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1

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

2

Uninterpretable Scores: Their Implications for Testing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores within the chance range are differentiated, "uninterpretable" scores being those that demonstrate randomness (broadly defined) by failing to achieve typical levels of correlation with group-determined difficulty. The relevant literature is reviewed. Finally, randomness and uninterpretability are examined in light of the "Standards for…

Donlon, Thomas F.

1981-01-01

3

Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

4

Comparability of Test Scores for the Same Individual: Implications for Vertical Equating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for equating test scores between two standardized achievement testing programs was developed. The first test was the Survey of Basic Skills (SBS) published by Science Research Associates. The second was the Tests of Individual Performance (TIP) of the Portland Public Schools in Oregon. Scores reported in Rasch units (RIT) from the TIP…

Forster, Fred; Karr, Chad

5

The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

Silles, Mary A.

2010-01-01

6

Scoring and Analyzing Confidence Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines confidence testing, and reasons for using confidence tests. Different scoring systems are studied in order to clarify the meaning of significance of the weights which subjects assign to confidence scored tests. (DLG)

Rippey, Robert M.

7

Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

Pisano, Mark C.

8

Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

9

Predicting occupational personality test scores.  

PubMed

The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment. PMID:10654851

Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

2000-01-01

10

Sex and Ethnic Differences in Relationships of Test Anxiety to Performance in Science Examinations by Fourth and Eighth Grade Students: Implications for Valid Interpretations of Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test anxiety scores from a 15-item internally consistent instrument (r,, = .73) were correlated with performances on an aggregate science test made up of items administered over an entire school year. Samples of 171 fourth-grade and 187 eighth-grade students were subdivided by sex and race. A tendency was noted for the magnitude of correlations to be (a) higher in grade

Beverly D. Payne; Janet E. Smith; David A. Payne

1983-01-01

11

Effects of Multidimensionality on IRT Item Characteristics and True Score Estimates: Implications for Computerized Test Assembly. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidimensionality is known to affect the accuracy of item parameter and ability estimations, which subsequently influences the computation of item characteristic curves (ICCs) and true scores. By judiciously combining sections of a Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 11 sections of varying degrees of uni- and multidimensional structures are used…

Wang, Xiang-Bo; Harris, Vincent; Roussos, Louis

12

Moving the Cut Score on Rasch Scored Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents empirically based item selection guidelines for moving the cut score on equated tests consisting of "n" dichotomous items calibrated assuming the Rasch model. Derivations of lemmas that underlie the guidelines are provided as well as a simulated example. (SLD)

Miller, G. Edward; Beretvas, S. Natasha

2002-01-01

13

Making sense of divergent career test scores  

E-print Network

The purposes of this study were to discover patterns in test scores when both the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Strong Interest Inventory are used simultaneously and to offer career counselors practical ways to interpret the scores when...

Rodriguez, Steven

2009-05-15

14

A User's Guide To BRILLIANT! TEST SCORING AND ITEM ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

A User's Guide To BRILLIANT! TEST SCORING AND ITEM ANALYSIS August, 2008 Program Brilliant!: Test ....................................................................................................2 Test Scoring Enhancements.............................................................................................................................................................2 Scoring different test forms

15

10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

Priestley, Michael

2000-01-01

16

Cultural Standards and Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two features limit the value of legislatively mandated high-stakes tests such as Alaska's Benchmark and High School Graduation Qualifying Exam as accountability tools in the current standards-driven environment. First, the sheer numbers of tests administered have led to a reliance on multiple choice and short-answer questions, with only minimal…

Barnhardt, Ray; Kawagley, Angayuqaq Oscar; Hill, Frank

2000-01-01

17

Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

2011-01-01

18

Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

2009-01-01

19

Test score disclosure and school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we test whether the disclosure of test scores has direct impacts on studentperformance, school composition and school inputs. We take advantage of the discontinuityon the disclosure rules of The National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM) run inBrazil by the Ministry of Education: In 2006 it was established that the 2005 mean scoreresults would be disclosed for schools with

Braz Ministério de Camargo; Sergio Pinheiro Firpo; Vladimir Pinheiro Ponczek

2011-01-01

20

The Black-White Test Score Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

21

Change in personality test scores during college  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of changes in personality test scores on 3 inventories over a period of 4 yr. The SVIB, the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were administered to a group of college freshmen and to the same group as seniors. Multivariate procedures of analysis indicated highly significant changes in means over the 4 yr.

Lawrence H. Stewart

1964-01-01

22

Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

Costello, Bill

2008-01-01

23

ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing

Allalouf, Avi

2014-01-01

24

Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

Kane, Michael T.

2013-01-01

25

The Effect of Test Item Familiarization on Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the effects of overlapping some test items across consecutive test levels by using overlapping and nonoverlapping items with 834 prematched and 782 matched elementary school students and focusing on whether there is an effect on achievement test scores due to item familiarization. No effects were detected. (SLD)

Bishop, N. Scott; Frisbie, David A.

1999-01-01

26

The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

27

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2003-01-01

28

The Effect of Schooling and Ability of Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the e!ect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We ,nd

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

29

Assessment of Standardized Tests Scores and the Black College Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation is a review of the literature on the assessment of standardized test scores in black colleges. Divergent points of view exist relative to the misuse and use of standardized test scores for the sole purpose of admission of black students. Some misuses of the American College Test (ACT) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) are noted,…

Jordan, Samuel, Jr.

30

Deviant Response Patterns and Comparability of Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses theoretical and methodological problems relating to the comparison of test results of individuals and groups with differing cultural backgrounds. Develops a statistic by which deviance of score patterns can be quantified and which indicates whether a person's score can be compared with the scores in a specific group. (Author/GC)

Van der Flier, Henk

1982-01-01

31

A method of estimating accuracy of test scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

When errors of test scoring obey a Poisson frequency law (theoretical considerations suggest that they do), the method described may be used for finding the upper fiducial limits of scoring errors per paper. A criterion is suggested for establishing tolerance limits on scoring errors, and a method is given (1) for finding the probability of being wrong in the statement

Walter L. Deemer

1942-01-01

32

Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

2011-01-01

33

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compares state math and reading proficiency scores in grades 4 and 8 to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) basic scores for the period of 2005 to 2009. The study found that scores on state tests and NAEP have increased in most states with sufficient data. Also included with the report are profiles for the 23 states that…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2010-01-01

34

Relationship of age, American College Testing scores, grade point average, and State Board Examination scores.  

PubMed

The relationships between age and American College Testing (ACT) scores to college grade point average (GPA), and State Board scores were studied. The sample consisted of 787 persons admitted by two different procedures to an associate degree nursing program over a 10-year period. An age bias was found with significant negative correlations for each ACT score and age. The proportion of older students who graduated and passed the State Board examinations was significantly higher than the proportion of younger students. The two admission procedures resulted in similar rates for graduation and State Board passage. Age and ACT scores were not correlated with the GPA. Age and ACT scores, with the exception of mathematics, were positively correlated with the State Board scores. PMID:6553945

Aldag, J; Rose, S

1983-06-01

35

Within-group norming and other forms of score adjustment in preemployment testing.  

PubMed

Various forms of score adjustment have been suggested and used when mean differences by gender, race, or ethnicity are found using preemployment tests. This article examines the rationales for score adjustment and describes and compares different forms of score adjustment, including within-group norming, bonus points, separate cutoffs, and banding. It reviews the legal environment for personnel selection and the circumstances leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. It examines score adjustment in the use of cognitive ability tests, personality inventories, interest inventories, scored biographical data, and physical ability tests and outlines the implications for testing practice of various interpretations of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. PMID:7985886

Sackett, P R; Wilk, S L

1994-11-01

36

Interrater reliability in scoring the Wisconsin card sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological instruments continue to proliferate the field, while studies systematically addressing their accuracy and standardization have lagged behind. This paper examines the standard scoring criteria on a widely used neuropsychological test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Specifically, the scoring criteria for the perseveration variables are complex and interrater reliability had not yet been established. Study 1 revealed excellent interrater

Bradley N. Axelrod; Robert S. Goldman; John L. Woodard

1992-01-01

37

Note on scoring perseveration on the Wisconsin card sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable confusion exists regarding the scoring rules of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The purpose of this brief communication is to provide a supplement to the rules for scoring perseveration found in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test manual (Heaton, 1981). These rules are to be used in conjunction with the manual, and are intended to clarify the existing rules, without

Laura A. Flashman; Michael D. Homer; David Freides

1991-01-01

38

The Racial Test Score Gap and Parental Involvement in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the racial gap in test scores between black and white students in Britain both in levels and differences across the school years. We find that there is an increasing racial gap in test scores between ages 7 and 11, and a decreasing one between ages 11 and 16. Using the richness of information of the National Child Development

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2007-01-01

39

Intelligence test scores of newly blinded soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of 624 newly blinded soliders on the verbal scale of the W-B are analyzed. The significantly poorer performance in the Digit Span test by this group was interpreted to indicate some impairment in sustained attention. No significant difference in test performance was observed between subjects who had been blind for different periods of time ranging from 2 to

Jacob Levine; Alan R. Blackburn

1950-01-01

40

Math/FCS Class Boosts Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating mathematics with family and consumer sciences (FCS) has enabled youth to pass the Minnesota 8th Grade Math Basic Skills test. The test focuses on the eight content areas: (1) problem solving with whole numbers and fractions; (2) problem solving with percentage/ratio; (3) number sense; (4) estimation; 5) measurement; (6) tables and…

Sanden, Jan

2004-01-01

41

Selection Bias in College Admissions Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within…

Clark, Melissa; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

2009-01-01

42

Generalized score test of homogeneity for mixed effects models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important problems in psychology and biomedical studies require testing for overdispersion, correlation and heterogeneity in mixed effects and latent variable models, and score tests are particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures depend on restrictive assumptions. In this paper we propose a class of test statistics based on a general mixed effects model to test the

Hongtu Zhu; Heping Zhang

2006-01-01

43

Rank score and permutation testing alternatives for regression quantile estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of quantile rank score tests used for hypothesis testing and constructing confidence intervals for linear quantile regression estimates (0???????1) were evaluated by simulation for models with p?=?2 and 6 predictors, moderate collinearity among predictors, homogeneous and hetero-geneous errors, small to moderate samples (n?=?20–300), and central to upper quantiles (0.50–0.99). Test statistics evaluated were the conventional quantile rank score T

Brian S. Cade; Jon D. Richards; Paul W. Mielke Jr

2006-01-01

44

Visual analysis of college students' scores in English test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of computer technology has brought promises for the education science, especially English teaching. In order to improve the current English teaching research, the paper recommends data visualization technology as a valuable tool and demonstrates it with college students' scores in an English test. During the process, data of the students' scores are transformed and displayed with graphics,

Gan Xiaoya; Liu Kan; Liu Ping

2009-01-01

45

Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

2006-01-01

46

Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

Issitt, Steve

2008-01-01

47

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

48

An automated scoring system for educational testing  

E-print Network

information. The first nine words in the area marked "IDENT1FICATXON NUMBER" (see Figure I) are used for the student's personal identification. The tenth word is used to determine which answer key to use in grading the test, or, in the case of an answer... key, the tenth word serves as the answer key identification. This implies that the identi- fication numbers for the answer keys range from zero to nine, thereby prohibiting the use of student numbers less than ten. The first. nine words for answer...

Verret, Erik Phillip

2012-06-07

49

The Effect of Background Music on Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Would the playing of background music positively affect the scores on a reading comprehension test?\\u000aA statistical analysis of pretest scores from the Degree of Reading Power test revealed that both classes were of equal reading ability at the onset of the study.\\u000aThe

Ann S. DeMers

1996-01-01

50

Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In mastery testing a linear relationship between an optimal passing score and test length is presented with a new optimization criterion. The usual indifference zone approach, a binomial error model, decision errors, and corrections for guessing are discussed. Related results in sequential testing and the latent class approach are included. (CM)

van der Linden, Wim J.

1982-01-01

51

Power and speed: their influence upon intelligence test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is claimed that a high correlation between scores on the same test before and after doubling the time limit does not necessarily show that it is chiefly a speed test, especially if the subjects have time to try all the items. It is suggested that if a test is given with a time limit and again without, and there

F. S. Freeman

1928-01-01

52

RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

53

The impact of prepregnancy obesity on children's cognitive test scores  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and cognitive test scores of children at early primary school age. Methods A descriptive observational design was used. Study subjects consist of 3412 US children aged 60 to 83 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother and Child Survey. Cognitive test scores using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition and mathematics tests were used as the outcomes of interest. Association with maternal prepregnancy obesity was examined using the ordinary least square regression controlling for intrauterine, family background, maternal and child factors. Results Children of obese women had 3 points (0.23 SD units) lower PIAT reading recognition score (p=0.007), and 2 points (0.16 SD units) lower PIAT mathematics scores (p<.0001), holding all other factors constant. As expected, cognitive test score was associated with stimulating home environment (reading: ?=0.15, p<.0001, and math: ?=0.15, p<.0001), household income (reading: ?=0.03, p=0.02 and math: ?=0.04, p=0.004), maternal education (reading: ?=0.42, p=0.0005, and math: ?=0.32, p=0.008), and maternal cognitive skills (reading: ?=0.11, p<.0001, and math: ?=0.09, p<.0001). Conclusion There was a significant association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores that could not be explained by other intrauterine, family background, maternal, and child factors. Children who live in disadvantaged postnatal environments may be most affected by the effects of maternal prepregnancy obesity. Replications of the current study using different cohorts are warranted to confirm the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores. PMID:22350633

Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J.; Reagan, Patricia B.; Fang, Muriel Z.

2012-01-01

54

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

55

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

56

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

57

State Test Score Trends Through 2007-08, Part 2: Is There a Plateau Effect in Test Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many in the research and policy worlds have taken for granted the existence of a phenomenon known as the "plateau effect," wherein test scores rise in the early years of a test-based accountability system and then level off. Drawing from our database of reading and math test results from all 50 states going back as far as 1999, the Center on…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2009-01-01

58

Note on the Relation Between Group Test Score and Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to reduce the turn-over of large industrial organizations and to put employment on a more efficient basis, the author tried to correlate scores made on group intelligence tests with graded estimates of success made six months later. The experiment was conducted on one hundred and twenty-three individuals in R. H. White's department store; the group test consisted

A. W. Stearns

1924-01-01

59

Relationships of Declining Test Scores and Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between declining scores on national standardized tests and grade inflation is explored. Grade inflation refers to the indicated measure of evaluation of student performance having higher placement than is usual based on the performances. Data for this study were taken from the American College Testing (ACT) Program Class Profile…

Bellott, Fred K.

60

High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

Baker, Keith

2011-01-01

61

The Effect of Logical Choice Weight and Corrected Scoring Methods on Multiple Choice Agricultural Science Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focused on the effect of logical choice weight and corrected scoring methods on multiple choice Agricultural science test scores the study also investigated the interaction effect of logical choice weight and corrected scoring methods in schools ,and types of school in multiple choice agricultural science test. The researcher used a combination of survey type and one short experimental

B. K. Ajayi

2012-01-01

62

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

63

The Probability of Obtaining Two Statistically Different Test Scores as a Test Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new test index is defined as the probability of obtaining two randomly selected test scores (PDTS) as statistically different. After giving a concept definition of the test index, two simulation studies are presented. The first analyzes the influence of the distribution of test scores, test reliability, and sample size on PDTS within classical…

Muller, Jorg M.

2006-01-01

64

Propensity score matching and variations on the balancing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing tests are diagnostics designed for use with propensity score methods, a widely used non-experimental approach in\\u000a the evaluation literature. Such tests provide useful information on whether plausible counterfactuals have been created. Currently,\\u000a multiple balancing tests exist in the literature but it is unclear which is the most useful. This article highlights the poor\\u000a size properties of commonly employed balancing

Wang-Sheng Lee

65

Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

2010-01-01

66

Revised administration and scoring of the Digit Span Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effect of certain modifications in administration and scoring on the test-retest reliability of the digit span. These modifications consisted of: (a) Having S repeat or reverse both sets of digits of a given series length even when he had correctly repeated or reversed the first set of the pair; (b) terminating the repetition or reversal of

Harold L. Blackburn; Arthur L. Benton

1957-01-01

67

Explaining the Fluctuation in Black Student Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluctuations in the achievement test scores of black students over time, in which they gained and then lost ground, suggest that changes in public investment in education and beliefs about education for the disadvantaged are responsible for racial differences in educational achievement. (SLD)

Kamin, Leon J.

1996-01-01

68

The Black-White Test Score Gap Through Third Grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes basic facts regarding the Black-White test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their White counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, Blacks lose substantial ground relative to other races; averaging 0.10 standard

Roland G. Fryer; Steven D. Levitt

2006-01-01

69

The Black-White Test Score Gap Through Third Grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes basic facts regarding the black-white test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their white counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground relative to other races; averaging .10 standard

Roland G. Fryer; Steven D. Levitt

2005-01-01

70

School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and classroom policies designed to improve the

Helen F. Ladd

71

Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for part of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. In this paper we study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998-2001 test cohorts. Without controlling for neighborhood segregation, we find that school segregation is negatively

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2005-01-01

72

Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background…

Paulson, Sharon E.; Marchant, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

73

What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

Jorgenson, Olaf

2012-01-01

74

Improving Test Scores--Teaching Test-Wiseness. A Review of the Literature. Research Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of testing in American education is becoming increasingly important in grouping students for educational purposes. This article reviews practices adopted by educators or administrators to improve student test scores. Stopgap measures for improving standardized test scores include (1) switching to easier tests; (2) eliminating certain…

Prell, JoAnn M.; Prell, Paul A.

75

Racial segregation and the black–white test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998–2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2007-01-01

76

Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998-2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2006-01-01

77

What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper by Stephen P. Klein, et al., was at the center of the Presidential campaign last week as Al Gore seized on its conclusion that the great disparity in Texas between student scores on state (Texas Assessment of Academic Skills) vs. federal (NAEP) tests suggested that the improvements claimed by Governor Bush in the state's education system were in fact inflated, possibly due to a policy of teachers teaching to the Texas tests.

78

Source country differences in test score gaps: evidence from Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native–immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student?level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find that second?generation students from Lebanon and Pakistan

Beatrice Schindler Rangvid; Nina Smith

2010-01-01

79

Some Field Observations Concerning the Impact of Test Preparatory Programs on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between gender and the race/geographic area of students and their Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score gains after participation in one of two test preparatory programs was studied. Black (n=181) and native-born Appalachian white (n=67) high school juniors were selected on the basis of high scores on the California Achievement…

Wing, Cliff W., Jr.; And Others

80

An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

Walter, Richard Barry

81

Reporting Diagnostic Scores in Educational Testing: Temptations, Pitfalls, and Some Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…

Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.

2010-01-01

82

How Physics Test Scores Reflect the Students' Time Spent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found that exam scores in introductory physics courses show a wedge-shaped pattern when plotted against the order they are turned in. The article will explore some of the factors contributing to this pattern and will propose guidelines to help determine an ideal test time limit, aimed at students with good perseverance and average skill. The reason for this pattern appears to stem from a combination of students' skills and perseverance. The first students to finish tend to have either the best or worst grades in the class, with few in between. Students with the highest skills (knowledge, memory, problem-solving skills) need little time to finish, and they have the confidence to turn in the test quickly, before other students. Good students with moderately high skills tend to take longer. The later submissions gradually converge to a grade close the class average. Results of over 200 grades from students in different introductory physics classes, from two universities, taught using a variety of methods, when collected and analyzed, show the same wedge-shaped pattern. This seems to indicate a universal component of the pattern, which does not depend on the teaching methods or the test structure. From our analysis, we aim at deriving what an ideal test time limit would be, at which students hit a point of diminishing returns.

Babiuc-Hamilton, Maria; Hamilton, Tim

2009-03-01

83

Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

2007-01-01

84

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

85

Scores in the Pressey X-O Tests of Emotions as influenced by courses in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an experimental investigation of the effect of a course in business psychology upon the scores obtained in a test for emotions, as contrasted with the effects of a course in personality upon scores from the same test.

J. A. McGeoch; M. E. Bunch

1930-01-01

86

Comparison of Four Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Scoring Guides with Novice Raters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is predicated on the ability of its users to accurately administer and score the task. This study evaluated four different WCST scoring guides in an effort to determine the most reliable and accurate instructional set for use by individuals previously unfamiliar with scoring the WCST. The study targeted the scoring of

Bradley N. Axelrod; Kevin W. Greve; Robert S. Goldman

1994-01-01

87

The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

2013-01-01

88

Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between mathematical SAT scores (SAT-M) and grades earned by students in eight consecutive years of first- and second-semester general chemistry courses at Oberlin College are reported. The academic years surveyed are 1987-1988 through 1994-1995. SAT-M scores are grouped within seven ranges from 450 and less to 710-800. Within any range of scores, students in both courses earned a

Harry E. Spencer

1996-01-01

89

Summary of Achievement Test Scores--1980. School-by-School Test Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes test score information on a city-wide, regional, and school-by-school basis for staff and community review of pupil progress in reading and mathematics achievements, Primary Unit through grade 11. The data were obtained in the 1979-80 school year. Norm- and criterion-referenced tests were used. The intent of the report is to…

Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

90

The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

2011-01-01

91

Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

1994-01-01

92

Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success  

PubMed Central

Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828

Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

93

Test Speededness under Number-Right Scoring: An Analysis of the Test of English as a Foreign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was used in this study, which attempted to develop a new methodology for assessing the speededness of right-scored tests. Traditional procedures of assessing speededness have assumed that the test is scored under formula-scoring instructions; this approach is not always appropriate. In this study,…

Bejar, Isaac I.

