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Sample records for test scores implications

  1. Test Scoring [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

  2. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  3. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  4. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical

  5. Comparing actual to estimated base rates of "abnormal" scores on neuropsychological test batteries: implications for interpretation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L

    2010-02-01

    Clinicians can use the prevalence of low scores to help interpret test performance. However, this information is limited for most test batteries. In 2007, Crawford, Garthwaite, and Gault presented Monte Carlo simulation software for estimating the base rates of low scores for any battery of tests. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation program for estimating the base rates of low scores. Base rates of low scores were: (a) calculated from large normative samples (actual base rates) for the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition and compared to (b) Monte Carlo estimations (estimated base rates). Monte Carlo estimations of the base rates of low scores had good accuracy when compared with the actual base rates of low scores for the two batteries. However, estimated base rates lose considerable accuracy in those with low or high intelligence. Monte Carlo simulation software is a potential option for clinicians to compute the base rates of low scores for any battery with published intercorrelations. However, the Monte Carlo program underestimates the base rates for those with low intelligence and overestimates the base rates for those with high intelligence. PMID:20015965

  6. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  7. Relationship of Friends, Physical Education, and State Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…

  8. Students' Attitudes toward Institutional Accountability Testing in Higher Education: Implications for the Validity of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent calls for an increase in educational accountability in K-16 resulted in an uptick of low-stakes testing and, consequently, an increased need for ensuring that students' test scores are reliable and valid representations of their true ability. Focusing on accountability testing in higher education, the current program of research was…

  9. Cash for Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2008-01-01

    Cash incentives for high school students to perform better in school are growing in popularity, but not everyone understands them. Does paying students for better Advanced Placement (AP) test scores encourage enrollment in AP classes? The author set out to determine the impact of a cash incentive program operating in a number of Texas high…

  10. Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

  11. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  12. How Accurate Is a Test Score?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelt, Jerome E.

    1956-01-01

    The standard error of measurement as a means for estimating the margin of error that should be allowed for in test scores is discussed. The true score measures the performance that is characteristic of the person tested; the variations, plus and minus, around the true score describe a characteristic of the test. When the standard deviation is used…

  13. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  14. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating

  15. Using Educational Test Scores To Evaluate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiani, John A.; Simon, Monica M.; Banks, Steven M.

    This paper reports on an ongoing effort of the Vermont Mental Health Performance Indicator Project (PIP) to examine the relevance and utility of standardized test scores for evaluating community mental health programs. This analysis is of test scores from Vermont's first four years of statewide testing. The study is examining anonymous…

  16. 10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

  17. Paying for Better Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenkopf, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates if the provision of financial incentives has an impact on the performance of students in educational tests. The analysis is based on data from an experiment with high school students who answered multiple-choice items from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). As in TIMSS, the setup did not…

  18. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  19. Confidence Test Scoring and Incentive Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippey, Robert M.

    The effects of incentive conditions on the results of a confidence test were investigated. Two hundred thirty high school subjects were administered a very difficult confidence scored test under two conditions: 1) that the test would count heavily on their grades (incentive condition) and 2) that the test was for research purposes and would not be…

  20. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  1. Gender Differences in Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Lei; Hoover, H. D.

    National standardization data were used to reexamine the evidence of gender differences in achievement test scores reported in previous studies. Changes in differences over time, from 1963 to 1992, were examined, as were differences across all grade and achievement levels. Subjects participated in Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), Iowa Tests of…

  2. Using Microcomputers to Score Placement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; St. John, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The University of California (Irvine) has automated its scoring of placement tests to incoming freshmen and women with specialized administrative software that interfaces a microcomputer with an optical card reader. The university's placement testing program, the computerized system, and advantages of the system are explained. (JN)

  3. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  4. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  5. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has

  6. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. PMID:25773314

  7. The Black-White Test Score Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

    The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

  8. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  9. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  10. The Black-White Test Score Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

    The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies

  11. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Teacher training in gender differences can help prevent schools from failing AYP. Teachers who understand how the learning style of boys differs from the learning style of girls can leverage that knowledge to boost test scores by applying it across all four subgroups, which are defined by race/ethnicity, income, disability, or English-speaking…

  12. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing

  13. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  14. The Effect of Test Item Familiarization on Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, N. Scott; Frisbie, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Studied the effects of overlapping some test items across consecutive test levels by using overlapping and nonoverlapping items with 834 prematched and 782 matched elementary school students and focusing on whether there is an effect on achievement test scores due to item familiarization. No effects were detected. (SLD)

  15. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  16. On Interpreting Test Scores as Social Indicators: Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Because test scores are ordinal not cordinal attributes, the average test score often is a misleading way to summarize the scores of a group of individuals. Similarly, correlation coefficients may be misleading summary measures of association between test scores. Proper, readily interpretable, summary statistics are developed from a theory of…

  17. On the Confidentiality of Student Test Scores. Report No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Peter B.

    A discussion of the limited meaning of test scores, testing as an invasion of privacy, the abuse of test scores as confidential information and privileged communication, recording and storing of test results, access to test scores, and the demand for accountability forms the basis for recommendations for the release of individual and group test…

  18. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  19. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  20. Comparability of IQ Scores on Five Widely Used Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieronymus, A. N.; Stroud, James B.

    1969-01-01

    Attempts to fill research gap on testing by obtaining comparisons of deviation scores, at grade levels four, seven, and ten, from the California Test of Mental Maturity, Henmon-Nelson Tests, and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence tests. Results tabulated. (CJ)

  1. Observed-Score Equating as a Test Assembly Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.

    A set of linear conditions on the item response functions is derived that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly that assembles a new test form to have an observed-score distribution optimally equated to the distribution of the…

  2. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  3. Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

  4. Coefficient α as a Measure of Test Score Reliability: Review of 3 Popular Misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Morera, Osvaldo F; Stokes, Sonya M

    2016-03-01

    We discuss 3 popular misconceptions about Cronbach α or coefficient α, traditionally used in public health and the behavioral sciences as an index of test score reliability. We also review several other indices of test score reliability. We encourage researchers to thoughtfully consider the nature of their data and the options when choosing an index of reliability, and to clearly communicate this choice and its implications to their audiences. PMID:26885962

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Arkansas's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) went up in math at grades 4 and 8. In reading, the percentages scoring proficient on the state test went up at…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test showed a…

  8. Mental Test Performance as a Function of Various Scoring Cutoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Veeser, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the influence of various scoring cutoffs on mental test performance as measured by the Michell General Ability Test (MGAT) and develops a rationale for selecting the optimum cutoff based on raw scores, internal consistency, stability, parallel-form reliability and concurrent validity estimates. (MB)

  9. Does weight affect children’s test scores and teacher assessments differently?✩

    PubMed Central

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children’s academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children’s weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers’ assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children’s weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores. PMID:24014932

  10. Math/FCS Class Boosts Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanden, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Integrating mathematics with family and consumer sciences (FCS) has enabled youth to pass the Minnesota 8th Grade Math Basic Skills test. The test focuses on the eight content areas: (1) problem solving with whole numbers and fractions; (2) problem solving with percentage/ratio; (3) number sense; (4) estimation; 5) measurement; (6) tables and…

  11. Test Scores Tell Their Own Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test data reveals the current state of high-school student proficiency and standardized test results across the nation. This information also dramatically demonstrates what is at stake as concerns about closing achievement gaps heighten.

