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1

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

2

The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

Silles, Mary A.

2010-01-01

3

The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

2008-01-01

4

Methods of Expressing Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The simplicity of standard score systems, percentile equivalents, and their relation to the ideal normal distribution are discussed and illustrated. Standard scores are z-scores, the T-scores, College Entrance Examination Board scores, and Army General Classification Test scores. A derivative of the general standard score system is the stanine…

Seashore, Harold G.

1955-01-01

5

Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

6

Sex and Ethnic Differences in Relationships of Test Anxiety to Performance in Science Examinations by Fourth and Eighth Grade Students: Implications for Valid Interpretations of Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test anxiety scores from a 15-item internally consistent instrument (r,, = .73) were correlated with performances on an aggregate science test made up of items administered over an entire school year. Samples of 171 fourth-grade and 187 eighth-grade students were subdivided by sex and race. A tendency was noted for the magnitude of correlations to be (a) higher in grade

Beverly D. Payne; Janet E. Smith; David A. Payne

1983-01-01

7

Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently??  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children’s academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children’s weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers’ assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children’s weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.

Zavodny, Madeline

2013-01-01

8

10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

Priestley, Michael

2000-01-01

9

Equating Scores From Adaptive to Linear Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test for a population of test

Wim J. van der Linden

2006-01-01

10

Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test

van der Linden, Wim J.

2006-01-01

11

Paying for Better Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper investigates if the provision of financial incentives has an impact on the performance of students in educational tests. The analysis is based on data from an experiment with high school students who answered multiple-choice items from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). As in TIMSS, the setup did not…

Eisenkopf, Gerald

2011-01-01

12

Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

2009-01-01

13

Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

Bracey, Gerald W.

2002-01-01

14

The Black-White Test Score Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

15

The Test Score Decline: Meaning and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of original papers, first published in the June and July, 1976 issues of Educational Technology Magazine, was prompted by the enormous public outcry which greeted the general public realization that achievement and college aptitude test scores were continuing in recent months and years the steady erosion which began in the…

Lipsitz, Lawrence, Ed.

16

Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

Costello, Bill

2008-01-01

17

Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

Usiskin, Zalman

2012-01-01

18

Indicators of Usefulness of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current thinking on validity suggests that educational institutions and individuals should evaluate their uses of test scores in the context of their fundamental goals. Regression coefficients and other traditional criterion-related validity statistics provide relevant information, but often do not, by themselves, address the fundamental reasons…

Sawyer, Richard

2007-01-01

19

Correlation of Sensory Integration and Praxis Test Scores with Metropolitan Achievement Test Scores in Normal Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an administration of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests and Metropolitan Achievement Tests to 30 children with no learning, behavioral, or developmental problems, correlations showed no relationship between sensory integration and achievement test scores. The findings support use of sensory integration tests as indicators of sensory and…

Walker, Kay F.; Burris, Barbara

1991-01-01

20

Implications of Multidimensionality for Total Score and Subscore Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The valid provision of subscores from an item response theory-based test implies a multidimensional test structure. Assuming, in the construction of a new test, that the test features required for a valid and reliable total test score have been specified already, this article describes the resulting subscore performance and the resulting…

Tate, Richard L.

2004-01-01

21

The Effects of Test Length and Scoring Method on the Precision of Cloze Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project is described that was undertaken to investigate: (1) how long a cloze test has to be to achieve optimum reliability without wasting anyone's time; and (2) how cloze tests should be scored in order to obtain maximum reliability. The literature recommended 50 deletions in order to provide for an adequate sample of examinee's abilities; it…

Rand, Earl

22

Achievement Test Score Decline: Do We Need to Worry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the nineteen-forties, fifties, and up to the mid-sixties, achievement test scores steadily increased. Since then, many test scores drop. The reported test score declines are more dramatic in recent years and most evident for higher grades. They are specially pronounced in verbal tests, but hold for nearly all tested areas. Specially:…

Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.

23

The Effect of Schooling and Ability of Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the e!ect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We ,nd

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

24

The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

25

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2003-01-01

26

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm is presented that can be used to equate CAT number-correct (NC) scores to a reference test. As a result, the CAT NC scores also are equated across administrations. The constraints are derived from van der Linden & Luecht’s (1998) set of conditions on item response functions that guarantees identical observed NC score distributions

Wim J. van der Linden

2001-01-01

27

Laser vector scoring system feasibility support test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Vector Scoring System (LVSS) was developed to fulfill a missile scoring requirement to recreate a missile's terminal trajectory with respect to the target. The LVSS will be installed on a QF-100D full-scale aerial target (FSAT). The system will be interfaced with the standard telementry receivers and transmitters currently in use in the QF-100D. LVSS commands and operational status will be via the DTCS data link. Scoring data will be transmitted through the existing scoring telemetry transmitter. Missles to be launched against an LVSS-equipped aircraft will be optically enhanced with stainless steel reflective bands. The refective kits will be designed for use on the AIM-7 series missiles, as well as the AMRAAM.

1983-02-01

28

Summarizing Change in Test Scores: Shortcomings of Three Common Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three commonly used methods for summarizing change in test scores: (1) change in percentile rank; (2) scale or raw score change; and (3) percent change. In general, these methods are insensitive to the measurement scale on which scores are expressed and perform mathematical operations that are…

Russell, Michael

2000-01-01

29

Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

2006-01-01

30

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nevada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Nevada's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in both subjects. Trends in average (mean) test scores

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

31

The relationship between scores on the gifted student screening scale and scores on IQ tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the relationship between scores on the Gifted Student Screening Scale (GSSS) and IQ test scores for a group of 160 students in grades 1 ? 10. Students were basically white, middle?class students from public schools in the midwest. Teachers rated students on the 20 item GSSS using a rating of 1 ? 5 for each of the

Landa L. Trentham; Eleanor G. Hall

1987-01-01

32

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm that can be used to equate CAT number-correct scores to a reference test. Used an item bank from the Law School Admission Test to compare results of the algorithm with those for equipercentile observed-score equating. Discusses advantages of the approach. (SLD)

van der Linden, Wim J.

2001-01-01

33

Observed-Score Equating as a Test Assembly Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of linear conditions on the item response functions is derived that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly that assembles a new test form to have an observed-score distribution optimally equated to the distribution of the…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.

34

Measuring the Appropriateness of Multiple-Choice Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriateness indexes (statistical formulas) for detecting suspiciously high or low scores on aptitude tests were presented, based on a simulation of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) with 3,000 simulated scores--2,800 normal and 200 suspicious. The traditional index--marginal probability--uses a model for the normal examinee's test-taking…

Levine, Michael V.; Rubin, Donald B.

35

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

36

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test showed a…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

37

Estimating Normative Scores from a Criterion-Referenced Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to show that standardized reading scores could be adequately estimated from scores on a criterion-referenced test in reading. This would reduce classroom test time, while, at the same time, provide the kinds of information teachers need to guide instruction, and the kinds of information administrators require for…

Roudabush, Glenn E.

38

Low Test Scores + High Retention Rates = More Dropouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest efforts in reform and accountability, most of which are replays of efforts enacted in the early 1980s, include the use of required minimum standardized test scores to end the practice of social promotion. Greater reliance is being placed on the use of single test scores in making all or a large part of the retention decision, despite…

Holmes, C. Thomas

2006-01-01

39

Combining several screening tests: optimality of the risk score.  

PubMed

The development of biomarkers for cancer screening is an active area of research. While several biomarkers exist, none is sufficiently sensitive and specific on its own for population screening. It is likely that successful screening programs will require combinations of multiple markers. We consider how to combine multiple disease markers for optimal performance of a screening program. We show that the risk score, defined as the probability of disease given data on multiple markers, is the optimal function in the sense that the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is maximized at every point. Arguments draw on the Neyman-Pearson lemma. This contrasts with the corresponding optimality result of classic decision theory, which is set in a Bayesian framework and is based on minimizing an expected loss function associated with decision errors. Ours is an optimality result defined from a strictly frequentist point of view and does not rely on the notion of associating costs with misclassifications. The implication for data analysis is that binary regression methods can be used to yield appropriate relative weightings of different biomarkers, at least in large samples. We propose some modifications to standard binary regression methods for application to the disease screening problem. A flexible biologically motivated simulation model for cancer biomarkers is presented and we evaluate our methods by application to it. An application to real data concerning two ovarian cancer biomarkers is also presented. Our results are equally relevant to the more general medical diagnostic testing problem, where results of multiple tests or predictors are combined to yield a composite diagnostic test. Moreover, our methods justify the development of clinical prediction scores based on binary regression. PMID:12230001

McIntosh, Martin W; Pepe, Margaret Sullivan

2002-09-01

40

Selection Bias in College Admissions Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within…

Clark, Melissa; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

2009-01-01

41

Math/FCS Class Boosts Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating mathematics with family and consumer sciences (FCS) has enabled youth to pass the Minnesota 8th Grade Math Basic Skills test. The test focuses on the eight content areas: (1) problem solving with whole numbers and fractions; (2) problem solving with percentage/ratio; (3) number sense; (4) estimation; 5) measurement; (6) tables and…

Sanden, Jan

2004-01-01

42

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

43

Observed-score equating as a test assembly problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of linear conditions on item response functions is derived that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly that assembles a new test form to have an observed-score distribution optimally equated to the distribution on an old form. For a well-designed item pool

Wim J. van der Linden; Richard M. Luecht

1998-01-01

44

Stepping Up Test Score Conditional Variances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improvements are made on previous estimates for the conditional standard error of measurement in prediction, the conditional standard error of estimation (CSEE), and the conditional standard error of prediction (CSEP). Better estimates of how test length affects CSEE and CSEP are derived. (SLD)

Woodruff, David

1991-01-01

45

Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

Issitt, Steve

2008-01-01

46

Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

Tanner, John R.

2011-01-01

47

Choosing Passing Scores for Tests Required for High School Graduation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators were asked to read a description of a minimum proficiency test required for high school graduation and select a cutoff score for it. The 24 descriptions used were formed as all possible combinations of a test content, a level of student performance, a penalty for failing the test, and a community response to the test. Of the 223…

McLarty, Joyce R.

48

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

49

Resistance Training Increases the Variability of Strength Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Informal observations made while conducting a meta-analysis of resistance training programs suggested that the between-person variation in strength test scores is greater after training than before. This study treated the informal observation as a hypothe...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2009-01-01

50

Scoring Situational Judgment Tests Using Profile Similarity Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of profile similarity metrics to score Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) that utilize rating scales to register examinee responses. The paper presents and discusses mathematical analyses that decompose distance-based m...

D. Putka J. Psotka P. J. Legree R. Kilcullen R. N. Ginter

2010-01-01

51

Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

2003-01-01

52

Relationship of Scores and Times of Test Administration via Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between scores and the times that medical students choose to take a computer-administered test. The results indicate that students who choose to take a test later within a given time period tend to perform less well than students who take the test earlier. Although the magnitude…

Gorney, Barbara; Maury, Marcia

53

Observed-Score Equating as a Test Assembly Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derives a set of linear conditions of item-response functions that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly. An example illustrates the use of the model for an item pool from the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). (SLD)

van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.

1998-01-01

54

Grades and Test Scores: Accounting for Observed Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…

Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles

2002-01-01

55

An Investigation of the Ordinal True Score Test Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the assumptions under which the ordinal true score test theory was derived was examined using (1) simulation based on classical test theory; (2) a long empirical test with data from 321 sixth graders; and (3) an extensive simulation with 480 datasets based on the 3-parameter model. (SLD)

Donoghue, John R.; Cliff, Norman

1991-01-01

56

Distinctive Feature Scoring of the California Consonant Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated a distinctive feature scoring technique for List 1 of the California Consonant Test for the purpose of improving test reliability in this test used to identify errors in speech recognition made by adult listeners (N=50) with high frequency sensorineural hearing loss. (DB)

Feeney, M. Patrick

1990-01-01

57

Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

1983-01-01

58

The impact of prepregnancy obesity on children's cognitive test scores.  

PubMed

To examine the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and cognitive test scores of children at early primary school age. A descriptive observational design was used. Study subjects consist of 3,412 US children aged 60-83 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother and Child Survey. Cognitive test scores using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition and mathematics tests were used as the outcomes of interest. Association with maternal prepregnancy obesity was examined using the ordinary least square regression controlling for intrauterine, family background, maternal and child factors. Children of obese women had 3 points (0.23 SD units) lower peabody individual achievement test (PIAT) reading recognition score (p = 0.007), and 2 points (0.16 SD units) lower PIAT mathematics scores (p < 0.0001), holding all other factors constant. As expected, cognitive test score was associated with stimulating home environment (reading: ? = 0.15, p < 0.0001, and math: ? = 0.15, p < 0.0001), household income (reading: ? = 0.03, p = 0.02 and math: ? = 0.04, p = 0.004), maternal education (reading: ? = 0.42, p = 0.0005, and math: ? = 0.32, p = 0.008), and maternal cognitive skills (reading: ? = 0.11, p < 0.0001, and math: ? = 0.09, p < 0.0001). There was a significant association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores that could not be explained by other intrauterine, family background, maternal, and child factors. Children who live in disadvantaged postnatal environments may be most affected by the effects of maternal prepregnancy obesity. Replications of the current study using different cohorts are warranted to confirm the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores. PMID:22350633

Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J; Reagan, Patricia B; Fang, Muriel Z

2013-02-01

59

The impact of prepregnancy obesity on children's cognitive test scores  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and cognitive test scores of children at early primary school age. Methods A descriptive observational design was used. Study subjects consist of 3412 US children aged 60 to 83 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother and Child Survey. Cognitive test scores using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition and mathematics tests were used as the outcomes of interest. Association with maternal prepregnancy obesity was examined using the ordinary least square regression controlling for intrauterine, family background, maternal and child factors. Results Children of obese women had 3 points (0.23 SD units) lower PIAT reading recognition score (p=0.007), and 2 points (0.16 SD units) lower PIAT mathematics scores (p<.0001), holding all other factors constant. As expected, cognitive test score was associated with stimulating home environment (reading: ?=0.15, p<.0001, and math: ?=0.15, p<.0001), household income (reading: ?=0.03, p=0.02 and math: ?=0.04, p=0.004), maternal education (reading: ?=0.42, p=0.0005, and math: ?=0.32, p=0.008), and maternal cognitive skills (reading: ?=0.11, p<.0001, and math: ?=0.09, p<.0001). Conclusion There was a significant association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores that could not be explained by other intrauterine, family background, maternal, and child factors. Children who live in disadvantaged postnatal environments may be most affected by the effects of maternal prepregnancy obesity. Replications of the current study using different cohorts are warranted to confirm the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child cognitive test scores.

Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J.; Reagan, Patricia B.; Fang, Muriel Z.

2012-01-01

60

RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

61

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

62

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

63

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware Student Testing Program ties student achievement to the state's content standards that define the knowledge and skills Delaware students need to succeed beyond high school. This report presents information to help parents interpret their children's scores on the tests, which are given in grades 3, 5, 8, and 10. Section 1 introduces…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

64

Equating Test Scores Using the Linear Method: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes four commonly used designs in equating test scores. These designs are: (1) single-group; (2) random-group; (3) equivalent-group; and (4) anchor-test. Each design requires that its data be collected according to specific guidelines. Three of the four methods are illustrated through hypothetical examples. All four methods try to…

Tanguma, Jesus

65

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

66

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

67

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Montana's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 reading. In grade 8 math, however, the percentage proficient…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

68

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on NAEP than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

69

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alabama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Alabama's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

70

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Florida's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

71

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

72

The Probability of Obtaining Two Statistically Different Test Scores as a Test Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new test index is defined as the probability of obtaining two randomly selected test scores (PDTS) as statistically different. After giving a concept definition of the test index, two simulation studies are presented. The first analyzes the influence of the distribution of test scores, test reliability, and sample size on PDTS within classical…

Muller, Jorg M.

2006-01-01

73

Assessment Test Scores of Incoming Students, Fall 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This assessment of placement test scores in reading, math, and sentence skills from incoming students at College of the Desert (California) shows that students are overwhelmingly underprepared for study at the college. Only 15% of students were prepared in sentence skills, 27% in reading skills, 7% in math skills; only 3% were prepared in all 3…

Negron, Maggie; Breindel, Matthew

74

Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

2010-01-01

75

A Bad Idea: National Standards Based on Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The justification for national standards is that test scores predict a nation's future economic success. There is no evidence that supports this assumption. There is evidence that it is wrong. For more than half a century, reformers have been trying to fix our schools with little success. The obvious conclusion is that something that can't be…

Baker, Keith

2010-01-01

76

Local Observed-Score Equating with Anchor-Test Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For traditional methods of observed-score equating with anchor-test designs, such as chain and poststratification equating, it is difficult to satisfy the criteria of equity and population invariance. Their equatings are therefore likely to be biased. The bias in these methods was evaluated against a simple local equating method in which the…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Wiberg, Marie

2010-01-01

77

Study Finds Link between Quality Music Programs, Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study found that students in high-quality school music education programs score higher on standardized tests compared to students in schools with deficient music education programs. The study, which was published in the Winter 2006 issue of MENC's Journal for Research in Music Education, is the first to examine the quality of school music…

Teaching Music, 2007

2007-01-01

78

Commentary on "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kane's paper "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores" is the most complete and clearest discussion yet available of the argument-based approach to validation. At its most basic level, validation as formulated by Kane is fundamentally a simply-stated two-step enterprise: (1) specify the claims inherent in a particular interpretation…

Brennan, Robert L.

2013-01-01

79

Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background…

Paulson, Sharon E.; Marchant, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

80

School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over…

Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane

2009-01-01

81

Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…

Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

2000-01-01

82

A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

2011-01-01

83

Effects of Coaching on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily for secondary school administrators, teachers, and counselors, this booklet summarizes the information available, as of 1965, about the ways special coaching or tutoring may affect students' scores on the College Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Coaching refers to the variety of methods used in attempting to increase, in…

College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

84

What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper by Stephen P. Klein, et al., was at the center of the Presidential campaign last week as Al Gore seized on its conclusion that the great disparity in Texas between student scores on state (Texas Assessment of Academic Skills) vs. federal (NAEP) tests suggested that the improvements claimed by Governor Bush in the state's education system were in fact inflated, possibly due to a policy of teachers teaching to the Texas tests.

85

Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

Martin, John D.; And Others

1979-01-01

86

Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

Hatcher, Donald L.

2011-01-01

87

Improving Student Achievement: What NAEP State Test Scores Tell Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the RAND organization analyzes results from the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state test scores of 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. The report is unique in offering comparative data on similar student demographics across states, allowing the authors to examine the impact of state educational reforms on comparable populations. The results show that some states are doing much better than others with similar populations. For instance, states such as Texas and North Carolina showed remarkable gains in scores of minority and disadvantaged students, while states such as California and Louisiana did not. The authors conclude that "the most efficient and effective use of education dollars is to target states with higher proportions of minority and disadvantaged students with funding for lower pupil-teacher ratios, more widespread prekindergarten efforts, and more adequate teaching resources." Teacher salaries did not seem to be a key factor in test score improvements, though the authors suggest this may be a result of the fact that current salary structures do not differentiate between high- and low-quality teachers.

Flanagan, Ann.; Grissmer, David W. (David Waltz), 1941-.; Kawata, Jennifer H., 1955-.; Williamson, Stephanie, 1969-.

2000-01-01

88

National Educational Development Tests as a Predictor of College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive validity of composite scores on the National Educational Development Tests for College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test total scores. The subjects were 69 students in a private college preparatory school for girls. The correlation of .76 was statistically significant. (Author/CTM)

Doebler, L. K.; Foreman, S. T.

