences in emotionality expressed by behavioural traits (conditioned by the type of nervous

L. KR; J. MLYNEK; M. HALO

126

The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

Springer, Matthew G.

2008-01-01

127

The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

Sohn, Kitae

2012-01-01

128

Looking Beyond Test Score Gains: State Accountability's Effect on Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers in the literature have attempted to document whether accountability programs have played a role in producing higher test scores. Yet, evaluating changes to test scores does not necessarily indicate how the adoption of programs has affected the individual student's long-run outcomes. This paper extends the existing literature by evaluating whether accountability programs led to higher levels of educational

Kathleen N. Wong

129

Defining and Distinguishing Validity: Interpretations of Score Meaning and Justifications of Test Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of validity has suffered because the term has been used to refer to 2 incompatible concerns: the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e., intended score meaning) and the degree of support for specified applications (i.e., intended test uses). This article has 3 purposes: (a) to provide a brief summary of current validity theory, (b)

Gregory J. Cizek

2012-01-01

130

How Changes in Families and Schools Are Related to Trends in Black-White Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through several decades of research, a great deal has been written about trends in black-white test scores and the factors that may explain the gaps in different subject areas. Only a few studies have examined the changing relationships between gaps in students' test scores and family and school measures in nationally representative data over…

Berends, Mark; Lucas, Samuel R.; Penaloza, Roberto V.

2008-01-01

131

The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

Springer, Matthew G.

2008-01-01

132

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, a substantial gap in test scores between white and black students persists, even after controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics. Using a newly available data set (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), we demonstrate that in stark contrast to earlier studies, the black-white test score gap among incoming kindergartners disappears when we control for a small

Roland G. Fryer Jr; Steven D. Levitt

2004-01-01

133

Development and Scoring of Hands-On Performance Tests for Mechanical Maintenance Specialties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The memorandum reports the procedures used for the development and scoring of bands-on performance tests for the mechanical maintenance phase of the Job Performance Measurement (JPM) Project.... Aptitude tests, ASVAB (armed services vocational aptitude ba...

P. W. Mayberry N. B. Carey

1992-01-01

134

The effect of effort on baseline neuropsychological test scores in high school football athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePoor effort on baseline neuropsychological tests is expected to influence interpretation of post-concussion assessment scores. Our study examined effort in an athletic population to determine if poor effort effects neuropsychological test performance.

Tamerah N. Hunt; Michael S. Ferrara; L. Stephen Miller; Stephen Macciocchi

2007-01-01

135

Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

2011-01-01

136

Approach for Equalizing Test Scores for SKT-Exempt AFSCs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Weighted Airman Promotion Systems (WAPS) is used by the U.S. Air Force to promoted enlisted personnel to the grades of E-5 through E-7. WAPS is composed of six weighted factors: Specially Knowledge Test (SKT), Promotion Fitness Exam (PFE), Enlisted Pe...

R. E. Duncan

1994-01-01

137

Test Score Stability and Construct Validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores among College Students: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

2005-01-01

138

Personnel Test Battery and Scoring Procedures. Memorandum No. L.S. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this memo is to present tests that comprise the test battery used to select Navy personnel to train marine mammals, and to describe the scoring procedures of the tests. The test battery consists of: Biosystems General Information Test (BGIT), Personnel History Questionnaire (PHQ), Gordon Personal Inventory, Gordon Personal Profile,…

Berson, Barry L.

139

The Relationship between Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), which are required of applicants to a substantial number of graduate management schools, foreign candidates may also be required to submit scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as an indication of English language proficiency. The present study provides…

Powers, Donald E.

140

Do Scores on a Tachistoscope Test Correlate With Baseball Batting Averages?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Millions of dollars are spent each year by individuals seeking to improve their athletic performance. One area of visual training is the use of the tachistoscope, which measures inspection time or visual recognition time. Although the potential of the tachistoscope as a training tool has received some research attention, its use as a means of measurement or predictor of athletic ability in sports has not been explored. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the potential of the tachistoscope as a measurement instrument by determining if a baseball player's ability to identify a tachistoscopically presented picture of a pitch is correlated with hitting performance as measured by batting average. METHODS:: Using sport-specific slides, 20 subjects-all non-pitching members of the Pacific University Baseball Team-were administered a tachistoscopic test. The test consisted of identifying the type of pitch illustrated in 30 randomly ordered slides depicting a pitcher throwing four different baseball pitches. Each slide was presented for 0.2 sec. The results of the test were compared with the athlete's previous season's batting average. RESULTS:: A positive correlation was found between an athlete's ability to correctly identify a picture of a pitch presented tachistoscopically and batting average (r=0.648; P<0.01). These results suggest that a superior ability to recognize pitches presented via tachistoscope may correlate with a higher skill level in batting. CONCLUSIONS:: Tachistoscopic test scores correlated positively with batting averages. The tachistoscope may be an acceptable tool to help in assessing batting performance. Additional testing with players from different sports, different levels of ability, and different tachistoscopic times should be performed to determine if the tachistoscope is a valid measure of athletic ability. Implications may also be drawn in other areas such as military and police work. PMID:21471813

Reichow, Alan W; Garchow, Kenneth E; Baird, Richard Y

2011-04-05

141

The Score Comparability of Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Formats for K-3 Reading Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the equivalence of scores from computerized and paper-and-pencil formats of a series of K-3 reading screening tests. Concerns about score equivalence on the computerized formats were warranted because of the use of reading passages, computer unfamiliarity of primary school students, and teacher versus computer…

Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael

2005-01-01

142

Restless Legs Syndrome: scoring criteria for leg movements recorded during the suggested immobilization test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of leg movements experienced by patients with the restless legs syndrome (RLS) during wakefulness using the suggested immobilization test (SIT).Methods: Forty patients with primary RLS who showed an index of leg movements greater than 40 during the SIT were selected for these analyses.Results: In general, Coleman's criteria for scoring PLMS were appropriate for scoring leg

Martin Michaud; Gaétan Poirier; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir

2001-01-01

143

From #2 Pencils to the World Wide Web: A History of Test Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the…

Zytowski, Donald G.

2008-01-01

144

Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

2011-01-01

145

Assessing the Relationship among Defining Issues Test Scores and Crystallised and Fluid Intellectual Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Differing findings exist on how Defining Issues Test (DIT) scores relate to intelligence. Further study is needed in order to address aspects of intellect not previously considered and to address how these relationships rival studies that have compared indices of intellect with constructs similar to DIT scores. In the present study, a sample of…

Derryberry, W. Pitt; Jones, Kristy L.; Grieve, Frederick G.; Barger, Brian

2007-01-01

146

Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring

Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

2011-01-01

147

An empirical study of the normality and independence of errors of measurement in test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study of test scores shows the variance of the errors of measurement to be significantly associated with true score in each of four groups studied; it also shows the distribution of the errors of measurement to be significantly skewed in three of these four groups. The mathematical rationale underlying the statistical treatment is presented. Standard error formulas are

Frederic M. Lord

1960-01-01

148

Correlation between psychometric test scores and learning tying of surgical reef knots.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on a computerised psychometric test, measuring psychomotor aptitude and learning tying of a surgical reef knot. Fifteen surgical trainees performed a test of psychomotor aptitude (ADTRACK 2) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then performed a simple test of their ability to tie a surgical reef knot and were assessed by a panel of experts prior to embarking on a standardised course of instruction and practice session. The knot-tying test was repeated at the end of the day and the differences in average scores recorded. There was a significant correlation between the means of the differences in knot tying scores and ADTRACK 2 scores (r = -0.533, P < 0.05). Psychomotor abilities appear to be determinants of trainees' initial proficiency in learning to tie a surgical reef knot.

Dashfield, A. K.; Lambert, A. W.; Campbell, J. K.; Wilkins, D. C.

2001-01-01

149

Implications of cognitive psychology for educational testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine views about learning and the learner grounded in cognitive psychology and to discuss their implications for educational testing. The new perspectives about learning and the learner suggested by cognitive psychology imply changes in educational testing. The first part of this paper compares perspectives about learning and the learner in cognitive psychology with

Sun-Geun Baek I

1994-01-01

150

Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

Farnsworth, Tim

2013-01-01

151

Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  

PubMed

Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

2005-06-01

152

Test Score Stability and the Relationship of Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores to External Variables among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.

2007-01-01

153

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

2013-04-01

154

Trends in Black-White Test-Score Differentials. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until the 1970s, there were few signs of change in the historic difference of one standard deviation between average ability or achievement test scores of black and white students. From 1970 to the mid-to-late 1980s, there was a substantial convergence of the average achievement test scores of blacks and whites. From the mid-to-late 1980s to 1992,…

Hauser, Robert M.; Huang, Min-Hsiung

155

A simple clinical score accurately predicts outcome in a community-based population undergoing stress testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeScoring systems based on clinical variables are available but not widely applied for evaluating patients with chronic coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to validate the prognostic value of a simple clinical scoring system, originally developed in patients referred for a nuclear stress test at a tertiary-care medical center, in a less-selected, community-based population undergoing stress testing

Todd D. Miller; Veronique L. Roger; David O. Hodge; Raymond J. Gibbons

2005-01-01

156

Predicting Future PTSD using a Modified New York Risk Score: Implications for Patient Screening and Management  

PubMed Central

Aim We previously developed a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument – the New York PTSD Risk Score – that was effective in predicting PTSD. In the present study, we assessed a 12-month prospective version of this risk score, which is important for patient management, follow-up, and for emergency medicine. Methods Using data collected in a study of New York City adults after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we developed a new PTSD prediction tool. Using diagnostic test methods, including receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap procedures, we examined different prediction variables to assess PTSD status 12 months after initial assessment among 1,681 trauma-exposed adults. Results While our original PTSD screener worked well in the short term, it was not specifically developed to predict long-term PTSD. In the current study, we found that the Primary Care PTSD Screener (PCPS), when combined with psychosocial predictors from the original NY Risk Score, including depression, trauma exposure, sleep disturbance, and healthcare access, increased the area under the ROC curve (AUC) from 0.707 to 0.774, a significant improvement (p<0.0001). When additional risk-factor variables were added, including negative life events, handedness, self-esteem, and pain status, the AUC increased to 0.819, also a significant improvement (p=0.001). Adding Latino and foreign status to the model further increased the AUC to 0.839 (p=0.007). Conclusion A prospective version of the New York PTSD Risk Score appears to be effective in predicting PTSD status 12 months after initial assessment among trauma-exposed adults. Further research is advised to further validate and expand these findings.

Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.

2012-01-01

157

A primer-test centered equating method for setting cut-off scores.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the use of a new primary field test method based on test equating to address inconsistent classification among field tests. We analyzed students' information on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), mile run (MR), and VO2max from three data sets (college: n = 94; middle school: n = 39; elementary school: n = 96). Using the college and elementary school data, the equivalent relationship between PACER and MR scores was first established by the Kernel equating method. This yielded MR scores derived from PACER (mile run PACER equated [MR PEQ]), which were used to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and classify students according to the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones. We compared the results to the predictions and classifications based on measured VO2max, MR and PACER-predicted VO2max and cross-validated the relationships using the middle school data. We found the test conversion to be accurate and that the MR PEQ scores functioned similarly to the original MR scores. Both performed better than the original PACER scores in predicting VO2max and classifying students. The middle school data generally supported these results. The proposed method is accurate and effective in setting a new field test onto the same scale of a primary field test and determining its cut-off scores. PMID:21268463

Zhu, Weimo; Plowman, Sharon Ann; Park, Youngsik

2010-12-01

158

Deriving Comparable Scores for Computer Adaptive and Conventional Tests: An Example Using the SAT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Procedures used to establish the comparability of scores derived from the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) computer adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prototype and the paper-and-pencil SAT are described in this report. Both the prototype, which is made up of Verbal and Mathematics computer adaptive tests (CATs), and a form of…

Eignor, Daniel R.

159

Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

Poplin, Beth D.

2010-01-01

160

Deriving Comparable Scores for Computer Adaptive and Conventional Tests: An Example Using the SAT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures used to establish the comparability of scores derived from the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) computer adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prototype and the paper-and-pencil SAT are described in this report. Both the prototype, which is made up of Verbal and Mathematics computer adaptive tests (CATs), and a form of…

Eignor, Daniel R.

161

The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

East, Pam C.

2005-01-01

162

Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

163

Differential Prediction of Graduate Student Achievement from Miller Analogies Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) is used extensively as an admissions test for graduate programs, relatively little research has examined the validity of the MAT for predicting subsequent graduate student achievement and no published studies have examined differential prediction of student performance from MAT scores. There were two…

House, J. Daniel; Keeley, Edward J.

164

Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

Needham, Martha Elaine

2010-01-01

165

Gains in Standardized Test Scores: Evidence of Diminishing Returns to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many states, standardized tests are used to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement. To motivate improvement in test scores, financial awards are given to teachers and administrators in schools that show the greatest gains. However, failure to adjust for initial conditions may put awards out of the reach of some schools and…

Driscoll, Donna; Halcoussis, Dennis; Svorny, Shirley

2008-01-01

166

CSCOPE's Effect on Texas' State Mandated Standardized Test Scores in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study was to examine standardized test scores of school districts in the state of Texas that have implemented CSCOPE, a popular curriculum management system, in an effort to determine what effect, if any, its implementation has had. The standardized test used in the state of the Texas is titled the Texas Assessment of Knowledge…

Merritt, Brent Ross

2011-01-01

167

Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

1986-01-01

168

Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

169

Examining the stability of Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) baseline test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized neuropsychological (NP) testing has evolved into an important tool for clinicians in the assessment of sport-related concussions. The importance of having a reliable baseline test score for comparison post concussion is critical; yet, the stability of these baseline measurements has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of the measurements derived from

Thomas W. Kaminski; Rachel M. Groff; Joseph J. Glutting

2009-01-01

170

Beating the Odds: A Low Equalized Assessed Valuation Elementary School with High Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed methods study examines what makes Bluffview Elementary School a success as measured by the ISAT, the mandated state test of Illinois. Despite national reports of achievement gaps and low test scores, Bluffview Elementary has shown sustained success in educating children. This paper reviews how Bluffview Elementary students are…

Levin, Brian

2011-01-01

171

Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)|

Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

1986-01-01

172

Observations on the Use of Test Scores as a Basis for Allocating Educational Funds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Test-based funding (TBF) is the concept that allocations of educational funds from one political unit to another should be larger as the proportion of pupils in the receiving unit tho have low test scores is larger. The arguments offered in support of TBF are presented. The most serious acknowledged drawback to TBF is its potential disincentive…

Feldmesser, Robert A.

173

Differential Prediction of Graduate Student Achievement from Miller Analogies Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) is used extensively as an admissions test for graduate programs, relatively little research has examined the validity of the MAT for predicting subsequent graduate student achievement and no published studies have examined differential prediction of student performance from MAT scores. There were two…

House, J. Daniel; Keeley, Edward J.

174

Test-day genetic analysis of condition score and heart girth in Holstein Friesian cows.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate heritability for condition score and heart girth using a test-day model, to investigate the genetic relationships between condition score, heart girth, and milk yield traits and to analyze the genetic relationships of condition score and heart girth measured at different stages of lactation. Cows from 25 dairy herds were scored for body condition and measured for heart girth at 3-mo intervals for 2 yr. Approximately 5000 test-day observations on condition score, heart girth, and milk fat and protein yield from 1344 Italian Friesian cows were analyzed using two approaches: 1) repeated observations for a trait were considered repeated measurements of the same trait; 2) observations for a trait collected in different stages of lactation (dry period, 1 to 75, 76 to 130, 131 to 210, and 211 to 300 DIM) were treated as different traits. (Co)variance components and related parameters were estimated using REML multiple-trait procedures and animal models with unequal design for different traits. Heritability estimates for fat and protein test-day yield and for test-day condition score and heart girth were 0.22, 0.18, 0.29, and 0.33, respectively. Condition score was negatively correlated with yield traits and positively correlated with heart girth, whereas genetic relationships between heart girth and milk yield traits were negligible. Heritability estimates were 0.27 for condition score recorded in the first half of lactation (1 to 75 and 76 to 130 DIM), 0.36 for condition score in the second half of lactation (131 to 210 and 211 to 300 DIM) and 0.32 for condition score recorded on dry cows. Genetic correlations between condition scores measured in different lactation stages were generally high (0.85 or more), with the exception of the relationships between the first and the last stage of lactation (0.74) and between the first half of lactation and the dry period (0.7). Heritability estimates for heart girth in different lactation stages ranged from 0.31 to 0.40, and genetic correlations between high girth measured in different lactation stages were higher than 0.80. PMID:11699465

Gallo, L; Carnier, P; Cassandro, M; Dal Zotto, R; Bittante, G

2001-10-01

175

A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints  

PubMed Central

It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

de Gobbi Porto, Fabio Henrique; Spindola, Livia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figueredo do Vale, Patricia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

2013-01-01

176

The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

1984-01-01

177

Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings.  

PubMed

I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

Chamberlain, Gary E

2013-10-07

178

Practice in computer-based testing improves scores on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists.  

PubMed

This retrospective study examined whether practice in computer-based tests (CBTs) in student registered nurse anesthetists improved scores on the National Certification Examination (NCE). A group of students with extensive practice in CBTs was compared with a group of students whose tests were administered primarily on paper. Groups were matched on age, grade point average (GPA), and gender (n = 73 each). Higher GPA was associated with higher NCE scores overall. Adjusted for GPA (with analysis of covariance), the mean NCE proficiency score (phi) in the CBT group was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 2.54-2.82), which was higher than the mean score in the paper-based group of 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 2.22-2.50), with an effect size of 0.52. When subgroups were examined, CBT practice improved NCE scores only in those students with graduate GPA less than or equal to 3.50, with an effect size of 1.1. It was concluded that, controlling for GPA, student registered nurse anesthetists at a university with greater exposure to CBTs had higher scores on the NCE than a comparison group with less practice in CBTs. This difference was significant only in students with GPA of 3.50 or less, consistent with a beneficial effect of practice in CBTs. PMID:23248833

Dosch, Michael P

2012-08-01

179

Relation between Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and WISC-III scores of children with RD.  

PubMed

Concurrent validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) was evaluated, as well as the K-BIT's accuracy as a predictor of WISC-III scores, in a sample of young children with reading disabilities. The two measures were administered to 65 children from Atlanta, Boston, and Toronto who ranged from 6-5 to 7-11 years of age at testing. Correlations between the verbal, nonverbal, and composite scales of the K-BIT and WISC-III were .60, .48, and .63, respectively. Mean K-BIT scores ranged from 1.2 to 5.0 points higher than the corresponding WISC-III scores. Standard errors of estimation ranged from 10.0 to 12.3 points. In individual cases, K-BIT scores can underestimate or overestimate WISC-III scores by as much as 25 points. Results suggest caution against using the K-BIT exclusively for placement and diagnostic purposes with young children with reading disabilities if IQ scores are required. PMID:15497268

Chin, C E; Ledesma, H M; Cirino, P T; Sevcik, R A; Morris, R D; Frijters, J C; Lovett, M W

180

Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language  

PubMed Central

Purpose The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-aged children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide “benchmarks” against which those skills may be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed checklists of children's language were correlated with results of standardized language tests and whether scores increased linearly with decreasing age-of-implantation and increasing duration of cochlear implant use. Method Participants were a nation-wide sample of 76 children who were deaf and orally-educated and who received an implant by 38 months of age. Formal language tests were administered at age 4.5 years. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MBCDI) was completed by parents when children were ages 3.5 and 4.5 years. Results Based on regression analyses, expected test scores for each age at implant are provided for two commonly administered language tests at 4.5 years of age and MBCDI subscale scores at 3.5 and 4.5 years. Concurrent test scores were significantly correlated on all measures. A linear relation was found which predicted increasing test scores with younger ages at implantation for all scales administered. Conclusions While the expected scores reported here should not be considered as normative data, they are benchmarks which may be useful for evaluating spoken language progress of children with cochlear implants in enrolled in spoken language-based programs.

Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

2008-01-01

181

Impact of a standardized test package on exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN. PMID:23413805

Homard, Catherine M

2013-02-19

182

Power of a score test for quantitative trait linkage analysis of relative pairs.  