  12. Norm Referenced Testing and the Standard Scores. Basic Testing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    The norm-referenced score scale used by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) is described. The usefulness of standardized scores is explained by a simple numerical example, and the formulas and computations are shown for calculating a mean, a standard deviation, and a deviation or z score. The need for a representative sample is…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Ohio's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and grade 8 math. In grade 8 reading, the percentage of students scoring proficient…

  14. Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

  15. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  16. Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are

  17. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  18. Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Nevada's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in both subjects. Trends in average (mean) test scores…

  20. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test

  1. Observed-Score Equating as a Test Assembly Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Derives a set of linear conditions of item-response functions that guarantees identical observed-score distributions on two test forms. The conditions can be added as constraints to a linear programming model for test assembly. An example illustrates the use of the model for an item pool from the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). (SLD)

  2. Relationship of Scores and Times of Test Administration via Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Barbara; Maury, Marcia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between scores and the times that medical students choose to take a computer-administered test. The results indicate that students who choose to take a test later within a given time period tend to perform less well than students who take the test earlier. Although the magnitude…

  3. Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susannah

    2008-01-01

    As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

  4. Why Standardized Test Scores Don't Measure Educational Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1999-01-01

    Employing standardized achievement tests to ascertain educational quality is like measuring temperature with a tablespoon. Such tests are prone to testing-teaching mismatches, omitted items, and confounded causation problems. Actually, three factors influence students' scores: what's taught in school, native intellectual ability, and out-of-school

  5. Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susannah

    2008-01-01

    As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

  8. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors

  9. A Comparative Study of Methods of Equating TOEFL Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Marilyn M.

    Six methods of equating Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test scores for samples consisting of the usual groups of examinees and groups controlled for native language representation were evaluated in terms of scale stability. The equating methods included three item response theory (IRT) variants (fixed b's scaling, a one-parameter…

  10. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported

  11. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test…

  12. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  13. Equating Test Scores Using the Linear Method: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguma, Jesus

    This paper describes four commonly used designs in equating test scores. These designs are: (1) single-group; (2) random-group; (3) equivalent-group; and (4) anchor-test. Each design requires that its data be collected according to specific guidelines. Three of the four methods are illustrated through hypothetical examples. All four methods try to…

  14. Motivating High School Students to Score Proficient on State Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Lee

    2015-01-01

    The researcher interviewed two groups of eleventh grade students, in a rural Appalachian setting, who tended to score low on the state mandated high stakes/low stakes test to discover their efforts on the test, specifically in reading, and to obtain their opinions concerning the effects of a specific incentive or consequence. Before the eleventh…

  15. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  16. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  17. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation

  18. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Alabama's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles North Dakota's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentage of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Florida's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles New Mexico's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 math and grade 8 reading and math. In grade 4 reading, the percentage basic on NAEP …

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on the state…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were generally larger on NAEP than…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Wisconsin's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in math at grades 4 and 8 and in reading at grade 8. In grade 4 reading, the percentage scoring…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Montana's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 reading. In grade 8 math, however, the percentage proficient…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Nebraska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the percentages reaching the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grade 4 in both reading and math. At grade 8, however, the percentages…

  12. The Probability of Obtaining Two Statistically Different Test Scores as a Test Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jorg M.

    2006-01-01

    A new test index is defined as the probability of obtaining two randomly selected test scores (PDTS) as statistically different. After giving a concept definition of the test index, two simulation studies are presented. The first analyzes the influence of the distribution of test scores, test reliability, and sample size on PDTS within classical…

  13. Commentary on "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Kane's paper "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores" is the most complete and clearest discussion yet available of the argument-based approach to validation. At its most basic level, validation as formulated by Kane is fundamentally a simply-stated two-step enterprise: (1) specify the claims inherent in a particular interpretation…

  14. Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background…

  15. Using Test Scores from Students with Disabilities in Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the recent focus of educational policymakers has been on improving the measurement of teacher effectiveness. Linking student growth to teacher effects has been a large part of reform efforts. To date, neither researchers nor practitioners have arrived at a consensus on how to treat test scores from students with disabilities in…

  16. School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over…

  17. Using Test Scores from Students with Disabilities in Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the recent focus of educational policymakers has been on improving the measurement of teacher effectiveness. Linking student growth to teacher effects has been a large part of reform efforts. To date, neither researchers nor practitioners have arrived at a consensus on how to treat test scores from students with disabilities in

  18. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for

  19. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  20. Benefits of Coaching on Test Scores Seen as Negligible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Report on Education Research, 1983

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: A new study by a pair of Harvard University researchers discounts earlier findings that coaching can substantially improve student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). "There is simply insufficient evidence that large score increases are a result of a coaching program," write Rebecca…

  1. Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2000-01-01

    Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…

  2. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  3. Experiential Awareness of the Effects of Test Score Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Robert C.

    Because most counselors have experienced a significant amount of success, they often have difficulty understanding the impact of test scores on persons who do not perform well. Counselor educators must develop experiential awareness in an area normally outside the realm of their students. To provide such an experience, 25 counselor trainees took…

  4. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

  5. Small Classes Do Reduce the Test-Score Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.; Finn, J. D.; Gerber, Susan B.

    Tennessee's Project STAR, a randomized experiment involving almost 12,000 pupils, demonstrated convincingly that small classes in the early elementary (K-3) grades increase pupil performance, reduce the test-score achievement gap between or among different social groups, and can have long-lasting effects. The benefits are greater for minority…

  6. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  7. School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over

  8. Assessment Test Scores of Incoming Students, Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negron, Maggie; Breindel, Matthew

    This assessment of placement test scores in reading, math, and sentence skills from incoming students at College of the Desert (California) shows that students are overwhelmingly underprepared for study at the college. Only 15% of students were prepared in sentence skills, 27% in reading skills, 7% in math skills; only 3% were prepared in all 3…

  9. Rising Stars: High School's Change Process Produces Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, Claire; Runnebaum, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Presents Bishop Ward High School (Kansas) as a case study that has seen great improvements in standardized testing results by changing its approach. States that realignment of curriculum, adjusting instructional strategies, and accommodating students with special needs are important aspects of raising assessment scores in high schools. (CJW)

  10. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  11. Study Finds Link between Quality Music Programs, Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A recent study found that students in high-quality school music education programs score higher on standardized tests compared to students in schools with deficient music education programs. The study, which was published in the Winter 2006 issue of MENC's Journal for Research in Music Education, is the first to examine the quality of school music…

  12. Score test for detecting linkage to quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Putter, H; Sandkuijl, L A; van Houwelingen, J C

    2002-04-01

    The two most popular methods to detect linkage of a quantitative trait to a marker are the Haseman-Elston regression method and the variance components likelihood-ratio test. In the literature, these methods are frequently compared and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are well known. In this article, we derive a score test for the variance component attributable to a specific quantitative trait locus and show that for sib-pairs it is mathematically equivalent to a recently proposed version of the Haseman-Elston method that optimally combines the sum squared and the difference squared of the centered phenotype values of the sibs. Because score tests and likelihood-ratio tetsts are equivalent for large sample sizes, the variance components likelihood-ratio test is also asymptotically equivalent to this optimal Haseman-Elston test. This fact gives a theoretical explanation of the empirical observation from simulation studies reporting similar power of the variance components likelihood-ratio test and the optimal Haseman-Elston method. Perhaps more importantly for practical purposes, the score test can also be extended in a natural way to support the simultaneous analysis of more than two subjects and multivariate phenotypes. PMID:11984866

  13. The Validity of Reading Comprehension Test Scores: Evidence of Generalizability across Different Test Administration Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, N. Scott

    This study examined the effects of different test administration conditions on reading comprehension test scores. Evidence of performance differences across district testing conditions might imply that the meanings and interpretations associated with the corresponding test scores have limited generalizability (i.e., knowing how well one reads…

  14. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    PubMed Central

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-01-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades. PMID:19805049

  15. Simplifying multivariate survival analysis using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve multiple endpoints, and this situation further complicates the analysis of survival data. In the case of tumor patients, endpoints concerning survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For each patient, these endpoints are correlated, and the estimation of the correlation between two score statistics is fundamental in derivation of overall treatment advantage. In this paper, the bivariate survival analysis method using the global score test methodology is extended to multivariate setting.