1979-01-01

89

Score-based tests of measurement invariance: use in practice  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations). The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (1) how the tests can be employed for their data, and (2) whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification). After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

Wang, Ting; Merkle, Edgar C.; Zeileis, Achim

2014-01-01

90

The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

Martin, John D.; And Others

1978-01-01

91

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

92

Selecting Qualified Candidates to the United States Naval Academy Using College Aptitude Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Academy has a continuing need to select high quality applicants. Comparisons were made of the relative validity of the highest college aptitude test score (HIGHCATS) and the average college aptitude test score (AVECATS) in the selection of appli...

M. B. Cowen N. M. Abrahams

1982-01-01

93

Variability of Test Scores and the Split-Half Reliability Coefficient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study indicate that the correlation between half-test scores over repeated splits, over persons, and over repeated testings resulting in different sets of observed scores, is given by Kuder-Richardson Formula 21. (RF)

Zimmerman, Donald W.

1970-01-01

94

Using Test-Taking Skills to Improve Students' Standardized Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an action research project, a program was developed to improve test-taking skills to increase standardized test scores. The targeted population was high school juniors in a small Midwestern community in west central Illinois. The problem of low standardized test achievement was documented through data that revealed that students fell below the…

Bowker, Mary; Irish, Barbara

95

Study and application of automatic scoring technology in C programming test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new automatic scoring method which combines the key statement points with the lexical or grammatical error analysis is proposed for programming test through the simulation of manual scoring. Through the experiments, the proposed method fundamentally corresponds with the thought process of manual scoring. Also, the probability distribution of the automatic scoring result is similar to the one of manual

Fengxia Yang; Guoxiang Liu

2012-01-01

96

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

97

Using MCW-APM Test Scoring to Evaluate Economics Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that explored the use of a scoring procedure called Modified Confidence Weighted-Admissible Probability Measurement (MCW-APM) to evaluate curriculum design and to assess students' knowledge of economic concepts. Concluded that the MCW-APM scoring method can help teachers develop curricula to meet specific student needs. (SLM)

Bruno, James E.

1989-01-01

98

Comparison of Scores on the Cognitive Levels Test and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cognitive Levels Test (CLT) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) were administered to 30 freshman college students at a small state college in the mid-Atlantic region. Significant correlations indicate that the PPVT-R measures a component of the CLT. Mean PPVT-R scores were significantly higher than CLT means. (Author/PB)

Overton, Terry; Apperson, Jennifer

1989-01-01

99

The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

2011-01-01

100

Estimating Test Score Reliability When No Examinee Has Taken the Complete Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops formulas to cope with the situation in which the reliability of test scores must be approximated even though no examinee has taken the complete instrument. Develops different estimators for part tests that are judged to be classically parallel, tau-equivalent, or congeneric. Proposes standards for differentiating among these three models.…

Feldt, Leonard S.

2003-01-01

101

Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

1994-01-01

102

Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success  

PubMed Central

Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe.

Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

103

The Persisting Racial Scoring Gap on Graduate and Professional School Admission Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the racial scoring gap on tests for admission to medical, business, law, and other graduate programs, noting that in the highest-scoring brackets on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the racial gap is even larger. Whites are five times, twelve times, and seven times more likely, respectively, to score higher on the MCAT, Law…

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

2003-01-01

104

Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

2009-01-01

105

Student Test Scores Are Improved in a Virtual Learning Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study conducted that shows that students learn well and score higher on exams in a "Virtual Learning Environment" where the students are presented the same material that is traditionally presented in lecture.

PhD Harry R. Goldberg (Johns Hopkins University Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute and Department of Biology); Guy M. McKhann (Johns Hopkins University Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute and Dept. of Neurology)

2000-06-01

106

Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

Zavodny, Madeline

2013-01-01

107

The Role of Test Scores in Explaining Race and Gender Differences in Wages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested that skills reflected in test-score performance on tests such as the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) can account for some of the racial differences in average wages. I use a more complete set of test scores available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort to reconsider this evidence, and…

Blackburn, McKinley L.

2004-01-01

108

Predicting WAIS scores from Quick Test scores for mentally retarded psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

Investigated Quick Test prediction of WAIS Full Scale IQs for a psychiatric population (N = 19) who were also mentally retarded. One- and two-variable regression equations produced nonsignificant results and accounted for only 11% and 15% of the variance. Caution is advised when the Quick Test is used as an estimate of IQ for mentally retarded psychiatric individuals. PMID:7263891

Peteroy, E T; Pirrello, P E; Adams, N

1981-07-01

109

Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.  

PubMed

The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments. PMID:21294011

Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

2011-02-01

110

Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores  

Cancer.gov

About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

111

Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

112

Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

2014-01-01

113

The Reliability of Sums and Differences of Test Scores: Some New Results and Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability coefficients of linear combinations of observed scores have anomalous properties which have led to difficulties in the investigation of difference scores and gain scores in test theory. Discrepancies between classical results and correct results obtained from more general formulas, which allow for correlated errors, are examined…

Zimmerman, Donald W.; And Others

1981-01-01

114

D.C. Student Test Scores Show Uneven Progress. Data Snapshot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…

DuPre, Mary

2011-01-01

115

A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

1976-01-01

116

Biographical and Educational Correlates of Graduate and Professional School Admissions Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the functions of graduate level admission tests, the characteristics of students who scored high compared with those who scored low on three tests were examined on the basis of correlates of each of the tests with a large number of other variables reflecting the students' background and educational characteristics. From a large and diverse sample of college seniors

Leonard L. Baird

1976-01-01

117

Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

2013-01-01

118

School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

2011-01-01

119

Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

Klesch, Heather S.

2010-01-01

120

Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

1995-01-01

121

Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

1994-01-01

122

Discrepancies between Score Trends from NAEP and State Tests: A Scale-Invariant Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State test score trends are widely interpreted as indicators of educational improvement. To validate these interpretations, state test score trends are often compared to trends on other tests such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). These comparisons raise serious technical and substantive concerns. Technically, the most…

Ho, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

123

Determining the Relationship of Nursing Test Scores and Test Anxiety Levels before and after a Test-Taking Strategy Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether participation in a test-taking strategy seminar significantly decreased test anxiety in first-year nursing students. The study also sought to compare nursing test scores of first-year nursing students who participated in the seminar with those who did not. The sample consisted of 30 first-year nursing…

Carraway, Cassandra T.

124

Arkansas Teacher Testing: A Penny for Your Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher testing began in Arkansas when the governor threatened to veto a 1% sales tax if a teacher testing bill were not passed. With enactment of Act 76 in 1983, an instrument was developed for field testing in 1984 over objections of the Arkansas Education Association. The test, the Arkansas Educational Skills Assessment, is comprised of 50…

Kennedy, Robert L.

125

Does Age at Enrollment in first Grade Affect Children's cognitive Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother-Child Files to estimate the effect of age at enrollment in first grade on eight to eleven year old children's cognitive test scores and behavior problems. We find that children who enroll in first grade at a young age score higher on cognitive tests and have fewer behavior problems than

Susan E. Mayer; David Knutson

1997-01-01

126

The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

Springer, Matthew G.

2008-01-01

127

Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

128

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

2006-01-01

129

A Prediction Interval for a Score on a Parallel Test Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given any observed number-right score on a test, a method is described for obtaining a predicition interval for the corresponding number-right score on a randomly parallel form of the same test. The interval can be written down directly from published tables of the hypergeometric distribution. (Author)

Lord, Frederic M.

1981-01-01

130

Comparison of Two Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…

Schachter, Steven; And Others

1991-01-01

131

Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

2010-01-01

132

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

133

Increasing Racial Isolation and Test Score Gaps in Mathematics: A 30-Year Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although there has been progress in closing the test score gaps among student groups over past decades, that progress has stalled. Many researchers have speculated why the test score gaps closed between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, but only a few have been able to empirically study how changes in school factors and…

Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.

2010-01-01

134

Social desirability bias in personality testing: implications for astronaut selection.  

PubMed

The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory(PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD maybe a negative predictor for performance under stress. PMID:16010763

Sandal, Gro M; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert L; Gravdal, Lene

2005-01-01

135

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to help parents understand the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and the reports it generates. The tests of the DSTP are tied to the Delaware content standards that define the knowledge and skills required for students to succeed beyond high school. In spring 2001, the DSTP reading, writing, and mathematics tests were…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

136

A Test of the Adequacy of Curvilinear Score Equating Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the verbal portion of the College Entrance Examination Board Scholastic Aptitude Tests were used in an experimental test of the accuracy of equating for a variety of models in three categories: linear equating, equipercentile equating, and item characteristic curve equating. The models were tested for both mean squared error and bias.…

Marco, Gary L.; And Others

137

The Ways and Means of Test Score Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses units of measurement, relates types of scales and norms to the purpose for testing, looks at types of test data typically reported, identifies the primary users of test information, looks at limitations of scales and norms, and looks at the interaction between user and data. (Author/RL)

Lenke, Joanne M.; Beck, Michael D.

1980-01-01

138

Effect of Self-Assessment on Test Scores: Student Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied…

Ramirez, Beatriz U.

2010-01-01

139

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to help parents understand the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and the reports generated by the testing program. In spring 1998, the Department of Education, in conjunction with Harcourt Educational Measurement, began its annual administration of the DSTP reading, writing, and mathematics tests for students in…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

140

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help parents understand the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and the reports it generates. The DSTP tests are administered to provide an accurate measure of how well students are doing relative to Delaware's rigorous content standards. DSTP tests are administered in reading, writing, mathematics, science, and…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

141

An Error Score Model for Time-Limit Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A more generalized error model for time-limit tests is developed. Model estimates are derived for right-attempted and wrong-attempted correlations both within the same test and between different tests. A comparison is made between observed correlations and their model counterparts and a fair agreement is found between observed and expected…

Ven, A. H. G. S. van der

1976-01-01

142

Test Score Stability and Construct Validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores among College Students: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of the…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

2005-01-01

143

Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report extended an initial qualitative demonstration that test score variability increases during resistance training. Quantitative methods were applied to individual strength test data from 46 published studies. Analyses were limited to the four str...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2009-01-01

144

A Subset Selection Technique for Scoring Items on a Multiple Choice Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On a multiple-choice test in which each item has k alternative responses, the test taker is permitted to choose any subset which he believes contains the one correct answer. A scoring system is devised. (Author/CTM)

Gibbons, Jean D.; And Others

1979-01-01

145

An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

Lambert, Nadine M.

1971-01-01

146

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains materials to help teachers understand and use the reports from the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP). In spring 1998, the Department of Education, in conjunction with Harcourt Educational Measurement, began its annual administration of the DSTP reading, writing, and mathematics tests for students in grades 3, 5, 8, and 10…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

147

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains materials to help Delaware educators understand and use the reports from the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP). The tests of the DSTP are tied to the Delaware content standards that define the knowledge and skills required for Delaware students to succeed beyond high school. In spring 2002, the annual administration of…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

148

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No one can dispute that tests should measure important content, and for many (but not all) purposes, tests should be aligned with curricular goals. Thus in many cases, alignment is clearly better than the alternative, and nothing that follows here argues otherwise. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that alignment is sufficient protection…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

149

Percentiles please: the case for expressing neuropsychological test scores and accompanying confidence limits as percentile ranks.  

PubMed

Many commentators on neuropsychological assessment stress the disadvantages of expressing test scores in the form of percentile ranks. As a result, there is a danger of losing sight of the fundamentals: percentile ranks express scores in a form that is of greater relevance to the neuropsychologist than any alternative metric because they tell us directly how common or uncommon such scores are in the normative population. We advocate that, in addition to expressing scores on a standard metric, neuropsychologists should also routinely record the percentile rank of all test scores so that the latter are available when attempting to reach a formulation. In addition, it is argued that the current practice of expressing confidence limits on test scores on a standard score metric should be supplemented with confidence limits expressed as percentile ranks, because the latter provide a more direct and tangible indication of the uncertainty surrounding an observed score. Computer programs accompany this paper and can be used to obtain percentile rank confidence limits for Index scores (and FSIQs) on the WAIS-III or WISC-IV (these can be downloaded from the following web page: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/PRCLME.htm). PMID:18609335

Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H

2009-02-01

150

Personnel Test Battery and Scoring Procedures. Memorandum No. L.S. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this memo is to present tests that comprise the test battery used to select Navy personnel to train marine mammals, and to describe the scoring procedures of the tests. The test battery consists of: Biosystems General Information Test (BGIT), Personnel History Questionnaire (PHQ), Gordon Personal Inventory, Gordon Personal Profile,…

Berson, Barry L.

151

Comparison of Educationally Handicapped Students' Scores on the Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school boys in a program for the emotionally disturbed were administered the Revised Beery and Bender-Gestalt. A significant correlation of .73 between age-equivalent scores was obtained. Although mean scores did not differ significantly from one another, scores were quite varied. The implications of such variability are discussed.…

Breen, Michael J.

1982-01-01

152

What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? Issue Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texas students have made extraordinarily large gains on statewide achievement tests, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), gains so dramatic that they have been dubbed the "Texas miracle." There is general agreement that these gains are attributable to the high stakes accountability system in Texas, but there is some question about what…

Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

153

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains information to help teachers understand and use reports from the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP). The DSTP is designed to be a measure of progress toward Delaware's content standards that helps ensure that students can apply their academic skills to realistic, everyday problems. The DSTP aims to promote better…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

154

Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

2011-01-01

155

Summarizing Change in Test Scores: Shortcomings of Three Common Methods. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest introduces the advantages and disadvantages of three commonly used methods of reporting test score changes: (1) change in percentile rank; (2) scale or raw score change; and (3) percent change. The change in percentile rank method focuses on the increase or decrease of the mean percentile ranking for a group of students. This method…

Russell, Michael

156

The Effects of Scoring Formulas on the Discriminant Validity of Tests of Divergent Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two multitrait-multimethod studies were conducted to investigate the effects of two scoring formulas. The study demonstrates that tests of divergent thinking lack discriminant validity when scored in the usual manner. A percentage formula did enhance discriminant validity when originality ratings were subjectively determined. (Author/CTM)

Hocevar, Dennis; Michael, William B.

1979-01-01

157

Assessing the Relationship among Defining Issues Test Scores and Crystallised and Fluid Intellectual Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differing findings exist on how Defining Issues Test (DIT) scores relate to intelligence. Further study is needed in order to address aspects of intellect not previously considered and to address how these relationships rival studies that have compared indices of intellect with constructs similar to DIT scores. In the present study, a sample of…

Derryberry, W. Pitt; Jones, Kristy L.; Grieve, Frederick G.; Barger, Brian

2007-01-01

158

A Model Binding Site for Testing Scoring Functions in Molecular Docking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of interaction energies between ligands and their receptors remains a major challenge for structure-based inhibitor discovery. Much effort has been devoted to developing scoring schemes that can successfully rank the affinities of a diverse set of possible ligands to a binding site for which the structure is known. To test these scoring functions, well-characterized experimental systems can be very

Binqing Q. Wei; Walter A. Baase; Larry H. Weaver; Brian W. Matthews; Brian K. Shoichet

2002-01-01

159

Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

2011-01-01

160

Restless Legs Syndrome: scoring criteria for leg movements recorded during the suggested immobilization test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of leg movements experienced by patients with the restless legs syndrome (RLS) during wakefulness using the suggested immobilization test (SIT).Methods: Forty patients with primary RLS who showed an index of leg movements greater than 40 during the SIT were selected for these analyses.Results: In general, Coleman's criteria for scoring PLMS were appropriate for scoring leg

Martin Michaud; Gaétan Poirier; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir

2001-01-01

161

Effect of being a model on scores on a performance IQ test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied 30 male and 30 female upper-middle-class kindergartners to determine whether scores on a performance IQ test (Object Assembly subscale of the WISC) of a model in a modeling situation would differ from an actor's score in a social facilitation situation. Results support R. B. Zajonc and G. B. Markus's findings which showed that an older sibling's learning was facilitated

Alexander Newman; Renie Dickstein

1976-01-01

162

Ethnic Differences in Children's Intelligence Test Scores: Role of Economic Deprivation, Home Environment, and Maternal Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined differences in intelligence test scores of black and white five-year-olds born premature with low birth weight. Found that black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children. Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the differential by half; adjustments for differences in home environment reduced it by…

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; And Others

1996-01-01

163

From #2 Pencils to the World Wide Web: A History of Test Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the need…

Zytowski, Donald G.

2008-01-01

164

Reliability of Scores from Tests Composed of Testlets: A Comparison of Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to compare reliability estimates for a test composed of stimulus-dependent testlets as derived from item scores, testlet scores, and under the univariate generalizability theory and multivariate generalizability theory designs, as well as to determine the influence of the number of testlets and the number of items per…

Hendrickson, Amy B.

165

Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

1985-01-01

166

See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

2010-01-01

167

Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…

Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

2013-01-01

168

Basic Attributes Test (BAT): Operational Pre-Implementation Analysis and Score Equating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force will implement a new pilot candidate selection system. Scores from a multiple aptitude test (Air Force Officer Qualifying Test or AFOQT), a computer-based test (Basic Attributes Test or BAT), and biographical information will be used to comp...

T. R. Carretta M. J. Ree

1993-01-01

169

Interpreting the g loadings of intelligence test composite scores in light of Spearman's law of diminishing returns.  

PubMed

The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels. PMID:23506024

Reynolds, Matthew R

2013-03-01

170

Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

Farnsworth, Tim

2013-01-01

171

Implications of cognitive psychology for educational testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine views about learning and the learner grounded in cognitive psychology and to discuss their implications for educational testing. The new perspectives about learning and the learner suggested by cognitive psychology imply changes in educational testing. The first part of this paper compares perspectives about learning and the learner in cognitive psychology with

Sun-Geun Baek I

1994-01-01

172

Examining the stability of Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) baseline test scores.  

PubMed

Computerized neuropsychological (NP) testing has evolved into an important tool for clinicians in the assessment of sport-related concussions. The importance of having a reliable baseline test score for comparison post concussion is critical; yet, the stability of these baseline measurements has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of the measurements derived from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) test battery over a series of repeated trials, in an attempt to determine at what point the test scores stabilized. A cohort of 25 recreationally active collegiate students, free from mild head injury, volunteered for the study. Throughput score (measures of performance efficiency) stability was assessed for the computerized NP tests using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Average throughput scores for all five test trials were simple reaction time (SRT) = 235, matching to sample (MSP) = 41, continuous performance test (CPT) = 108, math processing (MTH) = 24, and Sternberg memory (STN) = 89, and these are within the range of those previously reported. Results show that all four of the ICCs were in the excellent range of agreement (i.e., > or = .75), and more importantly, the statistical comparisons of the ICCs show that there was no significant difference between the ICCs. Consequently, results serve to show that two time periods are sufficient to obtain stable NP results, and thus clinicians can feel comfortable relying on a two-score baseline test for follow-up comparison. PMID:19110989

Kaminski, Thomas W; Groff, Rachel M; Glutting, Joseph J

2009-08-01

173

A Program To Help College Bound Students Improve Their Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the verbal scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) of a group of 20 high school juniors was addressed by the implementation of an SAT coaching program. A computer program, "SAT Success," and a video, "SAT Prep Video," along with practice tests from the Educational Testing Service were employed. Students were self-paced through a…

Teague, Alan B.

174

The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

East, Pam C.

2005-01-01

175

Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

Poplin, Beth D.