PubMed

The score test of Dudoit and Speed [(2000) Biostatistics 1:1-26] to detect linkage between a trait locus and a marker locus, using identity by descent data on sib pairs, is extended to other types of relative pairs (grandparent/grandchild, avuncular, and half-sib relationships). The test is based on the likelihood of the recombination fraction theta between trait and marker loci, conditional on phenotypes of the relatives. We present results of simulation studies characterizing power and robustness properties of this linkage score test, and compare the power of the score test to that of the classical and modified Haseman-Elston tests. The score test has considerable power, particularly under sampling schemes where selection is on double probands. Use of a generic additive model [Goldstein et al., submitted] with allele frequency p = 0.2, heritability H = 0.3, and a moderate residual correlation of rho = 0.2 resulted in a very good overall performance across a wide range of trait-generating models. PMID:11055375

Goldstein, D R; Dudoit, S; Speed, T P

2000-01-01

183

The Effect of School Poverty on Racial Gaps in Tests Scores: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data from 1996,1998 and 1999 Minnesota comprehensive statewide testing on eight graders is used to analyze whether African American students perform worse than the white students who attend the poverty schools. The analyses conclude that African American-White test score gap is attributed more to the racial discriminations and racial treatments…

Myers, Samuel L.; Kim, Hyeoneui; Mandala, Cheryl

2004-01-01

184

Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

2004-01-01

185

Implications of Changing Answers on Objective Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen studies of the effects of changing initial answers to objective test items are reviewed. While students throughout the total test score range tended to gain more points than they lost, higher scoring students gain more than did lower scoring students. Suggestions for further research are made. (Author/JKS)

Mueller, Daniel J.; Wasser, Virginia

1977-01-01

186

Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 12988  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mid-1980s witnessed breaks in two important trends related to race and schooling. School segregation, which had been declining, began a period of relative stasis. Black-white test score gaps, which had also been declining, also stagnated. The notion that these two phenomena may be related is also supported by basic cross-sectional evidence. We…

Vigdor, Jacob; Ludwig, Jens

2007-01-01

187

An Evaluation of Three Approximate Item Response Theory Models for Equating Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three item response models were evaluated for estimating item parameters and equating test scores. The models, which approximated the traditional three-parameter model, included: (1) the Rasch one-parameter model, operationalized in the BICAL computer program; (2) an approximate three-parameter logistic model based on coarse group data divided…

Marco, Gary L.; And Others

188

The Impact of Inclusion and Pullout on Middle School Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in students' standardized test scores based on the instructional model their teachers used. One group of students was served under a pullout instructional model. The other was served under an inclusive model. It is not known whether or not the pullout instructional model or the…

Herriott, Tavita S.

2010-01-01

189

Predicting College Success with High School Grades and Test Scores: Limitations for Minority Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a sample of 522 students at a Lutheran university in the Southwestern United States, researchers examined differences in the predictive strength of high school grades and standardized test scores for student involvement, academic achievement, retention, and satisfaction. Findings indicate that high school grades are stronger predictors of…

Hoffman, John L.; Lowitzki, Katie E.

2005-01-01

190

The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

Kay, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

191

Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

2013-01-01

192

The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

Avila, JuliAnna

2012-01-01

193

Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

2011-01-01

194

Secular Declines in Cognitive Test Scores: A Reversal of the Flynn Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the "Flynn Effect" since it was most comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980's. There has, however, been very little evidence concerning any continuity of the effect specifically into…

Teasdale, Thomas W.; Owen, David R.

2008-01-01

195

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

196

Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

197

School Choice, Racial Segregation, and Test-Score Gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's Charter School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap.…

Bifulco, Robert; Ladd, Helen F.

2007-01-01

198

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Education on Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 were analyzed to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and years of schooling on occupational status and earnings in maturity. Some of the findings follow: Data on brothers indicated that prior research has underestimated the effect of family…

Jencks, Christopher; Rainwater, Lee

199

SPATIAL AND VERBAL MEMORY TEST SCORES FOLLOWING YOGA AND FINE ARTS CAMPS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their

MANJUNATH N. K; SHIRLEY TELLES

200

The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

Kay, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

201

The head-up tilt test with haemodynamic instability score in diagnosing chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Studying patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), we have developed a method that uses a head-up tilt test (HUTT) to estimate BP and HR instability during tilt, expressed as a 'haemodynamic instability score' (HIS). Aim: To assess HIS sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CFS. Design: Prospective controlled study. Methods: Patients with CFS (n= 40), non-CFS chronic

J. E. Naschitz; I. ROSNER; M. ROZENBAUM; S. NASCHITZ; R. MUSAFIA-PRISELAC; N. SHAVIV; H. ISSEROFF; E. ZUCKERMAN; D. YESHURUN; E. SABO

2003-01-01

202

Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

Linn, Robert L.; And Others

203

End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

Ricketts, Christine R.

2010-01-01

204

Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

2011-01-01

205

Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

Cresswell, Mike

2010-01-01

206

Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates how schools can positively affect the test score gap between black and white students by examining two potential sources for this difference: teachers and students. Offers evidence for the proposition that teachers' perceptions, expectations, and behaviors interact with students' beliefs, behaviors, and work habits in ways that help to…

Ferguson, Ronald F.

2003-01-01

207

The Black-White Test Score Gap through Third Grade. NBER Working Paper No. 11049  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes basic facts regarding the black-white test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their white counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground…

Fryer, Roland G.; Levitt, Steven D.

2005-01-01

208

Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

2007-01-01

209

Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2001-01-01

210

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

211

76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend the regulation classifying ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test systems to restrict these devices so that a prescribed warning statement that addresses a risk identified in the special controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning......

2011-03-23

212

Assessing the effect of inquiry-based professional development on science achievement tests scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed student test scores to determine if teacher participation in an inquiry-based professional development was able to make a statistically significant difference in student achievement levels. Test scores for objectives that assessed the critical thinking skills and problem-solving strategies modeled in a science inquiry institute were studied. Inquiry-based experiences are the cornerstones for meeting the science standards for scientific literacy. State mandated assessment tests measure the levels of student achievement and are reported as meeting minimum expectations or showing mastery for specific learning objectives. Students test scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills Test (TAAS) for 8th grade science and the biology End Of Course (EOC) exams were analyzed using ANCOVA, chi square, and logistic regression, with the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) 7th Grade Science Subtest as covariate. It was hypothesized that the students of Inquiry Institute teachers would have higher scale scores and better rates of mastery on the critical thinking objectives than the students of non-Institute teachers. It was also hypothesized that it would be possible to predict student mastery on the objectives that assessed critical thinking and problem solving based on Institute participation. This quasi-experimental study did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The effects of inquiry-based professional development may not be determined by analyzing the results of the standardized tests currently being used in Texas. Inquiry training may make a difference, but because of factors such as the ceiling effect, insufficient time to implement the program, and test items that are intended to but do not address critical thinking skills, the TAAS and EOC tests may not accurately assess effects of the Inquiry Institute. The results of this study did indicate the best predictor of student mastery for the 8th grade science TAAS and Biology EOC may possibly be prior knowledge acquired in elementary school and as demonstrated on the 7th grade ITBS science subtest.

Dickson, Teresa Kay

213

An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum.…

Allalouf, Avi

2007-01-01

214

Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test.  

PubMed

In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of their effects. Such an adaptive procedure gains power over the existing procedures when the signal is sparse and the correlation among the markers is weak. By combining evidence from both the EB-based score test and the adaptive test, we further construct an omnibus test that attains good power in most settings. The null distributions of the proposed test statistics can be approximated well either via simple perturbation procedures or via distributional approximations. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We apply the tests to a breast cancer genetic study to assess the overall effect of the FGFR2 gene on breast cancer risk. PMID:22734045

Cai, Tianxi; Lin, Xihong; Carroll, Raymond J

2012-06-25

215

Talent Search Qualifying: Comparisons between Talent Search Students Qualifying via Scores on Standardized Tests and via Parent Nomination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian…

Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2006-01-01

216

Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS  

PubMed Central

This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

2011-01-01

217

A Comparison Study of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores between Students in Indiana, the Midwestern Region, and the Nation. Includes Test Scores, High School Records, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and College Plans. Monograph 80-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected data from three of the latest summary reports of the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP) are presented. They are: College Bound Seniors, 1980-National, Midwestern, and Indiana. Data including Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) scores, and information from the Student…

Lisack, J. P.

218

A Comparison Study of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores between Students in Indiana, the Midwestern Region, and the Nation. Includes Test Scores, High School Records, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and College Plans. Monograph 80-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected data from three of the latest summary reports of the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP) are presented. They are: College Bound Seniors, 1980-National, Midwestern, and Indiana. Data including Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) scores, and information from the Student Descriptive…

Lisack, J. P.

219

Correcting Two-Sample "z" and "t" Tests for Correlation: An Alternative to One-Sample Tests on Difference Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…

Zimmerman, Donald W.

2012-01-01

220

The Contribution of Test-Takers' Speech Content to Scores on an English Oral Proficiency Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The content that test-takers attempt to convey is not always included in the construct definition of "general" English oral proficiency tests, although some English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) speaking tests and most writing tests tend to place great emphasis on the evaluation of the content or ideas in the performance. This study investigated…

Sato, Takanori

2012-01-01

221

Differentiating Malingering from Genuine Cognitive Dysfunction Using the Trail Making Test-Ratio and Stroop Interference Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of test performance that are inconsistent with knowledge of brain dysfunction can potentially differentiate between malingering and true impairment among litigants with low scores on neuropsychological tests. In this study possible malingerers (n = 41), impaired (30) or cognitively normal (17) litigants were compared on the Trail Making Test B:A ratio score and Stroop Interference. The majority of possible malingerers had

Jens Egeland; Tone Langfjæran

2007-01-01

222

The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

Guzeller, Cem Oktay

2012-01-01

223

Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

2004-01-01

224

Does Volume of Patients Seen in an Outpatient Setting Impact Test Scores?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methods of teaching surgery in the outpatient setting and means to measure the effectiveness of these methods have not been defined. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of number of outpatient encounters on test scores for third-year medical students.Methods: Students rotating on the required third-year surgery clerkship between July 1994 and June 1996 kept a log of

Leigh Neumayer; Rose Marie McNamara; Merril Dayton; Benjamin Kim

1998-01-01

225

Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains.

Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2013-01-01

226

Novel Factor-Based Symptom Scores in Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia: Implications for Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the factor structure of symptoms in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia and whether it is altered by treatment, we analyzed ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) from two independent groups of patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia. With confirmatory factor analysis of pre-clozapine BPRS scores in 1074 patients in an administrative data base, the Clozapine Authorization and

Robert P McMahon; Deanna L Kelly; Julie Kreyenbuhl; Brian Kirkpatrick; Raymond C Love; Robert R Conley

2002-01-01

227

Variability of scores in the 2008 Olympic dressage competition and implications for horse training and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olympic dressage involves “an intimate unity between a human and a non-human” and is scored by a subjective judging process, under the auspices of the Fédération Equestre Internationale whose Code of Conduct declares the welfare of the horse as paramount. Dressage is of particular interest to equitation scientists and equine ethologists because it embodies the full range of the stimulus-response

L. A. Hawson; A. N. McLean; P. D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

228

A Critical Review of the Literature on Kolb's Learning Style Inventory with Implications for Score Reliability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Learning Style Inventory (LSI; Kolb, 1976; 1985 ) is a commonly used measure of learning styles based on Kolbs Experiential Learning Model. The psychometric soundness of LSI scores has been critiqued historically. This study reviewed the literature on the LSI and evaluated the psychometric properties of Kolbs original and revised versions of…

Hwang, Dae-Yeop; Henson, Robin K.

229

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage…

Hooten, Regina Gay

2009-01-01

230

Reliability and validity of useful field of view test scores as administered by personal computer.  

PubMed

The Useful Field of View test (UFOV(1)) is a measure of processing speed that predicts driving performance and other functional abilities in older adults. In comparison to a number of other visual and cognitive measures, the UFOV measure has consistently been found to be the strongest predictor of motor vehicle crashes of older adults. This measure has valuable applications in that computerized, performance-based measures that are predictive of crashes in the elderly population can provide an objective criterion for determining the need for driver restriction or rehabilitation. Administration of the UFOV test has evolved from the standard version (administered via touch-screen with the Visual Attention Analyzer) to two briefer versions, which are administered on a personal desktop computer (PC) using either a touch screen or mouse response option. These new versions of the test are briefer and require less specialized equipment, making the test more portable and practical for use in clinical settings. This study examined the reliability and validity of the scores from these two new versions. Results indicate that test-retest reliabilities of the scores from the UFOV PC versions are high (r's= 0 .884 for mouse and 0.735 for touch), and performance on both PC versions correlates well with performance on the standard version (r's = 0.658 for mouse and 0.746 for touch). Furthermore, scores were highly correlated (r = 0.916) when participants used either a touch screen or a mouse to input responses. In conclusion, the reliability and validity coefficients are of sufficient magnitude to make the touch and mouse PC versions of the UFOV practical for use in clinical evaluations. PMID:16019630

Edwards, Jerri D; Vance, David E; Wadley, Virginia G; Cissell, Gayla M; Roenker, Daniel L; Ball, Karlene K

2005-07-01

231

Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

2010-01-01

232

Providing Subscale Scores for Diagnostic Information: A Case Study when the Test Is Essentially Unidimensional  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…

Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne

2010-01-01

233

Association Between Emphysema Score, Six-Minute Walk and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests in COPD  

PubMed Central

Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has allowed in detection of airway wall abnormalities and emphysema, whose extent may correlate with the clinical severity of the disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Six minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) can determine functional status. Methods: A study was undertaken to investigate whether the extent of emphysema in COPD patients quantitatively confirmed by HRCT scoring was associated with distance walked, inspiratory capacity (IC) changes after exercise, anaerobic threshold of cardiopulmonary exercise and the BODE index (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise performance). Results: Seventeen patients with COPD underwent HRCT scanning, 6MWT and CPET. The emphysema score was highly correlated to forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.748, p<0.001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r=-0.615, p<0.01), IC post exercise (r=-0.663, p<0.01) and dyspnea score post exercise (r=0.609, p<0.01), but was not associated with the BODE index. The distance walked during 6MWT was inversely correlated to emphysema score (r=-0.557, p<0.05). IC before exercise was highly related to the 6MWT. The change in IC after exercise was associated with the percent decline of oxygen saturation after exercise (r=0.633, p<0.01). Severity of lung emphysema in COPD patients was inversely correlated to VO2 max (r=-0.514, p<0.05) and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.595, p<0.01) of cardiopulmonary exercise. Conclusions: These results suggest that COPD associated with emphysema on HRCT is characterized by more severe lung function impairment, greater exercise impairment and cardiopulmonary dysfunction.

Chen, Li-Fei; Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Joa, Wen-Ching; Sheng, Te-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin

2012-01-01

234

On Further Examination: Report of the Advisory Panel on the Scholastic Aptitude Test Score Decline and Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After two years of investigation, a panel appointed to advise the College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service on the recent change in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores concluded that the 14-year score decline is a complex phenomenon, yielding neither simple explanations nor easy solutions. As a result of looking at the…

College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

235

Computerized vs. Experimenter Controlled Administration of the Matching Familiar Figures Test: Mean Test Scores and Reliabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is a well-known instrument designed to measure the cognitive style reflection impulsivity. In the present study, a computerized MFFT version for the Apple MacIntosh (MacMFFT) is compared to the traditional, experimenter controlled MFFT. For a group of 80 subjects, age 17-21, no differences were found between internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities of the MacMFFT

Jeroen J. G. Van Merriënboer; Otto Jelsma; Jacintha Timmermans; Jakob Sikken

1989-01-01

236

Proposal of a clinical score for the molecular test for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome.  

PubMed

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is an emerging condition characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), typical facial gestalt, and additional features, such as breathing abnormalities. Because of the overlapping phenotype of severe ID with absent speech, epilepsy, microcephaly, large mouth, and constipation, differential diagnosis of PTHS with respect to Angelman, Rett, and Mowat-Wilson syndromes represents a relevant clinical issue, and many patients are currently undergoing genetic tests for different conditions that are assumed to fall within the PTHS clinical spectrum. During a search for TCF4 mutations in 78 patients with a suspected PTHS, haploinsufficiency of TCF4 was identified in 18. By evaluating clinical features of patients with a proven TCF4 mutation with those of patients without, we noticed that, in addition to the typical facial gestalt, the PTHS phenotype results from the various combination of the following characteristics: ID with severe speech impairment, normal growth parameters at birth, postnatal microcephaly, breathing abnormalities, motor incoordination, ocular anomalies, constipation, seizures, typical behavior, and subtle brain abnormalities. On the basis of these observations, here we propose a clinically based score system as useful tool for driving a first choice molecular test for PTHS. This scoring system is also proposed for a clinically based diagnosis of PTHS in absence of a proven TCF4 mutation. PMID:22678594

Marangi, Giuseppe; Ricciardi, Stefania; Orteschi, Daniela; Tenconi, Romano; Monica, Matteo Della; Scarano, Gioacchino; Battaglia, Domenica; Lettori, Donatella; Vasco, Gessica; Zollino, Marcella

2012-06-07

237

Propensity Score-Based Nonparametric Test Revealing Genetic Variants Underlying Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Association analysis has led to identification of many genetic variants for complex diseases. While assessing the association between genes and a disease, other factors can play an important role. The consequence of not considering covariates (such as population stratification and environmental factors) is well-documented in genetic studies. We introduce a nonparametric test of association that adjusts for covariate effects. Specifically, the adjustment is realized through weights that are constructed from genomic propensity scores that summarize the contribution of all covariates. The benefit of our test is demonstrated through an important dataset on bipolar disorder (BD) collected by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). When compared to other tests, our test identified an un-reported region with three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 that show strong evidence of association (p-value < 5×10?7). This region is near the RPGRIP1L gene known to be associated with bipolar disorder. A haplotype block including these three SNPs was further discovered to be strongly associated with bipolar disorder. It is also interesting to note that our nonparametric test did not reveal strong signals at two SNPs that were detected by a covariate-adjusted parametric test. This suggests that different methods of covariate adjustment can complement each other. Thus, we recommend using both parametric and nonparametric testing. Additionally, we performed simulation studies to compare our proposed test with the unadjusted test and an adjusted parametric test. Our finding underscores the importance of accommodating and controlling for covariate effects in discovering genetic variants associated with complex disorders.

Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

2010-01-01

238

Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

Educational Testing Service, 2008

2008-01-01

239

Science Teacher Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy as Predictors of Students' End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on…

Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine

2009-01-01

240

Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

Weigle, Sara Cushing

2010-01-01

241

The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: do revisions in the item scoring enhance the psychometric properties?  

PubMed

Despite widespread use, considerable literature has shown that the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) has questionable psychometric properties, generally reflecting relatively poor properties of reliability and validity. One factor that may be affecting the psychometric qualities of the scale is the use of a dichotomous, forced-choice response format for certain items, in which respondents are asked to answer each question with a Yes or No response. This scoring approach is especially problematic when used to measure dimensional constructs, such as nicotine dependence, in which a dimensional construct is forced into a categorical construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether revising the response format utilized in the FTND would lead to an enhancement in the psychometric properties of this scale. This question was examined by removing the forced-choice response criteria on items 2, 5, and 6 of the FTND and revising the response options to reflect a 4-point Likert response set (0 = never, 1 = sometimes, 2 = most of the time, 3 = always). Participants consisted of 343 smokers from the community. Results revealed that the revised scoring approach resulted in a significant incremental improvement in scale reliability and enhanced convergent validity, showing a stronger association with smoking outcomes than the FTQ or FTND. Findings are discussed in terms of recommendations for scale revision and usage. PMID:23254226

Korte, Kristina J; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael; Schmidt, Norman B

2012-10-29

242

Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

2010-01-01

243

Pupillary responses during information processing vary with Scholastic Aptitude Test scores.  