  16. Scoring Multiple True False Items: A Comparison of Summed Scores and Response Pattern Scores at Item and Test Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Brad C.

    The additive and response patterns scoring methods within and between multiple true-false (MTF) items were examined using data for 5,000 students for each of 2 years from the mathematics portion of the national college entrance examination in Taiwan. For additive scoring at item level, response to each option was scored dichotomously and added up…

  17. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Rauh, Virginia A; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A; Perera, Frederica P

    2014-07-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  18. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  19. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  20. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  1. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    PubMed

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it. PMID:26752444

  2. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  3. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. PMID:24468431

  4. TEST-DAY MILK LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED TEST-DAY SOMATIC CELL SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine usefulness of current and previous test-day somatic cell score (SCS) in predicting test-day milk yield, test-day records from Holstein first and second calvings between 1995 and 2002 were examined. Initial selection required that cows have at least the first four test days with recorde...

  5. Estimating the Consistency and Accuracy of Classifications Based on Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    This paper presents a method for estimating the accuracy and consistency of classifications based on test scores. The scores can be produced by any scoring method, including the formation of a weighted composite. The estimates use data from a single form. The reliability of the score is used to estimate its effective test length in terms of…

  6. Reporting Diagnostic Scores in Educational Testing: Temptations, Pitfalls, and Some Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…

  7. Teacher Education Students: A Look at Basic Skills Admission Tests and National Teacher Examination Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Kenneth

    This study examined the relationship between teacher education students' scores on basic skills admission tests and graduating seniors' scores on the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) at Eastern Kentucky University. The 1981-82 basic skills test scores for 262 teacher education students were compared with their NTE scores taken in 1984-85 during…

  8. Empirical Bayes Estimates of Domain Scores under Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions for Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Miao-Hsiang; Hsiung, Chao A.

    1994-01-01

    Two simple empirical approximate Bayes estimators are introduced for estimating domain scores under binomial and hypergeometric distributions respectively. Criteria are established regarding use of these functions over maximum likelihood estimation counterparts. (SLD)

  9. Use of Practice Tests in the Prediction of GED Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Warren

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between success on the two new practice-test forms (EE and FF) developed by Steck-Vaughn and success on the General Educational Development (GED) test. Success with practice-form EE correlated with GED test scores; form FF failed to correlate. (JOW)

  10. Equivalent Grade Equivalent Scores between Metro '78 and the 1973 Stanford Achievement Test. Metropolitan Achievement Tests Special Report Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychological Corp., New York, NY.

    Ten tables present equivalent scores between the 1978 Metropolitan Achievement Tests and the 1973 Stanford Achievement Test in terms of grade equivalent (GE) scores. These data were derived empirically by administering the two tests to two groups of students matched in terms of Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test scores. Equivalent GEs were determined…

  11. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  12. The Comparison of Accuracy Scores on the Paper and Pencil Testing vs. Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnawati, Heri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the test scores as results of Test of English Proficiency (TOEP) based on paper and pencil test (PPT) versus computer-based test (CBT). Using the participants' responses to the PPT documented from 2008-2010 and data of CBT TOEP documented in 2013-2014 on the sets of 1A, 2A, and 3A for the Listening and…

  13. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

  14. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-11-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

  15. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    PubMed

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores. PMID:15791116

  16. Predicting Teacher Certification Success: The Effect of Cumulative Grade Point Average and Preprofessional Academic Skills Test Scores on Testing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ward, Susan; Strickland, George

    2006-01-01

    Legislative mandates and reforms hold universities accountable for student certification test performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if cumulative grade point average scores and the preprofessional academic skills test scores predict performance on elementary certification test (professional development) scores of

  17. Black and White Differences in Cognitive Function Test Scores: What Explains the Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kala M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Rooks, Ronica; Newman, Anne B.; Pope, Sandra K.; Rubin, Susan M.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that older black and Latino adults have lower cognitive function test scores than older white adults, but few have comprehensively examined reasons for score differences. This study evaluates whether differences in health and socioeconomic indicators, including literacy level, can explain differences in cognitive function test scores between older black and white adults. PMID:15571554

  18. Relationship between Selected Kindergarten Predictors and First and Fourth Grade Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, William E. Jr.; Larson, Gerald L.

    1983-01-01

    Kindergarten predictors, Otis-Lennon IQ, group and individual Bender scores, and teachers' ratings were correlated with first-grade Stanford Achievement Test scores from 152 children from three schools in the same school district and fourth-grade Ohio Survey Test scores from 102 of the same children. (Author/PN)

  19. The Predictive Efficiency of Achievement and Aptitude Test Data on Seventh Grade Mathematics Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A.; Jones, Marilyn Doran

    1980-01-01

    The computation, concept, and application subtests of the Stanford Achievement Tests (SAT) were administered to a student sample during grades 3, 5, and 7. The efficiency of earlier scores and Otis Lennon Mental Ability Test scores in predicting seventh-grade SAT math scores was examined and found to be weak. (SJL)

  20. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  1. Estimating the Consistency and Accuracy of Classifications Based on Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the accuracy and consistency of classifications based on test scores. The reliability of the score is used to estimate effective test length in terms of discrete items. The true-score distribution is estimated by fitting a four-parameter beta model. (SLD)

  2. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  3. The Persisting Racial Scoring Gap on Graduate and Professional School Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the racial scoring gap on tests for admission to medical, business, law, and other graduate programs, noting that in the highest-scoring brackets on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the racial gap is even larger. Whites are five times, twelve times, and seven times more likely, respectively, to score higher on the MCAT, Law…

  4. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828

  5. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with moderate to strong relationships, validation studies and development of expectancy tables, which estimate the probability of successful performance on these AP exams, are recommended. Also, findings established a need to examine other related research issues including, but not limited to, extensive longitudinal studies and analyses of other available or prospective standardized test scores.

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Test Accommodations on Test Scores of LEP Students & Non-LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, Anne L.

    Using a quasi-experimental analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, this project examined the effects of the use of accommodations with students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and non-LEP students and whether the use of accommodations affected the validity of test score interpretations. Major accommodations examined were extra time, and extra…

  7. Mathematical SAT Test Scores and College Chemistry Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harry E.

    1996-12-01

    The relationships between mathematical SAT scores (SAT-M) and grades earned by students in eight consecutive years of first- and second-semester general chemistry courses at Oberlin College are reported. The academic years surveyed are 1987-1988 through 1994-1995. SAT-M scores are grouped within seven ranges from 450 and less to 710-800. Within any range of scores, students in both courses earned a wide variety of grades, but those within the higher ranges tended to earn higher grades and fewer failures relative to students in the lower ranges. For all students within each range of SAT-M scores, the fraction earning each grade are calculated. These fractions along with the numbers of students and their SAT-M scores in a subset are used to calculate grades expected for that subset. In the first-semester course, the expected and actual grades for subsets of males, females, first-year students, non-first-year students, Asians, Blacks, and Latinos are not significantly different. Those who eventually majored in chemistry or biochemistry attained grades very significantly higher than expected. Most students tended to achieve grades in the second-semester course that were similar to those earned in the first-semester course.