2010-01-01

176

Predicting Scores on the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examinations from Scores Earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted to provide formulae by which College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination scores may be predicted from scores earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment. Five basic areas of liberal arts achievement are measured by the CLEP General Examinations: English Composition, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural…

Nimmer, Donald N.; Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi

177

Distribution of Spatial Visualization and Mathematical Problem Solving Scores: A Test of Stafford's X-Linked Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated distribution of spatial visualization scores (Space Relations test of the Differential Aptitude Test) and mathematical problem-solving scores (Mental Arithmetic Problems) obtained by 161 male and 152 female 9th grade students. No significant sex-related differences were found between mean scores of tests of spatial visualization or…

Sherman, Julia A.; Fennema, Elizabeth

1978-01-01

178

The usefulness of two scoring systems for the Bender Gestalt Test for identifying brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peek-Quast and Hain scoring systems for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) were employed in an attempt to discriminate 142 brain-damaged patients from 120 control patients. While 12 of the 30 individual signs and the Peek-Quast and Hain BGT scores differentiated between the groups at a better-than-chance level of significance, diagnostic errors were so frequent as to preclude the BGT's

Donald L. Mosher; Jean P. Smith

1965-01-01

179

Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

180

Investigation and Treatment of Missing Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…

Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries

2003-01-01

181

Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

1986-01-01

182

A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints  

PubMed Central

It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

de Gobbi Porto, Fabio Henrique; Spindola, Livia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figueredo do Vale, Patricia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

2013-01-01

183

Individual differences in left parietal white matter predict math scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test.  

PubMed

Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure. PMID:23108272

Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

2012-10-27

184

Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings  

PubMed Central

I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference.

Chamberlain, Gary E.

2013-01-01

185

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores and clinical and sociodemographic correlates in Schizophrenia: multiple logistic regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study investigated what clinical and sociodemographic factors affected Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) factor scores of patients with schizophrenia to evaluate parameters or items of the WCST. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Patients with schizophrenia from three hospitals participated. Participants Participants were recruited from July 2009 to August 2011. 131 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (84 men and 47 women, 43.5±13.8?years (mean±SD)) entered and completed the study. Participants were recruited in the study if they (1) met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia; (2) were physically healthy and (3) had no mood disorders, substance abuse, neurodevelopmental disorders, epilepsy or mental retardation. We examined their basic clinical and sociodemographic factors (sex, age, education years, age of onset, duration of illness, chlorpromazine equivalent doses and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores). Primary and secondary outcome measures All patients carried out the WCST Keio version. Five indicators were calculated, including categories achieved (CA), perseverative errors in Milner (PEM) and Nelson (PEN), total errors (TE) and difficulties of maintaining set (DMS). From the principal component analysis, we identified two factors (1 and 2). We assessed the relationship between these factor scores and clinical and sociodemographic factors, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Factor 1 was mainly composed of CA, PEM, PEN and TE. Factor 2 was mainly composed of DMS. The factor 1 score was affected by age, education years and the PANSS negative scale score. The factor 2 score was affected by duration of illness. Conclusions Age, education years, PANSS negative scale score and duration of illness affected WCST factor scores in patients with schizophrenia. Using WCST factor scores may reduce the possibility of type I errors due to multiple comparisons.

Banno, Masahiro; Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Okada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

186

Metal-score as a potential non-invasive diagnostic test for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The link between biometals and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been investigated with a focus on local metal accumulations. In this work, we have looked at systemic metal changes and computed a score (M-score) based on metal disarrangements to discriminate patients with AD from patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and from controls. We measured serum levels of iron, copper, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and total antioxidant capacity (TAS), performed Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and calculated non-ceruloplasmin copper ('free' copper') levels, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, and ceruloplasmin-transferrin ratio (Cp/Tf) in 93 patients with AD, 45 patients with VaD, and 48 controls. All subjects underwent biochemical, neuroimaging and cognitive evaluations. Significant differences were observed among the tested groups for the levels of copper, free copper, peroxides, and TAS and for the Cp/Tf with disparity in couple comparison. On this basis we created the M-score as linear combination of biometal variables and APOE genotype. Besides its ability to discriminate AD patients vs. controls (ROC AUC=90%), M-score was able to distinguish AD vs. VaD (ROC AUC=79%). Moreover, we calculated the sensitivity and the specificity for M-score and for the other significant variables: M-score reached the highest sensitivity without a relevant loss in terms of specificity. When we compared M-score with APOE genotype and Medial Temporal Atrophy score, it resulted statistically better than these diagnostic markers. In conclusion, we confirm the link between biometals and AD and suggest its potential as diagnostic tool. Further studies may elucidate its potential role as reliable diagnostic test. PMID:23036026

Squitti, Rosanna; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Polimanti, Renato; Salustri, Carlo; Moffa, Filomena; Cassetta, Emanuele; Lupoi, Domenico; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Cortesi, Maurizio; Siotto, Mariacristina; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

2013-02-01

187

The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

Stoneberg, Bert D.

2007-01-01

188

Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23937298

McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

2013-09-01

189

Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this quasi-experimental, Static Group Comparison Design. Two classes formed the

Beth Darlene Poplin

2009-01-01

190

Utility of a scoring balloon for a severely calcified lesion: bench test and finite element analysis.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a scoring balloon catheter in expanding a circumferentially calcified lesion compared to a conventional balloon catheter using an in vitro experiment setting and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this ability using a finite element analysis. True efficacy of the scoring device and the underlying mechanisms for heavily calcified coronary lesions are unclear. We employed a Scoreflex scoring balloon catheter (OrbusNeich, Hong Kong, China). The ability of Scoreflex to dilate a calcified lesion was compared with a conventional balloon catheter using 3 different sized calcium tubes. The thickness of the calcium tubes were 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 mm. The primary endpoints were the successful induction of cracks in the calcium tubes and the inflation pressures required for inducing cracks. The inflation pressure required for cracking the calcium tubes were consistently lower with Scoreflex (p < 0.05, Student t test). The finite element analysis revealed that the first principal stress applied to the calcified plaque was higher by at least threefold when applying the balloon catheter with scoring elements. A scoring balloon catheter can expand a calcified lesion with lower pressure than that of a conventional balloon. The finite element analysis revealed that the concentration of the stress observed in the outside of the calcified plaque just opposite to the scoring element is the underlying mechanism of the increased ability of Scoreflex to dilate the calcified lesion. PMID:24318791

Kawase, Yoshiaki; Saito, Naritatsu; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Yamamoto, Erika; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi

2014-04-01

191

Linear score tests for variance components in linear mixed models and applications to genetic association studies.  

PubMed

Following the rapid development of genome-scale genotyping technologies, genetic association mapping has become a popular tool to detect genomic regions responsible for certain (disease) phenotypes, especially in early-phase pharmacogenomic studies with limited sample size. In response to such applications, a good association test needs to be (1) applicable to a wide range of possible genetic models, including, but not limited to, the presence of gene-by-environment or gene-by-gene interactions and non-linearity of a group of marker effects, (2) accurate in small samples, fast to compute on the genomic scale, and amenable to large scale multiple testing corrections, and (3) reasonably powerful to locate causal genomic regions. The kernel machine method represented in linear mixed models provides a viable solution by transforming the problem into testing the nullity of variance components. In this study, we consider score-based tests by choosing a statistic linear in the score function. When the model under the null hypothesis has only one error variance parameter, our test is exact in finite samples. When the null model has more than one variance parameter, we develop a new moment-based approximation that performs well in simulations. Through simulations and analysis of real data, we demonstrate that the new test possesses most of the aforementioned characteristics, especially when compared to existing quadratic score tests or restricted likelihood ratio tests. PMID:24328714

Qu, Long; Guennel, Tobias; Marshall, Scott L

2013-12-01

192

Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take corrective action as soon as…

Flug, Susanna

2010-01-01

193

Graduate Record Examination and Miller Analogies Test Scores: Examining Four Methods of Equivalencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAT and GRE scores were equated by regression, conditional mean, linear and equipercentile methods using data from a sample that had taken both tests. The regression and linear methods were preferred, and shown to be equivalent when the correlation between scales is perfect. The choice between the two rests on the decision to include or not include the correlation in

William A. Stock; Dona M. Kagan; R. Keith Van Wagenen

1980-01-01

194

Estimating Teacher Effectiveness from Two-Year Changes in Students' Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a dataset covering over 10,000 Australian school teachers and over 90,000 pupils, I estimate how effective teachers are in raising students' test scores. Since the exams are biennial, it is necessary to take account of the teacher's work in the intervening year. Even adjusting for measurement error, the teacher fixed effects are widely…

Leigh, Andrew

2010-01-01

195

Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

Kinney, Daryl W.

2008-01-01

196

A study for testing the sensitivity and reliability of the Lysholm knee scoring scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was to test the Lysholm knee scoring scale from 1985 for sensitivity and reliability. Thirty-one patients with one of four different diagnoses: anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL), meniscus tear (MT), patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and lateral ankle sprain (LAS) participated in the study. None of the patients were in the acute phase of injury,

J. Bengtsson; J. Möllborg; S. Werner

1996-01-01

197

Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

Eklof, Hanna

2006-01-01

198

Assessing the Discriminating Power of Item and Test Scores in the Linear Factor-Analysis Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model-based attempts to rigorously study the broad and imprecise concept of "discriminating power" are scarce, and generally limited to nonlinear models for binary responses. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores which are analyzed or obtained using Spearman's factor-analytic…

Ferrando, Pere J.

2012-01-01

199

Effects of Programmed Learning Sequences on the Mathematics Test Scores of Bermudian Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compared the effects of a Programmed Learning Sequence (PLS) (Dunn & Dunn, 1993) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on 100 sixth-grade Bermudian students' test scores on a Fractions Unit. Fifty-three males' and forty-seven females' learning styles were identified with the "Learning Style Inventory" (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 2000) to…

Tully, Derek; Dunn, Rita; Hlawaty, Heide

2006-01-01

200

Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

2011-01-01

201

Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2001-01-01

202

Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

Singh, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

203

Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

Cresswell, Mike

2010-01-01

204

Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

Kane, Michael

2012-01-01

205

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

206

Secular Declines in Cognitive Test Scores: A Reversal of the Flynn Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the "Flynn Effect" since it was most comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980's. There has, however, been very little evidence concerning any continuity of the effect specifically into…

Teasdale, Thomas W.; Owen, David R.

2008-01-01

207

The Black-White Test Score Gap through Third Grade. NBER Working Paper No. 11049  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes basic facts regarding the black-white test score gap over the first four years of school. Black children enter school substantially behind their white counterparts in reading and math, but including a small number of covariates erases the gap. Over the first four years of school, however, blacks lose substantial ground…

Fryer, Roland G.; Levitt, Steven D.

2005-01-01

208

Improving African American Youth's Standardized Test Scores: A Program of Study in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than half the minority group students who completed the 1988/89 Science and Technology Entry Program (STEP) at Manhattanville College (New York) scored in the 90-95 percentile on tests of critical thinking, suggesting ability to do well in mathematics, science, and other studies. STEP comprises the following goals: (1) enable students to…

Repa, J. Theodore; Miller, LaMar P.

209

Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

2011-01-01

210

Accuracy of Individual Scores Expressed in Percentile Ranks: Classical Test Theory Calculations. CSE Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the reporting of individual student results from standardized tests in educational assessments, the percentile rank of the individual student is a major numerical indicator. This paper develops a formulation and presents calculations to examine the accuracy of the individual percentile rank score. Here, accuracy follows the common-sense…

Rogosa, David

211

The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

Kay, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

212

Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at…

van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

2007-01-01

213

Determinants of Academic Attainment in the United States: A Quantile Regression Analysis of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the determinants of high school students' academic attainment in mathematics, reading and science in the United States; focusing particularly on possible differential impacts of ethnicity and family background across the distribution of test scores. Using data from the NELS2000 and employing quantile regression, we find two…

Haile, Getinet Astatike; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc

2008-01-01

214

Relationships among High School Grades, ACT Test Scores, and College Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the utility of using both the American College Testing (ACT) Program composite score and high school grade point average (GPA) as predictors of students' success in college, as measured by the GPA at the end of the students' first semester in college. Data were obtained from 420 first-time entering freshmen at a medium-sized…

Myers, Richard S.; Pyles, Michelle R.

215

The Consequences of Ignorance Can Be More Serious than Low Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that concern for academic success across the curriculum should extend beyond raising test scores. Contends that in the wake of the terrorist acts of 9/11/01, issues of public security and civil liberties present an opportunity for teachers to teach the Constitution and its amendments in an effort to fight citizen ignorance. (SD)

Erb, Tom

2002-01-01

216

Neural correlates of performance on the different scoring systems of the clock drawing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify brain regions associated with performance on various measures of the clock drawing test (CDT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We recruited 48 participants (four healthy, eight with mild cognitive impairment and 36 with Alzheimer's disease). Multiple regression analyses identified relationships between each CDT scoring system (Shulman CDT, Rouleau CDT and CLOX1) and regional

Teruyuki Matsuoka; Jin Narumoto; Keisuke Shibata; Aiko Okamura; Kaeko Nakamura; Takashi Nakamae; Kei Yamada; Tsunehiko Nishimura; Kenji Fukui

2011-01-01

217

Graduate Record Examination and Miller Analogies Test Scores: Examining Four Methods of Equivalencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MAT and GRE scores were equated by regression, conditional mean, linear and equipercentile methods using data from a sample that had taken both tests. The regression and linear methods were preferred, and shown to be equivalent when the correlation between scales is perfect. (Author/RL)

Stock, William A,; And Others

1980-01-01

218

Validating the Use of Standardized Test Scores for Remedial Course Placement in College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the problem of validating placement procedures or, more precisely, of determining their educational appropriateness. At issue is determining whether a test score serves the particular educational function it was designed to serve (for example, course placement), and whether it does so in an economical way. These determinations…

Sawyer, Richard

219

End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

Ricketts, Christine R.

2010-01-01

220

A Model for Incorporating Response-Time Data in Scoring Achievement Tests. Research Report No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…

Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice

221

An Evaluation of Three Approximate Item Response Theory Models for Equating Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three item response models were evaluated for estimating item parameters and equating test scores. The models, which approximated the traditional three-parameter model, included: (1) the Rasch one-parameter model, operationalized in the BICAL computer program; (2) an approximate three-parameter logistic model based on coarse group data divided…

Marco, Gary L.; And Others

222

Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

Almond, Russell G.

2014-01-01

223

Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

Linn, Robert L.; And Others

224

The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

Avila, JuliAnna

2012-01-01

225

Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2014-01-01

226

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Education on Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 were analyzed to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and years of schooling on occupational status and earnings in maturity. Some of the findings follow: Data on brothers indicated that prior research has underestimated the effect of family…

Jencks, Christopher; Rainwater, Lee

227

Creating a System of Accountability: The Impact of Instructional Assessment on Elementary Children's Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the trajectory of change in scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills of low-income, urban third and fourth graders enrolled in classrooms in which the Work Sampling System (WSS) had been used at least 3 years. Results for 2,564 students show academic gains associated with the WSS. (SLD)

Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Son, Seung-Hee; Nicholson, Julie

2003-01-01

228

Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

2007-01-01

229

Low Aerobic Fitness and Obesity Are Associated With Lower Standardized Test Scores in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether aerobic fitness and obesity in school children are associated with standardized test performance. Study design 1,989 ethnically diverse fifth, seventh and ninth graders attending California schools comprised the sample. Aerobic fitness was determined by a one-mile run/walk test; BMI was obtained from state-mandated measurements. California standardized test scores were obtained from the school district. Results Students whose mile run/walk times exceeded California Fitnessgram standards or whose BMI exceeded CDC sex- and age-specific body weight standards scored lower on California standardized math, reading and language tests than students with desirable BMI status or fitness level, even after controlling for parent education among other covariates. Ethnic differences in standardized test scores were consistent with ethnic differences in obesity status and aerobic fitness. BMI-for-age was no longer a significant multivariate predictor when covariates included fitness level. Conclusions Low aerobic fitness is common among youth and varies among ethnic groups, and aerobic fitness level predicts performance on standardized tests across ethnic groups. More research is needed to uncover the physiological mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may contribute to performance on standardized academic tests.

Roberts, Christian K.; Freed, Benjamin; McCarthy, William J.

2010-01-01

230

Dissimilarities in Grade-Equivalent Scores on Different Standardized Tests of Achievement: A Threat to Criterion-Related Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five standardized tests of reading achievement were administered to community college freshmen. Students took two different tests on consecutive days. Grade-equivalent scores on tests were compared. Differences were found between tests based on the number of students who reached the criterion score of grade-equivalent 11 or 12. (Author/CTM)

Weiner, Max; Zibrin, Mara

1979-01-01

231

Talent Search Qualifying: Comparisons between Talent Search Students Qualifying via Scores on Standardized Tests and via Parent Nomination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian…

Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2006-01-01

232

Trajectories of serial motor scores of typically developing children: Implications for clinical decision making.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study generated predicted fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) percentile score trajectories for typically developing children during infant and preschool years and compared the trajectories. Data from the same 83 children at 9 assessment points between 9 and 21 months and 4 to 5(1/2) years were used in multi-level models. Non-linear equations provided the best fit for predicting percentile rank scores over time for the infant data. For preschool data, the best fit for GM data remained non-linear while the FM data was best represented by a linear equation. Within-subject variability decreased in the preschool years. On average, girls had higher FM scores than boys in both age ranges. The results support the concept of developmental surveillance rather than single point assessments. Health care providers who practice developmental surveillance need to be aware that fluctuations in scoring patterns can be expected in typical development. PMID:19081141

Darrah, Johanna; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Magill-Evans, Joyce

2009-01-01

233

Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

2014-06-01

234

Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test  

PubMed Central

In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429–435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079–1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292–2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50–57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of their effects. Such an adaptive procedure gains power over the existing procedures when the signal is sparse and the correlation among the markers is weak. By combining evidence from both the EB-based score test and the adaptive test, we further construct an omnibus test that attains good power in most settings. The null distributions of the proposed test statistics can be approximated well either via simple perturbation procedures or via distributional approximations. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We apply the tests to a breast cancer genetic study to assess the overall effect of the FGFR2 gene on breast cancer risk.

Cai, Tianxi; Lin, Xihong; Carroll, Raymond J.

2012-01-01

235

Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

2014-01-01

236

Association of health sciences reasoning test scores with academic and experiential performance.  

PubMed

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

2014-05-15

237

A Comparison of Three Scoring Methods for Tests with Selected-Response and Constructed-Response Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of methods for scoring tests with selected-response (SR) and constructed-response (CR) items are available. The selection of a method depends on the requirements of the program, the particular psychometric model and assumptions employed in the analysis of item and score data, and how scores are to be used. This article compares 3 methods:…

Schaeffer, Gary A.; Henderson-Montero, Diane; Julian, Marc; Bene, Nancy H.

2002-01-01

238

Pediatric Residents' Learning Styles and Temperaments and Their Relationships to Standardized Test Scores  

PubMed Central

Background Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. Results The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P ?=? .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. Conclusions The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Kelly, Maria N.; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S.

2011-01-01

239

Correcting Two-Sample "z" and "t" Tests for Correlation: An Alternative to One-Sample Tests on Difference Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…

Zimmerman, Donald W.

2012-01-01

240

Investigating Differences in Mean Score on Adaptive and Paper and Pencil Versions of the College Level Academic Skills Reading Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible causes of a 16-point mean score increase for the computer adaptive form of the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) in reading over the paper-and-pencil test (PPT) in reading are examined. The adaptive form of the CLAST was used in a state-wide field test in which reading, writing, and computation scores for approximately 1,000…

Legg, Sue M.; Buhr, Dianne C.

241

The Validity of ACT-PEP Test Scores for Predicting Academic Performance of Registered Nurses in BSN Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the validity of 3 American College Testing-Proficiency Examination Program tests for predicting the academic performance of registered nurses by studying scores of a sample of 2,600 enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. Results support the validity of the test scores. (JOW)

Yang, June C.; Noble, Julie

1990-01-01

242

Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

1993-01-01

243

The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

Powell, P. E.