PubMed

The magnitude of task-evoked pupillary dilations during mental activity has previously been shown to index the cognitive capacity utilized in the performance of the mental task. To determine the relation between "intelligence" and capacity demands during mental activity, task-evoked pupillary dilations were measured while two groups of university students differing in their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test solved mental arithmetic problems. Over three levels of problems difficulty, more intelligent subjects showed smaller task-evoked pupillary dilations than did their less intelligent counterparts. Thus, the more intelligent appear to possess more efficient cognitive structures of information processing. These data provide evidence that physiological differences between individuals of differing psychometric intelligence emerge during mental activity. PMID:472746

Ahern, S; Beatty, J

1979-09-21

244

Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five children enrolled in the gifted curriculum in the public schools in a midwest community were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement Correlations between the area and composite scores on the Stanford-Binet and the area scores of the Woodcock-Johnson were calculated. Eighteen of the 20 correlations (corrected for restriction of range) were significant (p

Howard Carvajal; Kenneth A. Weaver; Paul Mcknab

1989-01-01

245

How Out-of-Level Testing Affects the Psychometric Quality of Test Scores. Out-of-Level Testing Report 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a review and analysis of the psychometric literature on the topic of out-of-level testing. Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of using a level of the test other than the test taken by most of the students in a student's current grade level. Much of the research on out-of-level testing was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s,…

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Minnema, Jane; Scott, Jim

246

A powerful score test to detect positive selection in genome-wide scans  

PubMed Central

One of the surest signatures of recent positive selection is a local elevation of advantageous allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium (LD). We proposed to detect such hitchhiking effects by using extended stretches of homozygosity as a surrogate indicator of recent positive selection. An extended haplotype-based homozygosity score test (EHHST) was developed to detect excess homozygosity. The EHHST conditioned on existing LD and it tested the haplotype version of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Compared with existing popular tests, which usually lack clear distribution, the EHHST is asymptotically normal, which makes analysis and applications easier. In particular, the EHHST facilitates the computation of an asymptotic P-value instead of an empirical P-value, using simulations. We evaluated by simulation that the EHHST led to appropriate false-positive rates, and it had higher or similar power as the existing popular methods. The method was applied to HapMap Phase II data. We were able to replicate previous findings of strong positive selection in 17 autosome genomic regions out of 20 reported candidates. On the basis of high EHHST values and population differentiations, we identified 15 new candidate regions that could undergo recent selection.

Zhong, Ming; Lange, Kenneth; Papp, Jeanette C; Fan, Ruzong

2010-01-01

247

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

248

Field Test Equipment Requirements for the Telemetric Data Receiving-Recording-Scoring Set AN/SKQ-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report establishes a field test philosophy and the test equipment requirements for the Telemetric Data Receiving-Recording-Scoring Set AN/SKQ-2. An overall self test procedure and fault isolation techniques are described. The extent of maintenance at...

R. W. Kraft J. R. Hobbs

1968-01-01

249

[Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

Solomon, Robert J.

250

Relations among scores on Matrix Analogies Test, Draw-A-Person, and the Iowa Tests of basic skills for low socioeconomic children.  

PubMed

82 normal Grade 4 students of low socioeconomic status were administered the Matrix Analogies Test, Draw-A-Person Test, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. The partial correlation coefficient between the Matrix Analogies Test and the Iowa Tests was .51 while that between the Draw-A-Person Test and the Iowa Tests was .30. The correlation coefficient between the Matrix Analogies Test and the Draw-A-Person Test was .32. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1961812

Haddad, F A; Juliano, J M

1991-08-01

251

Psychometric Analyses of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TASE) Scores among Singapore Primary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined among Singapore\\u000a primary school students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the factor structure\\u000a of the TAS-E in a sample of 540 Singapore students. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the\\u000a TAS-E scores in

Patricia A. Lowe; Rebecca P. Ang; Stephen W. Loke

252

Evaluating Analytic Scoring for the TOEFL[R] Academic Speaking Test (TAST) for Operational Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the utility of analytic scoring for TAST in providing useful and reliable diagnostic information for operational use in three aspects of candidates' performance: delivery, language use and topic development. One hundred and forty examinees' responses to six TAST tasks were scored analytically on these three aspects of speech.…

Xi, Xiaoming

2007-01-01

253

Evaluating Analytic Scoring for the TOEFL[R] Academic Speaking Test (TAST) for Operational Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the utility of analytic scoring for TAST in providing useful and reliable diagnostic information for operational use in three aspects of candidates' performance: delivery, language use and topic development. One hundred and forty examinees' responses to six TAST tasks were scored analytically on these three aspects of speech. G…

Xi, Xiaoming

2007-01-01

254

Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons.  

PubMed

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles

2009-03-01

255

Optimal Partitioning of Testing Time: Theoretical Properties and Practical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper deals with optimal partitioning of limited testing time in order to achieve maximum total test score. Nonlinear optimization theory was used to analyze this problem. A general case using a generic item response model is first presented. A special case that applies a response time model proposed by Wang and Hanson (2005) is also…

Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Jiawei

2006-01-01

256

The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

2008-01-01

257

Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

1978-01-01

258

Age and Education Effects on Relationships of Cognitive Test Scores With Brain Structure in Demographically Diverse Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available

Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Charles DeCarli

2009-01-01

259

Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

1978-01-01

260

A brief (one-hour) quantitative neuropsychological assessment with three performance-based tests: strong concordance with proficiency scores for a more extensive test battery.  

PubMed

Raw scores for each of several dozens of traditional and more recently developed neuropsychological tests were correlated with an impairment index composed of all of these scores from the records of 162 patients who had been assessed following impacts of substantial mechanical energies. A score of either less than 20 correct binaural responses for a dichotic word listening task, more than 99 sec. for Trails B, and more than 3.8 min. to complete the Tactual Performance Test with both hands correctly classified 85% of patients whose z scores were less than -1.0 (below average) or -1.0 or above (average) for a composite neurocognitive index. The results suggest that these three tests, administrable within about one hour, may be employed as a more objective criterion rather than "clinical impressions" for discerning if patients require more extensive neuropsychological testing. PMID:12776848

Persinger, M A

2003-04-01

261

BILOG 3 for Windows: Item Analysis and Test Scoring with Binary Logistic Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the most recent version of the BILOG computer program, which estimates item and trait level parameters for the one-, two-, and three-parameter logistic unidimensional Item Response Models for dichotomously scored data. Finds this version useful. (SLD)|

Kim, Seock-Ho

1997-01-01

262

Genetic testing: Psychological aspects and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of inherited disorders and risk factors that can be detected through genetic testing is increasing rapidly, and genetic testing may soon become a common component of routine medical care. Is behavioral medicine ready? For the first time, a sophisti- cated understanding of gene-environment interactions as mani- fested in the interactions among an individual's genetic predispo- sitions, behavior, and

Caryn Lerman; Robert T. Croyle; Kenneth P. Tercyak; Heidi Hamann

2002-01-01

263

College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores as a Predictor for College Freshman Mathematics Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive validity of the CEEB SAT scores in the prediction of grades earned by a randomly chosen sample of 142 women in freshman mathematics at Longwood College. Data consisted of SAT-V, SAT-M, and SAT-T scores and the grade earned in freshman mathematics for 706 female students who entered Longwood College in

James C. Gussett

1974-01-01

264

What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

PubMed Central

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2013-01-01

265

Thrombophilias—Practical Implications and Testing Caveats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes recent information about the major thrombophilic conditions, their clinical relevance, and practical\\u000a aspects pertaining to testing for these thrombophilias, such as when to test and what assays are appropriate. Conditions covered\\u000a include factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210 mutation, proteins C and S, antithrombin, antiphospholipid antibodies, homocysteine,\\u000a and methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase enzyme mutation. Additional comments focus on education of patients

Stephan Moll

2006-01-01

266

Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with STT changes on the resting ECG: an evaluation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as initial diagnostic test. We evaluated the prevalence of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) according to calcium scores and exercise

Christiane A Geluk; Riksta Dikkers; Jan A Kors; René A Tio; Riemer HJA Slart; Rozemarijn Vliegenthart; Hans L Hillege; Tineke P Willems; Paul E de Jong; Wiek H van Gilst; Matthijs Oudkerk; Felix Zijlstra

2007-01-01

267

The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?  

PubMed

A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine. PMID:21560500

Halpenny, D; Cadoo, K; Halpenny, M; Burke, J; Torreggiani, W C

268

Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

Bozeman, William C.; And Others

1987-01-01

269

Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

Bozeman, William C.; And Others

1987-01-01

270

Interpreting the Trail Making Test Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Traditional Time Scores and Derived Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical application of traditional time scores and various derived indices from the Trail Making Test (TMT) in a sample of 571 patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were classified into four injury severity groups. A clear linear relation between injury severity and TMT performance was demonstrated, with the more

Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson; Martin J. Zakrzewski; Patrick E. Ethel-King; Michael D. Franzen

2005-01-01

271

"Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

272

The Effects of Georgia's Choice Curricular Reform Model on Third Grade Science Scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that…

Phemister, Art W.

2010-01-01

273

The Effect of the Multiple Exposure Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading/Writing Strategy on Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds that high school students (grade 10) who were exposed to the Multiple Exposure Vocabulary Method in combination with the Target Reading/Writing Strategy received a significantly better verbal score on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test than students who received more traditional instruction. (SR)|

Laflamme, John G.

1997-01-01

274

The Reliability of Scores for the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability of scores for the "Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults" is examined with a sample of 110 college students from two universities in the southeast. The alpha coefficient for the total sample and the interscorer and intrascorer reliability for a subset of 31 students are analyzed. The alpha…

Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria; Eaves, Ronald C.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne

2006-01-01

275

Science course sequences: The alignment of written, enacted, and tested curricula and their impact on grade 11 HSPA science scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this mixed method study was to examine the alignment of the written, enacted, and tested curricula of the Ocean City High School science course sequencing and its impact on student achievement. This study also examined the school's ability to predict student scores on the science portion of the High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). Data collected for science

Christine A. Lentz

2007-01-01

276

Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District. Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of supplemental educational services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) tutoring services. The sample used includes information on students enrolled in 3rd through 8th grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

2009-01-01

277

School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Working Paper Series. SAN08-03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and…

Ladd, Helen F.

2008-01-01

278

Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology) to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1) encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2) leverage the design of molecular description languages to facilitate the identification of relevant structural attributes of the molecules over different problem domains.

2010-01-01

279

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Exhaustive testing of computer software is intractable, but empirical studies of software failures suggest,that testing can in some,cases be effectively exhaustive. Data reported in this study and others show,that software,failures in a variety of domains,were caused,by combinations,of relatively few conditions. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system,can be triggered by a combination of n

D. Richard Kuhn; Dolores R. Wallace; Albert M. Gallo Jr

2004-01-01

280

A Multiparametric Clinical and Echocardiographic Score to Risk Stratify Patients with Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Derivation and Testing.  

PubMed

Although echo Doppler and biomarkers are the most common examinations performed worldwide in heart failure (HF), they are rarely considered in risk scores. In outpatients with chronic HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%, data on clinical status, echo Doppler variables, aminoterminal pro-type B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and drug therapies were combined to build up a multiparametric score. We randomly selected 250 patients to produce a derivation cohort and 388 patients were used as a testing cohort. Follow-up lasted 29 ± 23 months. The univariable predictors that entered into the multivariable Cox model were as follows: furosemide daily dose >25 mg, inability to tolerate angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, inability to tolerate ?-blockers, age >75 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) >2, eGFR<60 mL/min, NT-proBNP plasma levels above the median, tricuspid plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ?14 mm, LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) >96 mL/m(2) , moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and LVEF <30%. The scores of prognostic factors were obtained with the respective odds ratio divided by the lower odd ratio: 4 points for furosemide dose, 3 points for age, NT-proBNP, LVEDVi, TAPSE, 2 points for inability to tolerate ?-blockers, inability to tolerate ACE inhibitors, NYHA, eGFR<60 mL/min, moderate-to-severe MR, 1 point for LVEF. The multiparametric score predicted all-cause mortality either in the derivation cohort (68.4% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity, area under the curve [AUC] 78.7%) or in the testing cohort (73.7% sensitivity, 71.3% specificity, AUC 77.2%). All-cause mortality significantly increased with increasing score both in the derivation and in the testing cohort (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, this multiparametric score is able to predict mortality in chronic systolic HF. PMID:23742144

Fontanive, Paolo; Miccoli, Mario; Simioniuc, Anca; Angelillis, Marco; Bello, Vitantonio Di; Baggiani, Angelo; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Marzilli, Mario; Dini, Frank Lloyd

2013-06-01

281

Touchdowns and test scores: exploring the relationship between athletics and academics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between college football success and SAT scores using an updated data series on football winning percentages. The finding here of a positive and significant relationship supports the idea that collegiate athletics, namely football, serves the institution's admissions process. Selective institutions are able to enhance the quality of their student populations. ?Some studies (e.g. Tucker, 1992;

F. G. Mixon; L. J. TreviÑO; T. C. Minto

2004-01-01

282

Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

2008-01-01

283

Teenage Self Test: cigarette smoking. Discussion Leader's Guide. How do you score?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This self-scoring questionnaire on attitudes related to smoking includes norms based upon the responses of 7,000 teenagers and a discussion of the meaning of eight subscores. The subscores are: (1) effect of smoking on health; (2) non-smoker's rights; (3) positive effects of smoking; (4) manufactured reasons for smoking; (5) reasons for starting;…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health.

284

IRT True-Score Test Equating: A Guide through Assumptions and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the assumptions required by the item response theory (IRT) true-score equating method (with Stocking & Lord, 1983; scaling approach), which is commonly used in the nonequivalent groups with an anchor data-collection design. More precisely, this article investigates the assumptions made at each step by the IRT approach to…

von Davier, Alina A.; Wilson, Christine

2007-01-01

285

SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF FINGER TAPPING TEST SCORES FOR THE DETECTION OF SUSPECT EFFORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies indicate that patients with incentive to fake neuropsychological symptoms are likely to have lower finger tapping scores than credible patients. The present study builds upon past research by investigating finger tapping performance for seven groups: (a) noncredible patients (as determined by failed psychometric and behavioral criteria), and patients with (b) closed head injury, (c) dementia, (d) mental retardation,

Ginger Arnold; Kyle Brauer Boone; Po Lu; Andy Dean; Johnny Wen; Steve Nitch; Susan McPherson

2005-01-01

286

Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

2010-01-01

287

Significance Testing against the Random Model for Scoring Mo dels on Top k Predictions0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance at top k predictions, where instances are ranked by a (learned) scoring model, has been used as an evaluation metric in machine learning for various reasons such as where the entire corpus is unknown (e.g., the web) or where the results are to be used by a person with limited time or resources (e.g., ranking financial news stories where

Sofus A. Macskassy

2005-01-01

288

How Close Is Close Enough? Testing Nonexperimental Estimates of Impact against Experimental Estimates of Impact with Education Test Scores as Outcomes. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested the performance of nonexperimental estimators of impacts applied to a class size reduction intervention with achievement test scores as the outcome. Nonexperimental estimates of impacts were compared to "true impact" estimates provided by a random-assignment design that assessed intervention effects. Data came from Project STAR,…

Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Hollister, Robinson

289

WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults.  

PubMed

The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV(®)) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment. PMID:22534562

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O

2012-04-23

290

WiiFit(TM) Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults  

PubMed Central

The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment.

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

2012-01-01

291

Comparability of Examinee Proficiency Scores on Computer Adaptive Tests Using Real and Simulated Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In measurement research, data simulations are a commonly used analytical technique. While simulation designs have many benefits, it is unclear if these artificially generated datasets are able to accurately capture real examinee item response behaviors. This potential lack of comparability may have important implications for administration of…

Evans, Josiah Jeremiah

2010-01-01

292

The Crohn's and colitis knowledge score: a test for measuring patient knowledge in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire assessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and

Jayne A. Eaden; Keith Abrams; John F. Mayberry

1999-01-01

293

Testicular Biopsy Score Count – A Method for Registration of Spermatogenesis in Human Testes: Normal Values and Results in 335 Hypogonadal Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a new and rapid method forregistration of spermatogenesis in human testes: the testicular biopsy score count. Each tubular section is given a score from 10 to 1 according to presence or absence of the main cell types arranged in the order of maturity. Presence of spermatozoa scores 10, 9 or 8; spermatids (and no further) 7 or

Svend G. Johnsen

1970-01-01

294

A standardized scoring method for the copy of cube test, developed to be suitable for use in psychiatric populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although the 'copy of cube test', a version of which is included in the Short Test of Mental Status (STMS), has existed for\\u000a years, little has been done to standardize it in detail. The aim of the current study was to develop a novel and detailed\\u000a standardized method of administration and scoring this test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study sample included 93 healthy

Konstantinos N Fountoulakis; Melina Siamouli; Stamatia Magiria; Panagiotis T Panagiotidis; Sotiris Kantartzis; Vassiliki A Terzoglou; Timucin Oral

2011-01-01

295

Relationship between exhaled leukotriene and 8-isoprostane levels and asthma severity, asthma control level, and asthma control test score.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a completely non-invasive method for the collection of airway secretions to measure intense inflammation in the airways of asthmatics. It has been shown that the childhood asthma control test (c-ACT) is a good tool for use in the evaluation of asthmatics. Whether the c-ACT score and asthma control level correlate with the airway inflammation is not well known. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between exhaled cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) and 8-isoprostane levels and asthma severity, asthma control level and c-ACT score in asthmatic children. METHODS: Thirty asthmatic children were evaluated with c-ACT score and pulmonary function tests. Asthma severity and asthma control level were assessed according to GINA. EBC was collected and Cys-LTs and 8-isoprostane concentrations were determined using a specific immunoassay kit. RESULTS: Exhaled 8-isoprostane level in patients with moderate persistent asthma [114 (55-146)pg/ml] was higher than in the mild persistent group [52 (21-91)pg/ml] (p=0.05, Mann-Whitney U [MWU]). EBC 8-isoprostane in children with 1-4 asthma exacerbations/year [52 (16-80)pg/ml] was significantly lower than in children with >4 asthma exacerbations/year [114 (57-129)pg/ml] (p<0.05, MWU). No significant relation was determined between exhaled 8-isoprostane and Cys-LTs levels and c-ACT score and asthma control level. Exhaled 8-isoprostane correlated negatively with bronchodilator response (p=0.015, r=-0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Exhaled 8-isoprostane, as an oxidative stress specifier, was found to be increased in relation with asthma exacerbation frequency and oxidative stress increases with the severity of asthma. In contrast to asthma severity level, c-ACT score and asthma control level may not reflect airway inflammation. PMID:23265270

Keskin, O; Balaban, S; Keskin, M; Kucukosmanoglu, E; Gogebakan, B; Ozkars, M Y; Kul, S; Bayram, H; Coskun, Y

2012-12-18

296

Development and Psychometric Testing of a Quality of Recovery Score After General Anesthesia and Surgery in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

a significant negative relationship between QoR Score and female gender (P 5 0.048) and older age (P 5 0.041). There was also good interrater agreement (r 5 0.55, P , 0.0001), test-retest reliability (median r 5 0.61, P , 0.0001), and internal consistency (a 5 0.57 and 0.90, P , 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the groups of

Paul S. Myles; Jennifer O. Hunt; Claire E. Nightingale; Helen Fletcher; Terence Beh; Deral Tanil; Attila Nagy; Alan Rubinstein; Jennie L. Ponsford

1999-01-01

297

Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet:IV, and Academic Achievement Test Scores in Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for young children (3–7 years of age) on the Stanford-Binet:IV (n = 53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6–15 years of age (n = 63). Stanford-Binet:IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ (<80) and high-IQ (=80) groups, with high scores on visual matching tests (Bead Memory

Susan Dickerson Mayes; Susan L. Calhoun

2003-01-01

298

A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.  

PubMed

Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ?50% diameter stenosis in ?1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ?55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ?2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. PMID:23273531

Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

2012-12-28

299

GMAT and GRE Aptitude Test Performance in Relation to Primary Language and Scores on TOEFL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to describe and analyze (1) the performance of foreign candidates taking the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test in relation to self-reported primary language (English vs. other), and (2) relationships between performance on the respective admissions tests and…

Wilson, Kenneth M.

300

A Primer-Test Centered Equating Method for Setting Cut-Off Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated the use of a new primary field test method based on test equating to address inconsistent classification among field tests. We analyzed students' information on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), mile run (MR), and VO[subscript 2]max from three data sets (college: n = 94; middle school: n = 39;…

Zhu, Weimo; Plowman, Sharon Ann; Park, Youngsik

2010-01-01

301

Significance of Academic Merit, Test Scores, Interviews and the Admissions Process: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to: (i) offer a model for admissions to colleges not using a weighted aver- age formula; (ii) test the consistency of the model in the admission process; and (iii) test the model's pre- dictive validity. Data from 274 applicants were used in the study. Discriminant analysis was used to test the predictive models. A

Patrick C. Hardigan; L. Leanne Lai; Dean Arneson; Andrew Robeson

302

On the efficiency of score tests for homogeneity in two-component parametric models for discrete data.  