94

Predicting Teacher Certification Success: The Effect of Cumulative Grade Point Average and Preprofessional Academic Skills Test Scores on Testing Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative mandates and reforms hold universities accountable for student certification test performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if cumulative grade point average scores and the preprofessional academic skills test scores predict performance on elementary certification test (professional development) scores of…

Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ward, Susan; Strickland, George

2006-01-01

95

The Predictive Efficiency of Achievement and Aptitude Test Data on Seventh Grade Mathematics Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computation, concept, and application subtests of the Stanford Achievement Tests (SAT) were administered to a student sample during grades 3, 5, and 7. The efficiency of earlier scores and Otis Lennon Mental Ability Test scores in predicting seventh-grade SAT math scores was examined and found to be weak. (SJL)

Dossey, John A.; Jones, Marilyn Doran

1980-01-01

96

Pre-Professional Skills Test Scores as College of Education Admission Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined aspects of concurrent, predictive, and consequential validity evidence of the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) scores as college of education admission criteria. American College Test (ACT) scores and PPST subtest scores of 372 graduates, and PPST scores, undergraduate grade point averages (GPAs), and student-teaching ratings of 1,062 graduates of a southwestern urban teacher education program were investigated. Findings

Audrey Mikitovics; Kevin D. Crehan

2002-01-01

97

Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

Zavodny, Madeline

2013-01-01

98

How Parents Can Help Kids Improve Test Scores: Taking the Stakes out of Literacy Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to meet the goals of No Child Left Behind, standardized testing is preeminent as the sole indicator determining whether states all across America demonstrate adequate yearly progress regarding the improvement of student achievement in literacy education. This book will help teachers and parents raise children's scores on standardized…

Schneider, Steven

2006-01-01

99

Practical Limitations in Making Decisions Regarding the Distribution of Applicant Personality Test Scores Based on Incumbent Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For practitioners, the possibility of faking on personality tests has potential implications that are much broader than those\\u000a captured by current theoretical debates over criterion-related validity, factor structure, or psychological processes. One\\u000a unexplored potential impact of response distortion involves the pass rates associated with applying cutoff scores developed\\u000a using a concurrent validation design to applicant samples. This practitioner-oriented paper compared

Jennifer P. Bott; Matthew S. O’Connell; Mano Ramakrishnan; Dennis Doverspike

2007-01-01

100

Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.  

PubMed

Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

2001-01-01

101

A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

1976-01-01

102

Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores  

Cancer.gov

About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

103

Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

Klesch, Heather S.

2010-01-01

104

School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

2011-01-01

105

Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

2005-07-01

106

Testing: Implications for the Discipline of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of poor teaching and low national test scores have spawned a back to basics movement and a shift from the use of tests as predictors and models to that of assessment and achievement. This movement may have positive impact on the teaching of English, which previously has not lent itself well to standardized testing. Although many English…

Cantrell, D. Dean

107

Statistical Lessons Learned From Exercise Testing Research and Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Four major mistakes have been made when evaluating the exercise test’s diagnostic characteristics that explain much of the\\u000a differences in the studies. They are: 1) choosing subjects for test evaluation that represent a limited challenge to the diagnostic\\u000a performance of the test, 2) not limiting the amount of work up bias in identifying patients for test evaluation, 3) applying\\u000a age-predicted

Vic Froelicher

108

A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for planning seismic risk reduction strategies and they are key elements of seismic regulation. Due to its importance, it is mandatory to select most effective estimates among the available ones. A possible empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. Scoring is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models providing outcomes that contrast observations and thus should be discarded. The analysis shows that most of hazard estimates so far proposed for Italy do not contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than the others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better that the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best performing one. This implies that time-by-time, the most suitable model must be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

2014-09-01

109

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

2006-01-01

110

Preschool Television Viewing and Adolescent Test Scores: Historical Evidence from the Coleman Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores during adolescence. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average adolescent test scores by about 0.02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects larger than about

Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

2008-01-01

111

Relation between scores on certain standard tests and supervisory success in an aircraft factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ratings on each of two rating forms were secured for 40 members of supervision in an aircraft factory, the rating forms previously having been checked for reliability and validity, and the sum of the 4 ratings (reduced to standard deviation scores) became the criterion of success. Test scores obtained from administration of 7 standard tests were then correlated against

A. Q. Sartain

1946-01-01

112

The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

Shaw, Tommetta

2010-01-01

113

Determinants of academic attainment in the United States: A quantile regression analysis of test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the determinants of high school students' academic attainment in mathematics, reading and science in the United States; focusing particularly on possible differential impacts of ethnicity and family background across the distribution of test scores. Using data from the NELS2000 and employing quantile regression, we find two important results. First, the gaps in mathematics, reading and science test scores

Getinet Astatike Haile; Anh Ngoc Nguyen

2007-01-01

114

Increasing Racial Isolation and Test Score Gaps in Mathematics: A 30-Year Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although there has been progress in closing the test score gaps among student groups over past decades, that progress has stalled. Many researchers have speculated why the test score gaps closed between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, but only a few have been able to empirically study how changes in school factors and…

Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.

2010-01-01

115

How Changes in Families and Schools Are Related to Trends in Black-White Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through several decades of research, a great deal has been written about trends in black-white test scores and the factors that may explain the gaps in different subject areas. Only a few studies have examined the changing relationships between gaps in students' test scores and family and school measures in nationally representative data over several periods. This article builds on

MARK BERENDS; SAMUEL R. LUCAS; R. V. Penaloza

2008-01-01

116

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, a substantial gap in test scores between white and black students persists, even after controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics. Using a newly available data set (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), we demonstrate that in stark contrast to earlier studies, the black-white test score gap among incoming kindergartners disappears when we control for a small

Roland G. Fryer Jr; Steven D. Levitt

2004-01-01

117

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, a substantial gap in test scores between White and Black students persists, even after controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics. Using a newly available data set (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), we demonstrate that in stark contrast to earlier studies, the Black-White test score gap among incoming kindergartners disappears when we control for a small number

Roland G. Fryer Jr.; Steven D. Levitt

2002-01-01

118

How Changes in Families and Schools Are Related to Trends in Black-White Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through several decades of research, a great deal has been written about trends in black-white test scores and the factors that may explain the gaps in different subject areas. Only a few studies have examined the changing relationships between gaps in students' test scores and family and school measures in nationally representative data over…

Berends, Mark; Lucas, Samuel R.; Penaloza, Roberto V.

2008-01-01

119

Linking Scores From Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

2005-01-01

120

Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Strategies for Data-Driven Instructional Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help K-12 teachers and administrators understand the nature of standardized tests and, in particular, the scores that result from them. This useful manual helps teachers develop the skills necessary to incorporate these test scores into various types of instructional decision making--a process known as "data-driven…

Mertler, Craig A.

2007-01-01

121

Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic…

Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie

2007-01-01

122

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

123

The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

Sohn, Kitae

2012-01-01

124

AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

125

Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

126

Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

2011-01-01

127

Conceptual and Empirical Relationships between Temporal Measures of Fluency and Oral English Proficiency with Implications for Automated Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information provided by examination of the skills that underlie holistic scores can be used not only as supporting evidence for the validity of inferences associated with performance tests but also as a way to improve the scoring rubrics, descriptors, and benchmarks associated with scoring scales. As fluency is considered a critical, perhaps…

Ginther, April; Dimova, Slobodanka; Yang, Rui

2010-01-01

128

Conditional Permutation Tests and the Propensity Score in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observational studies, the distribution of treatment assignments is unknown, and therefore randomization tests are not generally applicable. However, permutation tests that condition on sample information about the treatment assignment mechanism can be applicable in observational studies, provided treatment assignment is strongly ignorable. These tests use the conditional distribution of the treatment assignments given a sufficient statistic for the unknown

Paul R. Rosenbaum

1984-01-01

129

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to help parents understand the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and the reports it generates. The tests of the DSTP are tied to the Delaware content standards that define the knowledge and skills required for students to succeed beyond high school. In spring 2001, the DSTP reading, writing, and mathematics tests were…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

130

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help parents understand the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and the reports it generates. The DSTP tests are administered to provide an accurate measure of how well students are doing relative to Delaware's rigorous content standards. DSTP tests are administered in reading, writing, mathematics, science, and…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

131

The Effects of Test Preparation Activities on ACT Assessment Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Test preparation" activities can range from simple practice to in-depth instruction, but most of these activities use some form of test familiarization, drill and practice with feedback, training in strategies for specific item types, and general test-taking, subject-matter review, and skill development exercises. Two experiments were conducted…

Scholes, Roberta J.; Lain, M. Margaret

132

An Error Score Model for Time-Limit Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A more generalized error model for time-limit tests is developed. Model estimates are derived for right-attempted and wrong-attempted correlations both within the same test and between different tests. A comparison is made between observed correlations and their model counterparts and a fair agreement is found between observed and expected…

Ven, A. H. G. S. van der

1976-01-01

133

The effect of effort on baseline neuropsychological test scores in high school football athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePoor effort on baseline neuropsychological tests is expected to influence interpretation of post-concussion assessment scores. Our study examined effort in an athletic population to determine if poor effort effects neuropsychological test performance.

Tamerah N. Hunt; Michael S. Ferrara; L. Stephen Miller; Stephen Macciocchi

2007-01-01

134

Poor Test Scores Bar Many Minority Students from Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of test results of would-be teachers in 19 states documented the failure of nearly 38,000 members of minority groups. Critics say testing requirements are limiting the racial and cultural makeup of the nation's teaching force at a time of growing ethnic and racial diversity in public schools. (MLW)

Fields, Cheryl M.

1988-01-01

135

Longitudinal Study of Reading Scores of the Stanford Achievement Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2.5-year longitudinal study of the reading scales of the Stanford Achievement Test confirmed the redundancy in its subtests. Strong and stable test-retest reliability coefficients were evident and supported the use of the Stanford total reading scale for longitudinal evaluations. (Author)

Suddick, David E.; Bowen, Charles L.

1982-01-01

136

Etiological heterogeneity and intelligence test scores in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that patients with a family history of schizophrenia show a greater degree of cognitive and neuropsychological impairment than patients without a family history. We examined the neurocognitive performance, using the WAIS-R, of 51 patients with a family history (familial) and 103 patients without a family history (sporadic) to determine if differences exist that may help to explain the heterogeneous neuropsychological profile of the illness. The family history groups did not differ with respect to gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, age, age of onset, education or duration of illness. Multivariate analyses, covarying for age of onset and education, showed the sporadic group performed significantly better than the familial group on the digit symbol and object assembly subtests, with a trend level difference in overall performance IQ score. Additionally, we identified significant gender differences in favor of males for full scale and verbal IQ, the information, digit span, block design, and arithmetic subtests, and at a trend level, the picture assembly subtest. The family history group differences reflect relative dysfunction in visual attention and scanning, visuomotor control, and spatial processing and reasoning. Overall, the results suggest that sporadic patients have better perceptual-organizational skills and faster speed of processing. PMID:16484091

Wolitzky, Rachel; Goudsmit, Nora; Goetz, Raymond R; Printz, David; Gil, Roberto; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Malaspina, Dolores

2006-02-01

137

Do standardized tests penalize deep-thinking, creative, or conscientious students? Some personality correlates of Graduate Record Examinations test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits—conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses revealed statistically significant, but slight (positive) correlations of GRE verbal, quantitative, and analytical scores

Donald E. Powers; James C. Kaufman

2004-01-01

138

A Computerized Approach to Scoring Verbal Responses to the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study of a computerized approach to scoring the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). A total of 153 students from grades four through seven were involved, 100 in a developmental sample on which the computorized scoring procedures were developed, and a cross validation sample composed of the remaining 53. This research…

Archambault, Francis X., Jr.

139

Score Generalizability of Academic Writing Tasks: Does One Test Method Fit It All?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generalizability of writing scores has always been a longstanding concern in L2 writing assessment. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate this topic during the last two decades. However, with the introduction of new test methods, such as reading-to-write tasks, generalizability studies need to focus on the score accuracy of…

Gebril, Atta

2009-01-01

140

Test Score or Student Progress? A Value-Added Evaluation of School Effectiveness in Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcome-oriented evaluation of school effectiveness is often based on student test scores in certain critical examinations. This study provides another method of evaluation--value-added--which is based on student achievement progress. This paper introduces the method of estimating the value-added score of schools in multi-level models. Based on…

Peng, Pai; Hochweber, Jan; Klieme, Eckhard

2013-01-01

141

The Relationship of GRE General Test Item-Type Part Scores to Undergraduate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Graduate Record Examination (GRE) study assesses: (1) the relative contribution of a vocabulary score (consisting of GRE General Test antonyms and analogies) and a reading comprehension score (consisting of GRE sentence completion and reading comprehension sets) to the prediction of self-reported undergraduate grade point average (GPA); and…

Wilson, Kenneth M.

142

Problems in Scoring, Agreement among Raters, and Internal Consistency of Selected Marker Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Selected Marker Tests were examined for scoring problems and internal consistency and were administered orally to sixth and seventh graders. Scoring problems were discovered and changes were suggested. The problem was found to be item reliability rather than interrater reliability. (Author/MH)

Rusch, Reuben; Steiner, Judith

1979-01-01

143

Percentiles Please: The Case for Expressing Neuropsychological Test Scores and Accompanying Confidence Limits as Percentile Ranks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commentators on neuropsychological assessment stress the disadvantages of expressing test scores in the form of percentile ranks. As a result, there is a danger of losing sight of the fundamentals: percentile ranks express scores in a form that is of greater relevance to the neuropsychologist than any alternative metric because they tell us directly how common or uncommon such

John R. Crawford; Paul H. Garthwaite

2009-01-01

144

See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

2010-01-01

145

TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

2012-01-01

146

The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics--race, poverty, and ability--on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math…

Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie

2007-01-01

147

Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

2011-01-01

148

The Relationship between Test Completion Time and Test Scores by Test Type and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between test-completion speed and test performance by gender. The data were obtained from 154 undergraduate level students from the Pamukkale University, Faculty of Education during the autumn semester of 2007 - 2008 academic year. Results yielded positive relationships between test completion speed and test performance on the multiple-choice type exam

Ramazan BASTURK

149

Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  

PubMed

Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

2005-06-01

150

Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

Kim, Seonghoon

2013-01-01

151

The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree of relationship between Elizur's (1949) Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test (Wagner, 1961). The subjects were 29 volunteers with a mean age of 34 years from the general population. The Rorschach and the Hand Test were administered individually to each subject in

John D. Martin; Garland E. Blair; Diana Brent

1978-01-01

152

Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

Farnsworth, Tim

2013-01-01

153

On the sources of the black–white test score gap in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between black and white students in Britain are investigated. If black parents would invest in education as much as white parents do, the racial test score gap in mathematics and reading would be reduced by 7 and 9%.

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2009-01-01

154

Raising Standardized Test Scores and the Role of PeaceBuilders®: A School Climate Shift Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Definition: Having a low performing school academically, where only 16.1% of students were meeting or exceeding standards, the school needed to change not only academics but its entire environment. Therefore CES 132 in the Bronx brought in PeaceBuilders to change the social-emotional environment. 2. Method The method was to follow the pre implementation test scores and the test scores

Max L. Vosskuhler; Steve Issman

155

Intrauterine substance exposures and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II scores at 11 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana was associated with unique variance in children's academic achievement test scores after controlling for other substance exposures and contextual variables. Academic achievement scores (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)) were collected from 119, low-income, urban 11-year-olds enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study of

Ruth Rose-Jacobs; Marilyn Augustyn; Marjorie Beeghly; Brett Martin; Howard J. Cabral; Timothy C. Heeren; Mark A. Richardson; Deborah A. Frank

2012-01-01

156

The dynamics of the evolution of the Black–White test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca?Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS?K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however, the gap at the top shrinks whereas

Kitae Sohn

2010-01-01

157

Can Schools Reduce the Indigenous Test Score Gap? Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, indigenous students obtain lower test scores, on average, than non-indigenous students. Between two cohorts of eighth-graders in the late 1990s, the test score gap declined by 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviations. An Oaxaca decomposition and related descriptive evidence suggest that the most plausible explanation is related to Chile's large-scale school reforms that were targeted at low-achieving schools and

Patrick J. McEwan

2008-01-01

158

The dynamics of the evolution of the Black--White test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however, the gap at the top shrinks whereas

Kitae Sohn

2012-01-01

159

Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

2012-01-01

160

A Modification to Angoff and Bookmarking Cut Scores to Account for the Imperfect Reliability of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is shown that the Angoff and bookmarking cut scores are examples of true score equating that in the real world must be applied to observed scores. In the context of defining minimal competency, the percentage "failed" by such methods is a function of the length of the measuring instrument. It is argued that this length is largely arbitrary,…

MacCann, Robert G.

2008-01-01

161

Comparing score tests and other local dependence diagnostics for the graded response model.  

PubMed

Score tests for identifying locally dependent item pairs have been proposed for binary item response models. In this article, both the bifactor and the threshold shift score tests are generalized to the graded response model. For the bifactor test, the generalization is straightforward; it adds one secondary dimension associated only with one pair of items. For the threshold shift test, however, multiple generalizations are possible: in particular, conditional, uniform, and linear shift tests are discussed in this article. Simulation studies show that all of the score tests have accurate Type I error rates given large enough samples, although their small-sample behaviour is not as good as that of Pearson's ?(2) and M2 as proposed in other studies for the purpose of local dependence (LD) detection. All score tests have the highest power to detect the LD which is consistent with their parametric form, and in this case they are uniformly more powerful than ?(2) and M2 ; even wrongly specified score tests are more powerful than ?(2) and M2 in most conditions. An example using empirical data is provided for illustration. PMID:25286229

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2014-11-01

162

Methods for Evaluating the Validity of Test Scores for English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, when English language learners (ELLs) are tested, they are usually tested in English and their limited English proficiency is a potential cause of construct-irrelevant variance. When such irrelevancies affect test scores, inaccurate interpretations of ELLs' knowledge, skills, and abilities may occur. In this article, we review validity issues relevant to the educational assessment of ELLs and

Stephen G. Sireci; Kyung T. Han; Craig S. Wells

2008-01-01

163

On Reporting IRT Ability Scores When the Test Is Not Unidimensional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of test dimensionality on the stability of examinee ability estimates and item response theory (IRT) based score reports. A simulation procedure based on W. F. Stout's Essential Unidimensionality was used to generate test data with one dominant trait for the whole test and three minor traits…

Dirir, Mohamed A.; Sinclair, Norma

164

Spearman's Hypothesis and Test Score Differences Between Whites, Indians, and Blacks in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in the United States have shown that mean test scores between Blacks and Whites differ by about one standard deviation. It has further been noted that the magnitudes of these differences very on different tests. This variation can be explained by Spearman's hypothesis, which states that Black-White differences on a set of cognitive tests are positively associated with

Richard Lynn; Kenneth Owen

1994-01-01

165

Power calculation for a score test in the dependent censoring model.  

PubMed

We propose a method for testing the assumption of independent censoring in right censored survival data. This method includes extra data collection by the subsequent follow-up of a subset of censored subjects. A score test statistic is derived within the framework of a Cox proportional hazards model with a time-dependent covariate. In this paper we focus on the power calculation for the score test under proportional hazards alternatives. Comparison of the observed with the theoretical power shows that the latter is somewhat lower than the former. PMID:8783441

Lee, S Y

1996-05-30

166

Gains in standardized test scores: Evidence of diminishing returns to achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many states, standardized tests are used to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement. To motivate improvement in test scores, financial awards are given to teachers and administrators in schools that show the greatest gains. However, failure to adjust for initial conditions may put awards out of the reach of some schools and fail to produce the desired incentives.

Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Shirley Svorny

2008-01-01

167

Detection of Invalid Test Scores: The Usefulness of Simple Nonparametric Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent guidelines for fair educational testing it is advised to check the validity of individual test scores through the use of person-fit statistics. For practitioners it is unclear on the basis of the existing literature which statistic to use. An overview of relatively simple existing nonparametric approaches to identify atypical response…

Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.

2014-01-01

168

Neural Activity during Natural Viewing of Sesame Street Statistically Predicts Test Scores in Early Childhood  

E-print Network

than 20 y ago [4]. Traditional fMRI studies of category and concept development often test neuralNeural Activity during Natural Viewing of Sesame Street Statistically Predicts Test Scores in Early-specific manner. This more ecologically natural paradigm, combined with the novel measure of ``neural maturity

Mahon, Bradford Z.

169

Qualitative Dimensions in Scoring the Rey Visual Memory Test of Malingering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new qualitative scoring system for the Rey Visual Memory Test was tested for its ability to distinguish between malingerers and nonmalingerers. The new system, based on the types of errors made, was able to distinguish between 53 psychiatrically disabled and 64 normal nonmalingerers, and between nonmalingerers and 91 possible malingerers. (SLD)

Griffin, G. A. Elmer; And Others

1996-01-01

170

Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

171

Exploring Explanations for Ethnic Differences in Voucher Impacts on Student Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of vouchers on student test scores in Dayton, Ohio, New York, New York, and Washington, DC, highlighting New York City parental assessment of private and public schools to investigate why vouchers seem to have differential effects depending on the students' ethnic background. Researchers collected baseline test

Peterson, Paul E.; Howell, William G.

172

Gains in Standardized Test Scores: Evidence of Diminishing Returns to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many states, standardized tests are used to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement. To motivate improvement in test scores, financial awards are given to teachers and administrators in schools that show the greatest gains. However, failure to adjust for initial conditions may put awards out of the reach of some schools and…

Driscoll, Donna; Halcoussis, Dennis; Svorny, Shirley

2008-01-01

173

CSCOPE's Effect on Texas' State Mandated Standardized Test Scores in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine standardized test scores of school districts in the state of Texas that have implemented CSCOPE, a popular curriculum management system, in an effort to determine what effect, if any, its implementation has had. The standardized test used in the state of the Texas is titled the Texas Assessment of Knowledge…

Merritt, Brent Ross

2011-01-01

174

Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

Moore, William E.