244

Improved Sixth Grade Social Studies Test Scores Via Instruction in Listening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study on how listening affects student comprehension of new social studies material. Describes the experimental and control groups that were tested after treatment in order to determine degree of listening awareness and content knowledge. Implication made from findings is that listening instruction can enhance comprehension of content.…

Shepherd, Terry R.; Svasti, Songsmorn

1987-01-01

245

Genetic testing: ethical implications in the workplace.  

PubMed

The human genome project has led to impressive scientific advances in understanding the genetic basis of disease. To date, genetic risks associated with occupational illnesses are not well understood. Recent research, however, has uncovered an allele that appears directly related to the risk of contracting chronic beryllium disease; other chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in association with cancer. Progress from the human genome project has potential implications for predicting, screening, and diagnosing occupational diseases. Ethical issues associated with the use of genetic testing in the workplace will present employers, insurers, and physicians with challenging decisions related to promoting health in the workplace while avoiding potential misuse of sensitive genetic information. PMID:12225935

McCunney, Robert J

2002-01-01

246

A Critical Review of the Literature on Kolb's Learning Style Inventory with Implications for Score Reliability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Style Inventory (LSI; Kolb, 1976; 1985 ) is a commonly used measure of learning styles based on Kolbs Experiential Learning Model. The psychometric soundness of LSI scores has been critiqued historically. This study reviewed the literature on the LSI and evaluated the psychometric properties of Kolbs original and revised versions of…

Hwang, Dae-Yeop; Henson, Robin K.

247

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of…

Hooten, Regina Gay

2009-01-01

248

The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee Putnam County area. The study should be reproduced in various school districts in the state of Tennessee to compare the findings.

Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

249

Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains.

Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2013-01-01

250

The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test.  

PubMed

The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), which reflected both the breadth and severity of schizotypal personality symptoms, in 52 undergraduate students. Only one participant met full diagnostic criteria for SPD. The overall dimension score from the SPD clinical interview showed a positive correlation with both omission (r(s)=.47) and false alarm (r(s)=.41) errors on the CPT. Interpersonal symptoms were positively correlated with omission errors (r(s)=.47), while Disorganized symptoms were positively correlated with false alarm errors (r(s)=.40). Results suggest that higher SPD interview-based dimension scores are associated with lower levels of performance on the CPT, even when examining a relatively subclinical sample of young adults. In contrast, scores from the psychometric Abbreviated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the same sample did not correlate with accuracy measures on the CPT, suggesting that the interview-based measure of schizotypal personality may have a stronger relationship with CPT accuracy. Findings also add to a growing literature suggesting that Interpersonal SPD symptoms are primarily related to omission errors, while Disorganized SPD symptoms are primarily related to false alarm errors. PMID:19101122

Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Kamath, Vidyulata; Compton, Michael T

2009-03-01

251

Tennessee TCAP Science Scale Scores: Implications for Continuous Improvement and Educational Reform or Is It Possible To Beat the Odds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence provided by analysis of science scale scores on the McGraw-Hill CTB/4 science test for grades 2 through 8 in Tennessee, part of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), shows that it is possible for high achieving school systems to show continuous improvement from year to year. These results would tend to offset fears that…

Miller-Whitehead, Marie

252

The Relationship Between Nelson-Denny Test Scores and Academic Performance of Educational Opportunity Program Students. EAC Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores and an English course placement recommendation to academic success of Educational Opportunity Program students at the University of Washington was studied. The placement recommendation was based on a writing sample and test scores. The 207 freshmen students who entered in either 1976 or 1978…

Yamagishi, Midori; Gillmore, Gerald M.

253

Searching for Better Scoring of Multiple-Choice Tests: Proper Treatment of Misinformation, Guessing and Partial Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief explanations are presented of some of the different methods used to score multiple-choice tests; and some studies of partial information, guessing strategies, and test-taking behaviors are reviewed. Studies are grouped in three categories of effort to improve scoring: (1) those that require extra effort from the examinee to answer…

Zin, Than Than; Williams, John

254

Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

255

Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

1976-01-01

256

A score-type test for heterogeneity in zero-inflated models in a stratified population.  

PubMed

We propose a score-type statistic to evaluate heterogeneity in zero-inflated models for count data in a stratified population, where heterogeneity is defined as instances in which the zero counts are generated from two sources. Evaluating heterogeneity in this class of models has attracted considerable attention in the literature, but existing testing procedures have primarily relied on the constancy assumption under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we extend the literature by describing a score-type test to evaluate homogeneity against general alternatives that do not neglect the stratification information under the alternative hypothesis. The limiting null distribution of the proposed test statistic is a mixture of chi-squared distributions that can be well approximated by a simple parametric bootstrap procedure. Our numerical simulation studies show that the proposed test can greatly improve efficiency over tests of heterogeneity that ignore the stratification information. An empirical application to dental caries data in early childhood further shows the importance and practical utility of the methodology in using the stratification profile to detect heterogeneity in the population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24488881

Cao, Guanqun; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David

2014-05-30

257

A Comparison of Observed Score and True Score Equating Methods for Representative Samples Matched on an Anchor Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the sample invariant properties of four equating methods (Tucker and Levine linear equating, equipercentile equating through an anchor test, and three-parameter item response theory equating). Data from several national administrations of the Scholastic Aptitude Test served as the source of data for the study. Equating results…

Lawrence, Ida M.; Dorans, Neil J.

258

Declining Test Scores: an Update. An Update on State, Reginal and National Trends on College Board Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen data tables are presented, indicating the average scores of college-bound seniors from Massachusetts on several College Board tests: the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), Test of Standard Written English, Achievement Tests, and Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT). Selected data on…

May, Leslie Steven

259

Further Evidence on the Hain Scoring Method for the Bender-Gestalt Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seventy-Six Bender-Gestalt protocols were scored utilizing the Hain Scoring Method. Subjects within the sample were young adults mildly mentally retarded females. Protocols were scored for Hain's 15 differentiating signs identifying brain damage and 37% o...

W. R. Phelps

1974-01-01

260

A robust method using propensity score stratification for correcting verification bias for binary tests  

PubMed Central

Sensitivity and specificity are common measures of the accuracy of a diagnostic test. The usual estimators of these quantities are unbiased if data on the diagnostic test result and the true disease status are obtained from all subjects in an appropriately selected sample. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the result of the diagnostic test and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of sensitivity and specificity based on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. Methods have been proposed to correct verification bias under the assumption that the missing data on disease status are missing at random (MAR), that is, the probability of missingness depends on the true (missing) disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. When some of the covariates are continuous, or the number of covariates is relatively large, the existing methods require parametric models for the probability of disease or the probability of verification (given the test result and covariates), and hence are subject to model misspecification. We propose a new method for correcting verification bias based on the propensity score, defined as the predicted probability of verification given the test result and observed covariates. This is estimated separately for those with positive and negative test results. The new method classifies the verified sample into several subsamples that have homogeneous propensity scores and allows correction for verification bias. Simulation studies demonstrate that the new estimators are more robust to model misspecification than existing methods, but still perform well when the models for the probability of disease and probability of verification are correctly specified.

He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P.

2012-01-01

261

The Factorial Validity of Scores from a Cognitively Designed Test: The Spatial Learning Ability Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies of the factorial validity of the Spatial Learning Ability Test (SLAT), involving 431 undergraduates, were summarized to elaborate nomothetic span. These studies support the SLAT as a spatial processing measure. The SLAT, compared to a test with the same item type, was a more pure measure of spatial ability. (SLD)

Embretson, Susan E.

1997-01-01

262

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

2007-01-01

263

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), grip strength (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and sit-ups (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) while maximal leg extension force revealed only a weak positive correlation with repeated squats (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). However, moderate correlation between repeated squats and V(O2)max was found (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) In addition, BM and body fat correlated negatively with muscular endurance (r = -0.25 - -0.47, p < 0.001), while FFM and maximal isometric strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p < 0.001). In conclusion, muscular endurance test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities. PMID:21997456

Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

2012-08-01

264

CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB.

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

2013-01-01

265

The Effect of Having Previously Attended Junior Kindergarten on "Draw-A-Classroom" Test Scores Obtained in Senior Kindergarten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are presented which show the degree to which specific prior exposure to a learning situation (Junior Kindergarten) is reflected in the scores of children who had this experience compared to a group of their peers who did not. Scores obtained in Senior Kindergarten on the Draw-a-Classroom Test (DAC) are used as the measurement method. The…

Rogers, Rex S.

266

The "Average System" - A New Technique for Equating Scores on Different Tests Constructed from an Item Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative procedure is examined to compare test scores which does not require the utilization of computers and therefore, can be easily employed by classroom teachers. This technique is called the Average System: a simple way to score examinees using information obtained from a representative sample (or samples). Examinees are ranked on a…

Doron, Rina

267

Scoring Categories and Administration Instructions (Appendix of a Complete Manual for the Draw-A-Classroom Test).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scoring categories and administration instructions are given for use with the manual for the Draw-A-Classroom Test. The manual, also available, should be consulted if drawings are to be scored. This appendix to the manual is divided into five sections on space, persons, drawing the person, classroom constants, and objects. Specific details of the…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

268

Normative Data for Composite Scores for Children and Adults Derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms on seven composite scores derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) are reported here. These scores reflect a variety of verbal memory processes: learning, interference, retention over time, and retrieval efficiency. The norms are based on 943 children ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, divided into 10 age cohorts, and 528 adults, ranging in age

Eli Vakil; Yoram Greenstein; Haya Blachstein

2010-01-01

269

Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

1992-01-01

270

Proposal of a clinical score for the molecular test for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome.  

PubMed

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is an emerging condition characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), typical facial gestalt, and additional features, such as breathing abnormalities. Because of the overlapping phenotype of severe ID with absent speech, epilepsy, microcephaly, large mouth, and constipation, differential diagnosis of PTHS with respect to Angelman, Rett, and Mowat-Wilson syndromes represents a relevant clinical issue, and many patients are currently undergoing genetic tests for different conditions that are assumed to fall within the PTHS clinical spectrum. During a search for TCF4 mutations in 78 patients with a suspected PTHS, haploinsufficiency of TCF4 was identified in 18. By evaluating clinical features of patients with a proven TCF4 mutation with those of patients without, we noticed that, in addition to the typical facial gestalt, the PTHS phenotype results from the various combination of the following characteristics: ID with severe speech impairment, normal growth parameters at birth, postnatal microcephaly, breathing abnormalities, motor incoordination, ocular anomalies, constipation, seizures, typical behavior, and subtle brain abnormalities. On the basis of these observations, here we propose a clinically based score system as useful tool for driving a first choice molecular test for PTHS. This scoring system is also proposed for a clinically based diagnosis of PTHS in absence of a proven TCF4 mutation. PMID:22678594

Marangi, Giuseppe; Ricciardi, Stefania; Orteschi, Daniela; Tenconi, Romano; Monica, Matteo Della; Scarano, Gioacchino; Battaglia, Domenica; Lettori, Donatella; Vasco, Gessica; Zollino, Marcella

2012-07-01

271

Psychometric properties of the Bender Gestalt Test using Lacks' version of the Hutt-Briskin scoring system.  

PubMed

Criterion-referenced (Livingston r) and norm-referenced (Gilmer-Feldt r and Coefficient Alpha) techniques were used to calculate the internal consistency reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test (BGT) Total Score using the 12-item Lacks system of scoring. Livingston's r was found to be .825 for the Lacks BGT cutoff score of 5. The Gilmer-Feldt and alpha coefficients for the Lacks Total Score was found to be .644 and .626, respectively. An item analysis showed that most of the BGT items (9 out of 12) were within established criteria for item difficulty, however, 7 items were found to be poor discriminators. The interscorer reliabilities based on three scorers, two scorers, and a single scorer was found to be .895, .852, and .740, respectively. Due to the low reliabilities and several inherent flaws that were identified with the Lacks scoring system, the authors recommend that users of the BGT consider alternative objective scoring systems. PMID:18067425

Lopez, Michael N; Perez, Jose J; Smith, Whitney E; Castillo, Wendy

2007-01-01

272

The Predictive Utility of Nontraditional Test Scores for First-Year Pharmacy Student Academic Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the value of employing the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), Defining Issues Test (DIT), and Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) in predictive models for first-year pharmacy student academic performance. Methods Six years of pharmacy student admission and progression data were evaluated. Additional predictive validity offered by these variables over a model of prepharmacy grade point average and pharmacy college admission test (PCAT) score was examined. Results None of the 3 measures offered the ability to predict first-semester or first-year academic performance over and above GPA and PCAT. Conclusions The LASSI, DIT, and WGCTA do not appear to assess abilities that are directly related to academic performance; however, these instruments may be useful in assessing other student attributes that are highly desirable for the practice of pharmacy.

Lobb, William B.; Wilkin, Noel E.; McCaffrey, David J.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Bentley, John P.

2006-01-01

273

Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. Methods The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2±0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70) was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9–48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03–0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. Conclusion The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

2014-01-01

274

Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

2010-01-01

275

Equating Health Measures: Testing the Practical Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project was to develop evidence-based guidelines for the equating health outcomes measurement. Equating relates scores from different measures upon a common mathematical metric. The trustworthiness of these studies may depend upon choic...

K. Cook C. McHorney

2003-01-01

276

Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

2010-04-01

277

Functional movement test scores improve following a standardized off-season intervention program in professional football players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if an off-season intervention program was effective in improving Functional Movement Screen(™) (FMS) scores in professional American football players. Pre- and post-intervention FMS scores were obtained on 62 subjects who completed a 7-week off-season intervention program. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the training program on FMS scores. A chi-square was performed to determine if there were a greater number of players who met the injury threshold and if asymmetries were reduced following intervention. Logistic regression was used to predict what factors were associated with failure (post-test score of <14). There was a positive main effect for time (P<0.01) and a greater number of individuals with a score >14 following the intervention. At post-test, 41 players were free of asymmetry as compared with 31 at the pre-test. The strongest predictor of program failure was a low squat score at pre-test. This study demonstrated that fundamental movement characteristics do change with a standardized intervention. Further research is required to determine if injury risk is reduced when a player's score improves beyond the established cut-off of 14 and/or asymmetry is resolved. PMID:20030782

Kiesel, K; Plisky, P; Butler, R

2011-04-01

278

Development of a non-invasive fibrosis test for chronic hepatitis B patients and comparison with other unpatented scores  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the availability of patented non-invasive methods, evaluation of the degrees of liver fibrosis remains difficult when conducting a retrospective study. Such inadequacy is largely caused by requirement of biochemical parameters rarely performed in routine clinical tests. We developed a novel fibrosis HB-F score using commonly performed tests for HBV infected patients. Methods 424 patients with chronic HBV infection were included. Using clinical and virological data, HB-F score was developed from a training cohort (n?=?213) and validated in a separate cohort (n?=?211). The performance was compared with five other unpatented scores using ROC curves. Results Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that age, AST/ALT ratio, platelet count and prothrombin time prolongation were significantly associated with the ISHAK fibrosis score, and were used to calculate the HB-F score. When HB-F was used to assess prominent fibrosis and cirrhosis, the AUC was 0.81 and 0.80 respectively in the training cohort, and 0.80 and 0.76 respectively in the validation cohort. HB-F had the highest AUC compared with other scores. Furthermore, in assessing paired liver biopsies with increase or decrease of ISHAK scores, HB-F showed significant change in the same direction. Conclusions A new non-invasive score was developed, which could be used to assess severity of liver fibrosis in retrospective longitudinal studies in HBV patients.

2013-01-01

279

Validation of Group Domain Score Estimates Using a Test of Domain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domain scores have been proposed as a user-friendly way of providing instructional feedback about examinees' skills. Domain performance typically cannot be measured directly; instead, scores must be estimated using available information. Simulation studies suggest that IRT-based methods yield accurate group domain score estimates. Because…

Pommerich, Mary

2006-01-01

280

Precision Gains from Publically Available School Proficiency Measures Compared to Study-Collected Test Scores in Education Cluster-Randomized Trials. NCEE 2010-4003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where the outcome is a student-level, study-collected test score, a particularly valuable piece of information is a study-collected baseline score from the same or similar test (a pre-test). Pre-test scores can be used to increase the precision of impact estimates, conduct subgroup analysis, and reduce bias…

Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa; Moore, Ravaris

2010-01-01

281

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

282

A Comparative Evaluation of Score Results from Computerized and Paper & Pencil Mathematics Testing in a Large Scale State Assessment Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports results from a quasi-controlled empirical investigation addressing the impact on student test scores when using fixed form computer based testing (CBT) versus paper and pencil (P&P) testing as the delivery mode to assess student mathematics achievement in a state's large scale assessment program. Grade 7 students served…

Poggio, John; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

283

[Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

Solomon, Robert J.

284

Conditional standard error of measurement and personality scale scores: an investigation of classical test theory estimates with four MMPI scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a preliminary examination of the fit of three classical test theory models of standard error of measurement to selected personality scale (MMPI) score retest data. The three models compared are the conventional standard error of measurement formula, Lord’s (1955: Lord, F. M. (1955). Estimating test reliability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 15, 325–336) conditional standard error of measurement

Robert Saltstone; Colin Skinner; Paul Tremblay

2001-01-01

285

A Comparison of Paper and Online Tests Using a within-Subjects Design and Propensity Score Matching Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry had 2 components: (1) the first was substantive and focused on the comparability of paper-based and computer-based test forms and (2) the second was a within-study comparison wherein a quasi-experimental method, propensity score matching, was compared with a credible benchmark method, a within-subjects design. The tests used in the…

Lottridge, Susan M.; Nicewander, W. Alan; Mitzel, Howard C.

2011-01-01

286

A Review of Methods for Evaluating the Fit of Item Score Patterns on a Test. Research Report 99-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and person-fit statistics that are formulated in the…

Meijer, Rob R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

287

Imputation of Test Scores in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the imputation procedures used to deal with missing data in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the only current National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) dataset that contains scores from cognitive tests given the same set of students at multiple time points. As is inevitable, cognitive test

Bokossa, Maxime C.; Huang, Gary G.

288

Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

1978-01-01

289

WISC-R Discrepancy Score Directions and Gender as Reflected in Neuropsychological Test Performance of Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between gender, Neuropsychological Test Performance, and specific Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Verbal and Performance discrepancy score directions was examined with Black adolescents. Results indicated a need to use different normative data for male and female subjects on these tests. (Author/JD)

Knuckle, Essie P.; Asbury, Charles A.

1986-01-01

290

On-Field Testing Environment and Balance Error Scoring System Performance During Preseason Screening of Healthy Collegiate Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

Context: To determine if testing environment affects Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) scores in healthy collegiate baseball players. Design: Experimental, randomized, repeated-measures design with a sample of convenience. Setting: Uncontrolled sideline and controlled locker room baseball environments. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 21 healthy collegiate baseball players (age = 20.1 ± 1.4 years, height = 185.1 ± 6.8 cm, mass = 86.3 ± 9.5 kg) with no history of head injury within the last 12 months, no lower extremity injuries reported within the past 2 months that caused them to miss 1 or more days of practice or game time, and no history of otitis media, Parkinson disease, or Meniere disease. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants performed the BESS test in 2 environments, controlled locker room and uncontrolled sideline, in 2 testing sessions 1 week apart during the baseball preseason. The BESS scores were evaluated for each of the 6 conditions and total score across the testing sessions. Separate, paired-samples t tests with Bonferroni adjustment (P < .008) were used to examine differences between testing environments for each BESS subcategory and total score. Cohen d tests were calculated to evaluate effect sizes and relative change. Results: Significant group mean differences were found between testing environments for single-leg foam stance (P = .001), with higher scores reported for the uncontrolled sideline environment (7.33 ± 2.11 errors) compared with the controlled clinical environment (5.19 ± 2.16 errors). Medium to large effect sizes (0.53 to 1.03) were also found for single-leg foam, tandem foam, and total BESS scores, with relative increases (worse scores) of 30% to 44% in the sideline environment compared with the clinical environment. Conclusions: The BESS performance was impaired when participants were tested in a sideline environment compared with a clinical environment. Baseline testing for postural control using the BESS should be conducted in the setting or environment in which testing after injury will most likely be conducted.