PubMed

In many applications of two-component mixture models for discrete data such as zero-inflated models, it is often of interest to conduct inferences for the mixing weights. Score tests derived from the marginal model that allows for negative mixing weights have been particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures often rely on restrictive assumptions such as the constancy of the mixing weights and typically ignore the structural constraints of the marginal model. In this article, we develop a score test of homogeneity that overcomes the limitations of existing procedures. The technique is based on a decomposition of the mixing weights into terms that have an obvious statistical interpretation. We exploit this decomposition to lay the foundation of the test. Simulation results show that the proposed covariate-adjusted test statistic can greatly improve the efficiency over test statistics based on constant mixing weights. A real-life example in dental caries research is used to illustrate the methodology. PMID:22348298

Todem, David; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Kim, KyungMann

2012-02-20

303

Rater Agreement on the ISCSCI Motor and Sensory Scores Obtained Before and After Formal Training in Testing Technique  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the results of rater agreement for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISCSCI) motor and sensory scores before and after training in the testing technique. Methods: Six raters performed sequential motor and sensory examinations on 5 adolescents with SCI according to the ISCSCI manual. After completion of the first examinations, all raters were provided with a half-day formal training session on testing techniques, after which the raters repeated the examinations. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to provide parameters for ICC interpretation: >0.90 = high agreement; 0.75 to 0.90 = moderate agreement; <0.75 = poor agreement. Results: After training, there was improvement in rater agreement of summed motor scores (MS) from ICC =0.809 to 0.862 and discrimination scores from ICC =0.786 to 0.892. There was moderate rater agreement for light touch scores (LTS) before and after training. After training, there was improvement in 95% CIs except for ICCs for LTS, but for all ICCs, the lower 95% CI value remained less than 0.75. Conclusions: Training improved rater agreement on MS and discrimination, but 95% CIs remained unacceptably wide. The positive effect of training in motor and sensory testing techniques is supported by the study data. Unlike previous studies that have suggested the ISCSCI has acceptable reliability for clinical trials, the results of this study do not fully support the use of the ISCSCI for clinical trials without better standardization to establish a lower 95% CI value of at least 0.75.

Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Gaughan, John; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C

2007-01-01

304

Transcultural adaptation and testing psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS).  

PubMed

This study was performed to translate and transculturally adapt the English version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) into a Korean version, and to test psychometric properties of the Korean FAOS in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and dimensionality. Translation and transcultural adaptation of FAOS into a Korean version was performed according to internationally recommended guidelines. Internal consistency (N?=?294) and test-retest reliability (N?=?21) were evaluated. Convergent validity was analyzed using correlation with pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score. All subscales, except for the quality of life (Q) subscale (Cronbach's alpha, 0.615), showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha?>?0.7). Cronbach's alpha of function in daily living (ADL) was highest (0.962), which might represent the redundancy of the items. All five subscales showed satisfactory reliability with ADL subscale showing the highest ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient; 0.851) and Q subscale the lowest ICC (0.718). Pain VAS score showed the highest correlation with pain (P) subscale of FAOS (r?=?0.675, p?test, a factor analysis was performed using the total items to rank their relative significance, which showed seven components solution. Considerable portion of the items showed a similar dimension according to their original subscales, except for ADL items. Translation and transcultural adaptation of FAOS into the Korean language was performed successfully. The items were understandable, and the subscales showed satisfactory test-retest reliability. Some minor revision might be needed to enhance the internal consistency of Q subscale and reduce the redundancy of ADL subscale. PMID:23703359

Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon Sun; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Damian J; Lee, Seoryong C; Park, Moon Seok

2013-05-24

305

Percentage Points of the Normal Score Layer Rank Tests for Independence and Empirical Power Comparisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A class of nonparametric tests based on the third quadrant layer ranks has recently been studied by Woodworth in connection with the problem of testing for independence in a bivariate distribution. In the present work, exact one-sided rejection regions ar...

G. K. Bhattacharyya R. A. Johnson H. R. Neave

1968-01-01

306

The Impact of Intensive Reading Interventions on Student Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to identify the impact intensive reading instruction had for 28 students with learning disabilities at the middle school level on standardized tests. National Assessment of Education Progress testing indicates that across the United States, learning disabled students literacy skills are decreasing annually, and these…

Munoz, Carolyn Sue

2010-01-01

307

The Relative Effects of Traditional Lectures and Guided Notes Lectures on University Student Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided notes were employed in two undergraduate Psychology courses involving 71 students. The study design utilized an alternating treatments format to compare Traditional Lectures with Guided Notes lectures. In one of the two courses, tests were administered after each class lecture, whereas the same type of test was administered at the beginning…

Williams, W. Larry; Weil, Timothy M.; Porter, James C. K.

2012-01-01

308

EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

Green, Anthony

2005-01-01

309

Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are "pilot…

McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

2007-01-01

310

A Study of the Differential Impact of Curriculum on Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 22,923 students who had taken the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test in the academic years 1983-84 and 1984-85, and who had also taken the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) 4 or 5 years earlier was identified and classified by undergraduate field of study (four major curriculum categories) and sex. Several analyses were…

Angoff, William H.; Johnson, Eugene G.

311

Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

2006-01-01

312

EAP study recommendations and score gains on the IELTS Academic Writing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes (BALEAP) [Bool, H., Dunmore, D., Tonkyn, A., Schmitt, D.,

Anthony Green

2005-01-01

313

An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or…

Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

2006-01-01

314

Credit Scoring for Vietnam’s Retail Banking Market: Implementation and Implications for Transactional versus Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

As banking markets in developing countries are maturing, banks face competition not only from other domestic banks but also from sophisticated foreign banks. Combined with a dramatic growth of consumer credit and increased regulatory attention to risk management, the development of a well-functioning credit assessment framework is essential. As part of such a framework, we propose a credit scoring model

Thi Huyen Thanh Dinh; Stefanie Kleimeier

2006-01-01

315

Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults  

PubMed Central

Background Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20–59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. Results 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1??g/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. Conclusions These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels that have been considered to be without adverse effects and these levels are common in U.S. adults. Thus further research into the potential neurocognitive effects of cadmium exposure is warranted. Because cumulative cadmium exposure may mediate some of the effects of age and smoking on cognition, adjusting for these variables may result in the underestimation of associations with cumulative cadmium exposure. Prospective studies that include never-smokers and non-occupationally exposed individuals are needed to clarify these issues.

2013-01-01

316

Overflow movements and behavior problems: scoring and using a modification of Fogs' test.  

PubMed

This study attempted to produce a simple, scorable test of neurological function and to see whether, in the absence of obvious central nervous system disease, the neurological impairments so defined were related to psychiatric disorders. 138 children aged between seven and 11 years from four schools undertook a standardised test based on the Fogs' test. Those who performed poorly on the test had a higher frequency of behaviour problems, motor inco-ordination and adverse perinatal events. Children with any kind of behaviour problem had more difficulty with the test than those without, but hyperactive children did worse than antisocial children. The strength of the statistical association between behaviour problems and functional neurological impairment varied with the social circumstances of the children. Neurological impairment was found more frequently among behaviour-problem children from suburban schools than those from inner-city schools. It appears that a degree of dysfunction lying between brain damage and normal variation places children at higher risk for the development of behaviour problems. Such dysfunction, together with psychosocial disadvantage, may be important aetiological factors in behaviour disorders during childhood. PMID:6203799

Szatmari, P; Taylor, D C

1984-06-01

317

An Evaluation of an Innovation: Standardized Test Scores Were Not Valid Indicators of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the evaluation of the Lighthouse Project, an education enhancement project that began in one urban and two suburban districts. Its methodology was the context for showing how the focus on the results of a standardized achievement test in mathematics inhibited the implementation of mathematics reform in the elementary…

Uslick, JoAnn; Walker, Carole

318

Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

2012-01-01

319

Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

2005-01-01

320

The Use of the Runs Test for Assessing Response Validity in Computer Scored Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The runs test for random sequences of responding is proposed for application in long inventories with dichotomous items as an index of sterotyped responding. This index is useful for detecting whether the client shifts between response alternatives more or less frequently than would be expected by chance. (LMO)|

Huba, G. J.

1986-01-01

321

School finance reform, the distribution of school spending, and the distribution of student test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of school finance reforms on the distribution of school spending across richer and poorer districts, and the consequences of spending equalization for the relative test performance of students from different family backgrounds. We find that states where the school finance system was declared unconstitutional in the 1980s increased the relative funding of low-income districts. Increases

David Card; A. Abigail Payne

2002-01-01

322

Clock Drawing Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Quantitative Analysis of Four Scoring Methods and Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of the clock drawing test (CDT) as a screening tool for dementia has been evaluated. However, studies focusing on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of the CDT as a screening method for MCI. Methods: 524 subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited in the

Kang Soo Lee; Eun A Kim; Chang Hyung Hong; Dong-Woo Lee; Byoung Hoon Oh; Hae-Kwan Cheong

2008-01-01

323

The Relationship between Self-Perceptions of Accountability by High School Principals and Student Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The high school principalship has been designated an area of professional shortage by many states. Resignations and terminations have been numerous as a result of poor student test performance. The purpose of this ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the self-perceptions of accountability by high school principals as they related to…

Koester, Edward L.

2010-01-01

324

Test Gains Reigniting Old Debate: Did NCLB Law Play a Role in History, Civics Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elementary school students have a stronger grasp of U.S. history, and what it means to be a knowledgeable citizen, than they did a few years ago, new test results suggest. Part of the reason they are better informed about history and citizenship, some argue, is that they are better readers. That was the view put forward by U.S. Secretary of…

Cavanagh, Sean

2007-01-01

325

Cognitive Style as a Factor Affecting Task-Based Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For purposes of the present study, it was hypothesized that field (in)dependence would introduce systematic variance into Iranian EFL learners' overall and task-specific performance on task-based reading comprehension tests. 1743 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior students all majoring in English at different Iranian universities and colleges…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2005-01-01

326

Interpretations of Rod-and-Frame Test Scores: An Application of Pattern Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rod-and-frame test data of undergraduates were subjected to pattern analysis, which showed that most tilt toward the spatial position of the frame, while some utilize two frame cues, i.e., the nearest to vertical side and corner of the frame. Other interpretations of performance were not supported by results. (Author/RD)

Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

1982-01-01

327

The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

Ho, Andrew

2013-01-01

328

The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

Ho, Andrew

2013-01-01

329

Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of clinical scores that predict streptococcal infection or rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests compared with delayed antibiotic prescribing. Design Open adaptive pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care in United Kingdom. Patients Patients aged ?3 with acute sore throat. Intervention An internet programme randomised patients to targeted antibiotic use according to: delayed antibiotics (the comparator group for analyses), clinical score, or antigen test used according to clinical score. During the trial a preliminary streptococcal score (score 1, n=1129) was replaced by a more consistent score (score 2, n=631; features: fever during previous 24 hours; purulence; attends rapidly (within three days after onset of symptoms); inflamed tonsils; no cough/coryza (acronym FeverPAIN). Outcomes Symptom severity reported by patients on a 7 point Likert scale (mean severity of sore throat/difficulty swallowing for days two to four after the consultation (primary outcome)), duration of symptoms, use of antibiotics. Results For score 1 there were no significant differences between groups. For score 2, symptom severity was documented in 80% (168/207 (81%) in delayed antibiotics group; 168/211 (80%) in clinical score group; 166/213 (78%) in antigen test group). Reported severity of symptoms was lower in the clinical score group (?0.33, 95% confidence interval ?0.64 to ?0.02; P=0.04), equivalent to one in three rating sore throat a slight versus moderate problem, with a similar reduction for the antigen test group (?0.30, ?0.61 to ?0.00; P=0.05). Symptoms rated moderately bad or worse resolved significantly faster in the clinical score group (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.63) but not the antigen test group (1.11, 0.88 to 1.40). In the delayed antibiotics group, 75/164 (46%) used antibiotics. Use of antibiotics in the clinical score group (60/161) was 29% lower (adjusted risk ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95; P=0.02) and in the antigen test group (58/164) was 27% lower (0.73, 0.52 to 0.98; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in complications or reconsultations. Conclusion Targeted use of antibiotics for acute sore throat with a clinical score improves reported symptoms and reduces antibiotic use. Antigen tests used according to a clinical score provide similar benefits but with no clear advantages over a clinical score alone. Trial registration ISRCTN32027234

2013-01-01

330

Predicting Academic Success of Engineering Students in Technical Drawing from Visualization Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

While observing the di-culties of flrst-year engineering students toward learning technical drawing, taking into account the progressively reduced work time with them, and recognizing the importance of spatial aptitude in the engineeringprofession,wefeelthenecessitytoimprovetheteachingmethodologies inthissubject. Inouropinion,inordertoefiectivelyplanthedidacticprocess,itis necessarytodetectasearlyaspossiblethosestudentswhorequiremoreattention andsupport. This study proposes an investigation of a visualization psychometric test that could facilitate an early diagnosis concerning the academic performance of tech- nicaldrawingstudents. To

Gerardo Prieto Adanez; Angela Dias Velasco

2002-01-01

331

Score Tests for Association between Traits and Haplotypes when Linkage Phase Is Ambiguous  

PubMed Central

A key step toward the discovery of a gene related to a trait is the finding of an association between the trait and one or more haplotypes. Haplotype analyses can also provide critical information regarding the function of a gene; however, when unrelated subjects are sampled, haplotypes are often ambiguous because of unknown linkage phase of the measured sites along a chromosome. A popular method of accounting for this ambiguity in case-control studies uses a likelihood that depends on haplotype frequencies, so that the haplotype frequencies can be compared between the cases and controls; however, this traditional method is limited to a binary trait (case vs. control), and it does not provide a method of testing the statistical significance of specific haplotypes. To address these limitations, we developed new methods of testing the statistical association between haplotypes and a wide variety of traits, including binary, ordinal, and quantitative traits. Our methods allow adjustment for nongenetic covariates, which may be critical when analyzing genetically complex traits. Furthermore, our methods provide several different global tests for association, as well as haplotype-specific tests, which give a meaningful advantage in attempts to understand the roles of many different haplotypes. The statistics can be computed rapidly, making it feasible to evaluate the associations between many haplotypes and a trait. To illustrate the use of our new methods, they are applied to a study of the association of haplotypes (composed of genes from the human-leukocyte-antigen complex) with humoral immune response to measles vaccination. Limited simulations are also presented to demonstrate the validity of our methods, as well as to provide guidelines on how our methods could be used.

Schaid, Daniel J.; Rowland, Charles M.; Tines, David E.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

2002-01-01

332

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

333

Comparison of two methods of teaching early childhood professionals to score a developmental screening test.  

PubMed

Increasingly, computer-assisted learning is becoming an educational method of choice. This study compared the effectiveness of in-class versus Internet-based training in achieving reliability when administering a developmental screening test, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Forty-eight early childhood professionals, including physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and infant development consultants, took part in the study. Participants in this convenience sample were each assigned to one of the two learning groups. We assessed interrater reliability and participants' satisfaction with training method. Disciplines were equally distributed within the two groups, but geographical locations differed significantly. There was no difference in intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability between the two groups. Although there was no difference in overall satisfaction with the quality of the courses, significant differences were found in the trainees' satisfaction with certain aspects of the courses. Although several study limitations existed, Internet-based training provides a feasible option for training practitioners to reliably use developmental screening tests such as the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. PMID:19623791

Mayson, Tanja A; Hayes, Virginia E; Harris, Susan R; Backman, Catherine L

2009-01-01

334

Step Test Scores Are Related to Measures of Activity and Participation in the First 6 Months After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background: The Step Test (ST) is a measure of dynamic standing balance and paretic–lower-extremity motor control in patients with stroke. Little is known about the extent to which impairments assessed by the ST relate to activity and participation during stroke recovery. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between ST scores and measures of activity and participation during the first 6 months after stroke. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: Thirty-three individuals (18 men, 15 women) with a diagnosis of a single, unilateral stroke participated in the study. Participants were tested one time per month from 1 to 6 months poststroke. The ST was considered an impairment-level measure. Self-selected gait speed and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) Physical Function Index (PFI) were used to assess physical function. Three domains (mobility, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, participation) of the Stroke Impact Scale were used to assess self-reported disability. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the bivariate associations between ST scores and each physical function and disability measure at each time point (1–6 months). Results: The ST scores were positively associated with both physical function measures. The associations were stronger for self-selected gait speeds (R2=.60–.79) than for the PFI scores (R2=.32–.60). During the first 6 months after stroke, each additional step with the paretic lower extremity on the ST corresponded to a 0.07-m/s to 0.09-m/s increase in gait speed, and each additional step with the nonparetic lower extremity was associated with a 0.07-m/s to 0.08-m/s gait speed increase. The impairment-disability associations were weaker than the impairment-physical function associations. Limitations: Limitations of the study include a relatively small sample size and lack of examiner blinding with regard to participant characteristics. Conclusions: Impairments in balance and paretic–lower-extremity motor control, as measured by the ST, relate to physical function and disability during the first 6 months following stroke.

Mercer, Vicki Stemmons; Freburger, Janet Kues; Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Purser, Jama L.

2009-01-01

335

Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

2013-01-01

336

A test of the Whitaker scoring system for estimating age from the bones of the foot.  

PubMed

Within the literature pertaining to skeletal age estimation, there is a paucity of statistically validated methods of age estimation from the foot. Given the prevalence of recovery of pedal elements in isolation, it is critical that methods exist to facilitate the estimation of age from this anatomical region and that those methods be tested to ensure they are reliable, repeatable and statistically robust. A study was carried out to determine the validity of using the Whitaker method of age estimation from the bones of the foot as a tool in forensic age estimation within a modern Scottish population. Two-hundred and sixty radiographs from individuals aged between birth and 18 years were assessed according to the Whitaker method; the results were compared with chronological age. The results of this study suggest that the method of Whitaker et al. is highly unlikely to estimate the age of females below 16 years of age or males below 18 years of age correctly. When the methodology was altered to correspond with best practice principles of age estimation, the estimated age ranges were found to be too wide to be of practical value in forensic age estimation. The results of this study therefore suggest that the Whitaker method for estimating age from the bones of the foot should not be used in forensic age assessment. PMID:23052443

Davies, Catriona; Hackman, Lucina; Black, Sue

2012-10-04

337

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential formisdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

338

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

339

The formalin test: scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats.  

PubMed

The formalin test is increasingly used as a model of injury-produced pain but there is no generally accepted method of pain rating. To examine the properties of various pain rating methods we established dose-response relations for formalin injected in the plantar surface of one hind paw, and the analgesic effects of morphine and amphetamine using the most frequently reported behavioural measures of pain (favouring, lifting, licking and flinching/shaking of the injured paw) and combinations of these. Licking, elevation and favouring of the injected paw showed a biphasic response at all formalin doses. Flinching varied in form across the time course of formalin, and the biphasic nature of the behaviour was not as apparent. In untreated rats all these behaviours were infrequent. Flinching and favouring were increased after injection of local anaesthetic into the paw but remained negligible relative to the effect of formalin. Grooming other than that directed to the injected paw was elevated in a dose-dependent manner by formalin. Intercorrelations between the behaviours were different for the initial response and the second phase. Correlational analysis indicated that no single behavioural measure was a strong predictor of formalin, morphine and amphetamine dose. A simple sum of time spent licking plus elevating the paw, or the weighted pain score of Dubuisson and Dennis (1977), were superior to any single measure (r ranging from 0.75 to 0.86). Addition of flinching and favouring to the combined pain score using multiple regression did not increase variance explained. Depending on the measure used, a sedative dose of pentobarbital produced apparent analgesia, hyperalgesia or no effect. The interphase depression of pain, as well as the analgesic effects of morphine and amphetamine, were all associated with increased motor activation. Power analysis indicated that using a moderate dose of formalin and a combined pain score gave the greatest power to detect differences in pain. It was also found that pain scores increase with ambient temperature and that rat strains may differ in formalin pain sensitivity. PMID:7715946

Abbott, F V; Franklin, K B; Westbrook, R F

1995-01-01

340

College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores

Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

2008-01-01

341

Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: Prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1\\/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water

Joseph P. Ferrie; Karen Rolf; Werner Troesken

342

Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis…

Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

2013-01-01

343

Standard Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the authors will discuss the following types of standard scores: percentile ranks , z-scores , and T-scores . All are based on concepts--such as the mean, the normal distribution, and the standard deviation--already

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

344

Genetic evaluation of Australian dairy cattle for somatic cell scores using multi-trait random regression test-day model.  