175

Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

Needham, Martha Elaine

2010-01-01

176

A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints  

PubMed Central

It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

de Gobbi Porto, Fabio Henrique; Spindola, Livia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figueredo do Vale, Patricia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

2013-01-01

177

Practice in computer-based testing improves scores on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists.  

PubMed

This retrospective study examined whether practice in computer-based tests (CBTs) in student registered nurse anesthetists improved scores on the National Certification Examination (NCE). A group of students with extensive practice in CBTs was compared with a group of students whose tests were administered primarily on paper. Groups were matched on age, grade point average (GPA), and gender (n = 73 each). Higher GPA was associated with higher NCE scores overall. Adjusted for GPA (with analysis of covariance), the mean NCE proficiency score (phi) in the CBT group was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 2.54-2.82), which was higher than the mean score in the paper-based group of 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 2.22-2.50), with an effect size of 0.52. When subgroups were examined, CBT practice improved NCE scores only in those students with graduate GPA less than or equal to 3.50, with an effect size of 1.1. It was concluded that, controlling for GPA, student registered nurse anesthetists at a university with greater exposure to CBTs had higher scores on the NCE than a comparison group with less practice in CBTs. This difference was significant only in students with GPA of 3.50 or less, consistent with a beneficial effect of practice in CBTs. PMID:23248833

Dosch, Michael P

2012-08-01

178

Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings  

PubMed Central

I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

Chamberlain, Gary E.

2013-01-01

179

Association between students' dental admission test scores and performance on comprehensive clinical exams.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores and the comprehensive exams conducted at Harvard School of Dental Medicine. The authors hypothesized that students who scored high on the DAT would also perform well on the comprehensive examinations. Sixty-six students from the graduating classes of 2005 and 2006 were included. The outcome variable of interest was the final composite grade obtained by the students in the three comprehensive examinations. The main independent variable of interest was the individual component scores on the DAT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using the maximum likelihood methods was used to examine the association between comprehensive exam grades and DAT scores. Effects of age, gender, and race/ethnicity were adjusted in the regression models. On the first comprehensive examination, seventeen students obtained an Honors grade, while thirteen did so on the second comprehensive examination and fifteen on the third comprehensive examination. None of the DAT component scores were significantly associated with Honors grades on the first comprehensive examination. On the second comprehensive examination, quantitative reasoning scores (OR=2.48, 95 percent CI=1.09-5.68, p=0.03) and total science scores (OR=14.17, 95 percent CI=1.89-106.80, p=0.01) were significantly associated with Honors grades. Reading comprehension score was associated with increased odds of obtaining Honors grade on the third comprehensive examination (OR=1.81, 95 percent CI=1.13-2.92, p=0.01). Students who scored well on the quantitative reasoning, total science, and reading comprehension sections of the DAT had higher odds of receiving an Honors grade on the second and third comprehensive examinations. These factors may be associated with the problem-solving/critical thinking components in the school's PBL curriculum. PMID:22319081

Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

2012-02-01

180

The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

Ockey, Gary J.

2009-01-01

181

Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

2004-01-01

182

Cystic Fibrosis and DNA Tests: Implications of Carrier Screening  

E-print Network

legal, and social consequences that might occur if a test were available to identify carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) l, the most common, life-shortening, recessive genetic disease in American Caucasians. Time and technology have moved forward. The mysteries of biological inheritance-first explored by Austrian monk Gregor Mendel over a century ago-are yielding to modern science. A CF carrier test is no longer a prospect; it is now reality. The test’s existence raises broad societal questions about the use of genetic information. And beyond CF tests, expectations of scores of additional genetic tests loom on the horizon as scientists in the United States and abroad pursue an ambitious mission to map and sequence the entire human genetic blueprint, or genome. Ongoing interest in the Human Genome Project, as well as concern about the potential magnitude and effects of routine CF carrier screening, led the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to request an evaluation of the scientific, clinical, legal, economic, and social considerations of widespread carrier screening for CF. The study was also endorsed by Representative David R. Obey. Cystic Fibrosis and DNA Tests: Implications of Carrier Screening presents a range of options

unknown authors

1992-01-01

183

A study of the interest-attitude test scores of delinquent and non-delinquent boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

412 boys (CA 14-18: 7 years, average IQ 83) from the Minnesota State Training School were given Pressey's interest-attitude tests. Scores were compared with those made by boys of equivalent CA in a high school situated in a delinquency area, and with those made by unselected boys. \\

M. E. Odoroff; D. B. Harris

1942-01-01

184

Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 12988  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mid-1980s witnessed breaks in two important trends related to race and schooling. School segregation, which had been declining, began a period of relative stasis. Black-white test score gaps, which had also been declining, also stagnated. The notion that these two phenomena may be related is also supported by basic cross-sectional evidence. We…

Vigdor, Jacob; Ludwig, Jens

2007-01-01

185

A Note on the Length and Passing Score of a Mastery Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an indifference zone formulation, Fhan?r has described a ranking and selection procedure for determining the appropriate length of a mastery test. The purpose of this note is to relate Fhan?r's solution to one given by Millman, to give a criterion for the choice of a passing score, and to describe a search routine which will always yield the appropriate

Rand R. Wilcox

1976-01-01

186

Test Scores and Self-Selection of Higher Education: College Attendance versus College Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a companion paper to our work on students' application and colleges' admission decisions, we have estimated a joint discrete-continuous utility maximization model of college attendance and college completion. The paper is motivated by the possibility that test scores are poor predictors of who will succeed in college and thus may not promote optimal investment decisions and may indeed unjustly

Steven F. Venti; David A. Wise

1981-01-01

187

Federal Judge Bars NCAA from Using Eligibility Rule Based on Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A federal judge has struck down the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) freshman-eligibility standards based on standardized college entrance test scores as racially discriminatory. The ruling means that the 577 Division I and II institutions can determine their own eligibility standards, but if the ruling is reversed, some students…

Haworth, Karla

1999-01-01

188

Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

2013-01-01

189

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

190

The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

Cryder, Rebecca E.

2012-01-01

191

"No Child" Effect on English-Learners Mulled: Teachers Welcome Attention, Fault Focus on Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

192

Test Scores, Dropout Rates, and Transfer Rates as Alternative Indicators of High School Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships among several different indicators of high school performance: test scores, dropout rates, transfer rates, and attrition rates. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze panel data from a sample of 14,199 students who took part in the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. The results generally support the notion of an alternative as opposed to

Russell W. Rumberger; Gregory J. Palardy

2005-01-01

193

Test Scores, Dropout Rates, and Transfer Rates as Alternative Indicators of High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationships among several different indicators of high school performance: test scores, dropout rates, transfer rates, and attrition rates. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze panel data from a sample of 14,199 students who took part in the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. The results…

Rumberger, Russell W.; Palardy, Gregory J.

2005-01-01

194

School Choice, Racial Segregation, and Test-Score Gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's Charter School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap.…

Bifulco, Robert; Ladd, Helen F.

2007-01-01

195

The Decomposition of Racial Differences in Reading Test Scores Using Multilevel Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies multi-level modeling techniques to decompose the racial gap in reading test scores at the individual and school level using the NELS 1988 baseline survey of eighth graders. The analysis proceeded stepwise, first estimating individual level explanations then adding school level social characteristics to predict variation in individual level racial gap coefficients. Analysis was performed on the black\\/white

Charles L. Cappell; Carrie Ippel

196

Determinants of Academic Attainment in the US: a Quantile regression analysis of test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the determinants of high school students academic attainment in maths, reading and science; focusing particularly on possible effects that ethnicity and family background may have on attainment. Using data from the NELS2000 and employing quantile regression techniques, we find two important results. First, the gaps in maths, reading and science test scores among ethnic groups vary across the

Getinet Astatike Haile; Anh Ngoc Nguyen

2007-01-01

197

The Black-White Test Score Gap through Third Grade. NBER Working Paper No. 11049  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes basic facts regarding the black-white test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their white counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground…

Fryer, Roland G.; Levitt, Steven D.

2005-01-01

198

Determinants of Academic Attainment in the United States: A Quantile Regression Analysis of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the determinants of high school students' academic attainment in mathematics, reading and science in the United States; focusing particularly on possible differential impacts of ethnicity and family background across the distribution of test scores. Using data from the NELS2000 and employing quantile regression, we find two…

Haile, Getinet Astatike; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc

2008-01-01

199

Disentangling the Racial Test Score Gap: Probing the Evidence in a Large Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps…

Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Ellen, Ingrid Gould

2007-01-01

200

Disentangling the racial test score gap: Probing the evidence in a large urban school district  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps remain and are only partly explained

Leanna Stiefel; Amy Ellen Schwartz; Ingrid Gould Ellen

2007-01-01

201

Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

Wright, Robert J.

2009-01-01

202

Prediction of Boston Naming Test performance from vocabulary scores: preliminary guidelines for interpretation.  

PubMed

Patients with limited education or underdeveloped vocabulary skills may perform below the normal range on the Boston Naming Test when compared to the original published norms, even in the absence of brain damage. To reduce the frequency of false positive dysnomic classifications of patients with limited vocabulary skills, we developed a score adjustment to account for the significant shared variance between scores on this test and the WAIS-R Vocabulary subtest. Vocabulary significantly predicted performance on the Boston Naming Test (r = .65, p < .0001) in a sample of 62 outpatients who had no objective evidence of brain damage. Linear regression was used to derive expected performance on the Boston Naming Test from Vocabulary scaled scores. Relative to the original published norms, scores based on the Vocabulary subtest cut-offs produced fewer false positives and more accurately classified group membership for patients with and without objectively verified brain damage. These performance predictions are offered as tentative guidelines to assist clinicians in evaluating the presence of naming deficits by controlling for the variance associated with knowledge of vocabulary. PMID:10544434

Killgore, W D; Adams, R L

1999-08-01

203

Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2001-01-01

204

Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2014-01-01

205

Creating a System of Accountability: The Impact of Instructional Assessment on Elementary Children's Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the trajectory of change in scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills of low-income, urban third and fourth graders enrolled in classrooms in which the Work Sampling System (WSS) had been used at least 3 years. Results for 2,564 students show academic gains associated with the WSS. (SLD)

Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Son, Seung-Hee; Nicholson, Julie

2003-01-01

206

The Impact of Inclusion and Pullout on Middle School Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in students' standardized test scores based on the instructional model their teachers used. One group of students was served under a pullout instructional model. The other was served under an inclusive model. It is not known whether or not the pullout instructional model or the…

Herriott, Tavita S.

2010-01-01

207

The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

Kay, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

208

Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

2011-01-01

209

The Creativity Crisis: The Decrease in Creative Thinking Scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was developed in 1966 and renormed five times: in 1974, 1984, 1990, 1998, and 2008. The total sample for all six normative samples included 272,599 kindergarten through 12th grade students and adults. Analysis of the normative data showed that creative thinking scores remained static or decreased, starting at sixth grade. Results also indicated

Kyung Hee Kim

2011-01-01

210

A study for testing the sensitivity and reliability of the Lysholm knee scoring scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was to test the Lysholm knee scoring scale from 1985 for sensitivity and reliability. Thirty-one patients with one of four different diagnoses: anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL), meniscus tear (MT), patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and lateral ankle sprain (LAS) participated in the study. None of the patients were in the acute phase of injury,

J. Bengtsson; J. Möllborg; S. Werner

1996-01-01

211

Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take corrective action as soon as…

Flug, Susanna

2010-01-01

212

Daylight Makes a Difference: Daylight in the Classroom Can Boost Standardized Test Scores and Learning. [Audiotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audiotape presents study analysis of the effect of daylighting on student performance. The study includes a focus on skylighting as a way to isolate daylight as an illumination source, and separate illumination effects from other qualities associated with daylighting from windows. Results from test scores of over 21,000 student records, along…

Kosik, Kenneth S.; Heschong, Lisa

213

Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

2001-01-01

214

The black–white test score gap and early home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black–white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black–white test score differences among children of all ages even before children

Wei-Jun Jean Yeung; Kathryn M. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

215

Multiple-Answer Multiple-Choice Test Items: Responding and Scoring Through Bayes and Minimax Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple-answer multiple-choice test is one which offers several alternate choices for each stem and any number of those choices may be considered to be correct. In this article, a class of scoring procedures called the binary class is discussed. (Author/JKS)

Duncan, George T.; Milton, E. O.

1978-01-01

216

Florida Defeats the Skeptics: Test Scores Show Genuine Progress in the Sunshine State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the 50 states, Florida's gains on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) between 1992 and 2011 ranked second only to Maryland's. Florida's progress has been particularly impressive in the early grades. In 1998, Florida scored about one grade level below the national average on the 4th-grade NAEP reading test, but it was…

Winters, Marcus

2012-01-01

217

End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

Ricketts, Christine R.

2010-01-01

218

The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

Avila, JuliAnna

2012-01-01

219

Predicting College Success with High School Grades and Test Scores: Limitations for Minority Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 522 students at a Lutheran university in the Southwestern United States, researchers examined differences in the predictive strength of high school grades and standardized test scores for student involvement, academic achievement, retention, and satisfaction. Findings indicate that high school grades are stronger predictors of…

Hoffman, John L.; Lowitzki, Katie E.

2005-01-01

220

Test Scores and Family Income: A Response to Charges in the Nader/Nairn Report on ETS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nairn report, The Reign of ETS, asserts that Educational Testing Service (ETS) has attempted to suppress information on the relationship of test scores to students' family income, that the relationship of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores to income is inordinately high, and that the tests preserve the social status quo by denying…

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

221

Low Aerobic Fitness and Obesity Are Associated With Lower Standardized Test Scores in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether aerobic fitness and obesity in school children are associated with standardized test performance. Study design 1,989 ethnically diverse fifth, seventh and ninth graders attending California schools comprised the sample. Aerobic fitness was determined by a one-mile run/walk test; BMI was obtained from state-mandated measurements. California standardized test scores were obtained from the school district. Results Students whose mile run/walk times exceeded California Fitnessgram standards or whose BMI exceeded CDC sex- and age-specific body weight standards scored lower on California standardized math, reading and language tests than students with desirable BMI status or fitness level, even after controlling for parent education among other covariates. Ethnic differences in standardized test scores were consistent with ethnic differences in obesity status and aerobic fitness. BMI-for-age was no longer a significant multivariate predictor when covariates included fitness level. Conclusions Low aerobic fitness is common among youth and varies among ethnic groups, and aerobic fitness level predicts performance on standardized tests across ethnic groups. More research is needed to uncover the physiological mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may contribute to performance on standardized academic tests. PMID:20097353

Roberts, Christian K.; Freed, Benjamin; McCarthy, William J.

2010-01-01

222

Trajectories of serial motor scores of typically developing children: Implications for clinical decision making.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study generated predicted fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) percentile score trajectories for typically developing children during infant and preschool years and compared the trajectories. Data from the same 83 children at 9 assessment points between 9 and 21 months and 4 to 5(1/2) years were used in multi-level models. Non-linear equations provided the best fit for predicting percentile rank scores over time for the infant data. For preschool data, the best fit for GM data remained non-linear while the FM data was best represented by a linear equation. Within-subject variability decreased in the preschool years. On average, girls had higher FM scores than boys in both age ranges. The results support the concept of developmental surveillance rather than single point assessments. Health care providers who practice developmental surveillance need to be aware that fluctuations in scoring patterns can be expected in typical development. PMID:19081141

Darrah, Johanna; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Magill-Evans, Joyce

2009-01-01

223

Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess\\u000a frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, within 5–17 years\\u000a of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed

M. Laiacona; M. G. Inzaghi; A. De Tanti; E. Capitani

2000-01-01

224

Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

2014-06-01

225

Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test.  

PubMed

In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of their effects. Such an adaptive procedure gains power over the existing procedures when the signal is sparse and the correlation among the markers is weak. By combining evidence from both the EB-based score test and the adaptive test, we further construct an omnibus test that attains good power in most settings. The null distributions of the proposed test statistics can be approximated well either via simple perturbation procedures or via distributional approximations. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We apply the tests to a breast cancer genetic study to assess the overall effect of the FGFR2 gene on breast cancer risk. PMID:22734045

Cai, Tianxi; Lin, Xihong; Carroll, Raymond J

2012-09-01

226

Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?  

PubMed

Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed. PMID:11262715

Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

2000-11-01

227

Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on "Praxis II" Licensure Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerns the "highly qualified teacher" provisions of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA," 2002), as reauthorized, and other policies at the federal, state and local levels, which have aimed to elevate the content knowledge of teachers. This examination of "Praxis II" score trends was not meant to serve as an evaluation…

Gitomer, Drew H.; Qi, Yi

2010-01-01

228

The impact of familial environment on depression scores after genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

The associations between characteristics of family relationships and family trends in cancer worry and the psychological adjustment of recipients of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility were investigated. Data provided by 178 individuals from 24 families with Lynch syndrome who participated in a cohort study investigating psychological and behavioral outcomes of genetic testing were used. Responses from multiple family members were aggregated to construct family trends representing norms and departure from norms in cancer worry. Lower perceived family cohesion at baseline and decrease in this variable at 6 months after receipt of test results were associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. More variability in cancer worry among family members at baseline was also associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. Increase in family conflict was associated with decrease in depression scores among individuals from families with higher levels of cancer worry on average and less variability among the members. Family relationships and family trends in levels of cancer worry may play important roles in the psychological adjustment of genetic test recipients. The findings highlight the complexity of familial environment surrounding individuals that undergo genetic testing and suggest the benefits of considering these factors when providing genetic services. PMID:19021640

Ashida, S; Hadley, D W; Vaughn, B K; Kuhn, N R; Jenkins, J F; Koehly, L M

2009-01-01

229

The impact of familial environment on depression scores after genetic testing for cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Purpose The associations between characteristics of family relationships and family trends in cancer worry and the psychological adjustment of recipients of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility were investigated. Methods Data provided by 178 individuals from 24 families with Lynch syndrome who participated in a cohort study investigating psychological and behavioral outcomes of genetic testing were used. Responses from multiple family members were aggregated to construct family trends representing norms and departure from norms in cancer worry. Results Lower perceived family cohesion at baseline and decrease in this variable at 6-months after receipt of test results were associated with higher depression scores at 12-months. More variability in cancer worry among family members at baseline was also associated with higher depression scores at 12-months. Increase in family conflict was associated with decrease in depression scores among individuals from families with higher levels of cancer worry on average and less variability among the members. Conclusions Family relationships and family trends in levels of cancer worry may play important roles in the psychological adjustment of genetic test recipients. The findings highlight the complexity of familial environment surrounding individuals that undergo genetic testing and suggest the benefits of considering these factors when providing genetic services. PMID:19021640

Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Vaughn, Brandon K.; Kuhn, Natalia R.; Jenkins, Jean F.; Koehly, Laura M.

2008-01-01

230

Variation in AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) scores within the first weeks of imprisonment  

PubMed Central

AIM Although the prevalence of alcohol problems amongst detainees is suspected to be high, it seems that only the most flagrant problems are detected, thus considerably restricting the field for the intervention of experts in alcohol abuse and not providing an opportunity for preventive efforts. This study examined the re-test reliability of AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) in screening prisoners METHOD AUDIT was administered for the first time on the day of entry to prison and again about 15 days later. The results were analysed according to two AUDIT thresholds: a score of 8 or higher and 12 or higher. RESULTS Of 75 consecutive entrants tested, 47 male prisoners completed the study. At the first administration, 19.1% of these 47 men met criteria for a probable alcohol problem but this percentage rose to 59.6% on the second occasion (p=0.0001). The proportion of subjects with a score 12 or higher (probably dependent) was 10.6% the first time versus 42.6% the second time (p=0.0001). In the 19 who scored positive at the 2nd administration only, changes in answers to the 10 items were coherent with a total score growing from 3.0 to 18.1 (p=0.0001). No prisoner had a lower AUDIT score on the 2nd administration. As alcohol problems are not routinely considered during the medical and biological examination at entry, no confirmation of the AUDIT results could be obtained, although those obtained at the second administration fitted well with the prevalence rates in previous reports. CONCLUSION AUDIT, for the purpose of giving a prevalence estimate or to enter appropriate prisoners into more detailed assessment or interventions, should not be conducted immediately at entry, but some weeks later. PMID:15082463

Maggia, Brigitte; Martin, Sandrine; Crouzet, Corinne; Richard, Pascal; Wagner, Pierre; Balmes, Jean-Louis; Nalpas, Bertrand

2004-01-01

231

Comparison of two concept-mapping techniques: Implications for scoring, interpretation, and use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the equivalence of two construct-a-concept-map techniques: construct-a-map with created linking phrases (C), and construct-a-map with selected linking phrases (S). The former places few constraints on the respondent and has been considered the gold standard; the latter is cost and time efficient. Both their products and processes are compared quantitatively and qualitatively as to total accuracy score, individual proposition scores, proposition choice, map structure complexity, proposition generation rate, and proposition generation procedures. We conclude that the two mapping techniques are not equivalent: The C technique is better than the S technique in capturing students' partial knowledge, even though the S can be scored more efficiently than C. Based on their characteristics, if used as an assessment tool, the C technique is more suitable for formative assessment while the S technique is a better fit for large-scale assessments.

Yin, Yue; Vanides, Jim; Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Ayala, Carlos C.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2005-02-01

232

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of…

Hooten, Regina Gay

2009-01-01

233

Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

2010-01-01

234

The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee Putnam County area. The study should be reproduced in various school districts in the state of Tennessee to compare the findings.

Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

235

Creating a Testable, Estimable Model to Inform Our Response to the Test-Score Gap Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test-score gap between black and white students should be seen as a crisis. We propose a testable model based on readily\\u000a available data that will allow us to estimate the impact and interrelationships of a multitude of factors that may be partially\\u000a responsible for the problem. The estimation of this model will require the joint efforts of experts in

M. Monique McMillian; Tom Munk; Erica L. Bumpers; Wanda Coneal

2010-01-01

236

Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first\\u000a grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher-\\u000a and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist\\u000a (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about

Maria Paz Guzman; Michael Jellinek; Myriam George; Marcela Hartley; Ana Maria Squicciarini; Katia M. Canenguez; Karen A. Kuhlthau; Recai Yucel; Gwyne W. White; Javier Guzman; J. Michael Murphy

237

Bayesian inference and the classical test theory model: Reliability and true scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general one-way analysis of variance components with unequal replication numbers is used to provide unbiased estimates of\\u000a the true and error score variance of classical test theory. The inadequacy of the ANOVA theory is noted and the foundations\\u000a for a Bayesian approach are detailed. The choice of prior distribution is discussed and a justification for the Tiao-Tan prior\\u000a is

Melvin R. Novick; Paul H. Jackson; Dorothy T. Thayer

1971-01-01

238

The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality

Jeffrey S. Bedwell; Vidyulata Kamath; Michael T. Compton

2009-01-01

239

The Equivalence of Regression Models Using Difference Scores and Models Using Separate Scores for Each Informant: Implications for the Study of Informant Discrepancies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on informant discrepancies has increasingly utilized difference scores. This article demonstrates the statistical equivalence of regression models using difference scores (raw or standardized) and regression models using separate scores for each informant to show that interpretations should be consistent with both models. First,…

Laird, Robert D.; Weems, Carl F.

2011-01-01

240

The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test.  

PubMed

The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), which reflected both the breadth and severity of schizotypal personality symptoms, in 52 undergraduate students. Only one participant met full diagnostic criteria for SPD. The overall dimension score from the SPD clinical interview showed a positive correlation with both omission (r(s)=.47) and false alarm (r(s)=.41) errors on the CPT. Interpersonal symptoms were positively correlated with omission errors (r(s)=.47), while Disorganized symptoms were positively correlated with false alarm errors (r(s)=.40). Results suggest that higher SPD interview-based dimension scores are associated with lower levels of performance on the CPT, even when examining a relatively subclinical sample of young adults. In contrast, scores from the psychometric Abbreviated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the same sample did not correlate with accuracy measures on the CPT, suggesting that the interview-based measure of schizotypal personality may have a stronger relationship with CPT accuracy. Findings also add to a growing literature suggesting that Interpersonal SPD symptoms are primarily related to omission errors, while Disorganized SPD symptoms are primarily related to false alarm errors. PMID:19101122

Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Kamath, Vidyulata; Compton, Michael T

2009-03-01

241

Classical Test Theory as a First-Order Item Response Theory: Application to True-Score Prediction from a Possibly Nonparallel Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an account of classical test theory that shows how it can be viewed as a mean and variance approximation to a general version of item response theory and then shows how this approach can give insight into predicting the true score of a test and the true scores of tests not necessarily parallel to the given test. (SLD)

Holland, Paul W.; Hoskens, Machteld

2003-01-01

242

Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise

Misty Blue-Terry; Tomasz Letowski

2011-01-01

243

Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test: An Old Problem Appraoched Anew. Twente Educational Report Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classical problem in mastery testing is the choice of passing score and test length so that the mastery decisions are optimal. This problem has been addressed several times from a variety of viewpoints. In this paper, the usual indifference zone approach is adopted, with a new criterion for optimizing the passing score. Specifically,…

van der Linden, Wim J.

244

Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test

Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

2012-01-01

245

Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.  

PubMed

In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure. PMID:12916565

Greenwald, Anthony G; Nosek, Brian A; Banaji, Mahzarin R

2003-08-01

246

The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee.  

PubMed

It is important to examine the functional relationships between commonly performed clinical tests and to resolve inconsistencies in previous investigative results. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between three commonly performed clinical tests: isokinetic isolated knee concentric muscular testing, the single-leg hop test, and the subjective knee score in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. To determine if a relationship exists would be beneficial to clinicians in determining patient progression, treatment modification, and return-to-sport objective parameters. Several investigators have analyzed two of these parameters, but no one has investigated three parameters to date. Additionally, this study explored the concept of limb acceleration and deceleration during high-speed isokinetics and its relationship to function. Fifty patients were randomly selected (29 males) with a mean age of 23.7 years (range 15-52). The subjects completed a subjective knee score questionnaire that rated symptoms (pain, swelling, giving way) and specific sport function and completed an overall knee score assessment. The patients were then evaluated performing three one-legged functional tests: 1) hop for distance, 2) timed hop, and 3) cross-over triple hop. Isokinetic testing was performed on a Biodex dynamometer at 180, 300, and 450 degrees/sec for knee extension/flexion. The patients' mean value of the self-assessed knee rating was 86 points. Sixty-four percent of the patients exhibited normal limb symmetry (within 85%) on all three single-leg hop tests. Sixteen percent exhibited quadriceps strength at least 90% of the contralateral limb isokinetically. A positive correlation was noted between isokinetic knee extension peak torque (180, 300 degrees/sec) and subjective knee scores, and the three hop tests (p < 0.001). A statistical trend was noted between knee extension acceleration and deceleration range at 180 and 300 degrees/sec for the timed hop test and triple cross-over hop (r = 0.48, r = 0.49, r = 0.51, r = 0.49). No positive correlations were found for isokinetic test results for the knee flexors. PMID:7920603

Wilk, K E; Romaniello, W T; Soscia, S M; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

1994-08-01

247

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

2007-01-01

248

Upgrading the Gleason Score in Extended Prostate Biopsy: Implications for Treatment Choice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the incidence of overestimation of Gleason score (GS) in extended prostate biopsy, and consequently circumventing unnecessary aggressive treatment. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective study of 464 patients who underwent prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy between January 2001 and November 2007. The GS from biopsy and radical prostatectomy were compared. The incidence of overestimation of GS in biopsies and tumor volume were studied. Multivariate analysis was applied to find parameters that predict upgrading the GS in prostate biopsy. Results: The exact agreement of GS between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy occurred in 56.9% of cases. In 29.1% cases it was underestimated, and it was overestimated in 14%. One hundred and six (22.8%) patients received a diagnosis of high GS (8, 9, or 10) in a prostate biopsy. In 29.2% of cases, the definitive Gleason Score was 7 or lower. In cases in which GS was overestimated in the biopsy, tumors were significantly smaller. In multivariate analysis, the total percentage of tumor was the only independent factor in overestimation of GS. Tumors occupying less than 33% of cores had a 5.6-fold greater chance of being overestimated. Conclusion: In the extended biopsy era and after the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus on GS, almost one third of tumors considered to have high GS at the biopsy may be intermediate-risk cancers. In that condition, tumors are smaller in biopsy. This should be remembered by professionals involved with prostate cancer to avoid overtreatment and undesirable side effects.

Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: katiaramos@uol.com.br; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.A. [Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dall'Oglio, Marcos F.; Cury, Jose; Antunes, Alberto A.; Sanudo, Adriana; Srougi, Miguel [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2009-02-01

249

Participation in a coteaching classroom and students' end-of-course test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General education students consistently perform poorly on standardized science tests. Coteaching is an instructional strategy that improves the achievement of students with disabilities, but very little research exists that examines the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The constructivist theoretical framework provided the foundation for this research. The research question examined the effect that coteaching classrooms had on the performance of general education biology students. In this experimental design utilizing a posttest-only control group, coteaching instructional strategy was the treatment, and student performance was measured using the scores obtained from the biology end-of-course test. Data for this study was analyzed using an independent t-test. The results of this study revealed that there was not a statistically significant difference in student performance on the biology end-of-course test between treatment and control groups. More than half of the general education biology students enrolled in coteaching classrooms failed the end-of-course test. Researchers may use this study as a catalyst to examine other instructional practices that may improve student performance in science courses. The results of this study may be used to persuade coteachers of the importance of attending frequent professional development opportunities that examine a variety of coteaching instructional strategies. Improving the performance of general education students in science may improve standardized test scores, afford more students the opportunity to attend college, and ensure that students are able to compete on a global level.

Debro, Ava

250

The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

Vaca, James L., Jr.

251

Sex differences in Cognitive Abilities Test scores: A UK national picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods. The sheer size of the sample ensures that any sex difference will achieve statistical significance. Therefore, effect sizes (d) and variance ratios (VR) are employed to evaluate the magnitude of sex differences in mean scores and in score variability, respectively. Results. The mean verbal reasoning score for girls was 2.2 standard score points higher than the mean for boys,

Steve Strand; Ian J. Deary; Pauline Smith

2006-01-01

252

Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

Weigle, Sara Cushing

2010-01-01

253

Sorting and Supporting: Why Double-Dose Algebra Led to Better Test Scores but More Course Failures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…

Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

254

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the  

E-print Network

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the cutoff for Math 231. Statistical data from previous semesters shows that students with placement scores of 22 and below (out of 45) have a much higher W/D/F rate in Math 231

Taalman, Laura

255

Normative Data for Composite Scores for Children and Adults Derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms on seven composite scores derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) are reported here. These scores reflect a variety of verbal memory processes: learning, interference, retention over time, and retrieval efficiency. The norms are based on 943 children ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, divided into 10 age cohorts, and 528 adults, ranging in age

Eli Vakil; Yoram Greenstein; Haya Blachstein

2010-01-01

256

Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

257

Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus Improvement Plan,…

Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

2009-01-01

258

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

259

CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

2013-01-01

260

The IVH Score: A novel tool for estimating intraventricular hemorrhage volume: Clinical and research implications*  

PubMed Central

Objective Intraventricular extension of intracerebral hemorrhage (IVH) is an independent predictor of poor outcome. IVH volume may be important in outcome prediction and management; however, it is difficult to measure routinely. Design and Patients We reviewed the charts and computed tomographies of a cohort of consecutive patients with IVH. The cohort was divided into two groups: index and validation by random sampling. IVH and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume were measured manually in all patients. IVH was also graded using a simple classification system termed IVH score (IVHS). Clinical outcome was determined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge and in-hospital death. Poor outcome was defined as mRS 4–6. Main Results One hundred seventy-five patients were analyzed, 92 in the index group and 83 in the validation group. Exponential regression yielded the following formula for estimating IVH volume (mL): eÎVHS/5 (R2 = .75, p < 0.001). The IVH estimation formula was then verified in the validation group (R2 = .8, p < 0.001). The following correlations with mRS were obtained: IVH volume R = .305; ICH volume R = .468; total volume [TV] R = .571 (p < 0.001 for all three correlations). Partial correlation of TV with mRS controlling for ICH volume yielded R = .3 for TV (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model comparing ICH and TV association with poor outcome yielded the following: ICH odds ratio = 5.2, 95% confidence interval 2.3–11.6, p < 0.001; TV odds ratio = 41.6, 95% confidence interval 9.6–180.6, p < 0.001. Substituting TV for ICH volume in the ICH score resulted in a significant increase in the specificity from 64% to 87% for predicting mortality. Conclusions IVHS enables clinicians to rapidly estimate IVH volume. The addition of IVH to ICH volume increases its predictive power for poor outcome and mortality significantly. IVHS and TV may be used in clinical practice and clinical trials of patients with ICH. PMID:19237905

Hallevi, Hen; Dar, Nabeel S.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Morales, Miriam M.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Abraham, Anitha T.; Walker, Kyle C.; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Illoh, Kachikwu; Grotta, James C.; Savitz, Sean I.

2009-01-01

261

Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

Educational Testing Service, 2008

2008-01-01

262

Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. Methods The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2±0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70) was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9–48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03–0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. Conclusion The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult. PMID:24940880

Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

2014-01-01

263

Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

2010-01-01

264

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine who to admit (and, in some cases, to award merit-  

E-print Network

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine-prepared for these tests. Some are tests of aptitude in quantitative skills, verbal and analytical reasoning and/or writing ability (e.g., GRE, LSAT, GMAT), while others are tests of content knowledge (e.g., GRE Subject Tests

Hampton, Randy

265

Prediction of mathematics 102 grades from high school algebra grades and the cooperative elementary algebra test scores  

E-print Network

PREDICTION OF MATHEMATICS 102 GRADES FROM HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELEMENTARY ALGEHRA TEST SCORES A thesis by ELDRED SEAMON OLDHAM Subaitted to the Graduate School oi the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Dsrtisl fulfillaent of the requirenents for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May I 962 Ma/or Subject Education PREDICTION OF MATHENAT ICE 102 GRADES PRON HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELENENTARY ALGEBRA TEST SCORES A thesis...

Oldham, Eldred Beamon

2012-06-07

266

Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five children enrolled in the gifted curriculum in the public schools in a midwest community were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement Correlations between the area and composite scores on the Stanford-Binet and the area scores of the Woodcock-Johnson were calculated. Eighteen of the 20 correlations (corrected for restriction of range) were significant (p

Howard Carvajal; Kenneth A. Weaver; Paul Mcknab

1989-01-01

267

The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

268

Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

2010-04-01

269

The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: Do revisions in the item scoring enhance the psychometric properties?  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread use, considerable literature has shown that the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991) has questionable psychometric properties, generally reflecting relatively poor properties of reliability and validity. One factor that may be affecting the psychometric qualities of the scale is the use of a dichotomous, forced-choice response format for certain items, in which respondents are asked to answer each question with a Yes or No response. This scoring approach is especially problematic when used to measure dimensional constructs, such as nicotine dependence, in which a dimensional construct is forced into a categorical construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether revising the response format utilized in the FTND would lead to an enhancement in the psychometric properties of this scale. This question was examined by removing the forced-choice response criteria on items 2, 5, and 6 of the FTND and revising the response options to reflect a 4-point Likert response set (0 = never, 1 = sometimes, 2 = most of the time, 3 = always). Participants consisted of 343 smokers from the community. Results revealed that the revised scoring approach resulted in a significant incremental improvement in scale reliability and enhanced convergent validity, showing a stronger association with smoking outcomes than the FTQ or FTND. Findings are discussed in terms of recommendations for scale revision and usage. PMID:23254226

Korte, Kristina J.; Capron, Daniel W.; Zvolensky, Michael; Schmidt, Norman B.

2014-01-01

270

Spearman's hypothesis and test score differences between whites, Indians, and blacks in South Africa.  

PubMed

Numerous studies in the United States have shown that mean test scores between Blacks and Whites differ by about one standard deviation. It has further been noted that the magnitudes of these differences vary on different tests. This variation can be explained by Spearman's hypothesis, which states that Black-White differences on a set of cognitive tests are positively associated with the tests' g loadings (the general intellectual ability). The present study, conducted among Black, Indian, and White secondary students in South Africa, showed mean Black-White differences of two standard deviations, indicating that the American results of one standard deviation are not universally correct. With regard to Spearman's hypothesis, it was found that, although the mean White-Indian differences were about one standard deviation, these differences did not support the hypothesis. Results pertaining to the Black-White differences were ambiguous; the correlation of .62 (p < .05) between the Black g and the Black-White differences strongly supported the hypothesis. A nonsignificant correlation of .23 was obtained between the White g and the Black-White differences. Possible reasons for this finding are discussed. PMID:8021630

Lynn, R; Owen, K

1994-01-01

271

How Well Do SAT Scores Predict Pass/Fail Status on a College-Level Basic Skills Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study conducted in response to a request for help in establishing decision rules for exempting prospective teachers from a proposed statewide testing requirement in Indiana. Having decided to use Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores as a basis for exempting prospective teachers from the Pre-Professional Skills Test

Livingston, Samuel A.

272

Matched-Pair Scoring Technique Used on a First-Grade Yes-No Type Economics Achievement Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There exist special problems in testing first-grade children. Orally administered yes-no tests reduce the problems found in the other types, but they have their own drawbacks. A solution to some of these drawbacks is the use of the matched-pair scoring technique. For each "yes" item on the test there is included a "reversed" or "no" item on the…

Larkins, A. Guy; Shaver, James P.

273

The effect of breastfeeding on children's educational test scores at nine years of age: results of an Irish cohort study.  

PubMed

This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between early breastfeeding exposure and children's academic test scores at nine years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 8226 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information relating to breastfeeding initiation and exposure duration was obtained retrospectively at nine years of age via parental recall and children's academic performance was assessed using standardised reading and mathematics tests. Hierarchical linear regression analysis with robust standard errors to control for clustering at the school level was used to quantify the effect of breastfeeding on children's test scores. Propensity score matching was used to compare treatment effects across groups defined by their propensity to breastfeed. In unadjusted analysis, children who were breastfed scored 8.67 percentage points higher on reading and 7.42 percentage points higher on mathematics compared to those who were never breastfed. While the breastfeeding advantage attenuated appreciably when adjusted for a range of child, maternal, socio-economic and socio-environmental characteristics, children who were breastfed continued to enjoy a significant test score advantage of 3.24 (p<0.001) and 2.23 (p<0.001) percentage points on reading and mathematics respectively compared to those who were never breastfed. Any amount of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher test scores than no exposure, but evidence of a dose-response relationship was weak. The results of the propensity score matching analysis indicated that the test score advantage of breastfed children is robust and that the magnitude of the effect varies across groups defined by their propensity to breastfeed, being largest amongst the most socially disadvantaged and falling to near zero among the most advantaged group. PMID:21474223

McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

2011-05-01

274

Single neuropsychological test scores associated with rate of cognitive decline in early Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease (AD) characteristically begins with episodic memory impairment followed by other cognitive deficits; however, the course of illness varies, with substantial differences in the rate of cognitive decline. For research and clinical purposes it would be useful to distinguish between persons who will progress slowly from persons who will progress at an average or faster rate. Our objective was to use neurocognitive performance features and disease-specific and health information to determine a predictive model for the rate of cognitive decline in participants with mild AD. We reviewed the records of a series of 96 consecutive participants with mild AD from 1995 to 2011 who had been administered selected neurocognitive tests and clinical measures. Based on Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of functional and cognitive decline over 2 years, participants were classified as Faster (n = 45) or Slower (n = 51) Progressors. Stepwise logistic regression analyses using neurocognitive performance features, disease-specific, health, and demographic variables were performed. Neuropsychological scores that distinguished Faster from Slower Progressors included Trail Making Test - A, Digit Symbol, and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) Total Learned and Primacy Recall. No disease-specific, health, or demographic variable predicted rate of progression; however, history of heart disease showed a trend. Among the neuropsychological variables, Trail Making Test - A best distinguished Faster from Slower Progressors, with an overall accuracy of 68%. In an omnibus model including neuropsychological, disease-specific, health, and demographic variables, only Trail Making Test - A distinguished between groups. Several neuropsychological performance features were associated with the rate of cognitive decline in mild AD, with baseline Trail Making Test - A performance best separating those who declined at an average or faster rate from those who showed slower progression. PMID:25131004

Parikh, Mili; Hynan, Linda S; Weiner, Myron F; Lacritz, Laura; Ringe, Wendy; Cullum, C Munro

2014-08-01

275

Policy Implications: Replacing the Reading TAKS Cut Scores with the Common Core Curriculum Reading Cut Scores on Three Middle School Campuses  

E-print Network

in grades 6-8. The population for this study included three middle schools during the 2010 school year within one large suburban school district. State reading assessment data collected from these three schools included students' scores from grades 6, 7...

Thaemlitz, Kristi

2013-07-30

276

Effects of two different instructional formats on scores and reliability of a script concordance test.  

PubMed

The script concordance test (SCT) is designed to assess clinical reasoning by adapting the likelihood of a case diagnosis, based on provided new information. In the standard instructions students are asked to exclude alternative diagnoses they have in mind when answering the questions, but it might be more authentic to include these. Fifty-nine final-year medical students completed an SCT. Twenty-nine were asked to take their differential diagnosis into account (adapted instructions). Thirty students were asked not to consider other diagnoses (standard instructions). All participants were asked to indicate for each question whether they were confused answering it with the given instructions ('confusion indication'). Mean score of the test with the adapted instructions was 81.5 (SD 3.8) and of the test with the standard instructions 82.9 (SD 5.0) (p = 0.220). Cronbach's alpha was 0.39 for the adapted instructions and 0.66 for the standard instructions. The mean number of confusion indications was 4.2 (SD 4.4) per student for the adapted instructions and 16.7 (SD 28.5) for the standard instructions (p = 0.139). Our attempt to improve SCTs reliability by modifying the instructions did not lead to a higher alpha; therefore we do not recommend this change in the instructional format. PMID:23316468

van den Broek, W E Sjoukje; van Asperen, Marianne V; Custers, Eugène; Valk, Gerlof D; Ten Cate, Olle Th J

2012-08-01

277

The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

278

Optimal Partitioning of Testing Time: Theoretical Properties and Practical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with optimal partitioning of limited testing time in order to achieve maximum total test score. Nonlinear optimization theory was used to analyze this problem. A general case using a generic item response model is first presented. A special case that applies a response time model proposed by Wang and Hanson (2005) is also…

Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Jiawei

2006-01-01

279

How Out-of-Level Testing Affects the Psychometric Quality of Test Scores. Out-of-Level Testing Report 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a review and analysis of the psychometric literature on the topic of out-of-level testing. Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of using a level of the test other than the test taken by most of the students in a student's current grade level. Much of the research on out-of-level testing was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s,…

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Minnema, Jane; Scott, Jim

280

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

E-print Network

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing D. Richard Kuhn, Senior Member--Exhaustive testing of computer software is intractable, but empirical studies of software failures suggest to exhaustive testing, if software behavior is not dependent on complex event sequences and variables have

Perkins, Richard A.