Onate, James A; Beck, Brian C; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

2007-01-01

291

Test-retest reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt in chronic schizophrenics.  

PubMed

This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. PMID:11575627

Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

2001-09-01

292

Is High School GPA Better than Admission Test Scores for Predicting Academic Success in College?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of high school GPA and ACT score for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. We estimated predictions of achieving first-year GPA levels ranging from 2.00 to 3.75 at 84 post secondary institutions. Both high school GPA and ACT score were effective predictors of achieving moderate levels of…

Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard L.

2004-01-01

293

Evaluating Analytic Scoring for the TOEFL[R] Academic Speaking Test (TAST) for Operational Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the utility of analytic scoring for TAST in providing useful and reliable diagnostic information for operational use in three aspects of candidates' performance: delivery, language use and topic development. One hundred and forty examinees' responses to six TAST tasks were scored analytically on these three aspects of speech. G…

Xi, Xiaoming

2007-01-01

294

A Comparison of Special Education Teacher and Psychologist Scoring of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten special education teachers and two school psychologists scored the Bender-Gestalt protocals of elementary school children using the Koppitz scoring system. The reported correlations between teachers and school psychologists compared favorably to correlations between school psychologists as well as to interrater reliabilities reported in the…

Foster, Glen G.; And Others

1976-01-01

295

Optimal Partitioning of Testing Time: Theoretical Properties and Practical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with optimal partitioning of limited testing time in order to achieve maximum total test score. Nonlinear optimization theory was used to analyze this problem. A general case using a generic item response model is first presented. A special case that applies a response time model proposed by Wang and Hanson (2005) is also…

Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Jiawei

2006-01-01

296

Toward a process-focused model of test score validity: improving psychological assessment in science and practice.  

PubMed

Although definitions of validity have evolved considerably since L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl's classic (1955) review, contemporary validity research continues to emphasize correlational analyses assessing predictor-criterion relationships, with most outcome criteria being self-reports. The present article describes an alternative way of operationalizing validity--the process-focused (PF) model. The PF model conceptualizes validity as the degree to which respondents can be shown to engage in a predictable set of psychological processes during testing, with those processes dictated a priori by the nature of the instrument(s) used and the context in which testing takes place. In contrast to the traditional approach wherein correlational methods are used to quantify the relationship between test score and criterion, the PF model uses experimental methods to manipulate variables that moderate test score-criterion relationships, enabling researchers to draw more definitive conclusions regarding the impact of underlying psychological processes on test scores. By complementing outcome-based validity assessment with a process-driven approach, researchers will not only improve psychology's assessment procedures but also enhance their understanding of test bias and test score misuse by illuminating the intra- and interpersonal factors that lead to differential performance (and differential prediction) in different groups. PMID:21668126

Bornstein, Robert F

2011-06-01

297

Haplotype-based association analysis via variance-components score test.  

PubMed

Haplotypes provide a more informative format of polymorphisms for genetic association analysis than do individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, the practical efficacy of haplotype-based association analysis is challenged by a trade-off between the benefits of modeling abundant variation and the cost of the extra degrees of freedom. To reduce the degrees of freedom, several strategies have been considered in the literature. They include (1) clustering evolutionarily close haplotypes, (2) modeling the level of haplotype sharing, and (3) smoothing haplotype effects by introducing a correlation structure for haplotype effects and studying the variance components (VC) for association. Although the first two strategies enjoy a fair extent of power gain, empirical evidence showed that VC methods may exhibit only similar or less power than the standard haplotype regression method, even in cases of many haplotypes. In this study, we report possible reasons that cause the underpowered phenomenon and show how the power of the VC strategy can be improved. We construct a score test based on the restricted maximum likelihood or the marginal likelihood function of the VC and identify its nontypical limiting distribution. Through simulation, we demonstrate the validity of the test and investigate the power performance of the VC approach and that of the standard haplotype regression approach. With suitable choices for the correlation structure, the proposed method can be directly applied to unphased genotypic data. Our method is applicable to a wide-ranging class of models and is computationally efficient and easy to implement. The broad coverage and the fast and easy implementation of this method make the VC strategy an effective tool for haplotype analysis, even in modern genomewide association studies. PMID:17924336

Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Zhang, Daowen

2007-11-01

298

Power and sample size evaluation for the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score (Wilcoxon rank sum) test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend.  

PubMed

The power of a chi-square test, and thus the required sample size, are a function of the noncentrality parameter that can be obtained as the limiting expectation of the test statistic under an alternative hypothesis specification. Herein, we apply this principle to derive simple expressions for two tests that are commonly applied to discrete ordinal data. The Wilcoxon rank sum test for the equality of distributions in two groups is algebraically equivalent to the Mann-Whitney test. The Kruskal-Wallis test applies to multiple groups. These tests are equivalent to a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score test using rank scores for a set of C-discrete categories. Although various authors have assessed the power function of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, herein it is shown that the power of these tests with discrete observations, that is, with tied ranks, is readily provided by the power function of the corresponding Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean scores test for two and R?>?2 groups. These expressions yield results virtually identical to those derived previously for rank scores and also apply to other score functions. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend assesses whether there is an monotonically increasing or decreasing trend in the proportions with a positive outcome or response over the C-ordered categories of an ordinal independent variable, for example, dose. Herein, it is shown that the power of the test is a function of the slope of the response probabilities over the ordinal scores assigned to the groups that yields simple expressions for the power of the test. PMID:22006667

Lachin, John M

2011-11-10

299

The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

Turner, Sherry L.

2011-01-01

300

The Effects of Three Modes of Test Administration on the Reading Achievement Scores of Fifth Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study concludes that nonstandard examiner behavior of the type studied can increase the scores of some students. Students' percentile ranks and grade equivalent can change solely as a function of examiner behavior. (Author)

Johnson, Gary L.; Hummel, Thomas

1971-01-01

301

An Investigation of Calculator Use on Employment Tests of Mathematical Ability: Effects on Reliability, Validity, Test Scores, and Speed of Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Handheld calculators have been used on the job for more than 30 years, yet the degree to which these devices can affect performance on employment tests of mathematical ability has not been thoroughly examined. This study used a within-subjects research design (N = 167) to investigate the effects of calculator use on test score reliability, test

Bing, Mark N.; Stewart, Susan M.; Davison, H. Kristl

2009-01-01

302

The sugar scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test: an objective approach that reflects clinical judgment.  

PubMed

Although several objective scoring systems have been developed for use with the abbreviated form of the Bender-Gestalt test of visuomotor development (Figures A, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8), each has been criticized as being inadequate in some way or other. This paper reviews the inadequacies of these systems as described in the literature and presents the results of a small study designed to investigate the psychometric properties of a new objective scoring system, recently proposed by Sugar, which incorporates both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The new system is shown to be psychometrically sound in validity and reliability. Additional advantages are described. The new system is recommended as a good, if not better, alternative to other, existing methods for scoring the Bender-Gestalt test. PMID:8284170

Parsons, L; Weinberg, S L

1993-12-01

303

The impact of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score on treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in patients with early breast cancer: the Maccabi Healthcare Services experience with a unified testing policy  

PubMed Central

The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score is a validated prognosticator in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Our retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort summarises the clinical implications associated with Oncotype DX testing according to the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) policy. The MHS eligibility criteria for testing included ER+ N0/pN1mic invasive tumours, discussion of test implications with an oncologist, ductal carcinoma 0.6–1 cm Grade 2–3, HER2 negative ductal carcinomas with 1.1–4.0 cm Grade 1–2, or lobular carcinoma. Large (> 1 cm) Grade 3 tumours could have grade reassessed. We linked Recurrence Score results with patients’ information and used chi-squared tests to assess the associations thereof. Between January 2008 and December 2011, tests were performed on 751 patients (MHS-eligible, 713); 54%, 38%, and 8% of patients had low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively. Recurrence Score distribution varied significantly with age (P = 0.002), with increasing Recurrence Score values with decreasing age. The proportion of patients with high Recurrence Score results varied by grade/size combination and histology, occurring in 32% of small (? 1 cm) Grade 3 and 3% of larger (1.1–4 cm) Grade 1 ductal tumours and only in 2% of lobular carcinomas. Chemotherapy was administered to 1%, 13%, and 61% of patients with low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively (P < 0.0001), but only to 2% of intermediate score patients ? 65 years. Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists with tamoxifen were used in 27% of low Recurrence Score patients ? 50 years. With a median follow-up of 26 months, no systemic recurrences were documented, whereas four patients exhibited locoregional recurrences. In summary, in this low-to-moderate risk patient population, testing identified 46% of patients as intermediate/high risk. Treatment decisions were influenced by Recurrence Score results and patients’ age. The current MHS policy seems to achieve the goal of promoting chemotherapy use according to the test results in a prespecified patient population.

Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Silverman, Barbara; Zick, Aviad; Beit-Or, Anat; Katzir, Itzhak; Porath, Avi

2013-01-01

304

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

305

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

306

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

307

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

308

Performance of children on the Turkish Nonword Repetition Test: Effect of word similarity, word length, and scoring.  

PubMed

Abstract This study aims to report the preliminary results of the development of the Turkish Nonword Repetition Test and to contribute to the clinical accuracy of the test by comparing the performance of children with specific language impairment with that of language-level matched and age-matched typically developing children on a nonword repetition (NWR) test developed for Turkish. To determine the effect of word similarity and word length, the Turkish Nonword Repetition Test is composed of language-like and language-unlike items. To determine the effect of scoring, the performances of children were scored as correct/incorrect for a whole word, for only the consonants, and for only the vowels. The findings suggest that the test is a reliable tool to differentiate Turkish-speaking children with SLI from typically developing children. PMID:25000381

Topba?, Seyhun; Kaçar-Kütükçü, D?lber; Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan

2014-07-01

309

Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

Nix, Sharon J.

310

Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences with the approach. By engaging in the argument-based classrooms where teachers value students' prior knowledge, encourage students to take control of their learning, and provide non-threatening environment for students to developing big ideas through negotiation, student's achievement can be enhanced. The results also started to shed some light on sustainability of the SWH approach within the school district.

Chanlen, Niphon

311

An Empirical Investigation of the Accuracy of a Step-Up Method for Estimating Test Score Conditional Variances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In previous works, D. J. Woodruff derived expressions for three different conditional test score variances: (1) the conditional standard error of prediction (CSEP); (2) the conditional standard error of measurement in prediction (CSEMP); and (3) the conditional standard error of estimation (CSEE). He also presented step-up formulas that require…

Go, Imelda C.; Woodruff, David J.

312

Automatic Kernel Regression Modelling Using Combined Leave-One-Out Test Score and Regularised Orthogonal Least Squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an automatic robust nonlinear identification algorithm using the leave-one-out test score also known as the PRESS (Predicted REsidual Sums of Squares) statistic and regularised orthogonal least squares. The proposed algorithm aims to achieve maximised model robustness via two effective and complementary approaches, parameter regularisation via ridge regression and model optimal generalisation structure selection. The major con- tributions

Xia Hong; Sheng Chen; Paul M. Sharkey

2004-01-01

313

The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

2009-01-01

314

Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

Pullin, Diana

2013-01-01

315

Test Score Measurement Error, Short-Term Knowledge, and Lagged Dependent Variables in Models of the Education Production Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers are interested in the causal effects of educational inputs on student achievement. Unfortunately, it is not possible to directly observe student learning, so test score data is often used as an approximate measure. To measure their achievement at a given point in time (e.g., in the spring of the school year) students…

Stacy, Brian; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel

2012-01-01

316

Indian Students Outperform Blacks on NAEP: Federal Report Is First In-Depth Analysis of Such Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indian students tend to lag behind their white and Asian-American peers on National Assessment of Educational Progress reading and mathematics tests in 4th and 8th grade, but they score higher on average than African-American students, according to a first-of-its-kind federal analysis. The U.S. Department of Education says the May 23…

Klein, Alyson

2006-01-01

317

Efficiency, Bias, and Classification Schemes: Estimating Private-School Impacts on Test Scores in the New York City Voucher Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a fresh analysis of data from an earlier study (Brookings 2002) on the test scores of African American students in a small, targeted voucher program. This new analysis was undertaken in response to an unpublished paper by Krueger and Zhu (Princeton University) disputing some of the findings of the original study. In 1997 some…

Peterson, Paul E.; Howell, William G.

318

The Impact of Developmental Education on the Graduation Rate of Students with Low Combined Differential Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1974, Cincinnati Technical College (CTC) has offered a Developmental Education (DE) program designed to upgrade students' skills in mathematics, reading, English, and basic sciences, as well as study and interpersonal skills. The DE program offers students, particularly those with low combined Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) scores, a…

Marcotte, James

319

Diagnosing Item Score Patterns on a Test Using Item Response Theory-Based Person-Fit Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Person-fit statistics have been proposed to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) model. The author investigated how these statistics can be used to detect different types of misfit. Intelligence test data were analyzed using person-fit statistics in the context of the G. Rasch (1960) model and R. J. Mokken's (1971, 1997) IRT

Rob R. Meijer

2003-01-01

320

A Study of the Relationship between Student Placement Test Scores and Final Grades in Physics 121 at Pima College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Pima Community College to determine the relationship between the final grade received by students in an introductory, algebra-based physics course (PHY 121) and their scores on the reading, writing, and mathematics portions of the college's nonmandatory assessment test. Between 1983 and 1988, 639 students obtained a final…

Iadevaia, David G.

321

School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative

Robert Bifulco; Helen F. Ladd

2007-01-01

322

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Schooling on Economic Success. Volume III. Supplementary Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains eleven appendixes, varying from 5 to 165 pages, which describe the sample used in the analysis of ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and earnings in maturity. The appendixes are (1) 1970 Census 1/1000 Sample; (2) 1962…

Jencks, Christopher; And Others

323

The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.  

PubMed

This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy. PMID:10833727

Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

2000-04-01

324

Target-Specific Support Vector Machine Scoring in Structure-Based Virtual Screening: Computational Validation, In Vitro Testing in Kinases, and Effects on Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

We assess the performance of our previously reported structure-based support vector machine target-specific scoring function across 41 targets, 40 among them from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). The area under the curve of receiver characteristic plots (ROC-AUC) revealed that scoring with SVMSP resulted in consistently better enrichment over all targets families and outperforming Glide and other scoring functions, most notably among kinases. In addition, SVM-SP performance showed little variation among protein classes, exhibited excellent performance in a test case using a homology model, and in some cases showed high enrichment even with few structures used to train a model. We put SVM-SP to the test by virtual screening 1,125 compounds against two kinases, EGFR and CaMKII. Among the top 25 EGFR compounds, three compounds (1–3) inhibited kinase activity in vitro with IC50 of 58, 2, and 10 ?M. In cell culture, compounds 1–3 inhibited non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) cancer cell proliferation with similar IC50 values for compound 3. For CaMKII, one compound inhibited kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner among 20 tested with an IC50 of 48 ?M. These results are encouraging given that our in-house library consists of compounds that emerged from virtual screening of other targets with pockets that are different from typical ATP binding sites found in kinases. In light of the importance of kinases in chemical biology, these findings could have implications in future efforts to identify chemical probes of kinases within the human kinome.

Li, Liwei; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Wang, Fang; Ashpole, Nicole; Hudmon, Andy; Meroueh, Samy O.

2011-01-01

325

IRT True-Score Test Equating: A Guide through Assumptions and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the assumptions required by the item response theory (IRT) true-score equating method (with Stocking & Lord, 1983; scaling approach), which is commonly used in the nonequivalent groups with an anchor data-collection design. More precisely, this article investigates the assumptions made at each step by the IRT approach to…

von Davier, Alina A.; Wilson, Christine

2007-01-01

326

Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

2012-01-01

327

Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help

Janet Victoria Gordon

2008-01-01

328

Determination of the Number of Items and Passing Score in a Mastery Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method based on the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution and on the relation between the Chi-Squared distribution and the Poisson distribution is suggested for selected use in determining the number of items and passing scores in mastery Lests. (Author/RL)

Hsu, Louis M.

1980-01-01

329

The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

Jones, Tracy Anne

2010-01-01

330

Significance Testing against the Random Model for Scoring Mo dels on Top k Predictions0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance at top k predictions, where instances are ranked by a (learned) scoring model, has been used as an evaluation metric in machine learning for various reasons such as where the entire corpus is unknown (e.g., the web) or where the results are to be used by a person with limited time or resources (e.g., ranking financial news stories where

Sofus A. Macskassy

2005-01-01

331

The Bender Gestalt Test: A scoring method for identifying brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons between groups of 20 brain damaged, 38 psychiatric, and 25 normal Ss as to the occurences of 31 signs in Bender Gestalt protocols yeilded 15 signs which discriminated between brain damaged and non-brain-damaged groups. Protocols of the original sample of Ss and of a 2nd sample of matched psychiatric and brain damaged Ss (21 in each sample) were scored

Jack D. Hain

1964-01-01

332

Teenage Self Test: cigarette smoking. Discussion Leader's Guide. How do you score?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-scoring questionnaire on attitudes related to smoking includes norms based upon the responses of 7,000 teenagers and a discussion of the meaning of eight subscores. The subscores are: (1) effect of smoking on health; (2) non-smoker's rights; (3) positive effects of smoking; (4) manufactured reasons for smoking; (5) reasons for starting;…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health.

333

A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

Sawilowsky, Shlomo

1985-01-01

334

Formative Assessment Using CBM-R Cut Scores to Track Progress toward Success on State-Mandated Achievement Tests: A Comparison of Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study outlines a formative assessment system using a consistent set of cut scores on Curriculum-Based Measurement-Reading (CBM-R) probes and investigates four statistical methods for establishing cut scores. Cut scores were established using the Minnesota statewide achievement test in reading at grade 3 as the criterion for a successful…

Silberglitt, Benjamin; Hintze, John

2005-01-01

335

WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults.  

PubMed

The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV(®)) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment. PMID:22534562

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O

2012-07-01

336

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Exhaustive testing of computer software is intractable, but empirical studies of software failures suggest,that testing can in some,cases be effectively exhaustive. Data reported in this study and others show,that software,failures in a variety of domains,were caused,by combinations,of relatively few conditions. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system,can be triggered by a combination of n

D. Richard Kuhn; Dolores R. Wallace; Albert M. Gallo Jr

2004-01-01

337

Dynamic trends in cardiac surgery: why the logistic EuroSCORE is no longer suitable for contemporary cardiac surgery and implications for future risk models  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Progressive loss of calibration of the original EuroSCORE models has necessitated the introduction of the EuroSCORE II model. Poor model calibration has important implications for clinical decision-making and risk adjustment of governance analyses. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the calibration drift of the logistic EuroSCORE. METHODS Data from the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland database were analysed for procedures performed at all National Health Service and some private hospitals in England and Wales between April 2001 and March 2011. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. EuroSCORE risk factors, overall model calibration and discrimination were assessed over time. RESULTS A total of 317 292 procedures were included. Over the study period, mean age at surgery increased from 64.6 to 67.2 years. The proportion of procedures that were isolated coronary artery bypass grafts decreased from 67.5 to 51.2%. In-hospital mortality fell from 4.1 to 2.8%, but the mean logistic EuroSCORE increased from 5.6 to 7.6%. The logistic EuroSCORE remained a good discriminant throughout the study period (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve between 0.79 and 0.85), but calibration (observed-to-expected mortality ratio) fell from 0.76 to 0.37. Inadequate adjustment for decreasing baseline risk affected calibration considerably. DISCUSSIONS Patient risk factors and case-mix in adult cardiac surgery change dynamically over time. Models like the EuroSCORE that are developed using a ‘snapshot’ of data in time do not account for this and can subsequently lose calibration. It is therefore important to regularly revalidate clinical prediction models.

Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Murphy, Gavin J.; Bhabra, Moninder; Pagano, Domenico; McAllister, Katherine; Buchan, Iain; Bridgewater, Ben

2013-01-01

338

Correlates of Children's Eating Attitude Test scores among primary school children.  

PubMed

A total of 107 Malay primary school girls (8-9 yr. old) completed a set of measurements on eating behavior (ChEAT, food neophobia scales, and dieting experience), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, body shape satisfaction, dietary intake, weight, and height. About 38% of the girls scored 20 and more on the ChEAT, and 46% of them reported dieting by reducing sugar and sweets (73%), skipping meals (67%), reducing fat foods (60%) and snacks (53%) as the most frequent methods practiced. In general, those girls with higher ChEAT scores tended to have lower self-esteem (r=.39), indicating they were more unwilling to try new foods (food neophobic) (r=.29), chose a smaller figure for desired body size (r=-.25), and were more dissatisfied with their body size (r=.31). PMID:15974357

Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Yasin, Zaidah Mohamed

2005-04-01

339

The Crohn's and colitis knowledge score: a test for measuring patient knowledge in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire assessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and

Jayne A. Eaden; Keith Abrams; John F. Mayberry

1999-01-01

340

Into the Night: Factors affecting response to abnormal Early Warning Scores out-of-hours and implications for service improvement.  

PubMed

Background: Early Warning Scores alert staff to preventable deterioration. Raised scores should lead to escalation of care. Aims: To establish response of staff to patients scoring National Early Warning Score (NEWS) of six or above and to identify patient and environmental factors affecting escalation by nursing staff. Methods: Service evaluation with prospective review of patient records of 118 beds on four medical wards during 20 night-shifts. Results: During 2360 observed bed days 109 patients triggered NEWS >=6 at least once during the observation period. Nursing staff escalated only 18 (17%) of these patients; nearly all of them had predefined chronic health conditions, the majority fulfilled criteria for frailty. Despite their higher 30-day mortality patients with COPD had lower escalation rates. Additionally wards that had more patients with a NEWS >=6 had lower escalation rates. Conclusion: Alarm fatigue and clinical judgement of staff might result in deviation from escalation protocols. PMID:24940567

Yiu, C J; Khan, S U; Subbe, C P; Tofeec, K; Madge, R A

2014-01-01

341

Comparability of Examinee Proficiency Scores on Computer Adaptive Tests Using Real and Simulated Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In measurement research, data simulations are a commonly used analytical technique. While simulation designs have many benefits, it is unclear if these artificially generated datasets are able to accurately capture real examinee item response behaviors. This potential lack of comparability may have important implications for administration of…

Evans, Josiah Jeremiah

2010-01-01

342

Scientists implicated in atom test deception.  

PubMed

Described here are the circumstances leading to a recent court ruling that Atomic Energy Commission officials suppressed data indicating a link between two 1953 atomic bomb tests in Nevada and sheep deaths in neighboring Utah, and then pressured scientific investigators to concur with the AEC position. In a 1956 trial, a federal judge denied compensation to the sheep owners. Evidence of the deception came to light in 1979 and 1980 and, on 24 August 1982, the same judge ordered a new trial, ruling that several AEC attorneys and scientists had indeed misrepresented the facts. His ruling has been appealed by the Department of Justice. PMID:11643806

Smith, R Jeffrey

1982-11-01

343

Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system into class II (special controls). The special control that will apply to these devices is the guidance document entitled "Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System." The Agency is classifying these devices into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of these devices and there is sufficient information to establish special controls. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance document that will serve as the special control for these devices PMID:21434456

2011-03-23

344

Development and Psychometric Testing of a Quality of Recovery Score After General Anesthesia and Surgery in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

a significant negative relationship between QoR Score and female gender (P 5 0.048) and older age (P 5 0.041). There was also good interrater agreement (r 5 0.55, P , 0.0001), test-retest reliability (median r 5 0.61, P , 0.0001), and internal consistency (a 5 0.57 and 0.90, P , 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the groups of

Paul S. Myles; Jennifer O. Hunt; Claire E. Nightingale; Helen Fletcher; Terence Beh; Deral Tanil; Attila Nagy; Alan Rubinstein; Jennie L. Ponsford

1999-01-01

345

Severity of illness scoring systems in patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia: implications for the intensive care unit care.  

PubMed

Severity of illness scoring systems are useful for decisions on the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including assessing the need for intensified therapy and monitoring, or for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We compared the accuracy of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), the CURB-65 and CRB-65 score, the modified-American Thoracic Society score (ATS), the IDSA/ATS guidelines and the Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS) in evaluating severity of illness in 766 patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) and the accuracy of the classification in predicting 14-day mortality. The PSI and the IDSA/ATS guidelines were the most sensitive whereas the PBS and modified-ATS scoring systems were the most specific in predicting mortality. The NPV was comparable for all four scoring systems (all above 90%), but the PPV was highest for PBS (54.2%) and lowest for PSI (23.2%). The predictive accuracy and discriminating power as measured by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was highest for the PBS. Both the modified-ATS and the PBS scoring systems identified those patients who might benefit most from intensified care and monitoring. The PBS and modified-ATS proved superior to the IDSA/ATS guidelines, CURB-65 and CRB-65 with respect to their specificity and PPV. The low PPV of the PSI rendered it not usable as a parameter for decision-making in severely-ill patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia. PMID:19702589

Feldman, C; Alanee, S; Yu, V L; Richards, G A; Ortqvist, A; Rello, J; Chiou, C C C; Chedid, M B F; Wagener, M M; Klugman, K P

2009-09-01

346

School Test Scores As a Factor in Parental Choice of School: Testing an Assumption of America 2000 in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study that examined the hypothesis that published standardized assessment scores would influence enrollment in Maine high schools are presented in this paper. The hypothesis was derived from the Bush Administration's assertion that regular educational assessment would influence parental school choice. The Maine educational system…

Maddaus, John; And Others

347

Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.  

PubMed

Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys. PMID:3373186

Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

1988-03-01

348

Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2014-01-01

349

Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, Reduction of Intestinal Parasite Load, and Cognitive Test Score Improvements in School-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Background To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i) treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii) spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species, and (iii) ?2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children. Methodology Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ?2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured), >12 to ?18, 6 to ?12 and ?6 (persistently infected) months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), verbal fluency (VF), and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT). Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections. Principal Findings Children cured (??=?5.8; P?=?0.02) and those schistosome-free for >12 months (??=?1.5; P?=?0.03) scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (?:11.5–14.5; all P<0.01) and the joint decline of ?2 STH (??=?13.1; P?=?0.01) species were associated with higher scores in WRAML learning test independent of schistosome infection. Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura declines were independently associated with improvements in WRAML memory scores as was the joint decline in ?2 STH species. Baseline coinfection by ?2 STH species was associated with low PNIT scores (??=??1.9; P?=?0.04). Conclusion/Significance Children cured/S. japonicum-free for >12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ?2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained deworming and simultaneous control for schistosome and STH infections could improve children's ability to take advantage of educational opportunities in helminth-endemic regions.

Ezeamama, Amara E.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Hogan, Joseph; Lapane, Kate L.; Bellinger, David C.; Acosta, Luz P.; Leenstra, Tjalling; Olveda, Remigio M.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.

2012-01-01

350

Scoring Best on All Life's Tests--By Using Your "Whole Brain."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of documents contains advice on doing well on tests by preparing and using the whole brain. The first sheet contains general tips for helping students become fact-smart, how to improve test-smartness, and how to build test-smartness. The combination of these three approaches assures that students will do their best on tests. The…

Rubenzer, Ronald L.

351

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

352

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

353

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

354

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

355

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

356

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

357

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

358

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

359

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

360

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

361

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

362

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

363

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

364

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

365

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

366

A quantitative assessment of alkaptonuria: testing the reliability of two disease severity scoring systems.  

PubMed

Alkaptonuria (AKU) is due to excessive homogentisic acid accumulation in body fluids due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to varied clinical manifestations mainly by a process of conversion of HGA to a polymeric melanin-like pigment known as ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, successful demonstration of its efficacy in modifying the natural history of AKU requires an effective quantitative assessment tool. We have described two potential tools that could be used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires used in 44 people with AKU. Statistical analyses were carried out on the two patient datasets to assess the AKU tools; these included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, multidimensional scaling and simple linear regression analysis. The conclusion was that there was good evidence that the tools could be adopted as AKU assessment tools, but perhaps with further refinement before being used in the practical setting of a clinical trial. PMID:21744089

Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

2011-12-01

367

On the efficiency of score tests for homogeneity in two-component parametric models for discrete data.  

PubMed

In many applications of two-component mixture models for discrete data such as zero-inflated models, it is often of interest to conduct inferences for the mixing weights. Score tests derived from the marginal model that allows for negative mixing weights have been particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures often rely on restrictive assumptions such as the constancy of the mixing weights and typically ignore the structural constraints of the marginal model. In this article, we develop a score test of homogeneity that overcomes the limitations of existing procedures. The technique is based on a decomposition of the mixing weights into terms that have an obvious statistical interpretation. We exploit this decomposition to lay the foundation of the test. Simulation results show that the proposed covariate-adjusted test statistic can greatly improve the efficiency over test statistics based on constant mixing weights. A real-life example in dental caries research is used to illustrate the methodology. PMID:22348298

Todem, David; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Kim, KyungMann

2012-09-01

368

Recommendations, evaluation and validation of a semi-automated, fluorescent-based scoring protocol for micronucleus testing in human cells.  

PubMed

Micronucleus (MN) induction is an established cytogenetic end point for evaluating structural and numerical chromosomal alterations in genotoxicity testing. A semi-automated scoring protocol for the assessment of MN preparations from human cell lines and a 3D skin cell model has been developed and validated. Following exposure to a range of test agents, slides were stained with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and scanned by use of the MicroNuc module of metafer 4, after the development of a modified classifier for selecting MN in binucleate cells. A common difficulty observed with automated systems is an artefactual output of high false positives, in the case of the metafer system this is mainly due to the loss of cytoplasmic boundaries during slide preparation. Slide quality is paramount to obtain accurate results. We show here that to avoid elevated artefactual-positive MN outputs, diffuse cell density and low-intensity nuclear staining are critical. Comparisons between visual (Giemsa stained) and automated (DAPI stained) MN frequencies and dose-response curves were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.70 for hydrogen peroxide, R (2) = 0.98 for menadione, R (2) = 0.99 for mitomycin C, R (2) = 0.89 for potassium bromate and R (2) = 0.68 for quantum dots), indicating the system is adequate to produce biologically relevant and reliable results. Metafer offers many advantages over conventional scoring including increased output and statistical power, and reduced scoring subjectivity, labour and costs. Further, the metafer system is easily adaptable for use with a range of different cells, both suspension and adherent human cell lines. Awareness of the points raised here reduces the automatic positive errors flagged and drastically reduces slide scoring time, making metafer an ideal candidate for genotoxic biomonitoring and population studies and regulatory genotoxic testing. PMID:24705543

Seager, Anna L; Shah, Ume-Kulsoom; Brüsehafer, Katja; Wills, John; Manshian, Bella; Chapman, Katherine E; Thomas, Adam D; Scott, Andrew D; Doherty, Ann T; Doak, Shareen H; Johnson, George E; Jenkins, Gareth J S

2014-05-01

369

Test-Suite Reduction for Model Based Tests: Effects on Test Quality and Implications for Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model checking techniques can be successfully employed as a test case generation technique to generate tests from formal models. The number of tests cases produced, how- ever, is typically large for complex coverage criteria such as MCDC. Test-suite reduction can provide us with a smaller set of test cases that preserve the original coverage—often a dramatically smaller set. One potential

Mats Per Erik Heimdahl; George Devaraj

2004-01-01

370

Accuracy of Self-Reported SAT and ACT Test Scores: Implications for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…

Cole, James S.; Gonyea, Robert M.

2010-01-01

371

Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

2013-01-01

372

Comparison of Dichotomous and Polytomous Item Response Models in Equating Scores from Tests Composed of Testlets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared performance of two polytomous item response theory models to that of the dichotomous three-parameter logistic model in equating tests composed of testlets using data from 6 tests of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (samples of 537 to 680 eighth graders). Results of the equating method based on polytomous models produced results that more…

Lee, Guemin; Kolen, Michael J.; Frisbie, David A.; Ankenmann, Robert D.

2001-01-01

373

Diagnosing item score patterns on a test using item response theory-based person-fit statistics.  

PubMed

Person-fit statistics have been proposed to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) model. The author investigated how these statistics can be used to detect different types of misfit. Intelligence test data were analyzed using person-fit statistics in the context of the G. Rasch (1960) model and R. J. Mokken's (1971, 1997) IRT models. The effect of the choice of an IRT model to detect misfitting item score patterns and the usefulness of person-fit statisticsfor diagnosis of misfit are discussed. Results showed that different types of person-fit statistics can be used to detect different kinds of person misfit. Parametric person-fit statistics had more power than nonparametric person-fit statistics. PMID:12741674

Meijer, Rob R

2003-03-01

374

An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

2006-01-01

375

Independent Investigations of Reliability and Validity of Learning Behaviors Scale Scores: Implications for Practitioners and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This presentation reports on the results of four independent studies that investigated the reliability and validity of Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 1999) scores. The LBS is a cost and time effective, nationally normed, and unobtrusive observation measure of key learning behavior variables that influence student learning. Study 1 examined the replication of the short-term

Gary L. Canivez

376

Simulation of Inner-city Standardized Testing Behavior: Implications for Instructional Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible distortions in standardized test scores due to guessing, particularly in inner-city situations, are examined. A procedure is presented for estimating true knowledge levels from test scores. Results show scores are overstatements of subject mastery which means many programs are being planned and evaluated using inaccurate data. (Author/DWH)

Doscher, Mary-Lynn; Bruno, James E.

1981-01-01

377

Effect of Computer-Delivered Testing on Achievement in a Mastery Learning Course of Study with Partial Scoring and Variable Pacing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent arrival of portable computer systems with high-level language interpreters now makes it practical to rapidly develop complex testing and scoring programs. These programs permit undergraduates access, at arbitrary times, to testing as an integra...

R. M. Evans A. J. Surkan

1977-01-01

378

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

379

The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental

James L. Vaca Jr.

2010-01-01

380

Inquiry-Based Instruction in Geometry: The Impact on End of Course Geometry Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining instruction in geometry and standardized tests suggests that students have difficulty grasping geometry concepts and developing problem solving skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the use of inquiry-based strategies in a geometry class and achievement on the end of course test (EOCT) and to…

Lewis, Betty

2009-01-01

381

Selection Bias in College Admissions Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 14265  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within…

Clark, Melissa; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

2008-01-01

382

Measurement of Epistemological Beliefs: Psychometric Properties of the EQEBI Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new test (called the EQEBI) for the measurement of epistemological beliefs, integrating and extending the Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ) and the Epistemic Beliefs Inventory (EBI). In Study 1, the two tests were translated and applied to a Spanish-speaking sample. A detailed dimensionality exploration, by means of the…

Ordonez, Xavier G.; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco J.; Romero, Sonia J.

2009-01-01

383

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Boards and Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware Student Testing Program ties student achievement to the state's content standards that define the knowledge and skills Delaware students need to succeed beyond high school. This report explains the testing program and how to interpret it for administrators and boards of education. Each school receives English language and mathematics…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

384

Identifying Language Impairment in Children: Combining Language Test Scores with Parental Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who meet language test criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) are not necessarily the same as those who are referred to a speech and language therapist. Aims: To consider how far this discrepancy reflects insensitivity of traditional language tests to clinically important features of language impairment. Methods &…

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McDonald, David

2009-01-01

385

The Effects of a Translation Bias on the Scores for the "Basic Economics Test"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International comparisons of economic understanding generally require a translation of a standardized test written in English into another language. Test results can differ based on how researchers translate the English written exam into one in their own language. To confirm this hypothesis, two differently translated versions of the "Basic…

Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

2012-01-01

386

EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

Green, Anthony

2005-01-01

387

The relation between symptom validity testing and MMPI-2 scores as a function of forensic evaluation context.  

PubMed

The association between scores on MMPI-2 scales and cognitive symptom validity test (SVT) failure was investigated in 127 criminal defendants evaluated for competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and drug dependence, and 141 personal injury and disability claimants. Results indicated that SVT failure was associated with exaggerated symptom presentation involving somatic complaints in civil litigants and more global exaggeration of psychopathology and somatic complaints in criminal defendants. Scores on the MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale (FBS) were associated with SVT failure in both civil and criminal litigants, whereas scores on the MMPI-2 F(P) scale were associated with SVT failure in criminal defendants, but not in civil plaintiffs. These results support the utility of the FBS as an indicator of non-credible presentation of somatic and cognitive complaints in both civil and criminal forensic psychological assessments, and indicate that the lack of association between the MMPI-2 infrequency scales and SVT failure is limited to civil forensic settings. PMID:17350796

Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Stafford, Kathleen P; Freeman, David B; Heilbronner, Robert L

2007-05-01

388

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass...

2013-04-01

389

Performance of children with and without learning disabilities on Canter's Background Interference Procedure and Koppitz's scoring system for the Bender test.  

PubMed

Performance of 66 children, 30 with and 36 without learning disabilities, in four ways using the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test was compared. First, the test with the standard Koppitz scoring procedure, second with the Canter Background Interference Procedure sheet using the standard Koppitz scoring procedure; third, the Bender test on a standard sheet of paper using Canter scoring procedure; and fourth, the Canter Background Interference Procedure (BIP) sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. The effectiveness of the Canter procedure was examined when scored with an age-appropriate normative scoring system. This was accomplished by combining the Canter BIP interference sheet with the Koppitz scoring system. The children ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Using discriminant analysis, all four methods correctly categorized statistically significant percentages of both types of students but there was a significant difference on the Canter BIP sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. This procedure classified students with the least absolute number and percentage of either false negatives or false positives when compared with the other three methods, suggesting that using this scoring method with the Bender Gestalt may be better for identifying younger children with learning disabilities. PMID:10883769

Mitchell-Burns, J A

2000-06-01

390

Cognitive Style as a Factor Affecting Task-Based Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For purposes of the present study, it was hypothesized that field (in)dependence would introduce systematic variance into Iranian EFL learners' overall and task-specific performance on task-based reading comprehension tests. 1743 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior students all majoring in English at different Iranian universities and colleges…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2005-01-01

391

A Rapid Method for Scoring the Gladstone Group Palmar Sweat Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, two methods of measuring palmar sweat which can be used with large groups have been described. The simplest of these is that of Gladstone which is an adaptation of a test developed by Silverman and Powell. The method as described by Gladstone co...

R. B. Voas

1966-01-01

392

The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

Ho, Andrew

2013-01-01

393

Delaware Student Testing Program: A Score Results Guide for Boards and Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) and includes information about the program and its results that will be useful for administrators and members of boards of education. In spring 1998, the Department of Education, in conjunction with Harcourt Educational Measurement, began its annual administration of the DSTP…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

394

Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

2005-01-01

395

Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

2013-01-01

396

Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on the Estimates of Precision of Latent Ability Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important advantages that accrue from the application of latent trait models is the possibility of specifying a target information curve and then selecting items from an item pool to produce a test with the features characterized by this c...