PubMed

A multi-trait (MT) random regression (RR) test day (TD) model has been developed for genetic evaluation of somatic cell scores for Australian dairy cattle, where first, second and third lactations were considered as three different but correlated traits. The model includes herd-test-day, year-season, age at calving, heterosis and lactation curves modelled with Legendre polynomials as fixed effects, and random genetic and permanent environmental effects modelled with Legendre polynomials. Residual variance varied across the lactation trajectory. The genetic parameters were estimated using asreml. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.05 to 0.16. The genetic correlations between lactations and between test days within lactations were consistent with most of the published results. Preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with iteration on data was implemented for solving the system of equations. For reliability approximation, the method of Tier and Meyer was used. The genetic evaluation system was validated with Interbull validation method III by comparing proofs from a complete evaluation with those from an evaluation based on a data set excluding the most recent 4 years. The genetic trend estimate was in the allowed range and correlations between the two sets of proofs were very high. Additionally, the RR model was compared to the previous test day model. The correlations of proofs between both models were high (0.97) for bulls with high reliabilities. The correlations of bulls decreased with increasing incompleteness of daughter performance information. The correlations between the breeding values from two consecutive runs were high ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. The MT RR TD model was able to make effective use of available information on young bulls and cows, and could offer an opportunity to breeders to utilize estimated breeding values for first and later lactations. PMID:19646149

Konstantinov, K V; Beard, K T; Goddard, M E; van der Werf, J H J

2009-06-01

345

An Update of "Implications of Changing Answers on Objective Test Items".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1977 review of the literature on test answer changing, Mueller and Wasser (EJ 163 236) cited 17 studies and concluded that students changing answers on objective tests gain more points than they lost by so doing. Higher scoring students tend to gain more than do the lower scoring students. Six additional studies not reported in the Mueller…

Mercer, Maryann

346

Florida's College Placement Test reading scores as an essential indicator for successful completion of the highest college preparatory course in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive validity of several variables to determine if the Florida Computerized Placement Test - Reading (CPT-R) score alone, or other variables, could determine whether or not a student would successfully pass the highest level college preparatory reading course. The study examined fall sessions 1997-2004 (n=276,079) reading scores for all forms of

Laura Dandar Smith

2007-01-01

347

Comparison and clinical applicability of auditory comprehension scores on the behavioral Neurology deficit evaluation, boston diagnostic aphasia examination, porch index of communicative ability and token test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of auditory comprehension is of major importance in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic evaluation of patients with aphasia. Several tests developed at institutions with differing theoretical orientations have been in common use for many years. Auditory comprehension scores on the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Porch Index of Communicative Ability and Token Test were obtained from a series of

Gerald K. Morley; Sandra Lundgren; James Haxby

1979-01-01

348

GUIDCOUN: A Comprehensive FORTRAN IV Computer Program for Generating Item and Test Analyses as Well as a Complete Standard Scores Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program providing comprehensive test and item analysis is presented. Completing its performance on one run, the program, written in Fortran and emphasizing ease of use, integrates various statistical techniques for analyzing individual items and the overall test, in addition to generating a variety of standard scores. (Author/JKS)

Noble, Gilbert H.

1977-01-01

349

How Performance Information Affects Human-Capital Investment Decisions: The Impact of Test-Score Labels on Educational Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 17120  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students receive abundant information about their educational performance, but how this information affects future educational-investment decisions is not well understood. Increasingly common sources of information are state-mandated standardized tests. On these tests, students receive a score and a label that summarizes their performance. Using…

Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

2011-01-01

350

The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test

Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

2012-01-01

351

What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2012-01-01

352

Gender Differences among Self-Assessments, Teacher Ratings, Grades, and Aptitude Test Scores for a Sample of Students Attending Rural Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender differences in self-assessments, teacher ratings, and grades were examined for 124 female and 98 male rural high school students in the prediction of verbal reasoning and numerical ability test scores. Despite some gender differences, results support using teacher assessment and student self-assessment in predicting test performance. (SLD)|

Wright, Claudia R.; Houck, Jean Wilson

1995-01-01

353

GUIDCOUN: A Comprehensive FORTRAN IV Computer Program for Generating Item and Test Analyses as Well as a Complete Standard Scores Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A computer program providing comprehensive test and item analysis is presented. Completing its performance on one run, the program, written in Fortran and emphasizing ease of use, integrates various statistical techniques for analyzing individual items and the overall test, in addition to generating a variety of standard scores. (Author/JKS)|

Noble, Gilbert H.

1977-01-01

354

Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

2011-01-01

355

lDDT: a local superposition-free score for comparing protein structures and models using distance difference tests  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The assessment of protein structure prediction techniques requires objective criteria to measure the similarity between a computational model and the experimentally determined reference structure. Conventional similarity measures based on a global superposition of carbon ? atoms are strongly influenced by domain motions and do not assess the accuracy of local atomic details in the model. Results: The Local Distance Difference Test (lDDT) is a superposition-free score that evaluates local distance differences of all atoms in a model, including validation of stereochemical plausibility. The reference can be a single structure, or an ensemble of equivalent structures. We demonstrate that lDDT is well suited to assess local model quality, even in the presence of domain movements, while maintaining good correlation with global measures. These properties make lDDT a robust tool for the automated assessment of structure prediction servers without manual intervention. Availability and implementation: Source code, binaries for Linux and MacOSX, and an interactive web server are available at http://swissmodel.expasy.org/lddt Contact: torsten.schwede@unibas.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Mariani, Valerio; Biasini, Marco; Barbato, Alessandro; Schwede, Torsten

2013-01-01

356

Ethical and social implications of genetic testing for communication disorders  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetics and genomics have quickly led to clinical applications to human health which have far-reaching consequences at the individual and societal levels. These new technologies have allowed a better understanding of the genetic factors involved in a wide range of disorders. During the past decade, incredible progress has been made in the identification of genes involved in the normal process of hearing. The resulting clinical applications have presented consumers with new information and choices. Many of the same gene identification techniques are increasingly being applied to the investigation of complex disorders of speech and language. In parallel with gene identification, studies of the legal, ethical and psychosocial impacts of the clinical application of these advances and their influence on specific behaviors of individuals with communication disorders are paramount, but often lag behind. These studies will help to ensure that new technologies are introduced into clinical practice in a responsible manner. Learning outcomes As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) explain the differences between Mendelian and complex forms of inheritance and why these differences complicate the ethical impact of genetic testing, (2) explain how publicly funded genome research through the Human Genome Project, the International HapMap Project and others have examined the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research, (3) list some of the ethical complexities of prenatal, newborn and predictive testing for various genetic disorders and (4) discuss the importance of evidence-based practice to the development of public policy for the introduction and clinical use of genetic tests.

Arnos, Kathleen S.

2013-01-01

357

Testing informant discrepancies as predictors of early adolescent psychopathology: why difference scores cannot tell you what you want to know and how polynomial regression may.  

PubMed

Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why difference scores cannot serve as unambiguous predictors of outcomes. Further, we use polynomial regression analyses to both test the validity of difference scores and provide a more direct test of the hypothesis that discrepancies in parent and child reports predict child psychopathology. Data from 218 parent-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age?=?11.5 years, 51 % female; 49 % European American, 47 % African American) were used to predict adolescent-reported antisocial behavior and depression from parent and adolescent reports of parent-adolescent conflict, parental knowledge, parental acceptance, adolescent rule-breaking behavior, and adolescent pubertal development. Results demonstrate that analyses using difference scores do not provide valid tests of the utility of informant discrepancies in predicting adolescent psychosocial maladjustment. However, interaction terms in polynomial regression analyses provide evidence that informant discrepancies predict child psychopathology. Parent-adolescent informant discrepancies predict adolescent psychopathology but researchers should avoid using difference scores to measure informant discrepancies. Polynomial regression analyses provide more comprehensive and accurate tests of whether informant discrepancies predict child and adolescent psychopathology. PMID:22773360

Laird, Robert D; De Los Reyes, Andres

2013-01-01

358

Score 2009  

Cancer.gov

Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

359

Scoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severity of illness scoring systems are helpful for defining populations of critically ill patients because they facilitate,\\u000a for example, comparison of different groups of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Such scoring systems may also guide more\\u000a effective allocation of resources, such as nursing and ancillary care and help in assessing the quality of care in the intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU)

John Kress

360

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

361

Power and robustness of a score test for linkage analysis of quantitative traits using identity by descent data on sib pairs.  

PubMed

Identification of genes involved in complex traits by traditional (lod score) linkage analysis is difficult due to many complicating factors. An unfortunate drawback of non-parametric procedures in general, though, is their low power to detect genetic effects. Recently, Dudoit and Speed [2000] proposed using a (likelihood-based) score test for detecting linkage with IBD data on sib pairs. This method uses the likelihood for theta, the recombination fraction between a trait locus and a marker locus, conditional on the phenotypes of the two sibs to test the null hypothesis of no linkage (theta = (1/2)). Although a genetic model must be specified, the approach offers several advantages. This paper presents results of simulation studies characterizing the power and robustness properties of this score test for linkage, and compares the power of the test to the Haseman-Elston and modified Haseman-Elston tests. The score test is seen to have impressively high power across a broad range of true and assumed models, particularly under multiple ascertainment. Assuming an additive model with a moderate allele frequency, in the range of p = 0.2 to 0.5, along with heritability H = 0.3 and a moderate residual correlation rho = 0.2 resulted in a very good overall performance across a wide range of trait-generating models. Generally, our results indicate that this score test for linkage offers a high degree of protection against wrong assumptions due to its strong robustness when used with the recommended additive model. PMID:11319783

Goldstein, D R; Dudoit, S; Speed, T P

2001-05-01

362

Differential subtest scores on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) in an elderly population with diagnosis of vascular or nonvascular dementia.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of subtest scores on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), a test of day-to-day memory, was completed for a clinical sample of older people. The aim was to determine whether profile and screening scores discriminated between cases classified as vascular dementia (VAD) or nonvascular dementia (NVG). Diagnosis was made on the basis of CT scan, neuropsychological assessment, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for dementia. The sample comprised 74 cases with a mean age of 74: 77 years (range = 60-89). A nonparametric statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the VAD and the NVG on bath the profile and screening scores and on 5 of the 12 RBMT subtests. Discriminant analysis indicated that a combination of four subtests resulted in an error rate of 3% in classifying cases as VAD or NVG in this sample. Areas for further investigation are outlined. PMID:16318455

Glass, J N

1998-01-01

363

Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

Smith, Feon M.

2012-01-01

364

Choosing among Tucker or Chained Linear Equating in Two Testing Situations: Rater Comparability Scoring and Randomly Equivalent Groups with an Anchor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tucker and chained linear equatings were evaluated in two testing scenarios. In Scenario 1, referred to as rater comparability scoring and equating, the anchor-to-total correlation is often very high for the new form but moderate for the reference form. This may adversely affect the results of Tucker equating, especially if the new and reference…

Puhan, Gautam

2012-01-01

365

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

366

Cognitive Disparities, Lead Plumbing, and Water Chemistry: Intelligence Test Scores and Exposure to Water-Borne Lead Among World War Two U.S. Army Enlistees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the impact of lead exposure is difficult if individuals select on the basis of their characteristics into environments with different exposure levels. We address this issue with data from when the dangers of lead exposure were still largely unknown, using new evidence on intelligence test scores for male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees linked to the households where

Joseph P. Ferrie; Karen Rolf; Werner Troesken

2011-01-01

367

Test-Retest and Inter-Analyst Reliability of the Automated Readability Index, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Fog Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using six analysts, test-retest and inter-analyst reliabilities were determined for the Automated Readability Index (ARI), the Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Fog Count. All coefficients, with the exception of one Flesch measure, were above .94.Analysis of variance applied to measured working times indicated that the Flesch takes significantly longer to use than the ARI and Fog.

Georgelle Thomas; R. Derald Hartley; J. Peter Kincaid

1975-01-01

368

Walk Score  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a walkable community, is there a way to determine which neighborhood might be best for you? Interested parties might use the Walk Score to get a basic sense of nearby amenities, such as grocery stores, parks, restaurants, and so on. Visitors can type in a street address or neighborhood, and they can find out the location's cumulative Walk Score. Also, visitors can use the site to find out about potential nearby rental properties, if they are so inclined. This site is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-04-27

369

Validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance for prediction of 6-, 9- and 12-month scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.  

PubMed

The Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) is a test of functional movement in infants from 32 weeks' post-conceptional age to 4 months postterm. The purpose of this study was to assess in 96 infants (44 females, 52 males) with varying risk, the relation between measures on the TIMP at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after term age and percentile ranks (PR) on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Correlation between scores on the TIMP and the AIMS was highest for TIMP tests at 90 days and AIMS testing at 6 months (r=0.67, p=0.0001), but all comparisons were statistically significant except those between the TIMP at 7 days and AIMS PR at 9 months. In a multiple regression analysis combining a perinatal risk score and 7-day TIMP measures to predict 12-month AIMS PR, risk, but not TIMP, predicted outcome (21% of variance explained). At older ages TIMP measures made increasing contributions to prediction of 12-month AIMS PR (30% of variance explained by 90-day TIMP). The best TIMP score to maximize specificity and correctly identify 84% of the infants above versus below the 10th PR at 6 months was a cut-off point of 1 SD below the mean. The same cut-off point correctly identified 88% of the infants at 12 months. A cut-off of -0.5 SD, however, maximized sensitivity at 92%. A negative test result, i.e. score above -0.5 SD at 3 months, carried only a 2% probability of a poor 12-month outcome. We conclude that TIMP scores significantly predict AIMS PR 6 to 12 months later, but the TIMP at 3 months of age has the greatest degree of validity for predicting motor performance on the AIMS at 12 months and can be used clinically to identify infants likely to benefit from intervention. PMID:11995895

Campbell, Suzann K; Kolobe, Thubi H A; Wright, Benjamin D; Linacre, John Michael

2002-04-01

370

The Texas Study: A Regression Analysis of Selected Factors that Influence the Scores of Students on the TASP Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify factors affecting student performance on the Texas Academic Skills Program (TASP), a state-mandated measure designed to assess students' basic skills and competencies. TASP and Assessment of Student Skills for Entry Transfer (ASSET) scores were analyzed for 328 academic track students from 6 community colleges in…

High, Clennis F.

371

Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2010-01-01

372

Effect of Interactive Whiteboard Instruction on 5th Grade Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of mathematics instruction using the interactive whiteboard (IWB) for 1, 2, and 3 years. Guided by Gagne's conditions of learning theory, this program evaluation study investigated the impact of receiving 1, 2, or 3 years of mathematics instruction using the IWB on mathematics scores on the…

Rains, Cherri Sloan

2011-01-01

373

Relationships between Language Background, Secondary School Scores, Tutorial Group Processes, And Students’ Academic Achievement in PBL: Testing a Causal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the influence of language background in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups on group processes and students’ academic achievement. This study investigated the relationship between language background, secondary school score, tutorial group processes, and students’ academic achievement in PBL. A validated tutorial group effectiveness questionnaire was administered to undergraduate medical students in a PBL curriculum at the

Veena S. Singaram; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten; Arno M. M. Muijtjens; Diana H. J. M. Dolmans

2012-01-01

374

Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

2012-01-01

375

C825T G-protein ?3 subunit gene polymorphism, tilt test results and point score in syncopal patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated C825T polymorphism of the G-protein ?3 subunit gene in syncopal patients in regard to tilting results and the diagnostic point score (PS). In a multivariate analysis,\\u000a only PS ? ?2 was associated with positive passive tilting (P < 0.05). The relationship between tilting results and this polymorphism needs further study.

Malgorzata Lelonek; Tadeusz Pietrucha; Monika Matyjaszczyk; Jan Henryk Goch

2008-01-01

376

The Texas Study: A Regression Analysis of Selected Factors that Influence the Scores of Students on the TASP Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to identify factors affecting student performance on the Texas Academic Skills Program (TASP), a state-mandated measure designed to assess students' basic skills and competencies. TASP and Assessment of Student Skills for Entry Transfer (ASSET) scores were analyzed for 328 academic track students from 6 community colleges in…

High, Clennis F.

377

Differential Variability of Test Scores among Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Fifth-Grade INVALSI Test Using Heteroscedastic Random Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…

Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

2011-01-01

378

[A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].  

PubMed

Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity. PMID:9699357

Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

379

A Study of Hypotheses Basic to the Use of Rights and Formula Scores. Phase I--Based on Experimental Administration of College Board Tests [and] Phase II--Based on Operational Administration of the GMAT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to determine whether a shift from Formula scoring to Rights scoring can be made without causing a discontinuity in the test scale, the analysis of special administrations of the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Chemistry Achievement Test and the variable section of an operational form of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is…

Angoff, William H.; Schrader, William B.

380

Some Methodological Issues in Using Standardized Test Scores to Evaluate Large Scale Educational Programs. CSE Report No. 111.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is unsafe to estimate achievement test norms for fall testing by linear interpolation between norms for the previous spring testing and norms for the following spring. Second grade students were tested in reading and arithmetic in the fall and in the spring to provide pre-test and post-test data for evaluation of academic growth. Three…

Conklin, Jon

381

Ethical implications of genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of gene mutations involved in hereditary breast cancer is a major recent scientific discovery, enabling us to identify women at very high risk, and also providing the means to understand the biology of breast cancer and to explore novel preventive strategies. Yet, it carries medical, psychological, ethical and social implications. This paper is a review of all the

Antonella Surbone

2001-01-01

382

The Crohn’s and colitis knowledge score: a test for measuring patient knowledge in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire assessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn’s and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and

Jayne A Eaden; Keith Abrams; John F Mayberry

1999-01-01

383

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

384

Application of a Novel Score Test for Genetic Association Incorporating Gene-Gene Interaction Suggests Functionality for Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Regions  

PubMed Central

Aims We introduce an innovative multilocus test for disease association. It is an extension of an existing score test that gains power over alternative methods by incorporating a parsimonious one-degree-of-freedom model for interaction. We use our method in applications designed to detect interactions that generate hypotheses about the functionality of prostate cancer (PRCA) susceptibility regions. Methods Our proposed score test is designed to gain additional power through the use of a retrospective likelihood that exploits an assumption of independence between unlinked loci in the underlying population. Its performance is validated through simulation. The method is used in conditional scans with data from stage II of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility PRCA genome-wide association study. Results Our proposed method increases power to detect susceptibility loci in diverse settings. It identified two high-ranking, biologically interesting interactions: (1) rs748120 of NR2C2 and subregions of 8q24 that contain independent susceptibility loci specific to PRCA and (2) rs4810671 of SULF2 and both JAZF1 and HNF1B that are associated with PRCA and type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Our score test is a promising multilocus tool for genetic epidemiology. The results of our applications suggest functionality for poorly understood PRCA susceptibility regions. They motivate replication study.

Ciampa, Julia; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin; Thun, Michael J.; Gapstur, Susan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C.; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Hunter, David; Hoover, Robert; Thomas, Gilles; Chanock, Stephen; Holmes, Chris; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

2011-01-01

385

The Score Reliability of the Test of Spoken English (TSE) from the Generalizability Theory Perspective: Validating the Current Procedure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the validity of the current reliability estimation procedure for the Test of Spoken English (TSE), a tape-mediated semi-performance test of 12 speaking tasks, from the perspective of generalizability theory and examined the feasibility of shortening the test without compromising the psychometric quality of the test. Data…

Lee, Yong-Won; Golub-Smith, Marna; Payton, Carmen; Carey, Jill

386

Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the…

Davis, Holly S.

387

Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.  