281

Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

2010-01-01

282

A Comparison of Paper and Online Tests Using a Within-Subjects Design and Propensity Score Matching Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inquiry had 2 components: (1) the first was substantive and focused on the comparability of paper-based and computer-based test forms and (2) the second was a within-study comparison wherein a quasi-experimental method, propensity score matching, was compared with a credible benchmark method, a within-subjects design. The tests used in the comparison of online tests and paper-based tests were End-of-Course

Susan M. Lottridge; W. Alan Nicewander; Howard C. Mitzel

2011-01-01

283

Is High School GPA Better than Admission Test Scores for Predicting Academic Success in College?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of high school GPA and ACT score for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. We estimated predictions of achieving first-year GPA levels ranging from 2.00 to 3.75 at 84 post secondary institutions. Both high school GPA and ACT score were effective predictors of achieving moderate levels of…

Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard L.

2004-01-01

284

The effects of scale and practice on WAIS and WB I Test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the WAIS and W-B I scales with respect to score equivalence and effects of practice. The results with regard to score equivalence were as follows. An analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the two scales on Information, Comprehension, Digit Span, Block Design and Digit Symbol, as well as on the Performance and Full Scale IQs. The

Samuel Karson; Kenneth B. Pool; Sheldon L. Freud

1957-01-01

285

What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

PubMed Central

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2013-01-01

286

Genetic Testing: Psychological Aspects and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of genes associated with inherited disease continues to grow, researchers and practitioners in behavioral medicine will encounter complex psychological issues faced by individuals at risk for these diseases. A review of the literature concerning prenatal, carrier, and predictive genetic testing suggests that the severity of psychological risks posed by research-based genetic testing is not great. However, subgroups

Caryn Lerman; Robert T. Croyle; Kenneth P. Tercyak; Heidi Hamann

2002-01-01

287

Genetic testing: Psychological aspects and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of inherited disorders and risk factors that can be detected through genetic testing is increasing rapidly, and genetic testing may soon become a common component of routine medical care. Is behavioral medicine ready? For the first time, a sophisti- cated understanding of gene-environment interactions as mani- fested in the interactions among an individual's genetic predispo- sitions, behavior, and

Caryn Lerman; Robert T. Croyle; Kenneth P. Tercyak; Heidi Hamann

2002-01-01

288

The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

Turner, Sherry L.

2011-01-01

289

Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography  

PubMed Central

Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

2014-01-01

290

The impact of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score on treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in patients with early breast cancer: the Maccabi Healthcare Services experience with a unified testing policy  

PubMed Central

The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score is a validated prognosticator in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Our retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort summarises the clinical implications associated with Oncotype DX testing according to the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) policy. The MHS eligibility criteria for testing included ER+ N0/pN1mic invasive tumours, discussion of test implications with an oncologist, ductal carcinoma 0.6–1 cm Grade 2–3, HER2 negative ductal carcinomas with 1.1–4.0 cm Grade 1–2, or lobular carcinoma. Large (> 1 cm) Grade 3 tumours could have grade reassessed. We linked Recurrence Score results with patients’ information and used chi-squared tests to assess the associations thereof. Between January 2008 and December 2011, tests were performed on 751 patients (MHS-eligible, 713); 54%, 38%, and 8% of patients had low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively. Recurrence Score distribution varied significantly with age (P = 0.002), with increasing Recurrence Score values with decreasing age. The proportion of patients with high Recurrence Score results varied by grade/size combination and histology, occurring in 32% of small (? 1 cm) Grade 3 and 3% of larger (1.1–4 cm) Grade 1 ductal tumours and only in 2% of lobular carcinomas. Chemotherapy was administered to 1%, 13%, and 61% of patients with low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively (P < 0.0001), but only to 2% of intermediate score patients ? 65 years. Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists with tamoxifen were used in 27% of low Recurrence Score patients ? 50 years. With a median follow-up of 26 months, no systemic recurrences were documented, whereas four patients exhibited locoregional recurrences. In summary, in this low-to-moderate risk patient population, testing identified 46% of patients as intermediate/high risk. Treatment decisions were influenced by Recurrence Score results and patients’ age. The current MHS policy seems to achieve the goal of promoting chemotherapy use according to the test results in a prespecified patient population. PMID:24386009

Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Silverman, Barbara; Zick, Aviad; Beit-Or, Anat; Katzir, Itzhak; Porath, Avi

2013-01-01

291

Latent ability: grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students.  

PubMed

Past research has assumed that group differences in academic performance entirely reflect genuine differences in ability. In contrast, extending research on stereotype threat, we suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields. This bias results not from the content of performance measures, but from the context in which they are assessed-from psychological threats in common academic environments, which depress the performances of people targeted by negative intellectual stereotypes. Like the time of a track star running into a stiff headwind, such performances underestimate the true ability of stereotyped students. Two meta-analyses, combining data from 18,976 students in five countries, tested this latent-ability hypothesis. Both meta-analyses found that, under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance. We discuss implications for the interpretation of and remedies for achievement gaps. PMID:19656335

Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J

2009-09-01

292

Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.  

PubMed

The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

2013-12-01

293

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Exhaustive testing of computer software is intractable, but empirical studies of software failures suggest,that testing can in some,cases be effectively exhaustive. Data reported in this study and others show,that software,failures in a variety of domains,were caused,by combinations,of relatively few conditions. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system,can be triggered by a combination of n

D. Richard Kuhn; Dolores R. Wallace; Albert M. Gallo Jr

2004-01-01

294

Relationships Between Teachers' Marks, Achievement Test Scores and Aptitude as a Function of Grade, Ethnicity and Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Logical predictions about relationships between school aptitude and standardized achievement, aptitude and teachers' grades, and teachers' grades and standardized achievement can be made from the literature. These predictions are that (1) conventional school aptitude measures should predict standardized achievement test scores equally well for…

Borich, Gary D.; Peck, Robert F.

295

Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

Pullin, Diana

2013-01-01

296

School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Working Paper Series. SAN08-03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and…

Ladd, Helen F.

2008-01-01

297

Changes in the Black-White Test score Gap in the Elementary School Grades. CSE Report 715  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a pair of recent studies, Fryer and Levitt (2004a, 2004b) analyzed the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to explore the characteristics of the Black-White test score gap in young children. They found that the gap grew markedly between kindergarten and the third grade and that they could predict the gap from…

Koretz, Daniel; Kim, Young-Suk

2007-01-01

298

Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

2012-01-01

299

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2009-01-01

300

Reproductive Genetic Testing: Implications for Nursing Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive genetic testing technologies are expanding at an exponential rate. Nurses are increasingly being called upon to provide these services to women. This paper discusses the status of nursing education in genetics and identifies immediate needs for nurses in order to be adequately prepared to respond to these increased demands. The future role of nurses in providing genetic services is

Elizabeth J. Thomson

1993-01-01

301

Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

Haberman, Shelby J.

2011-01-01

302

Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

2010-01-01

303

The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

Jones, Tracy Anne

2010-01-01

304

Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

2008-01-01

305

IRT True-Score Test Equating: A Guide through Assumptions and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the assumptions required by the item response theory (IRT) true-score equating method (with Stocking & Lord, 1983; scaling approach), which is commonly used in the nonequivalent groups with an anchor data-collection design. More precisely, this article investigates the assumptions made at each step by the IRT approach to…

von Davier, Alina A.; Wilson, Christine

2007-01-01

306

Examining the achievement test score gap between urban and suburban students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder–Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that approximately 75% of the gap in this achievement measure is

Jonathan Sandy; Kevin Duncan

2010-01-01

307

Contributions of Selected Perinatal Variables to Seven-Year Psychological and Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perinatal variables were used to predict 7-year outcome for 538 children, 32% Negro and 68% white. Mother's age, birthplace, education, occupation, marital status, neuropsychiatric status, family income, number supported, birth weight, one- and five-minute Apgar scores were regressed on 7-year Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ, Bender, Wide…

Henderson, N. B.; And Others

308

Cloze Tests Revisited: Exploring Item Characteristics with Special Attention to Scoring Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of item characteristics on cloze text performance. Focus was on the relationship between cloze item characteristics and scoring methods. Item characteristics examined were: content/function words; parts of speech; word frequency; number of occurrences of a word in text; alternative answers; syntactic variation; amount of content;…

Kobayashi, Miyoko

2002-01-01

309

Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

2012-01-01

310

Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology) to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to

Eddie YT Ma; Christopher JF Cameron; Stefan C Kremer

2010-01-01

311

WiiFit(TM) Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults  

PubMed Central

The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment. PMID:22534562

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

2012-01-01

312

Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 1. Compilation of the test set.  

PubMed

Scoring functions are often applied in combination with molecular docking methods to predict ligand binding poses and ligand binding affinities or to identify active compounds through virtual screening. An objective benchmark for assessing the performance of current scoring functions is expected to provide practical guidance for the users to make smart choices among available methods. It can also elucidate the common weakness in current methods for future improvements. The primary goal of our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) project is to provide a high-standard, publicly accessible benchmark of this type. Our latest study, i.e., CASF-2013, evaluated 20 popular scoring functions on an updated set of protein-ligand complexes. This data set was selected out of 8302 protein-ligand complexes recorded in the PDBbind database (version 2013) through a fairly complicated process. Sample selection was made by considering the quality of complex structures as well as binding data. Finally, qualified complexes were clustered by 90% similarity in protein sequences. Three representative complexes were chosen from each cluster to control sample redundancy. The final outcome, namely, the PDBbind core set (version 2013), consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes in 65 clusters with binding constants spanning nearly 10 orders of magnitude. In this data set, 82% of the ligand molecules are "druglike" and 78% of the protein molecules are validated or potential drug targets. Correlation between binding constants and several key properties of ligands are discussed. Methods and results of the scoring function evaluation will be described in a companion work in this issue (doi: 10.1021/ci500081m ). PMID:24716849

Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wang, Renxiao

2014-06-23

313

A standardized scoring method for the copy of cube test, developed to be suitable for use in psychiatric populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although the 'copy of cube test', a version of which is included in the Short Test of Mental Status (STMS), has existed for\\u000a years, little has been done to standardize it in detail. The aim of the current study was to develop a novel and detailed\\u000a standardized method of administration and scoring this test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study sample included 93 healthy

Konstantinos N Fountoulakis; Melina Siamouli; Stamatia Magiria; Panagiotis T Panagiotidis; Sotiris Kantartzis; Vassiliki A Terzoglou; Timucin Oral

2011-01-01

314

Stated vocational aims and Strong interest test scores of high school senior girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-fourth of the stated vocational choices of 297 girl senior students from the pre-college, commercial, and general and home economics groups of two Flint, Michigan, high schools was in office work. The concentration of highest Strong scores was in stenography, office work, home-making, and nursing––4 occupations between which the Strong Blank does not discriminate adequately. Therefore the Strong Blank is

M. Skodak; O. L. Crissey

1942-01-01

315

Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2014-01-01

316

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

317

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

318

A Discussion and Comparison of Selected Methods for Determining Cutoff Scores for Proficiency and Placement Tests. Placement and Proficiency Testing Report No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures and related issues involved in the application of trait-treatment interaction (TTI) to institutional research, in general, and to placement and proficiency testing, in particular, are discussed and illustrated. Traditional methods for choosing cut-off scores are compared and proposals for evaluating the results in the TTI framework are…

Klein, Anna C.; Whitney, Douglas R.

319

Competitive Evaluation of Automated Reasoning Tools: Statistical Testing vs. Empirical Scoring  

E-print Network

(see, e.g., Ch. 12a of [9]) and the Wilcoxon rank sum test (also known as Mann-Whitney test; see, e obtained using two statistical tests inspired by the approach of [3], namely the Wilcoxon signed rank test- parative evaluation of solvers for quantified Boolean formulas as a case study. 1 Introduction

Tacchella, Armando

320

The Case against Standardized Testing: Raising the Scores, Ruining the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from the latest research, this book explains how little standardized test results really say and how harmful a test-driven curriculum can be. The central message is that the use of standardized tests can be reversed, and that teachers, parents, and students can reverse the trend toward testing to create classrooms that focus on student…

Kohn, Alfie

321

Accuracy of Self-reported SAT and ACT Test Scores: Implications for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on\\u000a college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose\\u000a of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic performance. As expected the\\u000a study finds overall validity of self-reported

James S. ColeRobert; Robert M. Gonyea

2010-01-01

322

Accuracy of Self-Reported SAT and ACT Test Scores: Implications for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…

Cole, James S.; Gonyea, Robert M.

2010-01-01

323

Recommendations, evaluation and validation of a semi-automated, fluorescent-based scoring protocol for micronucleus testing in human cells.  

PubMed

Micronucleus (MN) induction is an established cytogenetic end point for evaluating structural and numerical chromosomal alterations in genotoxicity testing. A semi-automated scoring protocol for the assessment of MN preparations from human cell lines and a 3D skin cell model has been developed and validated. Following exposure to a range of test agents, slides were stained with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and scanned by use of the MicroNuc module of metafer 4, after the development of a modified classifier for selecting MN in binucleate cells. A common difficulty observed with automated systems is an artefactual output of high false positives, in the case of the metafer system this is mainly due to the loss of cytoplasmic boundaries during slide preparation. Slide quality is paramount to obtain accurate results. We show here that to avoid elevated artefactual-positive MN outputs, diffuse cell density and low-intensity nuclear staining are critical. Comparisons between visual (Giemsa stained) and automated (DAPI stained) MN frequencies and dose-response curves were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.70 for hydrogen peroxide, R (2) = 0.98 for menadione, R (2) = 0.99 for mitomycin C, R (2) = 0.89 for potassium bromate and R (2) = 0.68 for quantum dots), indicating the system is adequate to produce biologically relevant and reliable results. Metafer offers many advantages over conventional scoring including increased output and statistical power, and reduced scoring subjectivity, labour and costs. Further, the metafer system is easily adaptable for use with a range of different cells, both suspension and adherent human cell lines. Awareness of the points raised here reduces the automatic positive errors flagged and drastically reduces slide scoring time, making metafer an ideal candidate for genotoxic biomonitoring and population studies and regulatory genotoxic testing. PMID:24705543

Seager, Anna L; Shah, Ume-Kulsoom; Brüsehafer, Katja; Wills, John; Manshian, Bella; Chapman, Katherine E; Thomas, Adam D; Scott, Andrew D; Doherty, Ann T; Doak, Shareen H; Johnson, George E; Jenkins, Gareth J S

2014-05-01

324

Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

2013-01-01

325

Looking Beyond Test Score Gains: State Accountability's Effect on the Differential Black-White Levels of Education Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers in the accountability literature have attempted to document whether accountability programs have played a role in producing higher test scores. However, given that test scores are not the appropriate measure to gauge accountability programs' success for a number of reasons, this paper seeks to determine whether they may have had larger impacts on more significant measures of student

Kathleen N. Wong

326

The Effects of the Tennessee Diploma Project English/Language Arts Standards on the ACT Reading Test Scores of High School Seniors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effects of the new English/Language Arts standards, brought about by the Tennessee Diploma Project, on the ACT Reading test scores of high school seniors. The effects on student achievement, perceptions of secondary and postsecondary educators, as well as the effects on the test scores of at-risk students were measured.…

Medling, Michelle

2012-01-01

327

Transcultural adaptation and testing psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS).  

PubMed

This study was performed to translate and transculturally adapt the English version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) into a Korean version, and to test psychometric properties of the Korean FAOS in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and dimensionality. Translation and transcultural adaptation of FAOS into a Korean version was performed according to internationally recommended guidelines. Internal consistency (N = 294) and test-retest reliability (N = 21) were evaluated. Convergent validity was analyzed using correlation with pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score. All subscales, except for the quality of life (Q) subscale (Cronbach's alpha, 0.615), showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha?> 0.7). Cronbach's alpha of function in daily living (ADL) was highest (0.962), which might represent the redundancy of the items. All five subscales showed satisfactory reliability with ADL subscale showing the highest ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient; 0.851) and Q subscale the lowest ICC (0.718). Pain VAS score showed the highest correlation with pain (P) subscale of FAOS (r = 0.675, p < 0.001) and the lowest correlation with Q subscale (r = 0.495, p < 0.001). In the dimensionality test, a factor analysis was performed using the total items to rank their relative significance, which showed seven components solution. Considerable portion of the items showed a similar dimension according to their original subscales, except for ADL items. Translation and transcultural adaptation of FAOS into the Korean language was performed successfully. The items were understandable, and the subscales showed satisfactory test-retest reliability. Some minor revision might be needed to enhance the internal consistency of Q subscale and reduce the redundancy of ADL subscale. PMID:23703359

Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon Sun; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Damian J; Lee, Seoryong C; Park, Moon Seok

2013-10-01

328

The Effect of Extended Time Limits on Learning Disabled Students' Scores on Standardized Reading Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-five fourth- and eighth-grade learning disabled students whose individualized education plans specified untimed achievement testing were tested with the Reading Comprehension subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, either according to the publisher's 40-minute time limit or with an extended time limit of 2 hours, 30 minutes. Results were…

Perlman, Carole; And Others

329

What Do Test Scores Really Mean? Revised Issue. Publication No. 443.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide--written for school administrators, teachers, counselors, parents, and the community--describes educational tests and measurements and test-related statistics. While specifically intended to help readers interpret the tests administered in the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District, this information may also be used to…

Burns, Marilyn

330

Background Factors and Preschool Test Scores as Predictors of Reading: A Nine-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds the best preschool predictors of reading were naming tests for boys and general verbal ability for girls; for kindergartners, a quantitative test surpassed test of phonemic awareness and language in predicting reading; effects of birth order were strongest at the preschool level; socioeconomic status had significant effects only for boys,…

Badian, Nathlie A.

1990-01-01

331

A Primer-Test Centered Equating Method for Setting Cut-Off Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the use of a new primary field test method based on test equating to address inconsistent classification among field tests. We analyzed students' information on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), mile run (MR), and VO[subscript 2]max from three data sets (college: n = 94; middle school: n = 39;…

Zhu, Weimo; Plowman, Sharon Ann; Park, Youngsik

2010-01-01

332

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

333

Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of clinical scores that predict streptococcal infection or rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests compared with delayed antibiotic prescribing. Design Open adaptive pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care in United Kingdom. Patients Patients aged ?3 with acute sore throat. Intervention An internet programme randomised patients to targeted antibiotic use according to: delayed antibiotics (the comparator group for analyses), clinical score, or antigen test used according to clinical score. During the trial a preliminary streptococcal score (score 1, n=1129) was replaced by a more consistent score (score 2, n=631; features: fever during previous 24 hours; purulence; attends rapidly (within three days after onset of symptoms); inflamed tonsils; no cough/coryza (acronym FeverPAIN). Outcomes Symptom severity reported by patients on a 7 point Likert scale (mean severity of sore throat/difficulty swallowing for days two to four after the consultation (primary outcome)), duration of symptoms, use of antibiotics. Results For score 1 there were no significant differences between groups. For score 2, symptom severity was documented in 80% (168/207 (81%) in delayed antibiotics group; 168/211 (80%) in clinical score group; 166/213 (78%) in antigen test group). Reported severity of symptoms was lower in the clinical score group (?0.33, 95% confidence interval ?0.64 to ?0.02; P=0.04), equivalent to one in three rating sore throat a slight versus moderate problem, with a similar reduction for the antigen test group (?0.30, ?0.61 to ?0.00; P=0.05). Symptoms rated moderately bad or worse resolved significantly faster in the clinical score group (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.63) but not the antigen test group (1.11, 0.88 to 1.40). In the delayed antibiotics group, 75/164 (46%) used antibiotics. Use of antibiotics in the clinical score group (60/161) was 29% lower (adjusted risk ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95; P=0.02) and in the antigen test group (58/164) was 27% lower (0.73, 0.52 to 0.98; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in complications or reconsultations. Conclusion Targeted use of antibiotics for acute sore throat with a clinical score improves reported symptoms and reduces antibiotic use. Antigen tests used according to a clinical score provide similar benefits but with no clear advantages over a clinical score alone. Trial registration ISRCTN32027234 PMID:24114306

2013-01-01

334

The Relationship between Students’ Verbal and Nonverbal Test Scores within the Context of Poverty  

E-print Network

intelligence with most of these tests because of their lower subtests reliabilities (Baldwin, 2005). Educators often prefer to use intelligence tests that can be administered quickly and provide reliable quantitative data (Baldwin, 2005). Standardized g... tests such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children?Revised (WISC?R) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS?R). Modern multiple intelligence theories have been a third stage of development in this area. As in the earlier...

Kaya, Fatih

2013-03-13

335

Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults  

PubMed Central

Background Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20–59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. Results 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1??g/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. Conclusions These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels that have been considered to be without adverse effects and these levels are common in U.S. adults. Thus further research into the potential neurocognitive effects of cadmium exposure is warranted. Because cumulative cadmium exposure may mediate some of the effects of age and smoking on cognition, adjusting for these variables may result in the underestimation of associations with cumulative cadmium exposure. Prospective studies that include never-smokers and non-occupationally exposed individuals are needed to clarify these issues. PMID:23379984

2013-01-01

336

Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are "pilot…

McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

2007-01-01

337

Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

2006-01-01

338

Comparability of Scores on Word-Processed and Handwritten Essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to…

Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter

339

Measurement of Epistemological Beliefs: Psychometric Properties of the EQEBI Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new test (called the EQEBI) for the measurement of epistemological beliefs, integrating and extending the Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ) and the Epistemic Beliefs Inventory (EBI). In Study 1, the two tests were translated and applied to a Spanish-speaking sample. A detailed dimensionality exploration, by means of the…

Ordonez, Xavier G.; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco J.; Romero, Sonia J.