L. L. Cook R. K. Hambleton

1979-01-01

397

Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed

Xiang Ye; Weihua Gao; Yanjun Yan; Lisa A. Osadciw

2010-01-01

398

Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

Boudreaux, Wilbert

2011-01-01

399

Characterizing Measurement Error in Test Scores across Studies: A Tutorial on Conducting "Reliability Generalization" Analyses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the potential value of reliability generalization (RG) studies in the development of cumulative psychometric knowledge, the purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial on how to conduct such studies and to serve as a guide for researchers wishing to use this methodology. After some brief comments on classical test theory, the paper…

Henson, Robin K.; Thompson, Bruce

400

Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

2013-01-01

401

Relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Scores and Success in Air Weapons Controller Training. Interim Report for the Period November 1982-February 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project investigated the relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) composite scores and student performance in Air Force air weapons controller training. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using AFOQT scores as one selection criteria for entry to the air weapons controller field. An analysis of…

Finegold, Lawrence S.; Rogers, Deborah

402

Mean Scores for PSAT and PSAT/NMSQT Junior Candidates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are presented concerning the numbers of students taking the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) and the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), and their mean scores for the period 1959 through l976. The implications of these results in relation to changes in the candidate group…

Jackson, Rex

403

The Effect of Group Test-Taking Environment on Standardized Achievement Test Scores: A Randomized Block Field Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high schools administer state-mandated standardized achievement tests in large-group arena settings. This practice conflicts with the notion that students "test" better in small-group instructional setting. The purpose of this study was to assess whether or not a significant performance differential existed between students taking the…

Kiger, Derick M.

2005-01-01

404

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

405

Comparison of visual motor development in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test.  

PubMed

This study compared the visuomotor development of young children in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. 744 children aged 4:6 to 8:5 years from 6 kindergartens and 6 primary schools in Hong Kong were administered the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. The Qualitative Scoring System was used to measure the children's visuomotor development. Their visuomotor scores were then compared with norms for children in the USA. Analysis indicated significant differences across all age groups of 4:6 to 8:5 years in 6-mo. units. Consistent with previous research, children in Hong Kong outperformed their western peers. Percentile scores and T scores for children in Hong Kong in each age group were reported. PMID:11293035

Chan, P W

2001-02-01

406

Chronic immobilisation stress ameliorates clinical score and neuroinflammation in a MOG-induced EAE in Dark Agouti rats: mechanisms implicated  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the endpoint of a complex and still poorly understood process which results in inflammation, demyelination and axonal and neuronal degeneration. Since the first description of MS, psychological stress has been suggested to be one of the trigger factors in the onset and/or relapse of symptoms. However, data from animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are inconsistent and the effect of stress on EAE onset and severity depends on duration and time of application of the stress protocol and the underlying mechanisms. Methods Dark Agouti rats were inoculated with MOG/CFA to induce EAE, and an immobilisation stress protocol with two different durations (12 and 21 days, starting at the moment of MOG-inoculation) was applied in order to analyse the effect of stress on disease onset and neuroinflammation. Results Twelve days of stress exposure increased EAE clinical score in Dark Agouti rats. In addition, these animals presented higher levels of MMP-9 and proinflammatory PGE2 in spinal cord. In contrast, animals chronically exposed to stress (21 days) showed a significantly lower incidence of EAE clinical signs and reduced myelin loss, leukocyte infiltration and accumulation of inflammatory/oxidative mediators in spinal cord. Interestingly, chronically stressed animals showed a parallel increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2, the main endogenous agonist of PPAR?. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, depending on duration, stress exposure elicits opposite effects on PGE2/15d-PGJ2 ratios in spinal cord of EAE-induced Dark Agouti rats. Further studies are needed to elucidate if these changes in prostaglandin balance are sufficient to mediate the differences in clinical score and inflammation here reported, and to establish the potential utility of pharmacological intervention in MS directed toward anti-inflammatory pathways.

2010-01-01

407

Penicillin skin testing: potential implications for antimicrobial stewardship.  

PubMed

As the progression of multidrug-resistant organisms and lack of novel antibiotics move us closer toward a potential postantibiotic era, it is paramount to preserve the longevity of current therapeutic agents. Moreover, novel interventions for antimicrobial stewardship programs are integral to combating antimicrobial resistance worldwide. One unique method that may decrease the use of second-line antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones, vancomycin) while facilitating access to a preferred ?-lactam regimen in numerous health care settings is a penicillin skin test. Provided that up to 10% of patients have a reported penicillin allergy, of whom ~10% have true IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, significant potential exists to utilize a penicillin skin test to safely identify those who may receive penicillin or a ?-lactam antibiotic. In this article, we provide information on the background, associated costs, currently available literature, pharmacists' role, antimicrobial stewardship implications, potential barriers, and misconceptions, as well as future directions associated with the penicillin skin test. PMID:23712569

Unger, Nathan R; Gauthier, Timothy P; Cheung, Linda W

2013-08-01

408

Repeatability of scores on a novel test of endurance running performance.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the repeatability of a running endurance test using an automated treadmill system that requires no manual input to control running speed. On three separate occasions, 7 days apart, 10 experienced male endurance-trained runners (mean age 32 years, s = 10; VO2peak 61 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), s = 7) completed a treadmill time trial, in which they were instructed to run as far as possible in 60 min. The treadmill was instrumented with an ultrasonic feedback-controlled radar modulator that spontaneously regulated treadmill belt speed corresponding to the changing running speed of each runner. Estimated running intensity was 70% VO2peak (s = 11) and the distance covered 13.5 km (s = 2), with no difference in mean performances between trials. The coefficient of variation, estimated using analysis of variance, with participant and trial as main effects, was 1.4%. In summary, the use of an automated treadmill system improved the repeatability of a 60-min treadmill time trial compared with time trials in which speed is controlled manually. The present protocol is a reliable method of assessing endurance performance in endurance-trained runners. PMID:18923952

Rollo, Ian; Williams, Clyde; Nevill, Alan

2008-11-01

409

Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: an evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as initial diagnostic test. We evaluated the prevalence of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) according to calcium scores and exercise test results. Methods Asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on a rest ECG were selected from the population based PREVEND cohort study and underwent measurement of calcium scores by electron beam tomography and exercise testing. With calcium scores ?10 or a positive exercise test, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPS) or coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. The primary endpoint was documented obstructive CAD (?50% stenosis). Results Of 153 subjects included, 149 subjects completed the study protocol. Calcium scores ?400, 100–399, 10–99 and <10 were found in 16, 29, 18 and 86 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 11 (69%), 12 (41%), 0 (0%) and 1 (1%) subjects, respectively. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test was present in 33, 27 and 89 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 13 (39%), 5 (19%) and 6 (7%) subjects, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve, as measure of diagnostic yield, of 0.91 (95% CI 0.84–0.97) for calcium scores was superior to 0.74 (95% CI 0.64–0.83) for exercise testing (p = 0.004). Conclusion Measurement of coronary calcium scores is an appropriate initial non-invasive test in asymptomatic subjects at increased coronary risk.

Geluk, Christiane A; Dikkers, Riksta; Kors, Jan A; Tio, Rene A; Slart, Riemer HJA; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Hillege, Hans L; Willems, Tineke P; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

2007-01-01

410

Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis to…

Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

2013-01-01

411

Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF. PMID:21859291

Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

2011-01-01

412

Effects of Testing Accommodations on Math and Reading Scores: An Experimental Analysis of the Performance of Students With and Without Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on the mathematics and reading test scores of a sample of 119 fourth graders and 78 eighth graders. The sample included 49 fourth-grade students diagnosed with a disability and 39 eighth-grade students diagnosed with a disability. The study used a 2 (Disability Status) x 2 (Testing Condition) ¥ 2 (Grade) ¥ 2

Ryan J. Kettler; Bradley C. Niebling; Andrew A. Mroch; Elizabeth S. Feldman; Markeda L. Newell; Stephen N. Elliott; Thomas R. Kratochwill; Daniel M. Bolt

2005-01-01

413

An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

Kokhan, Kateryna

2013-01-01

414

TRACKING Trounces Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

2004-01-01

415

Time and Performance on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between total scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the time taken to complete it. Finds that slower test takers obtained significantly higher scores. Discusses implications of these findings for college instruction. (SG)

Frisby, Craig L.; Traffanstedt, Bobby K.

2003-01-01

416

An Update of "Implications of Changing Answers on Objective Test Items".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1977 review of the literature on test answer changing, Mueller and Wasser (EJ 163 236) cited 17 studies and concluded that students changing answers on objective tests gain more points than they lost by so doing. Higher scoring students tend to gain more than do the lower scoring students. Six additional studies not reported in the Mueller…

Mercer, Maryann

417

The 2009 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on NAEP Trends, the Persistence of School Test Scores, and Conversion Charter Schools. Volume II, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's Brown Center Report contains studies taking a long view. Part I examines national test data going back to 1971 from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study in Part II compares the 1989 test scores of more than 1,000 schools to the same schools' scores in 2009. Part III compares the test scores of conversion…

Loveless, Tom

2010-01-01

418

Propensity Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

2005-01-01

419

The role of the h-index and the characteristic scores and scales in testing the tail properties of scientometric distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tail properties of scientometric distributions are studied in the light of the h-index and the characteristic scores and\\u000a scales. A statistical test for the h-core is presented and illustrated using the example of four selected authors. Finally,\\u000a the mathematical relationship between the h-index and characteristic scores and scales is analysed. The results give new insights\\u000a into important properties of

Wolfgang Glänzel

2010-01-01

420

Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 symptom validity scale scores.  

PubMed

Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the extent to which FBS scores were able to correctly identify men and women who were divided into credible responders (n = 837) and noncredible responders (n = 372) on the basis of performance on symptom validity tests. Results indicated that women had slightly higher raw FBS scores than men (d = .29), and significant differences between men and women in item endorsement were demonstrated for 14 FBS items. Step-down hierarchical logistic regression procedures indicated predictive bias (?²? = 23.72, p < .001). Follow-up analyses indicated intercept bias (?²? = 23.51, p < .001) but not slope bias (?²? = 0.22, p = .64). However, using the test publisher's recommended FBS cutoff scores (Ben-Porath, Graham, & Tellegen, 2009), classification accuracies were similar for women and men (T > 80, h = -.02; T > 100, h = -.22, respectively). On the basis of these results, we conclude there is no evidence of clinically meaningful bias in predictions of symptom validity test failure made using FBS scores for men and women. PMID:22309000

Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O

2012-09-01

421

Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.  

PubMed

Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCC<500,000/mL and 97.4% had <1,000,000cells/mL. When the associations between SC score (SCS) and whole sample status (culture negative vs. infected), minor pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with minor pathogens), major pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with major pathogens), and CMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. PMID:23317658

Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

2013-06-01

422

Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

2011-01-01

423

The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

2012-01-01

424

The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test

Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

2012-01-01

425

GUIDCOUN: A Comprehensive FORTRAN IV Computer Program for Generating Item and Test Analyses as Well as a Complete Standard Scores Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program providing comprehensive test and item analysis is presented. Completing its performance on one run, the program, written in Fortran and emphasizing ease of use, integrates various statistical techniques for analyzing individual items and the overall test, in addition to generating a variety of standard scores. (Author/JKS)

Noble, Gilbert H.

1977-01-01

426

What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2012-01-01

427

The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

Zwerling, Harris L.

428

Do United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Scores Predict In-Training Test Performance for Emergency Medicine Residents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Residency selection committees commonly utilize USMLE scores as criteria to screen residency applicants. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training examination scores (ITEs). Methods: In an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited emergency medicine residency program, data were collected for

Josef G. Thundiyil; Renee F. Modica; Salvatore Silvestri; Linda Papa

2010-01-01

429

Variance components for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield, and somatic cell score for analyzing management information.  

PubMed

Test-day (TD) models are used in most countries to perform national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle. The TD models estimate lactation curves and their changes as well as variation in populations. Although potentially useful, little attention has been given to the application of TD models for management purposes. The potential of the TD model for management use depends on its ability to describe within- or between-herd variation that can be linked to specific management practices. The aim of this study was to estimate variance components for milk yield, milk component yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows in the Ragusa and Vicenza areas of Italy, such that the most relevant sources of variation can be identified for the development of management parameters. The available data set contained 1,080,637 TD records of 42,817 cows in 471 herds. Variance components were estimated with a multilactation, random-regression, TD animal model by using the software adopted by NRS for the Dutch national genetic evaluation. The model comprised 5 fixed effects [region x parity x days in milk (DIM), parity x year of calving x season of calving x DIM, parity x age at calving x year of calving, parity x calving interval x stage of pregnancy, and year of test x calendar week of test] and random herd x test date, regressions for herd lactation curve (HCUR), the animal additive genetic effect, and the permanent environmental effect by using fourth-order Legendre polynomials. The HCUR variances for milk and protein yields were highest around the time of peak yield (DIM 50 to 150), whereas for fat yield the HCUR variance was relatively constant throughout first lactation and decreased following the peak around 40 to 90 DIM for lactations 2 and 3. For SCS, the HCUR variances were relatively small compared with the genetic, permanent environmental, and residual variances. For all the traits except SCS, the variance explained by random herd x test date was much smaller than the HCUR variance, which indicates that the development of management parameters should focus on between-herd parameters during peak lactation for milk and milk components. For SCS, the within-herd variance was greater than the between-herd variance, suggesting that the focus should be on management parameters explaining variances at the cow level. The present study showed clear evidence for the benefits of using a random regression TD model for management decisions. PMID:18650304

Caccamo, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Jong, G; Pool, M H; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

2008-08-01

430

Score 2009  

Cancer.gov

Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

431

The frequentist implications of optional stopping on Bayesian hypothesis tests.  

PubMed

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most commonly used statistical methodology in psychology. The probability of achieving a value as extreme or more extreme than the statistic obtained from the data is evaluated, and if it is low enough, the null hypothesis is rejected. However, because common experimental practice often clashes with the assumptions underlying NHST, these calculated probabilities are often incorrect. Most commonly, experimenters use tests that assume that sample sizes are fixed in advance of data collection but then use the data to determine when to stop; in the limit, experimenters can use data monitoring to guarantee that the null hypothesis will be rejected. Bayesian hypothesis testing (BHT) provides a solution to these ills because the stopping rule used is irrelevant to the calculation of a Bayes factor. In addition, there are strong mathematical guarantees on the frequentist properties of BHT that are comforting for researchers concerned that stopping rules could influence the Bayes factors produced. Here, we show that these guaranteed bounds have limited scope and often do not apply in psychological research. Specifically, we quantitatively demonstrate the impact of optional stopping on the resulting Bayes factors in two common situations: (1) when the truth is a combination of the hypotheses, such as in a heterogeneous population, and (2) when a hypothesis is composite-taking multiple parameter values-such as the alternative hypothesis in a t-test. We found that, for these situations, while the Bayesian interpretation remains correct regardless of the stopping rule used, the choice of stopping rule can, in some situations, greatly increase the chance of experimenters finding evidence in the direction they desire. We suggest ways to control these frequentist implications of stopping rules on BHT. PMID:24101570

Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T

2014-04-01

432

A test of the construct validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment scores in a community sample of adults.  

PubMed

The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24548152

Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos

2014-06-01

433

The Missing Data Assumptions of the NEAT Design and Their Implications for Test Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design involves "missing data" that are "missing by design." Three nonlinear observed score equating methods used with a NEAT design are the "frequency estimation equipercentile equating" (FEEE), the "chain equipercentile equating" (CEE), and the "item-response-theory observed-score-equating" (IRT…

Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.

2010-01-01

434

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

435

Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

Werth, Arman Karl

436

Choosing among Tucker or Chained Linear Equating in Two Testing Situations: Rater Comparability Scoring and Randomly Equivalent Groups with an Anchor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tucker and chained linear equatings were evaluated in two testing scenarios. In Scenario 1, referred to as rater comparability scoring and equating, the anchor-to-total correlation is often very high for the new form but moderate for the reference form. This may adversely affect the results of Tucker equating, especially if the new and reference…

Puhan, Gautam

2012-01-01

437

Smoothing and Equating Methods Applied to Different Types of Test Score Distributions and Evaluated with Respect to Multiple Equating Criteria. Research Report. ETS RR-11-20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In equating research and practice, equating functions that are smooth are typically assumed to be more accurate than equating functions with irregularities. This assumption presumes that population test score distributions are relatively smooth. In this study, two examples were used to reconsider common beliefs about smoothing and equating. The…

Moses, Tim; Liu, Jinghua

2011-01-01

438

What Factors Have Been Identified by Teachers as Reasons for the Variations Between Academic Achievement or Teacher Assigned Grades, and Standardized Test Scores for Sixth Grade Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine what factors sixth grade teachers from selected sixth grade centers identified as the reasons for the variations between academic achievement, or teacher assigned grades, and standardized test scores for sixth grade students. Thirty-two teachers participated in a questionnaire survey that was specifically designed, through the use of research, for this study. The questionnaire was

Barbara Chunn Jenkins

1986-01-01

439

What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education. CEE DP 102  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a test score? There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the exact contribution of school quality, pupil background, and peers in educational achievement. If peers make most of the difference, then diversity and heterogeneous classrooms may narrow the gap between high- and low-performing students. If pupil background is the first…

Kramarz, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Ouazad, Amine

2009-01-01

440

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

441

Effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive-Whiteboard Instruction on Primary Students' Vocabulary Achievement- and Attitude-Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This researcher examined the effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive Whiteboard instruction on short- and long-term word-recall and attitude-test scores of primary students. The sample included 87 children, 45 kindergarten and 42 first-grade students. Participants were 41 males and 46 females from a suburban elementary…

Masera, Ronald M.

2010-01-01

442

Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

2012-01-01

443

Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2010-01-01

444

Myth 4: A Single Test Score or Indicator Tells Us All We Need to Know about Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a fallacy about identifying gifted and talented children and youth that refuses to go away: It is the notion that a single score is "sufficient" for determining giftedness. In this article, the author addresses several reasons for the longevity and ubiquity of this myth, as well as the data that call the myth into question. These include…

Worrell, Frank C.

2009-01-01

445

Change and Continuity in Grades 3-5: Effects of Poverty and Grade on Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The question of the influence of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) on achievement is an important one because many policy makers use achievement scores as the measure of success for schools, classrooms, and students. Research has demonstrated that high-poverty schools have less experienced teachers and access to fewer resources…

Burross, Heidi Legg

2008-01-01

446

Differential Variability of Test Scores among Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Fifth-Grade INVALSI Test Using Heteroscedastic Random Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…

Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

2011-01-01

447

Visual assessment method of angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays by use of the ANG test pattern: effect of ambient illuminance and effectiveness of modified scoring.  

PubMed

A visual assessment method of the angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by use of the "ANG test pattern" was proposed by Badano and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Our goals were to examine the effect of ambient illuminance on the visual assessment, and to investigate whether our modified visual assessment (with the ANG test pattern) can be used instead of the conventional assessment based on luminance measurements. As the ambient illuminance increased, the original scores obtained with the visual assessment decreased. The modified score of the visual assessment was in reasonable agreement with the results of the luminance-based assessment. We conclude that the visual assessment with the ANG test pattern should be performed in a room with constant ambient illuminance, and the modified visual assessment could have the potential to be used instead of the luminance-based assessment for quality assurance of medical LCDs. PMID:23934325

Ikushima, Yoichiro; Morishita, Junji; Akamine, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Noriyuki

2014-01-01

448

The Crohn’s and colitis knowledge score: a test for measuring patient knowledge in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire assessing patient knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its treatment—the Crohn’s and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) Score.METHODS:A total of 30 multiple choice questions were constructed into a draft questionnaire. This was piloted on a random selection of participants with differing IBD knowledge levels; junior doctors, nurses, and

Jayne A Eaden; Keith Abrams; John F Mayberry

1999-01-01

449

Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri Draw-A-Person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children.  