PubMed

Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. PMID:22014834

Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

2011-09-23

388

Retaking ability tests in a selection setting: Implications for practice effects, training performance, and turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of employment-related test preparation is undergoing considerable growth. Moreover, many employers, particularly those in the public sector, allow job applicants to retake employee selection tests. Thus, it is important to gauge, in the employment realm, the effectiveness and implications of what is commonly referred to as test coaching and practice. Although some research has addressed whether coaching and

John P. Hausknecht; Charlie O. Trevor; James L. Farr

2002-01-01

389

Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

2007-01-01

390

Scoring CT\\/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient’s age, body mass index and common laboratory test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT\\/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38–80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall

T. Vehmas; L. Kivisaari; M. S. Huuskonen; M. S. Jaakkola

2005-01-01

391

Wechsler-Based CHC Cross-Battery Assessment and Reading Achievement: Strengthening the Validity of Interpretations Drawn from Wechsler Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cross-battery approach to assessing cognitive abilities has been introduced to the field recently as an alternative to traditional assessment instruments and techniques (Flanagan, McGrew, & Ortiz, 2000; McGrew & Flanagan, 1998). This theory-based method of assessment was developed to provide a more valid and defensible way of deriving meaning from test scores than that provided by the

Dawn P. Flanagan

2000-01-01

392

Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally-

Angela Tirino Sullivan

1999-01-01

393

Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time…

Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

2011-01-01

394

Using the ETS Major Field Test in Business: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factor and regression analyses of data from 241 business students found clear differences between grade point average (GPA) and Major Field Test in Business scores. GPA had strong internal validity and reflected performance in the context of institutional priorities. The test had greater external validity and enabled benchmarking against national…

Mirchandani, Dilip; Lynch, Robert; Hamilton, Diane

2001-01-01

395

An Examination of the Validity of English-Language Achievement Test Scores in an English Language Learner Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1,700 English language learners (ELLs) and former ELL students, in Grades 4 and 10, were tested using both an English-language (Stanford Achievement Test, 9th ed.) and a Spanish-language (Aprenda, 2nd ed.) achievement test. Their performances on the two tests were contrasted. The results showed that ELL students, for the most part, answered more items correctly on a home-language mathematics

Rodolfo Abella; Joanne Urrutia; Aleksandr Shneyderman

2005-01-01

396

HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across

Catherine Worthington; Randy Jackson; Judy Mill; Tracey Prentice; Ted Myers; Susan Sommerfeldt

2010-01-01

397

Clinical Implications of In Vitro Bleeding Test – A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObjective: The in vitro bleeding test (IVBT) is a sensitive and simple ex vivo method, simulating nonvascular primary hemostasis induced by injury of a small vessel. This review gives an overview of the factors influencing the test and describes the standard test after optimization at the Thrombostat 4000. The main intention is to summarize the various results obtained with this

V. Kretschmer

1997-01-01

398

Use of Writing Samples on Standardized Tests: Susceptibility to Rule-Based Coaching and the Resulting Effects on Score Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the growing use of writing assessments in standardized tests, little is known about coaching effects on writing assessments. Therefore, this study tested the effects of short-term coaching on standardized writing tests, and the transfer of those effects to other writing genres. College freshmen were randomly assigned to either training…

Hardison, Chaitra M.; Sackett, Paul R.

2008-01-01

399

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

2006-01-01

400

Comparing and evaluating alternative ( in vitro) tests on their ability to predict the Draize maximum average score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Evaluation of Alternatives Program comprised a multi-phased study of the relationship between Draize eye irritation test data and comparable data from a selection of promising alternative (in vitro) tests. The CTFA Program was designed to determine the effectiveness and limitations of several in vitro tests over a range of different cosmetic and personal-care

R. A. Lordo; P. I. Feder; S. D. Gettings

1999-01-01

401

The Role of GRE General and Subject Test Scores in Graduate Program Admission. ETS Research Report 84-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To learn more about graduate program selectivity, admission test requirements, and the role that the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) play in the admission process, a two-phase study was conducted. First, the GRE General Test and Subject Test requirements of a broad range (over 12,000) of graduate programs were summarized by examining data in…

Oltman, Philip K.; Hartnett, Rodney T.

402

Propensity score techniques and the assessment of measured covariate balance to test causal associations in psychological research  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use and evaluation. This study gives an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and PS application. It also provides a way to help compare PS techniques, using the resulting measured covariate balance as the criterion for selecting between techniques. The empirical example for this study involves the potential causal relationship linking early-onset cannabis problems and subsequent negative mental health outcomes, using data from a prospective cohort study. PS techniques are described and evaluated based on their ability to balance the distributions of measured potentially confounding covariates for individuals with and without early-onset cannabis problems. This paper identifies the PS techniques that yield good statistical balance of the chosen measured covariates within the context of this particular research question and cohort.

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2010-01-01

403

Waterborne diseases prevention: evaluation of inspection scoring system for water sites according to water microbiological tests during the Athens 2004 pre-Olympic and Olympic period  

PubMed Central

Study objectives To evaluate the inspection grading system for water sites implemented during the Athens 2004 Olympic inspection programme. Design The relation between the standardised inspections results of 716 water supply systems and 289 public swimming pools, and microbiological test results of 2358 samples collected during inspections was examined. Setting Athens, Thessaloniki, Patra, Volos, and Iraklio, Greece. Inspections and sampling conducted during a two year period before the 2004 Olympics. Main results Swimming pools unsatisfactory inspection grading results were significantly associated with positive water microbiological test results (relative risk ?=?2.5, p<0.05). One of the six violations of swimming pools and five of the seven violations of water supply systems designated as “critical” water safety hazards in the inspection reports were significantly associated with positive microbiological test results. The receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the unsatisfactory score designed in the swimming pools standardised inspection report, as the ideal score (?15), in adequately producing positive microbiological test results (sensitivity 13.2%, specificity 89%). Conclusions This study shows the utility of standardised inspection grading systems in waterborne diseases prevention planning and implementation strategies of policy makers and regulators. Future water quality assessment should be based on the implementation of a robust standardised inspection system and reduce the need of microbiological tests.

Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Konstantinidis, Athanasios; Petrikos, Philipos; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Boufa, Panagiota; Kremastinou, Jenny

2006-01-01

404

HCC-ART score, a simple, highly sensitive and specific test for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a large-scale, multicentre study.  

PubMed

Background:A simple scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC from patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). The simplest score would be one that requires only variables that can be documented simply from routine laboratory tests without the need for sophisticated tests.Methods:Data from the estimation group (1351 patients) and the validation group (2208 patients) were retrospectively analysed. Liver fibrosis-negative control and liver cirrhosis were compared with HCC. Area under ROC curve (AUC) were used to develop HCC-?-fetoprotein-routine test (HCC-ART).Results:Hepatocellular carcinoma-AFP-routine test showed diagnostic accuracy for liver cirrhosis vs HCC with ROC curves of 0.99%, sensitivity of 97%, and specificity of 96% in the estimation, and 0.95%, 90%, and 83%, respectively, in the validation. Sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) were obtained to discriminate HCC from liver fibrosis. Area under curve for AFP at 400?U?l(-1) was 0.70, sensitivity was 41%, and specificity was 99% in the estimation, and 0.77%, 54%, and 99%, respectively, in the validation. The AUC for HCC-ART in HCC with single tumour, absent vascular invasion, size <2?cm and CLIP score (0-1) were 0.95, 0.93, 0.86, 0.87, respectively, compared with 0.72, 0.71, 0.71, 0.50, respectively, for AFP.Conclusion:Hepatocellular carcinoma-AFP-routine test could increase the accuracy of HCC screening and surveillances and could be used worldwide without extra efforts. PMID:23982602

Attallah, A M; Omran, M M; Attallah, A A; Abdallah, S O; Farid, K; Darwish, H; El-Dosoky, I; Shaker, Y M

2013-08-27

405

Minimum Competency Testing: Implications for Mildly Retarded Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper reviews the disadvantages, as well as the advantages, of minimum competency testing (MCT) with mentally retarded high school students. Among disadvantages pointed out are the discrepancy between teaching methods as testing methods and the unproven relevance of MCT for adult success. (SB)|

Cohen, Sandra B.; And Others

1980-01-01

406

Competency Based Tests: Their Implications for Goals of Composition Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Competency testing in composition fixes goals that convey to students, teachers, parents, and the general public inaccurate notions about the nature of composition and what competency in writing comprises. The trend toward competency testing comes from the public's realization that many high school and college graduates are functionally…

Smedman, M. Sarah

407

A Phenomenological Case Study of African American Students Who Achieved Success Despite Scoring Low on Standardized Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standardized tests continue to be used in the United States to evaluate applicants for admission to most colleges and universities, which often results in less access for students--specifically students of color--who may have been inadequately prepared in grades K-12 for standardized testing. The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to…

Blanding, Joseph Dwayne

2010-01-01

408

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

409

The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding…

Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

2012-01-01

410

Variability in use of cut-off scores and formats on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale – implications for clinical and research practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objectives: i) To highlight the increasing use in the literature of unvalidated cut-off scores on the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS\\/EPDS),\\u000a as well as different wording and formatting in the scale; ii) to investigate and discuss the possible impact of using an unvalidated\\u000a cut-off score; iii) to highlight possible reasons for these ‘errors’; and iv) to make recommendations to clinicians

S. Matthey; C. Henshaw; S. Elliott; B. Barnett

2006-01-01

411

A study of the Kent and Buck screen tests of mental ability in relation to Otis and Stanford Achievement Test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

100 first offenders admitted to a federal correctional institution for boys were given the Kent Oral Emergency Test, the Buck Time Appreciation Test, the Otis Group Intelligence Scale, Advanced Examination, and the Stanford Achievement Test. The screen tests were highly related to each other and to the Otis. Of the 2 screen tests, the Kent test (Scale D) seemed less

Charles N. Cofer; Mark M. Biegel

1948-01-01

412

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.)…

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

413

Variance between walking speed and neuropsychological test scores during three gait tasks across the irish longitudinal study on aging (TILDA) dataset.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and gait speed in three gait tasks using baseline cross-sectional data from 4694 healthy adults (54% women, age (mean±sd) 62.4±8.2) from The Irish Longitudinal study on Aging (TiLDA). Global cognition, short term memory, speed of processing, executive function and sustained attention were measured by a detailed battery of neuropsychological tests. Gait speed was recorded from a GaitRite™ pressure sensing mat during a single walk and two dual walking tasks; dual cognitive walk (alternate letters) and dual motor walk (carrying a glass of water). Correlations between neuropsychological test scores and the three gait speed outcomes were investigated using univariate and multiple linear regressions models; firstly adjusting for age, gender, height, education and depression only and then including all neuropsychological test scores in the same regression model and adjusting as previously. It was found that short term memory, speed of processing and attention were significantly correlated with gait speed in all three gait conditions, with global cognition and executive function also significantly correlated with gait speed in the dual cognitive walk. The nature and complexity of the task performed affected gait speed with the addition of the cognitive task while walking causing a larger reduction in gait speed than the addition of the motor task. This indicates that for this healthy nationally representative population sample there is a link between neural processes involved in movement and cognition and this association differs depending on the gait task performed. PMID:24111336

Killane, Isabelle; Donoghue, Orna A; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B

2013-07-01

414

Cystic Fibrosis and DNA Tests: Implications of Carrier Screening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gathers technical information on diagnosis (especially concerning one particular mutation associated with approximately 70% of all cystic fibrosis cases) and on treatment; examines prospects for DNA tests to detect additional cystic fibrosis mu...

1992-01-01

415

Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

Knupp, Tawnya Lee

2009-01-01

416

Prion biology in transfusion medicine: implications for lab testing.  

PubMed

Although eerily silent for many years after the recognition of scrapie in 1759, TSEs remained present within the genome of some mammals. Not since the mid-1950s when Dr. Carleton Gadjusek visited the Fore Indians of New Guinea to study kuru, however, has there been a more frenetic interest by governmental investigators. Certainly, the U.K. experience has heralded a renewed interest in TSEs due to the notoriety associated with younger subjects succumbing to a variant CJD traced to the ingestion of beef. Human TSEs and the potential for their transmission among and across species of mammals has also captured the attention of many. Yet, to date, there is no reliable antemortem test available to screen for infected animals or humans. Antibody-based assays are difficult to develop because most of them do not have specificity for the pathogenic form of prion protein. Whether or not prion testing efforts will change dramatically depends upon the incidence of disease. Some speculate a reduction in testing, because BSE incidence is waning since the adoption of remedial steps in the U.K. in 1989. Others remind us, however, of the long latency of prion diseases and of the recent observations of two patients who succumbed to vCJD after having received blood products from donors who subsequently died of vCJD. The growing incidence of CWD, combined with the emerging observation that as many as 26% of Alzheimer's patients may have been misdiagnosed--having died instead of prion disease--maintains pressure for legislators to adhere to the precautionary principle and support blood-donor exclusionary criteria, antemortem-test development, and pathogen removal from donated blood. The laboratorian can expect to see new tests for prion disease work their way into clinical-testing practice in the near future. In addition, the adoption of newer filtration technologies holds the promise of improved protection from transfusion-transmitted prion disease. PMID:16265819

Ortolano, Girolamo A; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel O; Schaffer, Jeffrey; Cervia, Joseph S

2005-09-01

417

A Clinical Scoring System for Selection of Patients for PTEN Mutation Testing Is Proposed on the Basis of a Prospective Study of 3042 Probands  

PubMed Central

Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome are allelic, defined by germline PTEN mutations, and collectively referred to as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. To date, there are no existing criteria based on large prospective patient cohorts to select patients for PTEN mutation testing. To address these issues, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in which 3042 probands satisfying relaxed CS clinical criteria were accrued. PTEN mutation scanning, including promoter and large deletion analysis, was performed for all subjects. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 290 individuals (9.5%). To evaluate clinical phenotype and PTEN genotype against protein expression, we performed immunoblotting (PTEN, P-AKT1, P-MAPK1/2) for a patient subset (n = 423). In order to obtain an individualized estimation of pretest probability of germline PTEN mutation, we developed an optimized clinical practice model to identify adult and pediatric patients. For adults, a semiquantitative score—the Cleveland Clinic (CC) score—resulted in a well-calibrated estimation of pretest probability of PTEN status. Overall, decreased PTEN protein expression correlated with PTEN mutation status; decreasing PTEN protein expression correlated with increasing CC score (p < 0.001), but not with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria (p = 0.11). For pediatric patients, we identified highly sensitive criteria to guide PTEN mutation testing, with phenotypic features distinct from the adult setting. Our model improved sensitivity and positive predictive value for germline PTEN mutation relative to the NCCN 2010 criteria in both cohorts. We present the first evidence-based clinical practice model to select patients for genetics referral and PTEN mutation testing, further supported biologically by protein correlation.

Tan, Min-Han; Mester, Jessica; Peterson, Charissa; Yang, Yiran; Chen, Jin-Lian; Rybicki, Lisa A.; Milas, Kresimira; Pederson, Holly; Remzi, Berna; Orloff, Mohammed S.; Eng, Charis

2011-01-01

418

A clinical scoring system for selection of patients for PTEN mutation testing is proposed on the basis of a prospective study of 3042 probands.  

PubMed

Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome are allelic, defined by germline PTEN mutations, and collectively referred to as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. To date, there are no existing criteria based on large prospective patient cohorts to select patients for PTEN mutation testing. To address these issues, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in which 3042 probands satisfying relaxed CS clinical criteria were accrued. PTEN mutation scanning, including promoter and large deletion analysis, was performed for all subjects. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 290 individuals (9.5%). To evaluate clinical phenotype and PTEN genotype against protein expression, we performed immunoblotting (PTEN, P-AKT1, P-MAPK1/2) for a patient subset (n = 423). In order to obtain an individualized estimation of pretest probability of germline PTEN mutation, we developed an optimized clinical practice model to identify adult and pediatric patients. For adults, a semiquantitative score-the Cleveland Clinic (CC) score-resulted in a well-calibrated estimation of pretest probability of PTEN status. Overall, decreased PTEN protein expression correlated with PTEN mutation status; decreasing PTEN protein expression correlated with increasing CC score (p < 0.001), but not with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria (p = 0.11). For pediatric patients, we identified highly sensitive criteria to guide PTEN mutation testing, with phenotypic features distinct from the adult setting. Our model improved sensitivity and positive predictive value for germline PTEN mutation relative to the NCCN 2010 criteria in both cohorts. We present the first evidence-based clinical practice model to select patients for genetics referral and PTEN mutation testing, further supported biologically by protein correlation. PMID:21194675

Tan, Min-Han; Mester, Jessica; Peterson, Charissa; Yang, Yiran; Chen, Jin-Lian; Rybicki, Lisa A; Milas, Kresimira; Pederson, Holly; Remzi, Berna; Orloff, Mohammed S; Eng, Charis

2010-12-30

419

Implications of Atmospheric Test Fallout Data for Nuclear Winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric test fallout data have been used to determine admissable dust particle size distributions for nuclear winter studies. The research was originally motivated by extreme differences noted in the magnitude and longevity of dust effects predicted by particle size distributions routinely used in fallout predictions versus those used for nuclear winter studies. Three different sets of historical data have been

George Harold Baker III

1987-01-01

420

Legal and Ethical Implications of Opt?Out HIV Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that opt-out screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without written patient consent be part of routine clinical care and imply that state HIV-associated laws in conflict with this approach should be amended. However, HIV testing and treatment issues are governed by a range of federal and state laws, common

Catherine Hanssens

2007-01-01

421

Robert's Rules for Optimal Learning: Model Development, Field Testing, Implications!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of accelerated learning techniques developed by the national organization for Suggestive Accelerated Learning Techniques (SALT) was tested in a study using Administrative Policy students taking the capstone course in the Eastern Washington University School of Business. Educators have linked the brain and how it functions to various…

McGinty, Robert L.

422

The Implications of Accommodations in Testing Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the types of testing accommodations used for students with disabilities and presents arguments for and against their use. It begins by discussing student participation in educational assessments and federal requirements concerning the participation of students with disabilities. The types of accommodations are…

Hopper, Margaret F.

423

Effects of Video Game Experience on Computer-Based Air Traffic Controller Specialist, Air Traffic Scenario Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FAA is currently using the Air Traffic Scenario Test (ATST) as a major portion of its selection process. Because the ATST is a PC based application with a strong resemblance to a video game, concern has been raised that prior video game experience mig...

W. C. Young D. Broach W. L. Farmer

1997-01-01

424

Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

425

Normative data and psychometric properties for qualitative and quantitative scoring criteria of the Five-point Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Five-point Test (Regard, Strauss, & Knapp, 1982) was introduced for the measurement of figural fluency as part of the examination of executive functions. Until now, no differentiated norms exist. We present normative data for adults aged 18–80 (n = 280) for the number of unique designs (productivity), the percent of perseverations (flexibility), the percent of rotated (strategic) designs, and

Simone Goebel; Regina Fischer; Roman Ferstl; Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn

2009-01-01

426

Mediators of Gender Differences in Mathematics College Entrance Test Scores: A Comparison of Spatial Skills with Internalized Beliefs and Anxieties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Used path analysis to examine effects of spatial skill, math anxiety, and math self-confidence as mediators of gender differences in Mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-M) in upper third of college-bound adolescents. Found that mental rotation and math self-confidence indirectly mediated the gender-SAT-M relationship. Most of the…

And Others; Casey, M. Beth

1997-01-01

427

Who's Keeping Score? A User's Guide to Video Cassettes & Transcript [of the Minimal Competency Testing Clarification Hearings].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Institute of Education (NIE) sponsored a "Clarification Hearing" to examine the pros and cons of minimum competency testing (MCT). The purpose was to provide information that will assist educational decision makers and others as they address some of the more critical issues concerning MCT policy and programs. As a result, NIE…

Herndon, Enid; And Others

428

Psychological systems questionnaire: An objective personality test designed for on-line computer presentation, scoring, and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research efforts to use on-line computer systems for personality assessment are briefly reviewed. Shortcomings in\\u000a the conversion of paper-and-pencil testing forms to computer media are noted. Construction of a new instrument, specifically\\u000a designed for use with an on-line computer system, is described. Advantages of this approach are noted.

James H. Johnson; Ronald A. Giannetti; Thomas A. Williams

1979-01-01

429

Examining the Relationship between Home and School Computer Use and Students' English/Language Arts Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increased emphasis on test-based accountability measures has come increased interest in examining the impact of technology use on students' academic performance. However, few empirical investigations exist that address this issue. This paper (1) examines previous research on the relationship between student achievement and technology use, (2)…

O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; Tucker-Seeley, Kevon R.