  8. Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring. Research Report 99-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    A constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived from a set of…

  9. Principles and Practices of Test Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-10-29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorans, Neil J.; Moses, Tim P.; Eignor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Score equating is essential for any testing program that continually produces new editions of a test and for which the expectation is that scores from these editions have the same meaning over time. Particularly in testing programs that help make high-stakes decisions, it is extremely important that test equating be done carefully and accurately.…

  10. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  11. A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

    This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

  12. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  13. D.C. Student Test Scores Show Uneven Progress. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…

  14. Improving the Predictive Ability of Placement Tests Using the Rasch Model for Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard M.; Mitchell, Virginia P.

    To improve the accuracy of college placement, Rasch scoring and person-fit statistics on the Comparative Guidance and Placement test (CGP) was compared to the traditional right-only scoring. Correlations were calculated between English and mathematics course grades and scores of 1,448 entering freshmen on the reading, writing, and mathematics…

  15. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain

  16. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each

  17. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  18. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

  19. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires

  20. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain…

  1. The Expanding Racial Scoring Gap between Black and White SAT Test Takers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Between 1976-88, the black-white scoring gap on the Scholastic Assessment Test closed significantly. The improvement in black scores was so strong that some educators predicted that within a generation, the gap would disappear. However, since 1988, the racial gap in SAT scores has become wider, with no compelling evidence that any improvement is…

  2. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country

  3. Using Expected Growth Size Estimates To Summarize Test Score Changes. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael

    An earlier Digest described the shortcomings of three methods commonly used to summarize changes in test scores. This Digest describes two less commonly used approaches for examining changes in test scores, those of Standardized Growth Estimates and Effect Sizes. Aspects of these two approaches are combined and applied to the Iowa Test of Basic…

  4. Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in

  5. Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

  6. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

  7. Discrepancies between Score Trends from NAEP and State Tests: A Scale-Invariant Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    State test score trends are widely interpreted as indicators of educational improvement. To validate these interpretations, state test score trends are often compared to trends on other tests such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). These comparisons raise serious technical and substantive concerns. Technically, the most…

  8. Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesch, Heather S.

    2010-01-01

    The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a

  9. Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesch, Heather S.

    2010-01-01

    The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

  10. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  11. Comparison of subjective and objective intradermal allergy test scoring methods in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tomeshia L; White, Patricia D

    2011-01-01

    An intradermal allergy test (IDT) is an important diagnostic tool for identifying offending allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. No standardized method of scoring an IDT has been described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between a conventional, subjective IDT scoring method based on perceived wheal diameter, erythema, and turgor (0-4+) and an objective scoring method based on measuring wheal diameter alone. Thirty-four atopic dogs were skin tested with 68 different allergens. All skin tests were performed according to standard procedures, and any IDT score ≥2+ was considered clinically significant. When the subjective IDT scores were compared with the objective IDT scores in all dogs, there was a moderate level of correlation overall (r=0.457; P <0.0001). The highest level of agreement between subjective and objective scores was noted with the reactions assigned subjective scores of "0" and "2+." Overall, there was a slight level of agreement between subjective and objective scores based on clinical significance (i.e., subjective scores ≥2+; κ=0.20; P <0.0001). In conclusion, the authors believe that the objective scoring method used in this study may provide a point of reference for inexperienced individuals (dermatology residents, veterinarians, technicians) when learning to grade an IDT. PMID:22058346

  12. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture  = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and BMC in the pediatric setting, especially in females and in loci involved in fracture risk and WNT signaling. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26572781

  13. Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  14. Comparisons of health status scores with MRC grades in COPD: implications for the GOLD 2011 classification.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul W; Adamek, Lukasz; Nadeau, Gilbert; Banik, Norbert

    2013-09-01

    The 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy document recommends assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using symptoms and future exacerbation risk, employing two score cut-points: COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score ≥ 10 or modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (mMRC) grade ≥ 2. To explore the equivalence of these two symptom cut-points, the relationship between the CAT and the mMRC and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Short-form Health Survey and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue scores were retrospectively analysed using a primary care dataset. Data from 1817 patients (mean ± SD forced expiratory volume in 1 s 1.6 ± 0.6 L) showed a significant association between mMRC grades and all health status scores (ANOVA p<0.0001). mMRC grade 1 was associated with significant levels of health status impairment (SGRQ 39.4 ± 15.5 and CAT 15.7 ± 7.0); even patients with mMRC grade 0 had modestly elevated scores (SGRQ 28.5 ± 15.1 and CAT 11.7 ± 6.8). An mMRC grading ≥ 2 categorised 57.2% patients with low symptom (groups A and C) versus 17.2% with the CAT. Using the mMRC cut-point (≥ 1) resulted in similar GOLD group categorisations as the CAT (18.9%). The mMRC showed a clear relationship with health status scores; even low mMRC grades were associated with health status impairment. Cut-points of mMRC grade ≥ 1 and CAT score ≥ 10 were approximately equivalent in determining low-symptom patients. The GOLD assessment framework may require refinement. PMID:23258783

  15. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  16. Effect of Self-Assessment on Test Scores: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Beatriz U.

    2010-01-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied…

  17. On the Study of Matching Cut-Scores to Test Characteristics: An Observed Score Approach. Program Statistics Research Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    Techniques derived from item response theory are useful for estimating the reliability of test classification above and below the cutting score. Test developers can construct a test whose information is peaked in the region of the cutting score; users can select a test which provides the most information in this region. The Cut-Score…

  18. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  19. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  20. The Effect of Misinformation, Partial Information, and Guessing on Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Six scoring methods for assigning weights to right or wrong responses according to various instructions given to test takers are analyzed with respect to expected change scores and the effect of various levels of information and misinformation. Three of the methods provide feedback to the test taker. (Author/CTM)

  1. STABILITY OF ACADEMIC APTITUDE AND READING TEST SCORES OF MOBILE AND NON-MOBILE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JUSTMAN, JOSEPH

    CHANGES IN ACADEMIC APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES OF PUPILS ATTENDING PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN DISADVANTAGED AREAS IN NEW YORK CITY WERE INVESTIGATED. AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER VARYING DEGREES OF MOBILITY WERE ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN CHANGES IN TEST SCORES. THE CUMULATIVE RECORD CARDS OF SIXTH-GRADE PUPILS WERE EXAMINED TO…

  2. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  3. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  4. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

  5. An Investigation of Methods for Improving Estimation of Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Bradley A.