PubMed

The study investigated whether mental age in children, as assessed by the IQ in the Draw-A-Person (DAP) test (Naglieri, 1988), can be improved by practice. In addition, it was tested whether children needed novel content to keep up their performance level during test repetition. The DAP test was given to 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-old children (N = 80) 3 times. In addition, they drew a police figure 3 times, with task sequence counterbalanced. Repeated drawings resulted in significant omission of detail and deterioration of scores, but the novel task instruction temporarily recovered the IQ scores. This did not occur in the reverse sequence of the tasks, with the less specified DAP instruction given in the 2nd half of the drawing series. Furthermore, structural regressions in the human figure drawing could be observed in individual cases. However, 12-year-olds did not need the external introduction of novel content to maintain their IQ score. Correlations showed that this age group redefined their drawing plan on each repetition, and often created unique figures on each occasion, even if the instruction had stayed the same. PMID:24188151

Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno; Chromekova, Marta

2014-03-01

450

Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS by electron beam computed tomography (Agatston score), and exercise testing. Decision-making was based on CCS. When CCS?400, coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. When CCS<10, patients were discharged. Exercise tests were graded as positive, negative or nondiagnostic. The combined endpoint was defined as coronary event or obstructive CAD at CAG. During 12±4 months, CCS?400, 10–399 and <10 were found in 42, 103 and 159 patients and the combined endpoint occurred in 24 (57%), 14 (14%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively. In 22 patients (7%), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed instead of exercise testing due to the inability to perform an exercise test. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test result was found in 37, 76 and 191 patients, and the combined endpoint occurred in 11 (30%), 15 (20%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.93) for CCS was superior to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61–0.78) for exercise testing (P<0.0001). In conclusion, measurement of CCS is an appropriate initial screening test in a well-defined low-risk population with suspected CAD.

Dikkers, Riksta; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Gotte, Marco J. W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

2007-01-01

451

The Missing Data Assumptions of the NEAT Design and their Implications for Test Equating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design involves missing\\u000a data that are missing by design. Three nonlinear observed score equating methods used with a NEAT design are the frequency estimation equipercentile equating (FEEE), the chain equipercentile equating (CEE), and the item-response-theory observed-score-equating (IRT OSE). These three methods each make different assumptions about the missing data in the NEAT design.

Sandip Sinharay; Paul W. Holland

2010-01-01

452

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

453

Navajo Adolescents Scores on a Primary Language Questionnaire, the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) and the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): A Correlational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty-four Navajo 14, 15, and 16 year-old regular classroom adolescents from schools in Arizona and New Mexico were administered three instruments: a Primary Language Questionnaire, the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) and the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS). Correlations between the RSPM scores and CTBS achievement levels ranged from the upper .30's to the upper .40's, and

Craig Sidles; James Mac Avoy

1987-01-01

454

Developing Toxicity Scores for Embryotoxicity Tests on Elutriates with the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus , the Oyster Crassostrea gigas , and the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays are routinely employed for sediment quality assessment. In order to be able to effectively use Bioassays responses\\u000a in regulatory and management frameworks, toxicity scores, which rank toxicity data in defined classes that are continuous\\u000a and difficult to interpret, should be reliable and suitable tools to support decisions about the presence or absence of toxicity\\u000a in tested samples and on

Chiara Losso; Marco Picone; Alessandra Arizzi Novelli; Eugenia Delaney; Pier Francesco Ghetti; Annamaria Volpi Ghirardini

2007-01-01

455

Accuracy of High School Grades and College Admissions Test Scores for Predicting Different Levels of Academic Achievement in College. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the cross-validated accuracy of American College Test (ACT) Composite score and high school grade point average (GPA) (HSAV) for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. Logistic regression models were developed by institution, for predicting GPA levels of 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 or higher. These…

Noble, Julie; Sawyer, Richard

456

Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

Hisama, Kay K.

457

Course of COPD assessment test (CAT) and clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) scores during recovery from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD?=?9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD?=?7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD?=?1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD?=?5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD?=?1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation.

2013-01-01

458

Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specification of a mechanical shock test requires an engineering decision concerning the relationship between the laboratory and field shock environments. Once a method of shock characterization is selected, test conservatism becomes a measure of the degree to which the laboratory test is more severe than the operational environment of the structure being tested. This paper describes a method for analyzing

T. J. Baca; R. G. Bell; S. A. Robbins

1987-01-01

459

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not outperform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation suggests an additional explanation: Girls are more self-disciplined,

Angela Lee Duckworth; Martin E. P. Seligman

2006-01-01

460

Changing World Patterns of Machine-Scored Objective Testing: The Expected Impact of the Multi-Digit Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of optical scanners and computers in educational testing is common where objective testing methods (such as true-false, matching, and multiple-choice items) are well-established means of evaluating educational achievement. Where non-objective testing methods (such as fill-in-the-blank, short-answer, and essay items) have been more common,…

Anderson, Paul S.; Saliba, Alcyone

461

The Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on WISC-IV Spanish Domain Scores in Its Standardization Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of individually administered measures of intelligence and other cognitive abilities requires clinicians to monitor a client's test behaviors, given the need for a client to be engaged fully, attentive, and cooperative during the testing process. The use of standardized and norm-referenced measures of test-taking behaviors facilitates this…

Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Harris, Josette G.

2012-01-01

462

Accuracy of Year-1, Year-2 Comparisons Using Individual Percentile Rank Scores: Classical Test Theory Calculations. CSE Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the reporting of individual student results from standardized tests in educational assessments, the percentile rank of the individual student is a major numerical indicator. For example, in the 1998 and 1999 California Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) program using the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Ninth Edition, Form T (Stanford…

Rogosa, David

463

Comparison of Scores on Two Visual-Motor Tests for Children Referred for Learning or Adjustment Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the performance of school-aged children referred for learning or adjustment difficulties on Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Koppitz's version of the Bender-Gestalt test. Results indicated that the tests are related but not equivalent when administered to referred populations. (Author/AL)

DeMers, Stephen T.; And Others

1981-01-01

464

The Bender-Gestalt test: Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System administered to two samples of Italian preschool and primary school children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to extend research on Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System to Italian samples. Specific attention has been given to the study of errors for the single designs to assess the relationship of these errors with total errors and to assess the designs' varying difficulty. A second purpose was to study possible cultural influences between different Italian regions. According to Koppitz (1975) research findings support that the rate of development in visuomotor perception differs among children of various ethnic groups. Subjects were 538 boys and 527 girls enrolled in the regular kindergarten and elementary schools in Italy. Detailed analyses were carried out on total mean errors and mean errors for each design. Mean errors decrease across age groups; that is, perceptuomotor integration is improved for older children. No significant differences were found between Northern and Southern Italy. PMID:10485107

Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

1999-06-01

465

Conservatism Implications of Shock Test Tailoring for Multiple Design Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ran...

T. J. Baca R. G. Bell S. A. Robbins

1987-01-01

466

Conservatism Implications of Shock Test Tailoring for Multiple Design Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specification of a mechanical shock test requires an engineering decision concerning the relationship between the laboratory and field shock environments. Once a method of shock characterization is selected, test conservatism becomes a measure of the degr...

T. J. Baca R. G. Bell S. A. Robbins

1987-01-01

467

Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

Looney, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

468

Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS by electron beam computed tomography (Agatston score), and exercise testing. Decision-making was based on CCS. When CCS>or=400, coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. When CCS<10, patients were discharged. Exercise tests were graded as positive, negative or nondiagnostic. The combined endpoint was defined as coronary event or obstructive CAD at CAG. During 12+/-4 months, CCS>or=400, 10-399 and <10 were found in 42, 103 and 159 patients and the combined endpoint occurred in 24 (57%), 14 (14%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively. In 22 patients (7%), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed instead of exercise testing due to the inability to perform an exercise test. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test result was found in 37, 76 and 191 patients, and the combined endpoint occurred in 11 (30%), 15 (20%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93) for CCS was superior to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.78) for exercise testing (P<0.0001). In conclusion, measurement of CCS is an appropriate initial screening test in a well-defined low-risk population with suspected CAD. PMID:17901959

Geluk, Christiane A; Dikkers, Riksta; Perik, Patrick J; Tio, René A; Götte, Marco J W; Hillege, Hans L; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B; Willems, Tineke P; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

2008-02-01

469

The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

2012-01-01

470

A Comparison of Teacher Rankings of Reading Readiness, Metropolitan Readiness Test Score Rankings, and Socioeconomic Status Rankings of First Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with reading readiness test results, (2) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with pupil socioeconomic status, and (3) to determine to what extent readiness test results compare with pupil socioeconomic…

Elijah, David V., Jr.

471

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

472

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

2011-01-01

473

Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments  

SciTech Connect

Specification of a mechanical shock test requires an engineering decision concerning the relationship between the laboratory and field shock environments. Once a method of shock characterization is selected, test conservatism becomes a measure of the degree to which the laboratory test is more severe than the operational environment of the structure being tested. This paper describes a method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications which have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments. Shock test conservatism is quantified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservatism (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservatism analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservatism. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

Baca, T.J.; Bell, R.G.; Robbins, S.A.

1987-01-01

474

Competency Based Tests: Their Implications for Goals of Composition Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency testing in composition fixes goals that convey to students, teachers, parents, and the general public inaccurate notions about the nature of composition and what competency in writing comprises. The trend toward competency testing comes from the public's realization that many high school and college graduates are functionally…

Smedman, M. Sarah

475

Recent Developments in Hardness Testing and their Implications for Standardisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses two current developments in the field of hardness testing. Recent proposals for the Rockwell C scale should make it possible for a ‘Unified’ Rockwell scale with agreement between National Standards Laboratories within 0.1 HRC. The need for better understanding of the Ultra Micro Indentation Test, where force and penetration are recorded simultaneously, will also be discussed. Difficulties

T. J. Bell; E. G. Thwaited

1999-01-01

476

Some Implications of MSC, SDL and TTCN Time Extensions for Computer-Aided Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe how computer-aided test generation methods can benet from the time features and exten- sions to MSC, SDL and TTCN which are either already available or currently under study in the EC Interval project. The implications for currently available test generation tools are shown and proposals for their improvement are made. The transformation

Dieter Hogrefe; Beat Koch; Helmut Neukirchen

2001-01-01

477

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

478

Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

1987-01-01

479

The Effects of Dimensionality on True Score Conversion Tables for the Law School Admission Test. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was examined to see if the items on a form could be divided into different subgroups in which items looked statistically similar within the subgroups but statistically different between subgroups. Of such subgrouping can be detected, it is likely that the subgroups of items measure different abilities, and the…

Camilli, Gregory; Wang, Ming-mei; Fesq, Jaqueline

480

Degrees of Reading Power. Form A. Directions for Administering and Scoring. New York State Preliminary Competency Test in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York State Preliminary Competency Test in Reading is designed to measure a student's ability to understand written material of varying levels of difficulty. Results are used to evaluate a student's current level of achievement in reading and to indicate the extent of compensatory or remedial help which may be necessary to pass the final…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

481

Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

482

Development of a Test and Establishment of a Cut Score for the National Fire Academy Chemistry of Hazardous Materials Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a valid and reliable test instrument, to be used as the final exam in the NFA Chemistry of Hazardous Materials course, significantly enhances the educational quality of the course. The results of the study justify the following conclusi...

B. A. Clark

1990-01-01

483

Estimating the Effect of Changes in Criterion Score Reliability on the Power of the "F" Test of Equality of Means  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a simple, computer-assisted method of determining the extent to which increases in reliability increase the power of the "F" test of equality of means. The method uses a derived formula that relates the changes in the reliability coefficient to changes in the noncentrality of the relevant "F" distribution. A readily available…

Feldt, Leonard S.

2011-01-01

484

Effects of Video Game Experience on Computer-Based Air Traffic Controller Specialist, Air Traffic Scenario Test Scores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FAA is currently using the Air Traffic Scenario Test (ATST) as a major portion of its selection process. Because the ATST is a PC based application with a strong resemblance to a video game, concern has been raised that prior video game experience mig...

W. C. Young D. Broach W. L. Farmer

1997-01-01

485

"I Helped My Mom," and It Helped Me: Translating the Skills of Language Brokers into Improved Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study illustrates the regularity with which the children of mostly Mexican immigrants in Chicago interpret languages and cultural practices for their families. It also tests the hypothesis, generated from qualitative research, that such "language brokering" is related to academic outcomes. Using data collected from a subset of children (n =…

Dorner, Lisa M.; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Li-Grining, Christine

2007-01-01

486

The formalin test: scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formalin test is increasingly used as a model of injury-produced pain but there is no generally accepted method of pain rating. To examine the properties of various pain rating methods we established dose-response relations for formalin injected in the plantar surface of one hind paw, and the analgesic effects of morphine and amphetamine using the most frequently reported behavioural

Frances V. Abbott; Keith B. J. Franklin; R. Frederick Westbrook

1995-01-01

487

Something That Test Scores Do Not Show: Engaging in Community Diversity as a Local Response to Global Education Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Smith Street Elementary School, the globalizing education trends that English language learner (ELL) teachers face focus on measuring student achievement through testing and the English mainstreaming of non-dominant students as opposed to the cultivation of the students' linguistic and cultural diversity. The ELL teachers at Smith Street…

Valdiviezo, Laura A.

2014-01-01

488

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2010-01-01

489

The Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT): Relationship of Interest Scale Scores to Fluid and Crystallized IQs at Ages 12 to 22 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six Holland-based Interest Scale scores yielded by the Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) (T. Harrington and A. O'Shea, 1982) were related to sex, race, and performance on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test for 254 adolescents and young adults. CDM scores did not relate to most of the variables studied, and…

McLean, James E.; Kaufman, Alan S.

1995-01-01

490

Day-to-day fluctuation of point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test scores and faecal egg counts in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the variation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine and egg counts variation in stool between days in Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infected individuals is vital to decide whether or not to rely on a single-sample test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis. In this study, the magnitude of day-to-day variation in urine-CCA test scores and in faecal egg counts was evaluated in school children in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 620 school children (age 8 to 12 years) were examined for S. mansoni infection using double Kato-Katz and single urine-CCA cassette methods (batch 32727) on three consecutive days. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 81.1% based on triple urine-CCA-cassette test and 53.1% based on six Kato-Katz thick smears. Among the study participants, 26.3% showed fluctuation in urine CCA and 32.4% showed fluctuation in egg output. Mean egg count as well as number of cases in each class of intensity and intensity of cassette band color varied over the three days of examination. Over 85% of the children that showed day-to-day variations in status of S. mansoni infection from negative to positive or vice versa by the Kato-Katz and the CCA methods had light intensity of infection. The fluctuation in both the CCA test scores and faecal egg count was not associated with age and sex. Conclusions The current study showed day-to-day variation in CCA and Kato-Katz test results of children infected with S. mansoni. This indicates the necessity of more than one urine or stool samples to be collected on different days for more reliable diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in low endemic areas.

2014-01-01

491

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia.

2014-01-01

492

Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*  

PubMed Central

Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement.

Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

2014-01-01

493

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

494

Testing for human papillomavirus: basic pathobiology of infection, methodologies, and implications for clinical use.  

PubMed Central

New molecular biological evidence has recently emerged, strongly implicating the human papillomavirus (HPV) as playing an etiologic role in the development of neoplasias of the genital tract. As technologies advance, the ability to test for the presence of HPV has become simpler, more reliable, and less expensive. A great deal of controversy has arisen regarding the effective and proper utilization of these new tests in the management of HPV infections. This review will detail the new evidence implicating the putative role of HPV in neoplasia and the current methodologies available for assessing the presence of HPV in clinical samples and will describe the current controversy surrounding their utilization.

Wilbur, D. C.; Stoler, M. H.

1991-01-01

495

Effects of Place of Testing on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores of Disadvantaged Head Start and Non-Head Start Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disadvantaged children were tested on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test in their own homes or away from home in an office or schoolroom. The overall testing environment was a significant factor influencing the test performance of disadvantaged children who had not attended a Head Start program. Head Start children performed equally well in both…

Seitz, Victoria; And Others

1975-01-01

496

Contact allergy to nickel: patch test score correlates with IL-5, but not with IFN-gamma nickel-specific secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Traditionally, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been associated with the activity of Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma. Recent evidence indicates that other cells, e.g. interleukin 5 (IL-5)-secreting Th2 or Tc2 cells may be among the key effectors of ACD. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of nickel-specific IFN-gamma secretion (marker of Th1 and Tc1 activity) and IL-5 secretion (Th2 and Tc2) on the clinical outcome (patch test score) in nickel-allergic patients. 40 women with suspicion of ACD were involved, aged from 14-54 (median 31.5) years. They were patch tested with NiSO(4). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the patients were cultured and analysed for IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion in response to NiSO(4). A series of statistical models (classical logit or cloglog link function) were used. We demonstrate that nickel-specific IL-5 secretion by PBMC is correlated with the intensity of patch test reaction (p=0.05), with no significant effect of IFN-gamma. An increase in the nickel-specific IL-5 secretion from PBMC by 10 pg/ml is associated with a 10-20% increase (depending on statistical model) in the odds ratio of the patient to have a higher patch test score. These findings support the assumption that cells secreting IL-5 (e.g. Th2, Tc2) play a more important role in the pathogenesis of ACD than previously thought. PMID:19572476

Czarnobilska, Ewa; Jenner, Bartosz; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, Jolanta; Kapusta, Maria; Obtu?owicz, Krystyna; Thor, Piotr; Spiewak, Rados?aw

2009-06-01

497

Neural network credit scoring models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the credit scoring accuracy of five neural network models: multilayer perceptron, mixture-of-experts, radial basis function, learning vector quantization, and fuzzy adaptive resonance. The neural network credit scoring models are tested using 10-fold crossvalidation with two real world data sets. Results are benchmarked against more traditional methods under consideration for commercial applications including linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression,

David West

2000-01-01

498

The Machine Scoring of Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

499

Clinical implications of BRAF mutation test in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the clinical significance of V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing. BRAF encodes a protein kinase involved with intracellular signaling and cell division. The gene product is a downstream effector of Kirsten Ras 1(KRAS) within the RAS/RAF/MAPK cellular signaling pathway. Evidence suggests that BRAF mutations, like KRAS mutations, result in uncontrolled, non-growth factor-dependent cellular proliferation. Similar to the rationale that KRAS mutation precludes effective treatment with anti-EGFR drugs. Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced into routine clinical laboratories because its significance has become clearer in terms of effect on pathogenesis of CRC, utility in differentiating sporadic CRC from Lynch syndrome (LS), prognosis, and potential for predicting patient outcome in response to targeted drug therapy. In this review we describe the impact of BRAF mutations for these aspects. PMID:24834238

Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Farahani, Roya Kishani; Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Kuppen, Peter Jk; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

500

Clinical implications of BRAF mutation test in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about the clinical significance of V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing. BRAF encodes a protein kinase involved with intracellular signaling and cell division. The gene product is a downstream effector of Kirsten Ras 1(KRAS) within the RAS/RAF/MAPK cellular signaling pathway. Evidence suggests that BRAF mutations, like KRAS mutations, result in uncontrolled, non–growth factor-dependent cellular proliferation. Similar to the rationale that KRAS mutation precludes effective treatment with anti-EGFR drugs. Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced into routine clinical laboratories because its significance has become clearer in terms of effect on pathogenesis of CRC, utility in differentiating sporadic CRC from Lynch syndrome (LS), prognosis, and potential for predicting patient outcome in response to targeted drug therapy. In this review we describe the impact of BRAF mutations for these aspects.

Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Farahani, Roya Kishani; Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Kuppen, Peter JK

2013-01-01