2005-01-01

430

The application of a psychometric scoring procedure to a group modification of the Thematic Apperception Test (N-TAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychometric method of analysis of TAT stories derived from protocols obtained in the standard manner was extended to a group adaptation of the TAT which is used by the U. S. Navy. The test records of 100 systematically selected submariners were analyzed for emotional tone, outcome, themes, level of interpretation, and perceptual distortions. The reliability of the scales and

Leonard D. Eron; Florence Sultan

1955-01-01

431

The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

Francis, Charles E.

432

Data Mining Identifies Digit Symbol Substitution Test Score and Serum Cystatin C as Dominant Predictors of Mortality in Older Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Characterization of long-term health trajectory in older individuals is important for proactive health management. However, the relative prognostic value of information contained in clinical profiles of nonfrail older adults is often unclear. Methods We screened 825 phenotypic and genetic measures evaluated during the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) baseline visit (3,067 men and women aged 70–79). Variables that best predicted mortality over 13 years of follow-up were identified using 10-fold cross-validation. Results Mortality was most strongly associated with low Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (DSST<25; 21.9% of cohort; hazard ratio [HR]=1.87±0.06) and elevated serum cystatin C (?1.30?mg/mL; 12.1% of cohort; HR=2.25±0.07). These variables predicted mortality better than 823 other measures, including baseline age and a 45-variable health deficit index. Given elevated cystatin C (?1.30?mg/mL), mortality risk was further increased by high serum creatinine, high abdominal visceral fat density, and smoking history (2.52?HR ?3.73). Given a low DSST score (<25) combined with low-to-moderate cystatin C (<1.30?mg/mL), mortality risk was highest among those with elevated plasma resistin and smoking history (1.90?HR?2.02). Conclusions DSST score and serum cystatin C warrant priority consideration for the evaluation of mortality risk in older individuals. Both variables, taken individually, predict mortality better than chronological age or a health deficit index in well-functioning older adults (ages 70–79). DSST score and serum cystatin C can thus provide evidence-based tools for geriatric assessment.

Cummings, Steven R.; Sanders, Jason L.; Caserotti, Paolo; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.

2012-01-01

433

Postpartum Body Condition Score and Results from the First Test Day Milk as Predictors of Disease, Fertility, Yield, and Culling in Commercial Dairy Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The study,used,field data,from,a regular,herd health,service,to investigate,the,relationships,be- tween,body,condition,scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and cull- ing. Path model,analysis,with adjustment,for time at risk was,applied,to delineate,the,time,sequence,of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and,endometritis,occurred,between,calving,and,20 d of lactation,more,often in thin cows. Fat cows,were less likely to conceive,at first service than,were,cows in normal condition. Fat

C. Heuer; Y. H. Schukken; P. Dobbelaar

1999-01-01

434

Relationships between Speech Intelligibility and Word Articulation Scores in Children with Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Purpose This investigation sought to determine whether scores from a commonly used word-based articulation test are closely associated with speech intelligibility in children with hearing loss. If the scores are closely related, articulation testing results might be used to estimate intelligibility. If not, the importance of direct assessment of intelligibility would be reinforced. Methods Forty-four children with hearing losses produced words from the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 and sets of 10 short sentences. Correlation analyses were conducted between scores for seven word-based predictor variables and percent-intelligible scores derived from listener judgments of stimulus sentences. Results Six of seven predictor variables were significantly correlated with percent-intelligible scores. However, regression analysis revealed that no single predictor variable or multi- variable model accounted for more than 25% of the variability in intelligibility scores. Implications The findings confirm the importance of assessing connected speech intelligibility directly.

Ertmer, David J.

2012-01-01

435

High scores but low skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones

Liqun Liu; William S. Neilson

2011-01-01

436

Testing for human papillomavirus: basic pathobiology of infection, methodologies, and implications for clinical use.  

PubMed Central

New molecular biological evidence has recently emerged, strongly implicating the human papillomavirus (HPV) as playing an etiologic role in the development of neoplasias of the genital tract. As technologies advance, the ability to test for the presence of HPV has become simpler, more reliable, and less expensive. A great deal of controversy has arisen regarding the effective and proper utilization of these new tests in the management of HPV infections. This review will detail the new evidence implicating the putative role of HPV in neoplasia and the current methodologies available for assessing the presence of HPV in clinical samples and will describe the current controversy surrounding their utilization.

Wilbur, D. C.; Stoler, M. H.

1991-01-01

437

The evolution of autism research: A study assessing the use of calibrated severity scores and the social responsiveness scale with implications for future data collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze two instruments used in a large scale Autism genetics consortium. One instrument yields a Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) and involves a structured assessment that must be completed by a highly skilled and trained professional. The next instrument, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), is a questionnaire that can be filled out by a parent

Alison C Vehorn

2012-01-01

438

Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

2012-01-01

439

Contact allergy to nickel: patch test score correlates with IL-5, but not with IFN-gamma nickel-specific secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Traditionally, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been associated with the activity of Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma. Recent evidence indicates that other cells, e.g. interleukin 5 (IL-5)-secreting Th2 or Tc2 cells may be among the key effectors of ACD. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of nickel-specific IFN-gamma secretion (marker of Th1 and Tc1 activity) and IL-5 secretion (Th2 and Tc2) on the clinical outcome (patch test score) in nickel-allergic patients. 40 women with suspicion of ACD were involved, aged from 14-54 (median 31.5) years. They were patch tested with NiSO(4). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the patients were cultured and analysed for IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion in response to NiSO(4). A series of statistical models (classical logit or cloglog link function) were used. We demonstrate that nickel-specific IL-5 secretion by PBMC is correlated with the intensity of patch test reaction (p=0.05), with no significant effect of IFN-gamma. An increase in the nickel-specific IL-5 secretion from PBMC by 10 pg/ml is associated with a 10-20% increase (depending on statistical model) in the odds ratio of the patient to have a higher patch test score. These findings support the assumption that cells secreting IL-5 (e.g. Th2, Tc2) play a more important role in the pathogenesis of ACD than previously thought. PMID:19572476

Czarnobilska, Ewa; Jenner, Bartosz; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, Jolanta; Kapusta, Maria; Obtu?owicz, Krystyna; Thor, Piotr; Spiewak, Rados?aw

2009-06-01

440

Introducing National Tests in Swedish Primary Education: Implications for Test Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on…

Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

2011-01-01

441

Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

2010-01-01

442

Technological insights: Combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing-current results and further implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on current aspects of the novel technology of combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing. It presents methodological features, summarizes current results and discusses implications for further research. The combined technique assesses simultaneously bolus transport and associated peristalsis, thus allowing detailed analysis of the relationships between bolus transit and esophageal motility. Recent studies demonstrate that combined impedance

Huan Nam Nguyen; Gerson Ricardo; Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert; Medizinische Klinik; Elisabeth-Krankenhaus Rheydt

2006-01-01

443

Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: Implications of genetic\\/biological attributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to investigate genetic\\/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry,

Anja Hilbert; Jan-Michael Dierk; Matthias Conradt; Pia Schlumberger; Anke Hinney; Johannes Hebebrand; Winfried Rief

2009-01-01

444

Anti-ischemic therapy and stress testing: pathophysiologic, diagnostic and prognostic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-ischemic therapy, in particular beta-blockers, is the most commonly employed drug for the control of myocardial ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Its widespread use also in patients with suspected coronary artery disease has important practical, clinical diagnostic and prognostic implications because diagnostic tests are heavily influenced by its effects. In the present review, the pathophysiological mechanisms of

Rosa Sicari

2004-01-01

445

Reading too much between the lines: illusory correlation and the word association implications test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the illusory correlation phenomenon with the Word Association Implications Test (WAIT), a task where diagnoses and signs are causally connected due to priming effects. The WAIT is an analogue to clinical assessments in which subjects “read between the lines” of target persons’ word associations which have been primed by fantasized scripts. 164 undergraduates were randomly assigned to study

Stephen J. Dollinger; Leilani Greening; Robert C. Radtke

2001-01-01

446

Predictors of home radon testing and implications for testing promotion programs.  

PubMed

Four data sets (total N = 3,329) are examined to identify the predictors of home radon testing. The data, interpreted in terms of a stage model of radon testing behavior, reveal that the variables predicting transitions between stages change as people move from one stage to the next. Thinking about radon testing (vs. never having even considered testing) is best predicted by general radon knowledge and by knowing other people who are concerned or have tested. Once contemplating testing, the decision to test is most closely related to the perceived likelihood of a home radon problem. Finally, there are few differences between people who say they have decided to test and those who have already tested. Instead situational factors--including difficulties in locating and choosing among test kits--appear to constitute the final barrier to testing. The ways in which these findings might assist the design of radon outreach programs are discussed, and specific outreach recommendations are advanced. PMID:8307767

Sandman, P M; Weinstein, N D

1993-01-01

447

Developing toxicity scores for embryotoxicity tests on elutriates with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.  

PubMed

Bioassays are routinely employed for sediment quality assessment. In order to be able to effectively use Bioassays responses in regulatory and management frameworks, toxicity scores, which rank toxicity data in defined classes that are continuous and difficult to interpret, should be reliable and suitable tools to support decisions about the presence or absence of toxicity in tested samples and on how toxic a sample is. A statistical approach is needed to define thresholds for toxicity scores. The Minimum Significance Difference (MSD) criterion allowed the evaluation of toxicity thresholds for each test-matrix and organism pair, based on large sets of experimental data. The MSD values were normalized with respect to the control, ranked in ascending order, and the 90th percentile was identified; the Toxicity Threshold (TT) was calculated by subtracting the 90th percentile from 100 and the Toxicity Limit (TL) was estimated as the percentage of control response multiplied by TT. Taking into account sample responses normalized with respect to control (S), when S > TL, the sample is considered nontoxic; when S tests with the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, on elutriates from sediments of the Venice Lagoon. Once the threshold defining presence or absence of toxicity had been calculated, four other toxicity classes were developed: low (for toxicity data expressed as percentage of effect), medium, high, and very high toxicity (for toxicity data expressed as TU50). PMID:17549548

Losso, Chiara; Picone, Marco; Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

2007-06-01

448

Can normal-score data transformations improve the Ensemble Kalman Filter? Application and test on a hydraulic tomography example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of hydrogeological parameters introduces uncertainty into predictions of groundwater flow and contaminant transport processes. Prediction uncertainty can be reduced by conditioning spatially distributed parameter fields to field measurements. In this work, we use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to condition random log-conductivity fields on available measurement data and quantify the remaining uncertainty of model predictions. The main drawback of EnKFs is their optimality in the sense of Bayesian updating only if all involved variables (parameters and data) are multivariate Gaussian. This is a major limitation when applying EnKFs to subsurface parameter estimation, since flow and transport variables generally do not show multivariate Gaussian dependence on the parameter log-conductivity and among each other, even if log-conductivity is assumed to be multi-Gaussian. To mitigate the effects of non-Gaussianity on the performance of the EnKF, we propose non-linear, monotonous transformations that render arbitrary marginal distributions of state variables univariate Gaussian. We show that this transformation (Gaussian anamorphosis, GA) leads to an implicit pseudo-linearization of the dependence of the state variable on the parameter field, which can be exploited more efficiently by the filter. The expected usefulness of GA can be evaluated beforehand by applying copula-based multivariate analysis tools. The transformation is followed by the classical updating scheme of the EnKF, thus we denote this procedure as tEnKF. The performance of the tEnKF is illustrated by an application to parameter estimation from synthetic 3-D and 2-D hydraulic tomography data in multi-Gaussian log-conductivity fields. Additionally, we compare the performance of the tEnKF with a reference solution obtained with a brute-force statistical filter for Bayesian updating. Comparing to the reference solution, we can assess the accuracy of both prediction quality and estimated prediction uncertainty. We prove the statistical significance of our results by analyzing 200 randomized 2-D test cases. Our results show that the linearized dependence of the transformed drawdown data on log-conductivity enhances the processing quality of the available information and this increases the accuracy of parameter identification and flow and transport prognosis. The tEnKF outperforms the traditional EnKF with regard to prediction quality; also the deviation from the prediction variance of the bootstrap filter is significantly reduced. Combining EnKFs with GA is found to be a computationally efficient tool for nonlinear inversion of measurement data with improved accuracy. The tEnKF is an attractive alternative to existing linearization-free methods such as particle filters that are computationally extremely demanding and therefore limited in their applicability to high-dimensional problems in subsurface hydrology.

Nowak, Wolfgang; Schöniger, Anneli; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie Jan

2013-04-01

449

A study of test speededness as a potential source of bias in the quantitative score of the Admission Test for Graduate Study in Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minority and majority groups were administered a special quantitative section of the Admission Test for Graduate Study in Business (ATGSB) under varying time conditions to determine if increasing the time allotted for the test would eliminate any bias that may exist due to an irrelevant speed factor. By a commonly employed definition, the special section was found to be moderately

Franklin R. Evans; Richard R. Reilly

1973-01-01

450

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four data sets (total N = 3,329) are examined to identify the predictors of home radon testing. The data, interpreted in terms of a stage model of radon testing behavior, reveal that the variables predicting transitions between stages change as people move from one stage to the next. Thinking about radon testing (vs. never having even considered testing) is best

Peter M. Sandman; Neil D. Weinstein

1993-01-01

451

Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

2013-01-01

452

The Machine Scoring of Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

453

Racial and ethnic bias in psychological tests: Divergent implications of two definitions of test bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the 2 most widely accepted definitions of unfair test bias. A. Cleary in 1968 defined unfair test bias in terms of consistent under- or overprediction of actual performance levels of minority or majority groups. R. L. Thorndike's 1971 definition holds that a test is unfairly biased whenever the difference between the minority and majority groups is greater on the

Frank L. Schmidt; John E. Hunter

1974-01-01

454

The relationship between Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Timed Up and Go test in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Both self-reported and physical performance tests are used as outcome measures in knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in the patients with symptomatic knee OA. Eighty-nine patients with symptomatic knee OA who admitted to the outpatient clinic of the hospital were included in the study. All patients had bilateral medial tibiofemoral knee OA. After physical examination, radiological severity of the disease was evaluated with Kellgren-Lawrence scale. All patients completed KOOS that is a knee-related disorder-specific questionnaire. TUG test was used for the evaluation of performance-based functional status. Seventy-seven patients (84.5 %) were female. Mean age was 62.9 ± 9.5 (50-85) years, and body mass index was 32.10 ± 4.39 kg/m(2). Mean symptom duration was 7.08 ± 6.52 years. Mean radiological stage was 3.22 ± 0.69. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between all of the KOOS domains and TUG (p < 0.01). As a result of this study, a moderate relationship was found between the all KOOS dimensions and TUG in knee OA. PMID:22955800

Sabirli, Feride; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya

2012-09-06

455

Selecting participants when testing new drugs: the implications of age and gender discrimination.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical products are rigorously tested for safety and efficacy prior to being licensed for use. During this testing process the archetypal research subject is a young male; women and older people are less frequently invited to participate. This is especially true at the early stages, but can also occur in the later phases of drug testing. This paper considers the reasons for the relative under-representation of these groups, and the legal implications of failing to include as research subjects the very types of people who will ultimately consume these drugs. PMID:12400240

Ferguson, Pamela R

2002-01-01

456

Relationships of cognitive components of test anxiety to test performance: Implications for assessment and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the degree to which components of test-taking strategies, covert self-statements, and subjective anxiety during an exam provide increments in prediction of test performance over characteristics of ability and gender. Compared to previous research, the study assessed the effectiveness of any test-taking strategies employed on specific questions during an exam in order to directly evaluate the relationship of this problem-solving

Monroe A. Bruch; Harlan R. Juster; Nadine G. Kaflowitz

1983-01-01

457

The Fit for Delivery study: rationale for the recommendations and test-retest reliability of a dietary score measuring adherence to 10 specific recommendations for prevention of excessive weight gain during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aiming at preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy, 10 specific dietary recommendations are given to pregnant women in the intervention arm of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (FFD) study. This paper presents the rationale and test-retest reliability of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a dietary score measuring adherence to the recommendations. The study is part of the ongoing FFD study, a randomised, controlled, intervention study in nulliparous pregnant women. A 43-item FFQ was developed for the FFD study. A dietary score was constructed from 10 subscales corresponding to the 10 dietary recommendations. Adding the subscales yielded a score from 0 to 10 with increasing score indicating healthier dietary behaviour. The score was divided into tertiles, grouping participants into low, medium and high adherence to the dietary recommendations. Pregnant women attending ultrasound screening at about week 19 of pregnancy were asked to complete the FFQ twice, 2 weeks apart. Of 154 pregnant women completing the first questionnaire, 106 (69%) completed the form on both occasions and was included in the study. The test-retest correlations of the score and subscales were r?=?0.68 and r?=?0.56-0.84, respectively (both P???0.001). There was 68% test-retest correct classification of the score and 70-87% of the subscales. In conclusion, acceptable test-retest reliability of the FFQ and the dietary score was found. The score will be used in the FFD study to measure adherence to the dietary recommendations throughout pregnancy and in the following year post-partum. PMID:23241065

Overby, Nina C; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Bere, Elling

2012-12-13

458

Research into Sexism in Language Testing & Its Implications to Language Testing in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews foreign and domestic sexism research and practice in language testing and reveals that China lags behind in this sociolinguistics perspective in both theoretical study and practice. The paper indicates that sexism is represented in the listening comprehension section in National Matriculation English Test (NMET) after a case…

Tao, Baiqiang

2007-01-01

459

Cognitive Consistency in Cognitive Preference Tests and Its Implication for Test-Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the individual consistency of eleventh grade respondents in normal test-retest situations as well as situations involving changed response methods. It postulates the personality-trait "discriminator" (high vs low) and confirms the trait's influence on individual consistency within and across Biology Cognitive Preference Test

Jungwirth, E.

1978-01-01

460

Interest in Genetic Testing for Modest Changes in Breast Cancer Risk: Implications for SNP Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Advances in genomics may eventually lead to ‘personalized genetic medicine,’ yet the clinical utility of predictive testing for modest changes in risk is unclear. We explored interest in genetic testing for genes related to modest changes in breast cancer risk in women at moderate to high risk for breast cancer. Methods: Women (n = 105) with a negative breast

K. D. Graves; B. N. Peshkin; G. Luta; W. Tuong; M. D. Schwartz

2011-01-01

461

Cognitive Consistency in Cognitive Preference Tests and Its Implication for Test-Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the individual consistency of eleventh grade respondents in normal test-retest situations as well as situations involving changed response methods. It postulates the personality-trait "discriminator" (high vs low) and confirms the trait's influence on individual consistency within and across Biology Cognitive Preference Test

Jungwirth, E.

1978-01-01

462

Implications of the people = male theory for the interpretation of the Draw-A-Person Test.  

PubMed

Researchers in the language and social-cognitive fields have suggested that social mores and the use of masculine generic grammatical terms such as he and man have resulted in a people = male bias. This information processing bias causes most people to attribute male gender to a gender-unspecified person. Male gender appears to be prototypic of the person construct or category. These research findings have implications for the interpretation of the Draw-A-Person Test (Machover, 1949). PMID:9018852

Merritt, R D; Kok, C J

1997-02-01

463

Proton-induced transients in optocouplers: in-flight anomalies, ground irradiation test, mitigation and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data on recent optocoupler in-flight anomalies and the subsequent ground test irradiation performed. Discussions of the single event mechanisms involved, transient filtering analysis, and design implications are included. Proton-induced transients were observed on higher speed optocouplers with a unique dependence on the incidence particle angle. The results indicate that both direct ionization and nuclear reaction-related mechanisms are responsible

Kenneth A. LaBel; Paul W. Marshall; Cheryl J. Marshall; Mary D'Ordine; Martin Carts; Gary Lum; Hak S. Kim; Christina M. Seidleck; Timothy Powell; Randy Abbott; Janet Barth; E. G. Stassinopoulos

1997-01-01

464

Proton-Induced Transients in Optocouplers: In-Flight Anomalies, Ground Irradiation Test, Mitigation and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data on recent optocoupler in-flight anomalies and the subsequent ground test irradiation performed. Discussions of the single event mechanisms involved, transient filtering analysis, and design implications are included. Proton-induced transients were observed on higher speed optocouplers with a unique dependence on the incidence particle angle. The results indicate that both direct ionization and nuclear reaction-related mechanisms are responsible

Kenneth A. LaBel; Paul W. Marshall; Cheryl J. Marshall; Mary D'Ordine; Martin Carts; Gary Lum; Hak S. Kim; Christina M. Seidleck; Timothy Powell; Randy Abbott; Janet Barth; E. G. Stassinopoulos

465

Intra- and intertreatment variability in reference toxicant tests: Implications for whole effluent toxicity testing programs  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity tests are used in permitting programs across the US to determine whether effluents are potentially toxic to aquatic biota in receiving environments. In cases where whole effluent toxicity tests indicate unacceptable toxicity, corrective measures or further testing may be required. To be consistent and fair to permit holders, whole effluent toxicity test outcomes should not be strongly influenced by intra- and interlaboratory variability. In this study, the authors quantified intra- and interlaboratory variability for four species-data type combinations using the results of reference toxicant tests compiled from many laboratories in recent years. For each set of test results, they conducted a regression analysis using the generalized linear models framework. The results indicated that the coefficient of variation for intralaboratory 25% effective concentration values varied from 15.7% for number of young of Ceriodaphnia dubia in laboratory CD4 to 122% for mortality of Menidia beryllina in laboratory MB3. Interlaboratory variability was small for both mortality and number of young of C. dubia. Interlaboratory variability for mortality and biomass of M. beryllina, however, was very high. Their study shows that permit toxicity limits can be exceeded because of factors other than effluent toxicity, particularly when the limits are based on testing of M. beryllina.