    Three methods of estimating test score distributions that may improve on using the observed frequencies (OBFs) as estimates of a population test score distribution are considered: the kernel method (KM); the polynomial method (PM); and the four-parameter beta binomial method (FPBBM). The assumption each method makes about the smoothness of the…

  6. Graduate Students' Administration and Scoring Errors on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Erica; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Schermerhorn, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of cognitive test scores often leads to decisions concerning the diagnosis, educational placement, and types of interventions used for children. Therefore, it is important that practitioners administer and score cognitive tests without error. This study assesses the frequency and types of examiner errors that occur during the…

  7. Kindergarten Black-White Test Score Gaps: Replicating and Updating Previous Findings with New National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has shown large academic test score gaps between black and white students in early childhood. These gaps remain, and probably grow, as students progress through school. Many researchers have sought to explain these persistent test score gaps, and particularly, to understand the role of students' socio-economic status…

  8. Increasing Racial Isolation and Test Score Gaps in Mathematics: A 30-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Although there has been progress in closing the test score gaps among student groups over past decades, that progress has stalled. Many researchers have speculated why the test score gaps closed between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, but only a few have been able to empirically study how changes in school factors and…

  9. Estimating IRT Equating Coefficients for Tests with Polytomously and Dichotomously Scored Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Lissitz, Robert W.; Yang, Yu Nu

    Recent years have seen growing use of tests with mixed item formats, e.g., partly containing dichotomously scored items and partly consisting of polytomously scored items. A matching two test characteristic curves method (CCM) for placing these mixed format items on the same metric is described and evaluated in this paper under a common-item…

  10. Linking Scores From Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  11. Linking Scores from Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  12. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its

  13. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,

  14. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  15. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  16. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

  17. Individual Part Score Profiles of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Descriptive Analysis across Three Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Renee; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the group- and individual-level part score profiles of children with intellectual disability (ID) who participated in clinical validity studies supporting three individually administered intelligence tests. Across tests, children with ID produced group-level profiles comprising mean part scores that fell in the Low to Very Low

  18. Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

  19. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  20. Variability of I/M test scores over time

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1988-09-01

    The program involved conducting twice-weekly I/M (Inspection and Maintenance) emission short tests on twenty-five late model gasoline-fueled vehicles over a 15-week time period. All of the twenty-five vehicles (1981 model year or later) were tested once in the morning and again later that same day following a soak period of at least three hours. The vehicles tested in the program were owned by Southwest Research Institute employees and were selected to represent a variety of vehicle types, emission controls, etc. Emission tests were conducted using two Bear Automotive Type 42-925 4-Gas Infrared Analyzers with generic software. Each emission test sequence included a Test Analyzer Specifications (TAS) sequence (i.e., 2500 rpm/idle test with emissions measured in both modes), a vehicle conditioning step utilizing three minutes of engine operation at 2500 + or - 300 rpm with the vehicle transmission in neutral, idling in neutral for 15 seconds, and finally a second TAS sequence. The tests were conducted to provide EPA with information regarding variability in short test emission results, impact of off-idle no-load preconditioning cycles on short test emissions, and emission differences between a fully-warmed vehicle and a soaked vehicle having undergone minimum operation. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are reported for each vehicle in tabular and graphical form. Hydrocarbons are reported in ppm and carbon monoxide in percent.

  1. A Note on Recovering the Ability Distribution from Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Brian W.

    A simple scheme is proposed for smoothly approximating the ability distribution for relatively long tests, assuming that the item characteristic curves (ICCs) are known or well estimated. The scheme works for a general class of ICCs and is guaranteed to completely recover the theta distribution as the test length increases. The proposed method of

  2. The Effects of Background Information on Standarized Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Joan T.; Wepner, Shelley B.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of exposure to the topics included on the comprehension subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (ND), Form F, on college freshmen's performance on the test. In addition, the study investigated whether those students with background information would indicate their awareness of this knowledge on a…

  3. The Scoring of Matching Questions Tests: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancarík, Antonín; Kostelecká, Yvona

    2015-01-01

    Electronic testing has become a regular part of online courses. Most learning management systems offer a wide range of tools that can be used in electronic tests. With respect to time demands, the most efficient tools are those that allow automatic assessment. The presented paper focuses on one of these tools: matching questions in which one…

  4. Test Score Stability and Construct Validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores among College Students: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of the…

  5. Comparing Test Scores Using Information From Criterion-Related Validity Studies.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, A Alexander; McGlaughlin, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    There is frequently a need to compare a client's test scores from different instruments. If the scores come from instruments that use the same scale, it is tempting to compare the scores directly. Unfortunately, this method can lead clinicians to believe that there is a large difference between scores when the difference is minimal. As an alternative, we outline a method for score comparison that uses information from criterion-related validity studies. Using three examples, we show why this method is more psychometrically sound, produces more accurate comparison scores, and requires little extra work for clinicians than the direct comparison approach. To make the score comparison process easy for clinicians to use, we include an appendix that demonstrates how to implement this method in Microsoft Excel and the free R program. PMID:25650888

  6. Conceptual and Empirical Relationships between Temporal Measures of Fluency and Oral English Proficiency with Implications for Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginther, April; Dimova, Slobodanka; Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Information provided by examination of the skills that underlie holistic scores can be used not only as supporting evidence for the validity of inferences associated with performance tests but also as a way to improve the scoring rubrics, descriptors, and benchmarks associated with scoring scales. As fluency is considered a critical, perhaps…

  7. Correlation Between Students' Dental Admission Test Scores and Performance on a Dental School's Competency Exam.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance. PMID:26522638

  8. Personnel Test Battery and Scoring Procedures. Memorandum No. L.S. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Barry L.

    The purpose of this memo is to present tests that comprise the test battery used to select Navy personnel to train marine mammals, and to describe the scoring procedures of the tests. The test battery consists of: Biosystems General Information Test (BGIT), Personnel History Questionnaire (PHQ), Gordon Personal Inventory, Gordon Personal Profile,…

  9. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  10. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  11. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

    Texas students have made extraordinarily large gains on statewide achievement tests, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), gains so dramatic that they have been dubbed the "Texas miracle." There is general agreement that these gains are attributable to the high stakes accountability system in Texas, but there is some question about what…

  12. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  13. Can Percentiles Replace Raw Scores in the Statistical Analysis of Test Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    Educational and psychological testing textbooks typically warn of the inappropriateness of performing arithmetic operations and statistical analysis on percentiles instead of raw scores. This seems inconsistent with the well-established finding that transforming scores to ranks and using nonparametric methods often improves the validity and power…

  14. From #2 Pencils to the World Wide Web: A History of Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    2008-01-01

    The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the need…

  15. Score Generalizability of Academic Writing Tasks: Does One Test Method Fit It All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability of writing scores has always been a longstanding concern in L2 writing assessment. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate this topic during the last two decades. However, with the introduction of new test methods, such as reading-to-write tasks, generalizability studies need to focus on the score accuracy of…

  16. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  17. Using Test Scores from Students with Disabilities in Teacher Effectiveness Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    The increased emphasis on using student growth measures in teacher evaluation has raised questions about how to treat test scores from students with disabilities. This study explores the consequences of three common approaches for treating scores from students with disabilities in statistical approaches to estimating teacher effectiveness: (1)…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  19. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods

  20. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of

  1. Test Score or Student Progress? A Value-Added Evaluation of School Effectiveness in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Pai; Hochweber, Jan; Klieme, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-oriented evaluation of school effectiveness is often based on student test scores in certain critical examinations. This study provides another method of evaluation--value-added--which is based on student achievement progress. This paper introduces the method of estimating the value-added score of schools in multi-level models. Based on…

  2. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  3. Score Generalizability of Academic Writing Tasks: Does One Test Method Fit It All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability of writing scores has always been a longstanding concern in L2 writing assessment. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate this topic during the last two decades. However, with the introduction of new test methods, such as reading-to-write tasks, generalizability studies need to focus on the score accuracy of