2009-01-01

340

Estimating Future Adverse Impact Using Selection Ratios and Group Differences in Test Score Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimating the validity of a test is only one concern for the human resources professional developing a personnel selection battery. An equally important concern is whether the test will result in adverse impact against a member of a protected class. It would be useful if the probability of adverse impact could be estimated prior to spending time…

Aamodt, Michael G.; And Others

341

Selection Bias in College Admissions Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 14265  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within…

Clark, Melissa; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

2008-01-01

342

EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

Green, Anthony

2005-01-01

343

Using Kernel Equating to Assess Item Order Effects on Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the use of kernel equating for integrating and extending two procedures proposed for assessing item order effects in test forms that have been administered to randomly equivalent groups. When these procedures are used together, they can provide complementary information about the extent to which item order effects impact test

Moses, Tim; Yang, Wen-Ling; Wilson, Christine

2007-01-01

344

The Effects of a Translation Bias on the Scores for the "Basic Economics Test"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International comparisons of economic understanding generally require a translation of a standardized test written in English into another language. Test results can differ based on how researchers translate the English written exam into one in their own language. To confirm this hypothesis, two differently translated versions of the "Basic…

Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

2012-01-01

345

The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

Airola, Denise Tobin

2011-01-01

346

The qualitative scoring MMSE pentagon test (QSPT): a new method for differentiating dementia with Lewy Body from Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis across different variants of degenerative diseases is sometimes controversial. This study aimed to validate a qualitative scoring method for the pentagons copy test (QSPT) of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) based on the assessment of different parameters of the pentagons drawing, such as number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation, closing-in, and to verify its efficacy to differentiate dementia with Lewy Body (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). We established the reliability of the qualitative scoring method through the inter-raters and intra-subjects analysis. QSPT was then applied to forty-six AD and forty-six DLB patients, using two phases statistical approach, standard and artificial neural network respectively. DLB patients had significant lower total score in the copy of pentagons and number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation compared to AD. However the logistic regression did not allow to establish any suitable modeling, whereas using Auto-Contractive Map (Auto-CM) the DLB was more strongly associated with low scores in some qualitative parameters of pentagon copying, i.e. number of angles and opening/closure and, for the remaining subitems of the MMSE, in naming, repetition and written comprehension, and for demographic variables of gender (male) and education (6-13 years). Twist system modeling showed that the QSPT had a good sensitivity (70.29%) and specificity (78.67%) (ROC-AUC 0.74). The proposed qualitative method of assessment of pentagons copying used in combination with non-linear analysis, showed to be consistent and effective in the differential diagnosis between Lewy Body and Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:23396218

Caffarra, Paolo; Gardini, Simona; Dieci, Francesca; Copelli, Sandra; Maset, Laura; Concari, Letizia; Farina, Elisabetta; Grossi, Enzo

2013-01-01

347

Effects of Training and Practice on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds significant differences for males and females on the "Mental Rotation Test" within and across trials, but does not show a differential response to training and practice by females, as was hypothesized. (RL)

McGee, Mark G.

1978-01-01

348

A Reaction to "Moderating Possibly Irrelevant Multiple Mean Score Differences on a Test of Mathematical Reasoning."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the application of a proposed automated test assembly (ATA) to the problem of reducing potential performance differential among population subgroups and points out some pitfalls. Presents a rejoinder by M. Stocking and others. (SLD)

Luecht, Richard M.

1998-01-01

349

Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

2013-01-01

350

The Influences of Linguistic Demand and Cultural Loading on Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing diversity of the U.S. population has resulted in increased concerns about the psychological assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. To date, little empirical research supports recommendations in test selection and interpretation, such as those presented in the Culture-Language Interpretative…

Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

2014-01-01

351

Raise a Child, Not a Test Score: Perspectives on Bilingual Education at Davis Bilingual Magnet School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of Davis Bilingual Magnet School in Tucson (Arizona) observed and interviewed teachers, parents, students, and community members. The school's success results from strong community support and an educational environment that privileges Spanish. Although Davis students do well on standardized tests, the school's greatest pride comes…

Smith, Patrick H.; Arnot-Hopffer, Elizabeth; Carmichael, Catherine M.; Murphy, Ellen; Valle, Anna; Gonzalez, Norma; Poveda, Angelica

2002-01-01

352

76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...already identified as needing surgery for pelvic mass or without...unnecessary further testing and surgery due to false positive results...whether or not to proceed with surgery. In the Federal Register of...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21...

2011-12-30

353

The Relationship between Self-Perceptions of Accountability by High School Principals and Student Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high school principalship has been designated an area of professional shortage by many states. Resignations and terminations have been numerous as a result of poor student test performance. The purpose of this ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the self-perceptions of accountability by high school principals as they related to…

Koester, Edward L.

2010-01-01

354

The College Ambition Program: Indicators of College Plans-Ambitions and Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a larger project that will test the effectiveness of the College Ambition Program intervention model beginning with two schools experimental schools and two control schools. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the overall intervention, as well as each of the four specific programmatic components. Data will be…

Judy, Justina

2011-01-01

355

Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

2012-01-01

356

Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

Zajac, David J.

2013-01-01

357

THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS ON ENTRANCE TESTS SCORES OF BRAZILIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the factors that influence university students performance on the entrance test at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the importance of student background and educational resources. The results suggest that parents education and study environment are key determinants of students achievements. Religion, race and gender do paly a role on their performance. Above

Juliana Guimarães; Breno Sampaioy

2007-01-01

358

Micronucleus test for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events: Evaluation of visual and automated scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of a large-scale nuclear or radiological incidents a reliable estimate of dose is an essential tool for providing timely assessment of radiation exposure and for making life-saving medical decisions. Cytogenetics is considered as the “gold standard” for biodosimetry. The dicentric analysis (DA) represents the most specific cytogenetic bioassay. The micronucleus test (MN) applied in interphase in peripheral

Claudia Bolognesi; Cristina Balia; Paola Roggieri; Francesco Cardinale; Paolo Bruzzi; Francesca Sorcinelli; Florigio Lista; Raffaele D’Amelio; Enzo Righi

2011-01-01

359

Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

2005-01-01

360

Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

Boudreaux, Wilbert

2011-01-01

361

The Effect of a Child's Age at School Entrance on Reading Readiness and Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether or not a child who is older when entering school performs better on reading readiness and achievement tests than a younger child. Two samples of second grade students from a middle class community in Bloomfield, New Jersey, were established by examining the ages of all the children in the cohort. Sample A…

Magliacano, Karen

362

The Relationships among Three Measures of Bilingualism and Their Relationship to Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before a bilingual program can be set up, students who are potential candidates for such a program must be identified. A study was made to investigate the interrelationships of three commonly used measures of "language dominance": the Language Facility Test (LFT), the Home Bilingual Usage Estimate (HBUE), and the Teacher Judgment Questionnaire…

Silverman, Robert J.; Russell, Randall H.

363

Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.  

PubMed

The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed. PMID:23443819

Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

2013-08-01

364

Emission and immunity testing: test object electrical size and its implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the electrical size of a test object increases, so does the complexity of its radiation\\/receiving pattern. The complexity of the coupling pattern affects the number of orientations necessary to determine minimum immunity and maximum emission. This issue has implications for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards. If the true minimum immunity or maximum emission is to be determined, then a sufficient

P. Wilson

2004-01-01

365

Causal Effects of Monetary Shocks: Semiparametric Conditional Independence Tests with a Multinomial Propensity Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroeconomists have long been concerned with the causal effects of monetary policy. When the identification of causal effects is based on a selection-on-observables assumption, non-causality amounts to the conditional independence of outcomes and policy changes. This paper develops a semiparametric test for conditional independence in time series models linking a multinomial policy variable with unobserved potential outcomes. Our approach to

Joshua Angrist; Guido M. Kuersteiner

2008-01-01

366

Causal effects of monetary shocks: Semiparametric conditional independence tests with a multinomial propensity score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroeconomists have long been concerned with the causal effects of monetary policy. When the identification of causal effects is based on a selection-on-observables assumption, non-causality amounts to the conditional independence of outcomes and policy changes. This paper develops a semiparametric test for conditional independence in time series models linking a multinomial policy variable with unobserved potential outcomes. Our approach to

Joshua D Angrist; Guido M Kuersteiner

2010-01-01

367

Changes in Rod and Frame Test Scores Recorded in Schoolchildren during Development - A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The Rod and Frame Test has been used to assess the degree to which subjects rely on the visual frame of reference to perceive vertical (visual field dependence- independence perceptual style). Early investigations found children exhibited a wide range of alignment errors, which reduced as they matured. These studies used a mechanical Rod and Frame system, and presented only mean values of grouped data. The current study also considered changes in individual performance. Changes in rod alignment accuracy in 419 school children were measured using a computer-based Rod and Frame test. Each child was tested at school Grade 2 and retested in Grades 4 and 6. The results confirmed that children displayed a wide range of alignment errors, which decreased with age but did not reach the expected adult values. Although most children showed a decrease in frame dependency over the 4 years of the study, almost 20% had increased alignment errors suggesting that they were becoming more frame-dependent. Plots of individual variation (SD) against mean error allowed the sample to be divided into 4 groups; the majority with small errors and SDs; a group with small SDs, but alignments clustering around the frame angle of 18°; a group showing large errors in the opposite direction to the frame tilt; and a small number with large SDs whose alignment appeared to be random. The errors in the last 3 groups could largely be explained by alignment of the rod to different aspects of the frame. At corresponding ages females exhibited larger alignment errors than males although this did not reach statistical significance. This study confirms that children rely more heavily on the visual frame of reference for processing spatial orientation cues. Most become less frame-dependent as they mature, but there are considerable individual differences. PMID:23724139

Bagust, Jeff; Docherty, Sharon; Haynes, Wayne; Telford, Richard; Isableu, Brice

2013-01-01

368

Comparison of two methods of teaching early childhood professionals to score a developmental screening test.  

PubMed

Increasingly, computer-assisted learning is becoming an educational method of choice. This study compared the effectiveness of in-class versus Internet-based training in achieving reliability when administering a developmental screening test, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Forty-eight early childhood professionals, including physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and infant development consultants, took part in the study. Participants in this convenience sample were each assigned to one of the two learning groups. We assessed interrater reliability and participants' satisfaction with training method. Disciplines were equally distributed within the two groups, but geographical locations differed significantly. There was no difference in intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability between the two groups. Although there was no difference in overall satisfaction with the quality of the courses, significant differences were found in the trainees' satisfaction with certain aspects of the courses. Although several study limitations existed, Internet-based training provides a feasible option for training practitioners to reliably use developmental screening tests such as the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. PMID:19623791

Mayson, Tanja A; Hayes, Virginia E; Harris, Susan R; Backman, Catherine L

2009-01-01

369

Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: Prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1\\/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water

Joseph P. Ferrie; Karen Rolf; Werner Troesken

370

Community pharmacists' attitudes towards clinical utility and ethical implications of pharmacogenetic testing  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine community pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, including their views of the clinical utility of PGx and the ethical, social, legal and practical implications of PGx testing. Methods A web-based survey administered to 5600 licensed community pharmacists in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania (USA). Results Of 580 respondents, 78% had a Bachelor of Science degree in pharmacy and 58% worked in a chain drug store. Doctors of pharmacy-trained pharmacists had a significantly higher knowledge score than those with a Bachelor of Science in pharmacy (3.2 ± 0.9 vs 2.6 ± 0.6; p < 0.0001). All pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx and most (87%) felt it would decrease the number of adverse events, and optimize drug dosing. More than half (57%) of pharmacists felt that it was their role to counsel patients regarding PGx information. Many (65%) were concerned that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance. Conclusion Regardless of the type of education, all pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx. There is still a concern among pharmacists that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance and, thus, there is a need to educate pharmacists about legal protections prohibiting certain forms of unfair discrimination based on genotype. PMID:24409195

Tuteja, Sony; Haynes, Kevin; Zayac, Cara; Sprague, Jon E; Bernhardt, Barbara; Pyeritz, Reed

2013-01-01

371

Effects of Testing Accommodations on Math and Reading Scores: An Experimental Analysis of the Performance of Students with and without Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on the mathematics and reading test scores of a sample of 119 fourth graders and 78 eighth graders. The sample included 49 fourth-grade students diagnosed with a disability and 39 eighth-grade students diagnosed with a disability. All students were tested under two conditions (i.e.,…

Kettler, Ryan J.; Niebling, Bradley C.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Feldman, Elizabeth S.; Newell, Markeda L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

2005-01-01

372

An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

Kokhan, Kateryna

2013-01-01

373

Relationships Between the Noncognitive Characteristics, High School Course Work and Grades, and Test Scores of ACT-Tested Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study examined,the relationships between students’ noncognitive characteristics and their performance,on the ACT Assessment. Of particular interest were the contributions of these noncognitive variables to explaining ACT Assessment performance,(over and above course work taken, grades earned, and high school attended). The sample for the study consisted of 5,489 ACT- tested students from 106 schools who had completed a survey

Julie Noble; Mark Davenport; Jeff Schiel; Mary Pommerich

374

Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B??, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

2014-03-14

375

Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

2014-01-01

376

Florida's College Placement Test reading scores as an essential indicator for successful completion of the highest college preparatory course in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive validity of several variables to determine if the Florida Computerized Placement Test - Reading (CPT-R) score alone, or other variables, could determine whether or not a student would successfully pass the highest level college preparatory reading course. The study examined fall sessions 1997-2004 (n=276,079) reading scores for all forms of

Laura Dandar Smith

2007-01-01

377

The frequentist implications of optional stopping on Bayesian hypothesis tests.  

PubMed

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most commonly used statistical methodology in psychology. The probability of achieving a value as extreme or more extreme than the statistic obtained from the data is evaluated, and if it is low enough, the null hypothesis is rejected. However, because common experimental practice often clashes with the assumptions underlying NHST, these calculated probabilities are often incorrect. Most commonly, experimenters use tests that assume that sample sizes are fixed in advance of data collection but then use the data to determine when to stop; in the limit, experimenters can use data monitoring to guarantee that the null hypothesis will be rejected. Bayesian hypothesis testing (BHT) provides a solution to these ills because the stopping rule used is irrelevant to the calculation of a Bayes factor. In addition, there are strong mathematical guarantees on the frequentist properties of BHT that are comforting for researchers concerned that stopping rules could influence the Bayes factors produced. Here, we show that these guaranteed bounds have limited scope and often do not apply in psychological research. Specifically, we quantitatively demonstrate the impact of optional stopping on the resulting Bayes factors in two common situations: (1) when the truth is a combination of the hypotheses, such as in a heterogeneous population, and (2) when a hypothesis is composite-taking multiple parameter values-such as the alternative hypothesis in a t-test. We found that, for these situations, while the Bayesian interpretation remains correct regardless of the stopping rule used, the choice of stopping rule can, in some situations, greatly increase the chance of experimenters finding evidence in the direction they desire. We suggest ways to control these frequentist implications of stopping rules on BHT. PMID:24101570

Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T

2014-04-01

378

Effect of Computer-Delivered Testing on Achievement in a Mastery Learning Course of Study with Partial Scoring and Variable Pacing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent arrival of portable computer systems with high-level language interpreters now makes it practical to rapidly develop complex testing and scoring programs. These programs permit undergraduates access, at arbitrary times, to testing as an integral part of a mastery learning strategy. Effects of introducing the computer were studied by…

Evans, Richard M.; Surkan, Alvin J.

379

The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

2012-01-01

380

The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

Zwerling, Harris L.

381

The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test

Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

2012-01-01

382

How Performance Information Affects Human-Capital Investment Decisions: The Impact of Test-Score Labels on Educational Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 17120  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students receive abundant information about their educational performance, but how this information affects future educational-investment decisions is not well understood. Increasingly common sources of information are state-mandated standardized tests. On these tests, students receive a score and a label that summarizes their performance. Using a…

Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

2011-01-01

383

Scored Discussions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

Zola, John

1992-01-01

384

Testing the physical oceanographic implications of the suggested sudden Black Sea infill 8400 years ago  

E-print Network

Testing the physical oceanographic implications of the suggested sudden Black Sea infill 8400 years to an idealized geometry of the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara in order to test the implications of a suggested sudden Black Sea infill 8400 years ago. The model resolves the two-dimensional flow upstream

Siddall, Mark

385

Score 2009  

Cancer.gov

Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

386

The relationship between script concordance test scores in an obste rics-gynecology rotation and global performance assessments in the curriculum  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the relationship between script concordance test scores obtained at the end of clerkship rotation in ob-gyn and global performance measures for the entire curriculum as expressed by a preclinical and clerkship score in the Dean’s Letter. The relationship also considered two other existing instruments. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 129 clerkship students. Three instruments (Script Concordance Test, Key-Features Examinations and In-Training Report) were used to assess clinical reasoning. Data were collected from four Montreal University Hospitals at the end of four consecutive obstetrics and gynecology rotations. The data pertaining to the Dean’s Letter were collected at the end of the clerkship training period. Results Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.67 for the script concordance test and 0.36 for Key Features Examinations. A significantly positive correlation was found between the preclinical (r = 0.260, p = 0.01) and clerkship (r = 0.232, p = 0.01) scores of the Dean's Letter and the script concordance test. Regression analysis showed that the best predictor for the clerkship score of the Dean’s Letter was the script concordance test (r = 0.226, p = 0.014). Conclusions The script concordance test was associated with the scores in the Dean’s Letter in comparison with two other scales, which suggests that the test can be a useful tool for clinical educators who are engaged in the assessment of clinical reasoning, particularly in clerkship students. However, further work is required to establish this association.

Bedard, Marie-Josee; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard

2011-01-01

387

Statistical consideration of mastery scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kind of mastery score problem often encountered in educational and psychological testing may be roughly described as follows: given that a certain unit of instruction must be mastered by a subject, a test is administered at the end of this unit and, on the basis of the observed score or an estimate of the true score, a decision is

Huynh Huynh

1976-01-01

388

Correlates of Rapid-Guessing Behavior in Low-Stakes Testing: Implications for Test Development and Measurement Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that rapid-guessing behavior can degrade the validity of test scores from low-stakes proficiency tests. This study examined, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling, examinee and item characteristics for predicting rapid-guessing behavior. Several item characteristics were found significant; items with more text…

Wise, Steven L.; Pastor, Dena A.; Kong, Xiaojing J.

2009-01-01

389

Prediction of Mortality Using On-Line, Self-Reported Health Data: Empirical Test of the Realage Score  

PubMed Central

Objective We validate an online, personalized mortality risk measure called “RealAge” assigned to 30 million individuals over the past 10 years. Methods 188,698 RealAge survey respondents were linked to California Department of Public Health death records using a one-way cryptographic hash of first name, last name, and date of birth. 1,046 were identified as deceased. We used Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to estimate the relative scales and predictive accuracies of chronological age, the RealAge score, and the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (HCHD) in this data. To address concerns about selection and to examine possible heterogeneity, we compared the results by time to death at registration, underlying cause of death, and relative health among users. Results The RealAge score is accurately scaled (hazard ratios: age 1.076; RealAge-age 1.084) and more accurate than chronological age (age c-statistic: 0.748; RealAge c-statistic: 0.847) in predicting mortality from hard coronary heart disease following survey completion. The score is more accurate than the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (c-statistic: 0.814), perhaps because self-reported cholesterol levels are relatively uninformative in the RealAge user sample. RealAge predicts deaths from malignant neoplasms, heart disease, and external causes. The score does not predict malignant neoplasm deaths when restricted to users with no smoking history, no prior cancer diagnosis, and no indicated health interest in cancer (p-value 0.820). Conclusion The RealAge score is a valid measure of mortality risk in its user population. PMID:24466068

Hobbs, William R.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

390

Accuracy of clinical stroke scores for distinguishing stroke subtypes in resource poor settings: A systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death globally. Computerized tomography is used to distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes, but it is expensive and unavailable in low and middle income countries. Clinical stroke scores are proposed to differentiate between stroke subtypes but their reliability is unknown. Materials and Methods: We searched online databases for studies written in English and identified articles using predefined criteria. We considered studies in which the Siriraj, Guy's Hospital, Besson and Greek stroke scores were compared to computerized tomography as the reference standard. We calculated the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the clinical stroke scores using a bivariate mixed effects binomial regression model. Results: In meta-analysis, sensitivity and specificity for the Siriraj stroke score, were 0.69 (95% CI 0.62-0.75) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.88) for ischemic stroke and 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-0.73) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.91) for hemorrhagic stroke. For the Guy's hospital stroke score overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.70 (95% CI 0.53-0.83) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.87) for ischemic stroke and 0.54 (95% CI 0.42-0.66) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.94) for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: Clinical stroke scores are not accurate enough for use in clinical or epidemiological settings. Computerized tomography is recommended for differentiating stroke subtypes. Larger studies using different patient populations are required for validation of clinical stroke scores. PMID:25288833

Mwita, Clifford C.; Kajia, Duncan; Gwer, Samson; Etyang, Anthony; Newton, Charles R.

2014-01-01

391

Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2008-01-01

392

Cognitive Disparities, Lead Plumbing, and Water Chemistry: Intelligence Test Scores and Exposure to Water-Borne Lead Among World War Two U.S. Army Enlistees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the impact of lead exposure is difficult if individuals select on the basis of their characteristics into environments with different exposure levels. We address this issue with data from when the dangers of lead exposure were still largely unknown, using new evidence on intelligence test scores for male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees linked to the households where

Joseph P. Ferrie; Karen Rolf; Werner Troesken

2011-01-01

393

The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near

Licata

1992-01-01

394

Review of Naglieri and Ford (2003): Does the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test Identify Equal Proportions of High-Scoring White, Black, and Hispanic Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent article in this journal, Naglieri and Ford (2003) claimed that Black and Hispanic students are as likely to earn high scores on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT; Naglieri, 1997a) as White students. However, the sample that Naglieri and Ford used was not representative of the U.S. school population as a whole and was quite unrepresentative of

David F. Lohman

2005-01-01

395

Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

Smith, Feon M.