Moore, D.R.J.; Warren-Hicks, W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.; Baird, R.B.; Berger, R.; Denton, D.L.; Pletl, J.J.

2000-01-01

466

CAN WE COMPETE?--The Implications of the Proposed Revised New Jersey Statewide Testing Program for Vocational Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The State of New Jersey has proposed moving its competency test of basic skills from the 9th to the 11th grade, in order to allow for more content learning, more maturity, and more test-taking skills on the part of students. Since vocational students are more likely than other students to score low on the basic skills competency test, having the…

Merkel-Keller, Claudia

467

The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study  

PubMed Central

Background Outcome measures are important when evaluating treatments and physiological progress in paediatric populations. Reliable, relevant measures of foot posture are important for such assessments to be accurate over time. The aim of the study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of common outcome measures for paediatric foot conditions. Methods A repeated measures, same-subject design assessed the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measures of foot posture, joint hypermobility and ankle range: the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), the ankle lunge test, the Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment scale (LLAS), used by two examiners in 30 healthy children (aged 7 to 15 years). The Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OxAFQ-C) was completed by participants and a parent, to assess the extent of foot and ankle problems. Results The OxAFQ-C demonstrated a mean (SD) score of 6 (6) in adults and 7(5) for children, showing good agreement between parents and children, and which indicates mid-range (transient) disability. Intra-rater reliability was good for the FPI-6 (ICC = 0.93 - 0.94), ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.85-0.95), Beighton scale (ICC = 0.96-0.98) and LLAS (ICC = 0.90-0.98). Inter-rater reliability was largely good for each of the: FPI-6 (ICC = 0.79), ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.83), Beighton scale (ICC = 0.73) and LLAS (ICC = 0.78). Conclusion The four measures investigated demonstrated adequate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in this paediatric sample, which further justifies their use in clinical practice.

2012-01-01

468

Evaluating Cut-Scores on Two Certification Tests: How Well Do Decisions Based on Cut-Scores Match Teacher- and Principal-Reported Ratings of Competence in the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was three-fold. The first purpose was the investigation of the criterion-related validity of the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) and the Praxis II tests that are used in the teacher certification process in Georgia. The second purpose was to compare decisions based on the two tests. Finally, the effects of using…

Nweke, Winifred C.; Hall, Thomas R.

469

The Early Detection of Alcohol Consumption (EDAC) Score in the Identification of Heavy and At-Risk Drinkers from Routine Blood Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use the EDAC score to detect heavy and at-risk drinking in young adults (mean age = 25 years) and compare the results to self-reports. The EDAC score is a linear discriminant function (LDF) derived from the analysis of a combination of up to 35 blood chemistry and hematology analytes ordered routinely in clinical

James W. Harasymiw; Daniel C. Vinson; Pamela Bean

2000-01-01

470

Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

2012-01-01

471

Test Anxiety and High-Stakes Test Performance between School Settings: Implications for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the enactment of standards-based accountability in education, high-stakes tests have become the dominant method for measuring school effectiveness and student achievement. Schools and educators are under increasing pressure to meet achievement standards. However, there are variables which may interfere with the authentic measurement of…

von der Embse, Nathaniel; Hasson, Ramzi

2012-01-01

472

Resource allocation to testes in walnut flies and implications for reproductive strategy.  

PubMed

Testes size often predicts the winner during episodes of sperm competition. However, little is known about the source of nutrients allocated to testes development, or testes plasticity under varying nutrient availability. Among many holometabolous insects, metabolic resources can derive from the larval or adult diet. Distinguishing the source of nutrients allocated to testes can shed light on life history factors (such as maternal influences) that shape the evolution of male reproductive strategies. Here we used an experimental approach to assess resource allocation to testes development in walnut flies (Rhagoletis juglandis) from differing nutritional backgrounds. We fed adult male walnut flies on sugar and yeast diets that contrasted with the larval diet in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. This design allowed us to assess the dietary source of testes carbon and nitrogen and its change over time. We found significant incorporation of adult dietary carbon into testes, implying that walnut flies are income breeders for carbon (relying more on adult resources). In contrast, we found little evidence that walnut flies incorporate adult dietary nitrogen into testes development. We discuss the implications of these allocation decisions for life history evolution in this species. PMID:20451528

Carsten-Conner, Laura D; Papaj, Daniel R; O'Brien, Diane M

2010-05-14

473

Knowing the Score  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Before rehearsals begin, conductors need to thoroughly study the score. What elements go into a comprehensive score preparation? To learn music scores efficiently, having a detailed and systematic study method helps. The author has developed a score preparation guide that works for directors of bands, choruses, and orchestras, even when there's…

Strouse, Lewis H.

2009-01-01

474

Relationship between Praxis 1 Scores and SAT/ACT Scores: A Correlational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to test the premise that there is a significant correlation between Praxis1 scores and SAT scores among African American students who are applying for admission into the teacher education program. Data for the study included the Praxis 1 (reading, writing and math) scores and SAT (reading, writing and math) scores of…

Saravanabhavan, Sheila; Jones, Enid B.; Wilson, Carolyn H.

2005-01-01

475

Equivalence of concentration-response relationships in aquatic toxicology studies: Testing and implications for potency estimation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to describe statistical procedures to test the equivalence of concentration-response relationships in acute toxicology studies and to illustrate the implications of nonequivalence on potency endpoints such as LC10, LC50, or LC90. A logistic regression model for binary response endpoints such as mortality that allowed for the examination of equivalence of slopes and intercepts of the responses between populations is described. Test statistics were derived from comparing nested regression models. This procedure was used to test the equivalence of concentration versus acute mortality response relationships between two nonpolar, narcotic chemicals in a single population of fish and between two populations of fish with different exposure histories to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. These case studies illustrate different outcomes in the comparison of concentration-response relationships and demonstrate the need to consider more than a single endpoint (e.g., LC50) in a risk assessment context when nonparallel concentration-responses are observed.

Oris, J.T. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Center for Environmental Toxicology and Statistics

1997-10-01

476

Genetic testing and its implications: human genetics researchers grapple with ethical issues.  

PubMed

To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy. PMID:16208885

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

477

Implications of NiMH Hysteresis on HEV Battery Testing and Performance  

SciTech Connect

Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) is an advanced high-power battery technology that is presently employed in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and is one of several technologies undergoing continuing research and development by FreedomCAR. Unlike some other HEV battery technologies, NiMH exhibits a strong hysteresis effect upon charge and discharge. This hysteresis has a profound impact on the ability to monitor state-of-charge and battery performance. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have been investigating the implications of NiMH hysteresis on HEV battery testing and performance. Experimental results, insights, and recommendations are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Ashton, Clair Kirkendall; Murphy, Timothy Collins; Miller, Ted J.; Coates, Calvin; Tataria, H. S.; Lucas, Glenn E.; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Sutula, Raymond

2002-08-01

478

Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.  

PubMed

Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

2010-09-01

479

Local Linear Observed-Score Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two methods of local linear observed-score equating for use with anchor-test and single-group designs are introduced. In an empirical study, the two methods were compared with the current traditional linear methods for observed-score equating. As a criterion, the bias in the equated scores relative to true equating based on Lord's (1980)…

Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.

2011-01-01

480

The relationship between second-year medical students' OSCE scores and USMLE Step 1 scores.  

PubMed

The relationship between objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and standardized tests is not well known. We linked second-year medical students' physical diagnosis OSCE scores from 1998, 1999 and 2000 (n = 355) with demographic information, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores. The correlation coefficient for the total OSCE score with USMLE Step 1 score was 0.41 (p < 0.001). Two of 7 skills areas-diagnosis and identification of abnormality-were significant multivariate correlates of USMLE Step 1 score. OSCE station scores accounted for approximately 22% of the variability in USMLE Step 1 scores. A second-year OSCE in physical diagnosis is correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1 exam, with skills that foreshadow the clinical clerkships most predictive of USMLE scores. This correlation suggests predictive validity of this OSCE and supports the use of OSCEs early in medical school. PMID:12450476

Simon, Steven R; Volkan, Kevin; Hamann, Claus; Duffey, Carol; Fletcher, Suzanne W

2002-09-01

481

Estimating the full scale score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale from scores on four subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abbreviated form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was determined by selecting the two best predictors of the total Verbal Score and the two best predictors of the total Performance Score. The four tests were Arithmetic, Vocabulary, Block Design, and Picture Arrangement  The correlation coefficients between the sum of scaled scores on the four tests and the Full Scale

Jerome E. Doppelt

1956-01-01

482

A Comparison between Three Groups of Hutchinson Community Junior College Students on the American College Testing Program's Composite Score and on the Reasons and Factors Affecting the Student's College Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A random sample of 250 Hutchinson Community Junior College (Kansas) students was chosen by using the pseudorandom number generator supplied by an IBM program. Composite American College Testing Program (ACT) scores were determined for these students, and a questionnaire was administered to determine the factors affecting the students' college…

Bowles, Bob J.

483

Frequency of Laboratory Test Utilization in the Intensive Care Unit and Its Implications for Large-Scale Data Collection Efforts  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mapping local use names to standardized nomenclatures such as LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) is a time-consuming task when done retrospectively or during the configuration of new information systems. The author sought to identify a subset of intensive care unit (ICU) laboratory tests, which, because of their frequency of use, should be the focus of efforts to standardize test names in ICU information systems. Design: The author reviewed the ordering practices in medical, surgical, and pediatric ICUs within a large university teaching hospital to identify the subset of laboratory tests that represented the majority of tests performed in these settings. The author compared the results of his findings with the laboratory tests required to complete several of the most frequently used ICU acuity scoring systems. Results: It was found that between 104 and 202 tests and profiles represented 99% of all testing in the three ICUs. All the laboratory studies needed for six commonly used ICU scoring systems fell into the top 21 laboratory studies and profiles performed in each ICU. Conclusion: The author identified a small subset of the LOINC database that should be the focus of efforts to standardize test names in ICU information systems. Mapping this subset of laboratory tests and profiles to LOINC vocabulary will simplify the process of collecting data for large-scale databases such as ICU scoring systems and the configuration of new ICU information systems.

Frassica, Joseph J.

2005-01-01

484

East Feliciana Parish Schools Embrace Place-Based Education as a Way To Lift Scores on Louisiana's High-Stakes Tests. Rural Trust Featured Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|East Feliciana Parish (Louisiana) has raised achievement scores by involving students in hands-on projects related to community needs and resources. Project Connect, a hands-on science and math program begun by the Delta Rural Systemic Initiative, has expanded into a comprehensive place-based program. In response to new state standards, teams of…

Null, Elizabeth Higgins

485

The relationship between selected Tennessee elementary and middle school library media centers and Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Composite Reading Test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between elementary and middle school library programs and student Reading achievement scores on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program in grades 3 through 8. Predictor variables included (a) library collection size, (b) library visits and book checkouts, and (c) the services delivered by librarians in 189 schools in Tennessee. The criterion variable in the study was

Judy Bivens

2008-01-01

486

Gender Differences in Prediction of Graduate Course Performance from Admissions Test Scores: An Empirical Example of Statistical Methods for Investigating Prediction Bias. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on gender differences in examining the extent to which Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores predicted subsequent achievement. Data on 275 graduate students in professional psychology programs at a large midwestern university were collected and analyzed. Two methods for the identification of prediction bias were used and…

House, J. Daniel

487

Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

2013-01-01

488

Extension of the lod score: the mod score.  

PubMed

In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it ignores the information provided both by disease segregation and by linkage disequilibrium between the marker alleles and the functional disease alleles, its power of discrimination between genetic models is weak. The MASC method (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1988) has been designed to address more efficiently the objectives of a candidate gene approach. PMID:11037317

Clerget-Darpoux, F

2001-01-01

489

A generalizability analysis of score consistency for the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding.  

PubMed

Our goal in this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of scores from the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) more comprehensively than in prior research using a generalizability-theory framework based on both dichotomous and polytomous scoring of items. Generalizability coefficients accounting for specific-factor, transient, and random-response error ranged from .64 to .75 for the BIDR's Self-Deception Enhancement (SDE) and Impression Management (IM) subscale scores, and these values were systematically lower than corresponding alpha (.66 to .83) and 1-week test-retest (.78 to .86) coefficients. Polytomous scoring provided higher reliability than dichotomous scoring on nearly all indexes reported. Random-response (8%-17%) and specific factor error (11%-17%) exceeded transient error (3%-6%) for both subscales and scoring methods. Doubling the number of items on a single occasion provided greater improvements in generalizability (.76-.83) than aggregating scores across 2 administrations (.72-.81). Both scoring methods provided reasonably high indexes of consistency (? coefficients?.91) at cut scores on the IM scale for detecting faked responses when all sources of error were taken into account. Implications of these results for common uses of the BIDR are discussed. PMID:22867009

Vispoel, Walter P; Tao, Shuqin

2012-08-06

490

Pregnancy, drug testing, and the fourth amendment: legal and behavioral implications.  

PubMed

In its efforts to protect the health of unborn children, the government is increasingly attempting to regulate pregnant women's conduct. As with other policies affecting pregnant women's autonomy, these policies have constitutional overtones. In Ferguson v. City of Charleston (2001), the Supreme Court struck down a South Carolina hospital's policy of testing pregnant women for cocaine and turning positive results over to law enforcement for prosecution. This article discusses the basis of the decision and its legal and behavioral implications. Although the decision came down on the side of pregnant women's rights, it left unresolved the issue of whether a similar policy could be constructed that would pass constitutional muster. The article concludes with a consideration of the likely effects of, and alternatives to, such a policy. PMID:12828018

Bornstein, Brian H

2003-06-01

491

Points to consider: Ethical, legal, and psychosocial implications of genetic testing in children and adolescents  

SciTech Connect

Rapid developments in genetic knowledge and technologies increase the ability to test asymptomatic children for late-onset diseases, disease susceptibilities, and carrier status. These developments raise ethical and legal issues that focus on the interests of children and their parents. Although parents are presumed to promote the well-being of their children, a request for a genetic test may have negative implications for children, and the health-care provider must be prepared to acknowledge and discuss such issues with families. This report is grounded in several social concepts: First, the primary goal of genetic testing should be to promote the well-being of the child. Second, the recognition that children are part of a network of family relationships supports an approach to potential conflicts that is not adversarial but, rather, emphasizes a deliberative process that seeks to promote the child`s well-being within this context. Third, as children grow through successive stages of cognitive and moral development, parents and professionals should be attentive to the child`s increasing interest and ability to participate in decisions about his or her own welfare. 46 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

1995-11-01

492

Testing two methods to create comparable scale scores between the job content questionnaire (JCQ) and JCQ-like questionnaires in the European JACE study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Scale comparative properties of “JCQ-like” questionnaires with respect to the JCQ have been little known. Purpose:\\u000a Assessing validity and reliability of two methods for generating comparable scale scores between theJob Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and JCQ-like questionnaires in sub-populations of the large Job Stress, Absenteeism and Coronary Heart Disease European\\u000a Cooperative (JACE) study: the Swedish version of Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ)

Robert Karasek; BongKyoo Choi; Per-Olof Ostergren; Marco Ferrario; Patrick De Smet

2007-01-01

493

Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (? 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ? 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ? 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ? 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P < 0.05). Age was shown to have no practical implications on subsequent cow performance. BW at MSD was favourably associated with subsequent calving date (P < 0.05), subsequent cow BW (P < 0.001) and potential (305 days) milk fat plus protein yield (P < 0.001). BCS at MSD was found to be favourably associated with milk fat plus protein yield potential (P < 0.05) and BCS (P < 0.001) during lactation. The economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ?330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond to mature cow BW of ?550 kg. PMID:23031476

Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

2012-07-01

494

Link functions in multi-locus genetic models: implications for testing, prediction, and interpretation.  

PubMed

"Complex" diseases are, by definition, influenced by multiple causes, both genetic and environmental, and statistical work on the joint action of multiple risk factors has, for more than 40 years, been dominated by the generalized linear model (GLM). In genetics, models for dichotomous traits have traditionally been approached via the model of an underlying, normally distributed, liability. This corresponds to the GLM with binomial errors and a probit link function. Elsewhere in epidemiology, however, the logistic regression model, a GLM with logit link function, has been the tool of choice, largely because of its convenient properties in case-control studies. The choice of link function has usually been dictated by mathematical convenience, but it has some important implications in (a) the choice of association test statistic in the presence of existing strong risk factors, (b) the ability to predict disease from genotype given its heritability, and (c) the definition, and interpretation of epistasis (or epistacy). These issues are reviewed, and a new association test proposed. PMID:22508388

Clayton, David

2012-04-16

495

A Review of the Cavity Decoupling Evasion Scenario: Implications for Seismic Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognized that the most effective means of evading the seismic detection of a clandestine underground nuclear test is to detonate the explosion in a cavity that is large enough to substantially decouple the radiated seismic signal. The U.S. nuclear decoupling experiment STERLING which was conducted in Mississippi in 1966 confirmed the general feasibility of this evasion concept and indicated that the amplitudes of the low frequency seismic signals produced by a fully decoupled test in salt can be expected to be at least a factor of 70 smaller than those produced by a fully tamped nuclear explosion of the same yield at that detonation point. Thus, for example, these results indicate that the low frequency seismic coupling efficiency of a fully decoupled 1 kiloton nuclear explosion would be expected to be comparable to that of a fully tamped nuclear explosion having a yield of only about 14 tons. This has significant implications for seismic monitoring in that it implies that fully decoupled 1 kiloton tests in stable and tectonic regions would be expected to be associated on average with mb values of about 2.6 and 2.2, respectively, if they are conducted at depths comparable to those of normal tamped explosions of that yield. Since such tests would only be detected by seismic stations at regional distances, the possibility of such evasive testing greatly complicates the comprehensive monitoring of low yield nuclear tests. In this regard, an important issue which remains to be resolved concerns the definition of the maximum yield limit to which such evasive testing is possible. That is, while it is generally agreed that cavity decoupling is a feasible evasion concept for nuclear explosions with yields on the order of a few kilotons, considerable debate continues on whether it is credible for explosions with yields on the order of 10 kilotons or more. A definitive answer to this question involves consideration of the effects of cavity size and shape on decoupling effectiveness, the engineering feasibility of constructing large cavities in various geologic environments and an assessment of the probability of effective containment of detectable nuclear explosion products as a function of explosion yield, cavity configuration and geologic environment. The range of current thinking on the limitations imposed by these various constraints will be reviewed and evaluated.

Murphy, J. R.

2001-05-01

496

Cigarette craving increases after a psychosocial stress test and is related to cortisol stress response but not to dependence scores in daily smokers.  

PubMed

Stress is known to induce cigarette craving in smokers, but the underlying mechanisms are widely unknown. We investigated how dependence severity, smoking habits and stress-induced cortisol secretion are associated with increased cigarette craving after a standardised laboratory stressor. Hundred and six healthy participants (50 men, age 18-19 years) underw