  4. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

  5. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  6. Ethnic Differences in Children's Intelligence Test Scores: Role of Economic Deprivation, Home Environment, and Maternal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined differences in intelligence test scores of black and white five-year-olds born premature with low birth weight. Found that black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children. Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the differential by half; adjustments for differences in home environment reduced it by…

  7. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing

  8. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  9. Approximate score-based testing with application to multivariate trait association analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Pan, Wei

    2015-09-01

    For genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing studies, several powerful score-based tests, such as kernel machine regression and sum of powered score tests, have been proposed in the last few years. However, extensions of these score-based tests to more complex models, such as mixed-effects models for analysis of multiple and correlated traits, have been hindered by the unavailability of the score vector, due to either no output from statistical software or no closed-form solution at all. We propose a simple and general method to asymptotically approximate the score vector based on an asymptotically normal and consistent estimate of a parameter vector to be tested and its (consistent) covariance matrix. The proposed method is applicable to both maximum-likelihood estimation and estimating function-based approaches. We use the derived approximate score vector to extend several score-based tests to mixed-effects models. We demonstrate the feasibility and possible power gains of these tests in association analysis of multiple and correlated quantitative or binary traits with both real and simulated data. The proposed method is easy to implement with a wide applicability. PMID:26198454

  10. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  11. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered

  12. Using Microcomputer Software to Score Placement Tests--An Example from the University of California, Irvine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; And Others

    This article describes the placement testing program, the use of microcomputer software for scoring and analyzing test results, and the integration of the computerized test results into a comprehensive microcomputer-based student information system at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). UCI offers placement tests in five academic fields:…

  13. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

  14. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  15. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and

  16. Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…

  17. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  18. Test Score Stability and the Relationship of Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores to External Variables among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…

  19. Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior in all psychometric aspects examined in this study. Future research should investigate the LE CAT for wider use in different populations. PMID:26535291

  1. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  2. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National

  3. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  4. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  5. Interpreting the g loadings of intelligence test composite scores in light of Spearman's law of diminishing returns.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R

    2013-03-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels. PMID:23506024

  6. Predicting Future PTSD using a Modified New York Risk Score: Implications for Patient Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim We previously developed a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument – the New York PTSD Risk Score – that was effective in predicting PTSD. In the present study, we assessed a 12-month prospective version of this risk score, which is important for patient management, follow-up, and for emergency medicine. Methods Using data collected in a study of New York City adults after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we developed a new PTSD prediction tool. Using diagnostic test methods, including receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap procedures, we examined different prediction variables to assess PTSD status 12 months after initial assessment among 1,681 trauma-exposed adults. Results While our original PTSD screener worked well in the short term, it was not specifically developed to predict long-term PTSD. In the current study, we found that the Primary Care PTSD Screener (PCPS), when combined with psychosocial predictors from the original NY Risk Score, including depression, trauma exposure, sleep disturbance, and healthcare access, increased the area under the ROC curve (AUC) from 0.707 to 0.774, a significant improvement (p<0.0001). When additional risk-factor variables were added, including negative life events, handedness, self-esteem, and pain status, the AUC increased to 0.819, also a significant improvement (p=0.001). Adding Latino and foreign status to the model further increased the AUC to 0.839 (p=0.007). Conclusion A prospective version of the New York PTSD Risk Score appears to be effective in predicting PTSD status 12 months after initial assessment among trauma-exposed adults. Further research is advised to further validate and expand these findings. PMID:22408285

  7. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that

  8. An Investigation of Selected Two-Sample Hypothesis Testing Procedures When Sampling From Empirically Based Test Score Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, C. Rodney; Hoover, H. D.

    The power of the t, expected normal scores, Mann-Whitney U, Tukey, a modified Mann-Whitney U, and an adaptive procedure were investigated when sampling from population models empirically developed from test score distributions. The models used were selected members of the beta family. This investigation was unique in that not only did the means of…

  9. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  10. Improvement in Intelligence Test Scores from 6 to 10 years in Children of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M.; Richardson, Gale A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Day, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigates change in IQ scores among 290 children born to teenage mothers and identifies social, economic, and environmental variables that may be associated with change in intelligence test performance. Methods The children of 290 teenage mothers (72% African American and 28% European American) were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (SBIS) at ages 6 and 10. Results The mean composite score at age 6 was 84.8 and was 91.2 at age 10, an improvement of 6.4 points. Significant cross-sectional predictors at both ages 6 and 10 of higher SBIS scores were maternal cognitive ability, school grade, Caucasian ethnicity, and caregiver education. Having more children in the household significantly predicted lower SBIS scores at age 6. Higher satisfaction with maternal social support predicted higher SBIS scores at age 10. Change in IQ scores was not related to maternal socioeconomic status, social support, home environment, ethnicity, or family interactions. Custodial stability was associated with an improvement in IQ scores, while increase in caregiver depression was related to decline in IQ scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that improvement in IQ scores of offspring of teenage mothers may be related to stability of maternal custody. More research is needed to determine the impact of the maturation of adolescent mothers' parenting and the role of early education on improvement in cognitive abilities. PMID:20495472

  11. A primer-test centered equating method for setting cut-off scores.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimo; Plowman, Sharon Ann; Park, Youngsik

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of a new primary field test method based on test equating to address inconsistent classification among field tests. We analyzed students' information on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), mile run (MR), and VO2max from three data sets (college: n = 94; middle school: n = 39; elementary school: n = 96). Using the college and elementary school data, the equivalent relationship between PACER and MR scores was first established by the Kernel equating method. This yielded MR scores derived from PACER (mile run PACER equated [MR PEQ]), which were used to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and classify students according to the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones. We compared the results to the predictions and classifications based on measured VO2max, MR and PACER-predicted VO2max and cross-validated the relationships using the middle school data. We found the test conversion to be accurate and that the MR PEQ scores functioned similarly to the original MR scores. Both performed better than the original PACER scores in predicting VO2max and classifying students. The middle school data generally supported these results. The proposed method is accurate and effective in setting a new field test onto the same scale of a primary field test and determining its cut-off scores. PMID:21268463

  12. How Does Emergency Department Crowding Affect Medical Student Test Scores and Clerkship Evaluations?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Grant; Arya, Rajiv; Ritz, Z. Trevor; He, Albert S.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; McCoy, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effect of emergency department (ED) crowding has been recognized as a concern for more than 20 years; its effect on productivity, medical errors, and patient satisfaction has been studied extensively. Little research has reviewed the effect of ED crowding on medical education. Prior studies that have considered this effect have shown no correlation between ED crowding and resident perception of quality of medical education. Objective To determine whether ED crowding, as measured by the National ED Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) score, has a quantifiable effect on medical student objective and subjective experiences during emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotations. Methods We collected end-of-rotation examinations and medical student evaluations for 21 EM rotation blocks between July 2010 and May 2012, with a total of 211 students. NEDOCS scores were calculated for each corresponding period. Weighted regression analyses examined the correlation between components of the medical student evaluation, student test scores, and the NEDOCS score for each period. Results When all 21 rotations are included in the analysis, NEDOCS scores showed a negative correlation with medical student tests scores (regression coefficient= −0.16, p=0.04) and three elements of the rotation evaluation (attending teaching, communication, and systems-based practice; p<0.05). We excluded an outlying NEDOCS score from the analysis and obtained similar results. When the data were controlled for effect of month of the year, only student test score remained significantly correlated with NEDOCS score (p=0.011). No part of the medical student rotation evaluation attained significant correlation with the NEDOCS score (p≥0.34 in all cases). Conclusion ED overcrowding does demonstrate a small but negative association with medical student performance on end-of-rotation examinations. Additional studies are recommended to further evaluate this effect. PMID:26594289