2012-01-01

396

Effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive-Whiteboard Instruction on Primary Students' Vocabulary Achievement- and Attitude-Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This researcher examined the effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive Whiteboard instruction on short- and long-term word-recall and attitude-test scores of primary students. The sample included 87 children, 45 kindergarten and 42 first-grade students. Participants were 41 males and 46 females from a suburban elementary…

Masera, Ronald M.

2010-01-01

397

Multi-tiered Systems of Supports: An Investigative Study of Their Impact on Third Grade Reading Test Scores in an Urban District  

E-print Network

and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. _______________________________ Chairperson Wayne Sailor _______________________________ Bruce Frey... version of the following dissertation: MULTI-TIERED SYSTEMS OF SUPPORTS: AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY OF THEIR IMPACT ON THIRD GRADE READING TEST SCORES IN AN URBAN DISTRICT _______________________________ Chairperson Wayne Sailor...

Haynes, Heather

2012-05-31

398

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

399

A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

2011-01-01

400

The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

Licata, L.

1992-01-01

401

Walk Score®  

PubMed Central

Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, Jose

2013-01-01

402

Walk Score  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a walkable community, is there a way to determine which neighborhood might be best for you? Interested parties might use the Walk Score to get a basic sense of nearby amenities, such as grocery stores, parks, restaurants, and so on. Visitors can type in a street address or neighborhood, and they can find out the location's cumulative Walk Score. Also, visitors can use the site to find out about potential nearby rental properties, if they are so inclined. This site is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-04-27

403

Infrared telescope design - Implications from cryogenic tests of fused-silica mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of results from recent cryogenic tests of fused-silica mirrors is given with consideration of the implications for the design of cooled infrared telescopes. Implications include optical performance with a discusion of the top-down optical error budgeting for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), thermal properties of the mirrors, and mirror mounting.

Melugin, R. K.; Miller, J. H.

1983-01-01

404

Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.  

PubMed

A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively. PMID:25258285

Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

2014-11-01

405

The diagnostic utility of savings scores: Differentiating Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases with the logical memory and visual reproduction tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has demonstrated that patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) evidence more rapid forgetting than do patients with Huntington's disease (HD). The present study focused on whether such group differences translated into measures with adequate sensitivity and specificity at different stages of these disorders. It was found that measures of forgetting (i.e., Savings scores) based upon the

Alexander I. Tröster; Nelson Butters; David P. Salmon; C. Munro Cullum; Diane Jacobs; Jason Brandt; Roberta F. White

1993-01-01

406

Effect of Interactive Whiteboard Instruction on 5th Grade Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of mathematics instruction using the interactive whiteboard (IWB) for 1, 2, and 3 years. Guided by Gagne's conditions of learning theory, this program evaluation study investigated the impact of receiving 1, 2, or 3 years of mathematics instruction using the IWB on mathematics scores on the…

Rains, Cherri Sloan

2011-01-01

407

Impact of a School-Based Test Preparation Course on ACT Scores with Consideration of Cultural Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student success in attaining college acceptance, gaining scholarship(s), and having postsecondary education or workforce choice is closely tied to achievement on the most widely used and accepted college entrance examination, the "ACT". Researchers have studied various interventions designed to impact "ACT" scores, but one noticeable gap in…

Justus, Leisa Collins

2010-01-01

408

Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

2011-01-01

409

Health System Implications of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genome Testing  

PubMed Central

Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing is now widely available to consumers. Proponents argue that knowledge is power but critics worry about consumer safety and potential harms resulting from misinterpretation of test information. In this article, we consider the health system implications of direct-to-consumer personal genome testing, focusing on issues of accountability, both corporate and professional. PMID:21071927

McGuire, Amy L.; Burke, Wylie

2010-01-01

410

Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri Draw-A-Person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children.  

PubMed

The study investigated whether mental age in children, as assessed by the IQ in the Draw-A-Person (DAP) test (Naglieri, 1988), can be improved by practice. In addition, it was tested whether children needed novel content to keep up their performance level during test repetition. The DAP test was given to 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-old children (N = 80) 3 times. In addition, they drew a police figure 3 times, with task sequence counterbalanced. Repeated drawings resulted in significant omission of detail and deterioration of scores, but the novel task instruction temporarily recovered the IQ scores. This did not occur in the reverse sequence of the tasks, with the less specified DAP instruction given in the 2nd half of the drawing series. Furthermore, structural regressions in the human figure drawing could be observed in individual cases. However, 12-year-olds did not need the external introduction of novel content to maintain their IQ score. Correlations showed that this age group redefined their drawing plan on each repetition, and often created unique figures on each occasion, even if the instruction had stayed the same. PMID:24188151

Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno; Chromekova, Marta

2014-03-01

411

The new Qualitative Scoring MMSE Pentagon Test (QSPT) as a valid screening tool between autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Visual-constructional apraxia is a prominent feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that might help to clinically distinguish it from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main goal of this study was to assess performance on the copy intersecting-pentagon item of the Mini-Mental State Examination with the new Qualitative Scoring method for the Pentagon copy Test (QSPT). In order to determine which aspects of the drawings might differentiate DLB from AD, pentagon drawings of autopsy-verified DLB (n = 16) and AD (n = 15) patients were assessed using the QSPT. The qualitative scoring encompasses the assessment of different parameters of the drawing, such as number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation, and closing-in. The QSPT scores were compared between groups using linear analyses and artificial neural network analyses at four different time points. Linear analyses showed that during the first evaluation, number of angles was the only parameter that showed a significant difference between DLB and AD patients. A gradual decline in other parameters and total pentagon score occurred in both groups during subsequent years, with greater decline for the DLB group. The artificial neural network analyses using auto-contractive maps showed that, with disease progression, DLB became related to relatively lower qualitative pentagon scores, whereas AD became related to relatively higher qualitative scores. These findings suggest that the QSPT might be a sensitive measure of visuo-constructive abilities able to differentiate DLB from AD at disease onset and as the diseases progress, but further studies on larger population are necessary in order to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:24284368

Mitolo, Micaela; Salmon, David P; Gardini, Simona; Galasko, Douglas; Grossi, Enzo; Caffarra, Paolo

2014-01-01

412

A Study of the Relationship Between Scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT Series II), the College English Placement Test (CEPT) and Academic Achievement in American History and Constitution (History 27).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of an investigation of the relationship between scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), the College English Placement Test (CEPT), and grades earned in American History and Constitution (History 27 at Cerritos College, California) in order to ascertain if predictability of "successful" or "unsuccessful"…

Schaumburg, Gary F.

413

Payload test philosophy. [implications of STS development at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of STS development for payload testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center are reviewed. The biggest impact of STS may be that instead of testing the entire payload, most of the testing may have to be limited to the subsystem or subassembly level. Particular consideration is given to the Goddard protoflight concept in which the test is geared to the design qualification levels, the test durations being those that are expected during the actual launch sequence.

Arman, A.

1979-01-01

414

34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§...

2010-07-01

415

Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.  

PubMed

Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. PMID:22014834

Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

2012-01-01

416

Risk stratification of patients in an emergency department chest pain unit: prognostic value of exercise treadmill testing using the Duke score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Exercise treadmill testing (ETT) has been standard for evaluating outpatients at risk for cardiovascular events. Few studies\\u000a have demonstrated its prognostic usefulness in emergency department chest pain units or have used the Duke score [(exercise\\u000a duration in minutes) ? (5 × ST-segment deviation in millimeters) ? (4 × treadmill angina index)] to grade its performance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims   Our objective was to

Gregory G. Johnson; Wyatt W. Decker; Joseph K. Lobl; Dennis A. Laudon; Jennifer J. Hess; Christine M. Lohse; Amy L. Weaver; Deepi G. Goyal; Peter A. Smars; Guy S. Reeder

2008-01-01

417

Accuracy of High School Grades and College Admissions Test Scores for Predicting Different Levels of Academic Achievement in College. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the cross-validated accuracy of American College Test (ACT) Composite score and high school grade point average (GPA) (HSAV) for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. Logistic regression models were developed by institution, for predicting GPA levels of 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 or higher. These…

Noble, Julie; Sawyer, Richard

418

A study of supplemental CAI effects on dosage calculation test scores of low- and high-aptitude\\/achievement baccalaureate nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the effect of a researcher-written, supplemental computer-assisted instruction (CAI) dosage calculation drill-and-practice program on dosage calculation test scores of low- and high-aptitude baccalaureate degree nursing students. Specifically, the study sought to determine, first, if nursing students derive benefit from a supplemental CAI dosage calculation program, and, second, if low-aptitude\\/achievement nursing students derive greater benefit

Thomas George Weaver

1989-01-01

419

Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

Knupp, Tawnya Lee

2009-01-01

420

An Examination of the Validity of English-Language Achievement Test Scores in an English Language Learner Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,700 English language learners (ELLs) and former ELL students, in Grades 4 and 10, were tested using both an English-language (Stanford Achievement Test, 9th ed.) and a Spanish-language (Aprenda, 2nd ed.) achievement test. Their performances on the two tests were contrasted. The results showed that ELL students, for the most part,…

Abella, Rodolfo; Urrutia, Joanne; Shneyderman, Aleksandr

2005-01-01

421

Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

Hisama, Kay K.

422

A Lower Bound to the Probability of Choosing the Optimal Passing Score for a Mastery Test When There is an External Criterion [and] Estimating the Parameters of the Beta-Binomial Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mastery test is frequently described as follows: an examinee responds to n dichotomously scored test items. Depending upon the examinee's observed (number correct) score, a mastery decision is made and the examinee is advanced to the next level of instruction. Otherwise, a nonmastery decision is made and the examinee is given remedial work. This…

Wilcox, Rand R.

423

Galtonian eugenics and the study of growth: the relation of body size, intelligence test score, and social circumstances in children and adults.  

PubMed

The attempt is made to describe and analyze the way in which mental ability, physical size, and social circumstances are related in children and adults. This example is used to develop the thesis that is exactly at the interphase of heredity and environment that positive eugenices may make a significant impact. The belief is that the positive eugenists attention should be directed at providing the environmental stimuli most appropriate to evoke and derive from each zygote those potentialities which would best enrich and humanize the culture. Focus is on body size and mental ability, the number of children in the family, occupational or socioeconomic class, social stratification and the steady state. Among children of school age there is a significant but low correlation between body size and scores in various tests of ability and attainment, such that larger children score more highly than children of the same age. This correlation diminishes when maturity is reached, but it does not totally disappear. The greater the number of chidlren in the family the lower their height and the less their scores in mental tests. There are also differences in height and mental ability between children in different socioeconomic groups and these persist to a degree into adult. Taller women tend to rise in the social scale, both in getting jobs and in marriage, while shorter women, on average, tend to sink. It is not known in what proportions heredity and environment contribute to these effects. PMID:5913725

Tanner, J M

1966-09-01

424

Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC): Testing and Implications on IPv4 and IPv6 Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research study, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec): Testing and Implications on IPv4 and IPv6 Networks, was conducted at the United States Naval Academy (USNA) with the goal of developing, employing, testing, and analyzing the IPSec protocol over IPv4...

J. E. Domagalski

2008-01-01

425

Recent Developments in Hardness Testing and their Implications for Standardisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses two current developments in the field of hardness testing. Recent proposals for the Rockwell C scale should make it possible for a ‘Unified’ Rockwell scale with agreement between National Standards Laboratories within 0.1 HRC. The need for better understanding of the Ultra Micro Indentation Test, where force and penetration are recorded simultaneously, will also be discussed. Difficulties

T. J. Bell; E. G. Thwaited

1999-01-01

426

Developmental tasks of childhood and adolescence: implications for genetic testing.  

PubMed

Many reports have recently recommended a careful weighing of the potential benefits and harms of genetic testing (carrier or predisposition) of children and adolescents [Andrews et al., Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1994; Wertz et al., JAMA, 272:875-881, 1994; Clinical Genetics Society (UK), J Med Genet, 31:785-797, 1994; ASHJ/ACMG, Am J Hum Genet, 57:1233-1241, 1995]. Despite this, youngsters are currently being tested for late-onset disorders as well as for carrier status [Reilly and Wertz, Am J Hum Genet, 57:A57, 1995]. Many children to be tested will be those in at-risk families, who may already have experienced the chronic illness or death of a close relative. Thus, reactions to testing will be influenced by prior family experiences. Emotional reactions to testing will be determined by both the child's cognitive and psychosocial development. Testing of adolescents may alter the achievement of developmental tasks, including seeking freedom from parental figures, establishment of personal identity, handling of sexual energies, and remodeling of former idealizations of self and others. There are many potential dilemmas in deciding whether to test a child or adolescent for genetic status. If parents choose not to test, the risk is for later difficulty integrating such information into the self concept. If parents test and do not tell results, the risk is for creating a climate of family secrecy. If parents test and tell results, the risk is robbing the child of the autonomy of his or her own later decision. Perhaps the question of whether to test is not the real question. More than genetic testing, genetic counseling is of crucial importance in thoughtful decisions concerning whether to test an individual child or adolescent. A more important question may be how to provide unaffected children in at-risk families with appropriate counseling. Provision of psychosocial support to at-risk families will enable the child to encounter genetic testing, if necessary, supported with the best possible resources. PMID:9215763

Fanos, J H

1997-07-11

427

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

2006-01-01

428

The Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on WISC-IV Spanish Domain Scores in Its Standardization Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of individually administered measures of intelligence and other cognitive abilities requires clinicians to monitor a client's test behaviors, given the need for a client to be engaged fully, attentive, and cooperative during the testing process. The use of standardized and norm-referenced measures of test-taking behaviors facilitates this…

Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Harris, Josette G.

2012-01-01

429

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not outperform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation suggests an additional explanation: Girls are more self-disciplined,

Angela Lee Duckworth; Martin E. P. Seligman

2006-01-01

430

Use of Writing Samples on Standardized Tests: Susceptibility to Rule-Based Coaching and the Resulting Effects on Score Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing use of writing assessments in standardized tests, little is known about coaching effects on writing assessments. Therefore, this study tested the effects of short-term coaching on standardized writing tests, and the transfer of those effects to other writing genres. College freshmen were randomly assigned to either training…

Hardison, Chaitra M.; Sackett, Paul R.

2008-01-01

431

Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

1987-01-01

432

Examinee Judgments of Changes in Item Difficulty: Implications for Item Review in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether providing item review on a computerized adaptive test could be used by examinees to inflate their scores. Two studies involving 139 undergraduates suggest that examinees are not highly proficient at discriminating item difficulty. A simulation study showed the usefulness of a strategy identified by G. Kingsbury (1996) as a way to…

Wise, Steven L.; Finney, Sara J.; Enders, Craig K.; Freeman, Sharon A.; Severance, Donald D.

1999-01-01

433

The Accuracy of Examinee Judgments of Relative Item Difficulty: Implications for Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which item review on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) could be used by examinees to inflate their scores artificially was studied. G. G. Kingsbury (1996) described a strategy in which examinees could use the changes in item difficulty during a CAT to determine which items' answers are incorrect and should be changed during item…

Wise, Steven L.; And Others

434

HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across Canada, including AIDS service organizations, health centers, community organizations, and friendship centers. Youth who had tested for HIV ranged in age from 15 to 30 years of age (20% were <20), and came from First Nations (75%), Metis (14%), and Inuit (9%) backgrounds. Participants lived in all provinces and one territory. Over half (62%) were female. While the majority of survey respondents indicated at their last HIV test they had been treated with care (80%), respect (77%), or kindness (76%), some reported being treated with hostility (19%), fear (12%), discrimination (11%), avoidance (10%), or being treated in a bored way (15%). When asked about information they had received, 28% of survey respondents could not remember; 23% said they were not given any information, and 24% said their questions were not answered. Emotional reactions to testing ranged from anxiety/apprehension (64% of survey respondents) to being "calm" (19%). When asked for suggestions to improve testing services, participants indicated emotional support, compassion, professional yet personable services, and personalized HIV information were important. Study results suggest that to facilitate HIV testing for Aboriginal youth, testing services and counseling must be respectful, compassionate, non-judgmental, and culturally responsive in order to provide emotional support and HIV information that is meaningful and memorable. PMID:20635240

Worthington, Catherine; Jackson, Randy; Mill, Judy; Prentice, Tracey; Myers, Ted; Sommerfeldt, Susan

2010-10-01

435

Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics-implications for testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various forms of bifurcations that can occur between steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate the various ways in which bifurcations may intervene to influence the outcome of dynamics tests involving unsteady aerodynamics. The presence of bifurcation phenomena in such tests must be taken into consideration to ensure the proper interpretation of results, and some recommendations are made to that end.

Chapman, Gary T.; Tobak, Murray

1988-01-01

436

Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

Looney, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

437

High Scores but Low Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

2011-01-01

438

Diagnostic Efficiency of Neuropsychological Test Scores for Discriminating Boys With and Without Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature has documented group differences between boys with and without attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on neuropsychological tests; however, whether or not such tests can discriminate individuals with ADHD from non-ADHD controls remains unclear. This study used conditional probability and receiver operating characteristic analyses to examine the efficiency of test-based diagnostic discriminations in a large sample of referred boys

Alysa E. Doyle; Joseph Biederman; Larry J. Seidman; Wendy Weber; Stephen V. Faraone

2000-01-01

439

Empirical tests on regressive estimations: implications on surveys and diaries.  

PubMed

Using a large real-life corporate database initially consisting of 3,990 heads of households stratified on the basis of various demographic and geographic variables, and whose communication activities (long distance telephone calls, letters, cards, and visits) were surveyed and monitored, this study investigated the direction as well as magnitude of estimation errors in survey responses and diary entries. Supporting the 1994 Fiedler and Armbruster psychometric formulation and conjecture, we show that estimation errors in reports of the frequency and duration of people's own communication activities exhibit a consistent tendency to regress toward the mean. This regressive estimation is greater for those who are further away from the mean in actual behavior and is proportional to the actual deviation from the mean. Furthermore, this regressive estimation is inversely related to the average frequency across behavioral categories. An important implication of our findings is that the distribution of estimated behavioral frequencies and durations appear more concentrated in surveys than they actually are in the general population, although the general shape of the distribution is unaffected. PMID:15217072

Toh, Rex S; Lee, Eunkyu; Hu, Michael Y

2004-06-01

440

Estimating Average Domain Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study was performed to determine whether a group's average percent correct in a content domain could be accurately estimated for groups taking a single test form and not the entire domain of items. Six Item Response Theory (IRT) -based domain score estimation methods were evaluated, under conditions of few items per content area per…

Pommerich, Mary; Nicewander, W. Alan

441

The Relationship of the Purpose in Life (PIL) Test to the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test Scores, and Grade Point Averages of High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It appears that a positive relationship exists between certain attributes of a self-actualizing person and the life style of the person who scores high on the Purpose in Life Test. Perhaps self-actualization and strong purpose in life are related secondarily through separate relationships with other variables. (Author/JKS)

Martin, John D.; Martin, Elinor M.

1977-01-01

442

Practicing Accounting Profession Criterial Skills in the Classroom: A Study of Collaborative Testing and the Impact on Final Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study (Creswell, 2008) was designed to test the influence of collaborative testing on learning using a quasi-experimental approach. This study used a modified embedded mixed method design in which the qualitative and quantitative data, associated with the secondary questions, provided a supportive role in a study based primarily…

VanderLaan, Ski R.

2010-01-01

443

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

444

A Phenomenological Case Study of African American Students Who Achieved Success Despite Scoring Low on Standardized Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized tests continue to be used in the United States to evaluate applicants for admission to most colleges and universities, which often results in less access for students--specifically students of color--who may have been inadequately prepared in grades K-12 for standardized testing. The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to…

Blanding, Joseph Dwayne

2010-01-01

445

The Irish Experience in Competency Testing: Implications for American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the negative outcomes of the mandatory external primary school-leaving certificate examination administered to Irish sixth-graders, 1943-67. Concludes that the Irish experience should warn American educators of the possible dangers of using minimum competency tests as the sole or primary determinant of decisions concerning grade-to-grade…

Madaus, George F; Greaney, Vincent

1985-01-01

446

Robert's Rules for Optimal Learning: Model Development, Field Testing, Implications!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of accelerated learning techniques developed by the national organization for Suggestive Accelerated Learning Techniques (SALT) was tested in a study using Administrative Policy students taking the capstone course in the Eastern Washington University School of Business. Educators have linked the brain and how it functions to various…

McGinty, Robert L.