  13. Predicting Placement Test Scores with Cognitive and Socio-Economic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Coffey, Grace; Ellington, Roni; Wright, Henrietta

    The relationship among Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) results, high school grade point average (GPA), socioeconomic variables, and placement test scores was examined. Participants were 162 freshmen studies students from an urban university. Results of zero-order correlations indicated that the construct validity of the placement skills test used…

  14. Methods for Evaluating the Validity of Test Scores for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, when English language learners (ELLs) are tested, they are usually tested in English and their limited English proficiency is a potential cause of construct-irrelevant variance. When such irrelevancies affect test scores, inaccurate interpretations of ELLs' knowledge, skills, and abilities may occur. In this article, we…

  15. Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

  16. Deriving Comparable Scores for Computer Adaptive and Conventional Tests: An Example Using the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eignor, Daniel R.

    Procedures used to establish the comparability of scores derived from the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) computer adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prototype and the paper-and-pencil SAT are described in this report. Both the prototype, which is made up of Verbal and Mathematics computer adaptive tests (CATs), and a form of…

  17. Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

    This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

  18. Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kristen E.; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. Methods The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0–12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. Results African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Conclusions Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. PMID:23880156

  19. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger children. Concurrent validity was assessed by means of comparison with the manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2; correlations were significant. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest and interrater reliability measures were .85 and .99, respectively. The Box and Block Test is an easy, feasible, valid, and reliable measurement for gross manual dexterity in young children. The obtained norms can be used in clinical settings to compare the gross manual dexterity of atypically developing children with that of age-related peers and to evaluate efficacy of interventions. A larger international reference population is needed to increase generalizability. PMID:23597689

  20. Semi-Quantitative Scoring of an Immunochromatographic Test for Circulating Filarial Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Cédric B.; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations. PMID:24019435

  1. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  2. Effects of School Characteristics upon Achievement Test Scores in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The effects of school characteristics upon achievement test scores in New York State were studied. Data, composed of the 1975-76 Consolidated Data Base and Finance Tapes for all 705 school districts in the state, were supplied by the New York State Department of Education. Among the 24 variables of interest were: state pupil evaluation tests of…

  3. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test

  4. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  5. Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

  6. Gains in Standardized Test Scores: Evidence of Diminishing Returns to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Donna; Halcoussis, Dennis; Svorny, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    In many states, standardized tests are used to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement. To motivate improvement in test scores, financial awards are given to teachers and administrators in schools that show the greatest gains. However, failure to adjust for initial conditions may put awards out of the reach of some schools and…

  7. Score Reliability of a Test Composed of Passage-Based Testlets: A Generalizability Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of local item dependence (LID) in passage-based testlets on the test score reliability of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension test from the perspective of generalizability (G) theory. Definitions and causes of LID in passage-based testlets are reviewed within the…

  8. Beating the Odds: A Low Equalized Assessed Valuation Elementary School with High Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study examines what makes Bluffview Elementary School a success as measured by the ISAT, the mandated state test of Illinois. Despite national reports of achievement gaps and low test scores, Bluffview Elementary has shown sustained success in educating children. This paper reviews how Bluffview Elementary students are achieving…

  9. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  10. What Shall We Do About Declining Test Scores? Current Issues in Higher Education, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Willard

    Two issues, one familiar and the other less so, emerge from the controversy over declining scores on standardized tests in the United States and the growing movement toward minimal competency testing mandated by government. The familiar issue involves the balance between egalitarianism and elitism in American education. The second, a reemerging…

  11. Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Martha Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

  12. CSCOPE's Effect on Texas' State Mandated Standardized Test Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Brent Ross

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine standardized test scores of school districts in the state of Texas that have implemented CSCOPE, a popular curriculum management system, in an effort to determine what effect, if any, its implementation has had. The standardized test used in the state of the Texas is titled the Texas Assessment of Knowledge…

  13. Investigation and Treatment of Missing Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2003-01-01

    This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…

  14. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  15. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Taylor R.; Petrov, Alexander A.; Sederberg, Per B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training—now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future. PMID:25395695

  16. Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Gary E

    2013-10-22

    I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

  17. Concurrent Validity of New Subscale Scores for the Booklet Category Test.

    PubMed

    McNally, Shannon; Dsurney, John; McGovern, Jessica; DeFilippis, Nick; Chan, Leighton

    2016-06-01

    The Booklet Category Test (BCT) is a neuropsychological test of cognitive dysfunction that provides only one overall error score indicative of global impairment. It does not, however, delineate specific domains that might be impaired. The aim of this study is to concurrently validate 13 new BCT subscales using legacy instruments in patients with nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty-nine patients with mild, moderate, and severe TBI completed a battery of neuropsychology tests. Partial correlations controlling for age were performed and there were significant correlations between the a priori selected scores from legacy measures of major cognitive domains and both BCT total errors and subscale scores. Additional analysis showed that several subscales were able to differentiate between performance levels on the legacy measures. Overall, our results showed that the subscales measured cognitive skills beyond global impairment, supporting the use of the BCT subscales in a population with TBI. PMID:26033113

  18. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores and clinical and sociodemographic correlates in Schizophrenia: multiple logistic regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Masahiro; Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Okada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated what clinical and sociodemographic factors affected Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) factor scores of patients with schizophrenia to evaluate parameters or items of the WCST. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Patients with schizophrenia from three hospitals participated. Participants Participants were recruited from July 2009 to August 2011. 131 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (84 men and 47 women, 43.5±13.8 years (mean±SD)) entered and completed the study. Participants were recruited in the study if they (1) met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia; (2) were physically healthy and (3) had no mood disorders, substance abuse, neurodevelopmental disorders, epilepsy or mental retardation. We examined their basic clinical and sociodemographic factors (sex, age, education years, age of onset, duration of illness, chlorpromazine equivalent doses and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores). Primary and secondary outcome measures All patients carried out the WCST Keio version. Five indicators were calculated, including categories achieved (CA), perseverative errors in Milner (PEM) and Nelson (PEN), total errors (TE) and difficulties of maintaining set (DMS). From the principal component analysis, we identified two factors (1 and 2). We assessed the relationship between these factor scores and clinical and sociodemographic factors, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Factor 1 was mainly composed of CA, PEM, PEN and TE. Factor 2 was mainly composed of DMS. The factor 1 score was affected by age, education years and the PANSS negative scale score. The factor 2 score was affected by duration of illness. Conclusions Age, education years, PANSS negative scale score and duration of illness affected WCST factor scores in patients with schizophrenia. Using WCST factor scores may reduce the possibility of type I errors due to multiple comparisons. PMID:23135537

  19. Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-aged children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide “benchmarks” against which those skills may be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed checklists of children's language were correlated with results of standardized language tests and whether scores increased linearly with decreasing age-of-implantation and increasing duration of cochlear implant use. Method Participants were a nation-wide sample of 76 children who were deaf and orally-educated and who received an implant by 38 months of age. Formal language tests were administered at age 4.5 years. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MBCDI) was completed by parents when children were ages 3.5 and 4.5 years. Results Based on regression analyses, expected test scores for each age at implant are provided for two commonly administered language tests at 4.5 years of age and MBCDI subscale scores at 3.5 and 4.5 years. Concurrent test scores were significantly correlated on all measures. A linear relation was found which predicted increasing test scores with younger ages at implantation for all scales administered. Conclusions While the expected scores reported here should not be considered as normative data, they are benchmarks which may be useful for evaluating spoken language progress of children with cochlear implants in enrolled in spoken language-based programs. PMID:18448600

  20. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Anderson, Craig L.; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram; McCoy, C. Eric; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulation-based evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6%) than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6–14.0%], p<0.00005). We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04), validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation. PMID:26594288

  1. The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

  2. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23937298

  3. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  4. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students’ Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students’ mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9–7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12–13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20–25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students. PMID:26317643

  5. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the

  6. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  7. Effects of Reading Technology Integration on Sixth Grade Test and Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the

  8. Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

  9. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend...