447

Legal and Ethical Implications of Opt?Out HIV Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that opt-out screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without written patient consent be part of routine clinical care and imply that state HIV-associated laws in conflict with this approach should be amended. However, HIV testing and treatment issues are governed by a range of federal and state laws, common

Catherine Hanssens

2007-01-01

448

Cost implications of specialized coagulation testing for acute ischemic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Hypercoagulable states are a rare but recognized cause of ischemic stroke. Evaluation for these coagulation disorders is costly, but establishing a diagnosis may lead to a change in treatment. We estimated the incremental cost of specialized coagulation testing per additional ischemic stroke patient placed on a regimen of warfarin therapy. Methods: The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based

Cheryl D. Bushnell; Santanu K. Datta; Larry B. Goldstein

2001-01-01

449

A Clinical Scoring System for Selection of Patients for PTEN Mutation Testing Is Proposed on the Basis of a Prospective Study of 3042 Probands  

PubMed Central

Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome are allelic, defined by germline PTEN mutations, and collectively referred to as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. To date, there are no existing criteria based on large prospective patient cohorts to select patients for PTEN mutation testing. To address these issues, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in which 3042 probands satisfying relaxed CS clinical criteria were accrued. PTEN mutation scanning, including promoter and large deletion analysis, was performed for all subjects. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 290 individuals (9.5%). To evaluate clinical phenotype and PTEN genotype against protein expression, we performed immunoblotting (PTEN, P-AKT1, P-MAPK1/2) for a patient subset (n = 423). In order to obtain an individualized estimation of pretest probability of germline PTEN mutation, we developed an optimized clinical practice model to identify adult and pediatric patients. For adults, a semiquantitative score—the Cleveland Clinic (CC) score—resulted in a well-calibrated estimation of pretest probability of PTEN status. Overall, decreased PTEN protein expression correlated with PTEN mutation status; decreasing PTEN protein expression correlated with increasing CC score (p < 0.001), but not with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria (p = 0.11). For pediatric patients, we identified highly sensitive criteria to guide PTEN mutation testing, with phenotypic features distinct from the adult setting. Our model improved sensitivity and positive predictive value for germline PTEN mutation relative to the NCCN 2010 criteria in both cohorts. We present the first evidence-based clinical practice model to select patients for genetics referral and PTEN mutation testing, further supported biologically by protein correlation. PMID:21194675

Tan, Min-Han; Mester, Jessica; Peterson, Charissa; Yang, Yiran; Chen, Jin-Lian; Rybicki, Lisa A.; Milas, Kresimira; Pederson, Holly; Remzi, Berna; Orloff, Mohammed S.; Eng, Charis

2011-01-01

450

The evolution of autism research: A study assessing the use of calibrated severity scores and the social responsiveness scale with implications for future data collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze two instruments used in a large scale Autism genetics consortium. One instrument yields a Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) and involves a structured assessment that must be completed by a highly skilled and trained professional. The next instrument, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), is a questionnaire that can be filled out by a parent

Alison C Vehorn

2012-01-01

451

The Relationship between Scores on a Diagnostic Writing Skills Test and Success in a Basic Business Communication Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that the Diagnostic Writing Skills Test, used as a diagnostic grammar pretest for students in a basic business communication course, shows positive correlations between the pretest and the final course grade, but does not predict that grade. (SR)

Richerson, Virginia; Sutrick, Kenneth

1992-01-01

452

Differential Prediction of FAA Academy Performance on the Basis of Race and Written Air Traffic Control Specialist Aptitude Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The written air traffic control specialist (ATCS) aptitude test battery was evaluated for evidence of predictive bias within the framework of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (29 CFR 1607) in a retrospective analysis. Step-down hier...

D. Broach, W. L. Farmer, W. C. Young

1999-01-01

453

The question of validity of neuropsychological test scores among head-injured litigants: Development of a dissimulation index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of 20 head-injured subjects were studied. One group was involved in litigation related to the head injury and the other group was not involved in litigation. Every subject had been tested twice, with the intertest mean interval for the two groups ranging from 12.00 to 14.45 months, a statistically insignificant difference. Two indexes of consistency of test-retest performance,

Ralph M. Reitan; Deborah Wolfson

1996-01-01

454

Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

2013-01-01

455

Day-to-day fluctuation of point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test scores and faecal egg counts in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the variation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine and egg counts variation in stool between days in Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infected individuals is vital to decide whether or not to rely on a single-sample test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis. In this study, the magnitude of day-to-day variation in urine-CCA test scores and in faecal egg counts was evaluated in school children in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 620 school children (age 8 to 12 years) were examined for S. mansoni infection using double Kato-Katz and single urine-CCA cassette methods (batch 32727) on three consecutive days. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 81.1% based on triple urine-CCA-cassette test and 53.1% based on six Kato-Katz thick smears. Among the study participants, 26.3% showed fluctuation in urine CCA and 32.4% showed fluctuation in egg output. Mean egg count as well as number of cases in each class of intensity and intensity of cassette band color varied over the three days of examination. Over 85% of the children that showed day-to-day variations in status of S. mansoni infection from negative to positive or vice versa by the Kato-Katz and the CCA methods had light intensity of infection. The fluctuation in both the CCA test scores and faecal egg count was not associated with age and sex. Conclusions The current study showed day-to-day variation in CCA and Kato-Katz test results of children infected with S. mansoni. This indicates the necessity of more than one urine or stool samples to be collected on different days for more reliable diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in low endemic areas. PMID:24742192

2014-01-01

456

Comparison among pulmonary function test results, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and the Brasfield score in patients with cystic fibrosis* Comparação entre provas de função pulmonar, escore de Shwachman-Kulczycki e escore de Brasfield em pacientes com fibrose cística  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study correlations among pulmonary function, chest radiology and clinical status in cystic fibrosis. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate chest X-rays and clinical charts of patients treated at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Spirometry findings, Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores and Brasfield scores were analyzed. Results: The final sample consisted of 40 patients (mean age

Ivanice Duarte Freire; Fernando Antônio de Abreu; Manuel Ângelo de Araújo

2008-01-01

457

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

458

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2010-01-01

459

Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

460

Something That Test Scores Do Not Show: Engaging in Community Diversity as a Local Response to Global Education Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Smith Street Elementary School, the globalizing education trends that English language learner (ELL) teachers face focus on measuring student achievement through testing and the English mainstreaming of non-dominant students as opposed to the cultivation of the students' linguistic and cultural diversity. The ELL teachers at Smith Street…

Valdiviezo, Laura A.

2014-01-01

461

Auditory and visual working memory performance in schizophrenic patients with low scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has frequently been postulated to be one typical feature indicating frontal dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. From a functional point of view, impairments were attributed to a dysfunction of working memory. The present study compares the performance of groups of schizophrenic patients, groups of patients with acquired brain damage as well

Georg Grön

1998-01-01

462

Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

2014-01-01

463

The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

2014-01-01

464

The effect of classroom-based distraction on Continuous Performance Test scores of ADHD and nonADHD children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether a condition imposing naturalistic, classroom-based distraction affected performances of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to children not diagnosed with this disorder (nonADHD) on measures of sustained attention and impulse control. Changes in the testing condition of ADHD children were examined to determine if they could affect the ecological validity

David Lynn Rickman

2000-01-01

465

Table of SAT and Achievement Test Scores for Samples of Candidates Taking Achievement Tests 1966-67 to 1975-76.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This table provides the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Achievement Test means and standard deviations for samples of candidates taking each of the 15 achievement tests offered in the Admissions Testing Program battery during the period 1966-67 to 1975-76. The samples, drawn annually through 1971-72 and biennially thereafter, provide…

Stern, June

466

The mediating effect of age on the relationship between child behavior checklist hyperactivity scores and neuropsychological test performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between hyperactivity and neuropsychological test performance at different age levels was examined. It was found that for young children (6 to 8 years of age, n=90), there was no significant association between hyperactivity\\/attentional problems (as measured by the Hyperactivity scale of the Child Behavior Checklist) and performance on neuropsychological tasks thought to contain an attentional component (WISC-R Coding,

Paul J. Massman; Nancy L. Nussbaum; Erin D. Bigler

1988-01-01

467

One generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male rat pups at weaning (21 days of age) were subjected to a diet deficient or adequate in n-3 polyunsatu- rated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for 15 weeks. Performance on tests of locomotor activity, depression, and aggression was measured in that order during the ensuing 3 weeks, after which brain lipid composition was determined. In the n-3 PUFA-deprived rats, compared

James C. DeMar; Kiazong Ma; Jane M. Bell; Miki Igarashi; Deanna Greenstein; Stanley I. Rapoport

2005-01-01

468

Mediators of Gender Differences in Mathematics College Entrance Test Scores: A Comparison of Spatial Skills With Internalized Beliefs and Anxieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether spatial skill, math anxiety, and math self-confidence functioned as mediators of a significant gender difference in the Mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-M) among the top third of a college-bound sample. Using path analytic techniques, the decomposition of the significant gender–SAT-M correlation into direct and indirect effects indicated that there were no direct effects

M. Beth Casey; Ronald L. Nuttall; Elizabeth Pezaris

1997-01-01

469

Relationships between Gender and Alberta Diploma Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of all January and June 2000 test scores for Alberta high school seniors found weak relationships between gender and both diploma examination and school-awarded scores. The largest statistical effect for gender was that the difference between the two sets of scores was greater for girls than boys, with school-awarded scores being higher.…

Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Cammaert, Ron

2002-01-01

470

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

471

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia. PMID:24790713

2014-01-01

472

In-Basket Scoring Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contains in-depth explanations of the 58 scoring categories used in evaluating performance on an "in-basket" situational test for management trainees. A sample scoring sheet, respondent rating scale, and a list of possible responses are included. (DLG)

Carlton, Sydell T.; Brault, Margueritte B.

473

Echinocandin resistance, susceptibility testing and prophylaxis: implications for patient management.  

PubMed

This article addresses the emergence of echinocandin resistance among Candida species, mechanisms of resistance, factors that promote resistance and confounding issues surrounding standard susceptibility testing. Fungal infections remain a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, especially among patients with underlying immunosupression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient management for acute and chronic diseases. Yet, therapeutic choices are limited due to only a few drug classes available to treat systemic disease. Moreover, the problem is exacerbated by the emergence of antifungal resistance, which has resulted in difficult to manage multidrug resistant strains. Echinocandin drugs are now the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. These drugs target and inhibit the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures involving acquisition of resistance among susceptible organisms like Candida albicans is largely a rare event. However, in recent years, there is an alarming trend of increased resistance among strains of Candida glabrata, which in many cases are also resistant to azole drugs. Echinocandin resistance is always acquired during therapy and the mechanism of resistance is well established to involve amino acid changes in "hot-spot" regions of the Fks subunits carrying the catalytic portion of glucan synthase. These changes significantly decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug resulting in higher MIC values. A range of drug responses, from complete to partial refractory response, is observed depending on the nature of the amino acid substitution, and clinical responses are recapitulated in pharmacodynamic models of infection. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant Fks strains involve complex stress response pathways, which yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Stress-adapted cells become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:25255923

Perlin, David S

2014-09-01

474

Improved Long-Term Outcome of Surgery for Advanced Colorectal Liver Metastases: Reasons and Implications for Management on the Basis of a Severity Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The outcome of liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) appears to be improving despite the fact that surgery\\u000a is offered to patients with more-severe disease. To quantify this assumption and to understand its causes we analyzed a series\\u000a of patients on the basis of a standardized severity score and changes in management occurring over the years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients’ characteristics, operative

Axel Andres; Pietro E. Majno; Philippe Morel; Laura Rubbia-Brandt; Emiliano Giostra; Pascal Gervaz; Sylvain Terraz; Abdelkarim S. Allal; Arnaud D. Roth; Gilles Mentha

2008-01-01

475

Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that procedure fails to take the characteristics of institutional student cohorts into

Agnieszka Bielinska-Kwapisz; F. William Brown; Richard Semenik

2012-01-01

476

Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

2012-01-01

477

Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea: Implications for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Point-of-care (POC) testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection. Conclusions The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines. PMID:24956111

Natoli, Lisa; Maher, Lisa; Shephard, Mark; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Badman, Steven G.; Ward, James; Guy, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

478

Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of child sexual abuse, including the epidemiology of major STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus, and the current recommendations for diagnostic testing in this population. PMID:20610820

Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillen, Christina D.

2010-01-01

479

Mediators of gender differences in mathematics college entrance test scores: a comparison of spatial skills with internalized beliefs and anxieties.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate whether spatial skill, math anxiety, and math self-confidence functioned as mediators of a significant gender difference in the Mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-M) among the top third of a college-bound sample. Using path analytic techniques, the decomposition of the significant gender-SAT-M correlation into direct and indirect effects indicated that there were no direct effects of gender on SAT-M. Mental rotation and math self-confidence showed indirect effects, mediating the gender-SAT-M relationship; math anxiety did not. Of these indirect effects, 36% was mediated by math self-confidence; 64% by mental rotation. For both these variables, most of the mediational effects of the gender-SAT-M relationship did not occur by way of the causal pathway leading through geometry grades. Thus, the mediational effects cannot simply be attributed to the presence of geometry items on the SAT-M or to math self-confidence acquired during prior geometry coursework. PMID:9232382

Casey, M B; Nuttall, R L; Pezaris, E

1997-07-01

480

Nature and implications of selective impairment on the booklet category test and Wisconsin card sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuropsychological characteristics of patients, selected on the basis of their pattern of performance on the Booklet Category Test (BCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), were assessed. Correlation and factor analyses revealed that the BCT and WCST shared minimal variance in a neuropsychological test battery. There were no statistically significant differences on individual neuropsychological tests between groups of

Jacques Donders; Ned Kirsch

1991-01-01

481

Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Recent findings Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Summary Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation. PMID:23242343

Tucker, Joseph D.; Bien, Cedric H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

2013-01-01

482

Can normal-score data transformations improve the Ensemble Kalman Filter? Application and test on a hydraulic tomography example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of hydrogeological parameters introduces uncertainty into predictions of groundwater flow and contaminant transport processes. Prediction uncertainty can be reduced by conditioning spatially distributed parameter fields to field measurements. In this work, we use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to condition random log-conductivity fields on available measurement data and quantify the remaining uncertainty of model predictions. The main drawback of EnKFs is their optimality in the sense of Bayesian updating only if all involved variables (parameters and data) are multivariate Gaussian. This is a major limitation when applying EnKFs to subsurface parameter estimation, since flow and transport variables generally do not show multivariate Gaussian dependence on the parameter log-conductivity and among each other, even if log-conductivity is assumed to be multi-Gaussian. To mitigate the effects of non-Gaussianity on the performance of the EnKF, we propose non-linear, monotonous transformations that render arbitrary marginal distributions of state variables univariate Gaussian. We show that this transformation (Gaussian anamorphosis, GA) leads to an implicit pseudo-linearization of the dependence of the state variable on the parameter field, which can be exploited more efficiently by the filter. The expected usefulness of GA can be evaluated beforehand by applying copula-based multivariate analysis tools. The transformation is followed by the classical updating scheme of the EnKF, thus we denote this procedure as tEnKF. The performance of the tEnKF is illustrated by an application to parameter estimation from synthetic 3-D and 2-D hydraulic tomography data in multi-Gaussian log-conductivity fields. Additionally, we compare the performance of the tEnKF with a reference solution obtained with a brute-force statistical filter for Bayesian updating. Comparing to the reference solution, we can assess the accuracy of both prediction quality and estimated prediction uncertainty. We prove the statistical significance of our results by analyzing 200 randomized 2-D test cases. Our results show that the linearized dependence of the transformed drawdown data on log-conductivity enhances the processing quality of the available information and this increases the accuracy of parameter identification and flow and transport prognosis. The tEnKF outperforms the traditional EnKF with regard to prediction quality; also the deviation from the prediction variance of the bootstrap filter is significantly reduced. Combining EnKFs with GA is found to be a computationally efficient tool for nonlinear inversion of measurement data with improved accuracy. The tEnKF is an attractive alternative to existing linearization-free methods such as particle filters that are computationally extremely demanding and therefore limited in their applicability to high-dimensional problems in subsurface hydrology.

Nowak, Wolfgang; Schöniger, Anneli; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie Jan

2013-04-01

483

Simplified Clinical Prediction Scores to Target Viral Load Testing in Adults with Suspected First Line Treatment Failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS) for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done ‘on the spot’. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with ‘current CD4 count’ instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having ‘decrease in CD4 count below baseline value’ removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ?1.5 or ?0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33–44)); median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28–205), median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1–5.1)), were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0%) individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62–0.75) in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62–0.74), and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61–0.73). The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53–0.65). Conclusions Simplified CPSs retained acceptable accuracy as long as current CD4 count testing was included. Ease of field application and field accuracy remains to be defined. PMID:24504463

van Griensven, Johan; Phan, Vichet; Thai, Sopheak; Koole, Olivier; Lynen, Lutgarde

2014-01-01

484

Research into Sexism in Language Testing & Its Implications to Language Testing in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews foreign and domestic sexism research and practice in language testing and reveals that China lags behind in this sociolinguistics perspective in both theoretical study and practice. The paper indicates that sexism is represented in the listening comprehension section in National Matriculation English Test (NMET) after a case…

Tao, Baiqiang

2007-01-01

485

Validation of the accuracy of pretest and exercise test scores in women with a low prevalence of coronary disease: The NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Each score stratified women into 3 probability groups (P.001) according to the prevalence of coronary disease: Pretest: low 20\\/164 (12%), intermediate 53\\/245 (22%), high 75\\/154 (49%); Exercise test: low 11\\/83 (13%), intermediate 22\\/74 (30%), high 17\\/32 (53%). However, the Duke score did not stratify as well: low 7\\/46 (15%), inter- mediate 36\\/126 (29%), high 6\\/17 (35%); P.44. When pretest

Anthony P. Morise; Marian B. Olson; C. N. Bairey Merz

2004-01-01

486

Equating Error in Observed-Score Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of test takers on one version of the test to make…

van der Linden, Wim J.

2006-01-01

487

Testing, Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons designed to prepare students for standardized tests are replacing lessons designed to help children think. Instead of national standardized test scores, schools should use local criterion-referenced tests; take a baseline measurement; compare test scores with districts having similar demographics; compare students, not grade levels; and…

Kaufhold, John A.

1995-01-01

488

Providing transparency and credibility: the selection of international students for Australian universities. An examination of the relationship between scores in the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT), final year academic programs and an Australian university’s foundation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout 2003–04 five cohorts of students in their final year of school studies in various Malaysian colleges and a group of students completing an Australian university foundation year in Malaysia sat the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT). The ISAT is a multiple?choice test of general academic abilities developed for students whose first language is not English. Both sets of scores

Kelvin Lai; Susan Nankervis; Margot Story; Wayne Hodgson; Michael Lewenberg; Marita MacMahon Ball

2008-01-01

489

The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study  

PubMed Central

Background Outcome measures are important when evaluating treatments and physiological progress in paediatric populations. Reliable, relevant measures of foot posture are important for such assessments to be accurate over time. The aim of the study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of common outcome measures for paediatric foot conditions. Methods A repeated measures, same-subject design assessed the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measures of foot posture, joint hypermobility and ankle range: the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), the ankle lunge test, the Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment scale (LLAS), used by two examiners in 30 healthy children (aged 7 to 15 years). The Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OxAFQ-C) was completed by participants and a parent, to assess the extent of foot and ankle problems. Results The OxAFQ-C demonstrated a mean (SD) score of 6 (6) in adults and 7(5) for children, showing good agreement between parents and children, and which indicates mid-range (transient) disability. Intra-rater reliability was good for the FPI-6 (ICC = 0.93 - 0.94), ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.85-0.95), Beighton scale (ICC = 0.96-0.98) and LLAS (ICC = 0.90-0.98). Inter-rater reliability was largely good for each of the: FPI-6 (ICC = 0.79), ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.83), Beighton scale (ICC = 0.73) and LLAS (ICC = 0.78). Conclusion The four measures investigated demonstrated adequate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in this paediatric sample, which further justifies their use in clinical practice. PMID:22230105

2012-01-01

490

Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

2012-01-01

491

How Do We Find the Best Teachers? A Study of the Relationships among SAT, GPA, Praxis Series Test Scores, and Teaching Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores relationships among grade point average (GPA), SAT scores, and Praxis I and II scores for traditional undergraduate preservice teachers, describing the development of an instrument to assess teaching skills. Participants were students from eight graduating classes at Elizabethtown College, Pennsylvania, from 1994-2001…

Blue, Terry W.; O'Grady, Richard J.; Toro, Juan A.; Newell, Elizabeth A.

492

Student Perceptions of the Progress Test in Two Settings and the Implications for Test Deployment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Progress Test (PT) was developed to assess student learning within integrated curricula. Whilst it is effective in promoting and rewarding deep approaches to learning in some settings, we hypothesised that implementation of the curriculum (design and assessment) may impact on students' preparation for the PT and their learning.…

Wade, Louise; Harrison, Chris; Hollands, James; Mattick, Karen; Ricketts, Chris; Wass, Val

2012-01-01

493

Substances that interfere with guaiac card tests: implications for gastric aspirate testing.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that acidic pH and several ingestible substances can cause misleading guaiac tests of gastric aspirates. In this in vitro study, over 100 foods, beverages, and drugs were diluted to concentrations potentially present in the stomachs of outpatients being evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. These were mixed with known concentrations of blood and tested with different brands of guaiac cards. Decreased guaiac test sensitivity was associated with activated charcoal, dimethylaminoethanol, red chile, N-acetylcysteine, rifampin, red Jell-O (General Foods Corp, White Plains, NY), orange juice, Pepto-Bismol (Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, NY), simethicone, spaghetti sauce, and several red wines. Chlorophyll and methylene blue-containing tablets produced false-positive results, but other blue and blue-green colored tablets did not, except at high concentrations. Previously described false-negative results with vitamin C, bile, and certain antacids were confirmed, as were false-positive results with iodide, bromide, cupric sulfate, iron salts, and hypochlorite. Physicians should exercise caution when interpreting guaiac card tests of gastric aspirates, especially in the outpatient setting. PMID:2787993

Gogel, H K; Tandberg, D; Strickland, R G

1989-09-01

494

Test Anxiety and High-Stakes Test Performance between School Settings: Implications for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the enactment of standards-based accountability in education, high-stakes tests have become the dominant method for measuring school effectiveness and student achievement. Schools and educators are under increasing pressure to meet achievement standards. However, there are variables which may interfere with the authentic measurement of…

von der Embse, Nathaniel; Hasson, Ramzi

2012-01-01

495

Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience…

García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

2014-01-01

496

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

497

Resource allocation to testes in walnut flies and implications for reproductive Laura D. Carsten-Conner a,  

E-print Network

Resource allocation to testes in walnut flies and implications for reproductive str