  10. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean

  11. Effects of Programmed Learning Sequences on the Mathematics Test Scores of Bermudian Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Derek; Dunn, Rita; Hlawaty, Heide

    2006-01-01

    This research compared the effects of a Programmed Learning Sequence (PLS) (Dunn & Dunn, 1993) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on 100 sixth-grade Bermudian students' test scores on a Fractions Unit. Fifty-three males' and forty-seven females' learning styles were identified with the "Learning Style Inventory" (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 2000) to…

  12. Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at

  13. As Test Scores Have Fallen, So Has the Time Schools Give to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    While test scores have fallen, the amount of time students spend with teachers has fallen and the amount of knowledge and the number of skills students must master have risen. Six suggestions for guarding against loss of instructional time are provided. (Author/IRT)

  14. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) Scores: Testing the Expanded Nigrescence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested the viability of the expanded nigrescence (NT-E) model as operationalized by Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores using confirmatory factor analyses. Participants were 594 Black college students from the Southeastern United States. Results indicated a good fit for NT-E's proposed six-factor structure.…

  15. The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryder, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

  16. California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

  17. Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

  18. California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with

  19. Florida Defeats the Skeptics: Test Scores Show Genuine Progress in the Sunshine State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Among the 50 states, Florida's gains on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) between 1992 and 2011 ranked second only to Maryland's. Florida's progress has been particularly impressive in the early grades. In 1998, Florida scored about one grade level below the national average on the 4th-grade NAEP reading test, but it was…

  20. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising

  1. Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

  2. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  3. The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

  4. Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklof, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

  5. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  6. Effects of Reading Technology Integration on Sixth Grade Test and Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the…

  7. Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test…

  8. Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at…

  9. Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring

  10. Student Neighborhoods, Schools, and Test Score Growth: Evidence from Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Schools and neighborhoods are thought to be two of the most important contextual influences on student academic outcomes. Drawing on a unique data set that permits simultaneous estimation of neighborhood and school contributions to student test score gains, we analyze the distributions of these contributions to consider the relative importance of

  11. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  12. States Eyeing Expense of Hand-Scored Tests in Light of NCLB Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    When students put down their pencils at the end of Connecticut's testing each year, another intensive process begins. Hundreds of trained evaluators work day and night for about a month to score the written responses. Although expensive, the use of open-ended questions drives the kind of instruction that state leaders say they want in their…

  13. Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 12988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Jacob; Ludwig, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1980s witnessed breaks in two important trends related to race and schooling. School segregation, which had been declining, began a period of relative stasis. Black-white test score gaps, which had also been declining, also stagnated. The notion that these two phenomena may be related is also supported by basic cross-sectional evidence. We

  14. Factors affecting milk ELISA scores of cows tested for Johne’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) has been estimated to cost dairy producers over $1.5 billion per year. The objective of this study was to examine the influence a number of environmental and genetic factors have on ELISA milk test scores for Johne’s diseas...

  15. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for

  16. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  17. Creating a System of Accountability: The Impact of Instructional Assessment on Elementary Children's Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Son, Seung-Hee; Nicholson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Examined the trajectory of change in scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills of low-income, urban third and fourth graders enrolled in classrooms in which the Work Sampling System (WSS) had been used at least 3 years. Results for 2,564 students show academic gains associated with the WSS. (SLD)

  18. Assessing the Discriminating Power of Item and Test Scores in the Linear Factor-Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2012-01-01

    Model-based attempts to rigorously study the broad and imprecise concept of "discriminating power" are scarce, and generally limited to nonlinear models for binary responses. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores which are analyzed or obtained using Spearman's factor-analytic…

  19. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  20. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  1. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. 866.6050 Section 866.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated...

  2. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  3. The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that

  4. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  5. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take corrective action as soon as…

  6. Raise Test Scores without Selling Your Soul: An Interview with Scott Mandel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    With his 10th book, Improving Test Scores: A Practical Approach for Teachers and Administrators, Scott Mandel outlines steps educators can take to boost achievement on standardized exams while maintaining the integrity of their day-to-day teaching. Mandel, who holds a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from USC, teaches history and English at…

  7. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student

  8. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test…

  9. A Model for Incorporating Response-Time Data in Scoring Achievement Tests. Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice

    The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…

  10. Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.; And Others

    Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

  11. Diagnostic Implications of Markedly Elevated MMPI Sc Scale Scores for Nonhospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Kunce, Joseph T.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the personal adjustment of counseling center clients (N=60) whose highest Sc scale score on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was over 70. Results supported a continued need to delineate more precisely the significance of elevated MMPI scores for nonpsychiatric populations. (LLL)

  12. An Optimization Model for Test Assembly To Match Observed-Score Distributions. Research Report 94-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Luecht, Richard M.

    An optimization model is presented that allows test assemblers to control the shape of the observed-score distribution on a test for a population with a known ability distribution. An obvious application is for item response theory-based test assembly in programs where observed scores are reported and operational test forms are required to produce…

  13. Talent Search Qualifying: Comparisons between Talent Search Students Qualifying via Scores on Standardized Tests and via Parent Nomination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian

  14. An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2007-01-01

    There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In

  15. An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2007-01-01

    There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…

  16. The comparison question polygraph test: a contrast of methods and scoring.

    PubMed

    Honts, Charles R; Reavy, Racheal

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a mock crime experiment with 250 paid participants (126 females, Mdn age = 30 years) contrasting the validity of the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the comparison question test (CQT) for the detection of deception. Subjects were assigned at random to one of eight conditions in a Guilt (Guilty/Innocent) × Test Type (Probable-Lie/Directed-Lie) × Stimulation (Between Repetition Stimulation/No Stimulation) factorial design. The data were scored by an experienced polygraph examiner who was unaware of subject assignment to conditions and with a computer algorithm known as the Objective Scoring System Version 2 (OSS2). There were substantial main effects of guilt in both the OSS2 computer scores F(1, 241) = 143.82, p < .001, η(p)(2) = 0.371, and in the human scoring, F(1, 242) = 98.92, p<.001, η(p)(2) = .29. There were no differences between the test types in the number of spontaneous countermeasure attempts made against them. Although under the controlled conditions of an experiment the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the CQT produced equivocal results in terms of detection accuracy, the directed-lie variant has much to recommend it as it is inherently more standardized in its administration and construction. PMID:25703188

  17. Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

    2014-06-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

  18. The Use of One-, Two-, and Three-Parameter and Nominal Item Response Scoring in Place of Number-Right Scoring in the Presence of Test-Wiseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkowicz, Joanna; Rogers, W. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Ability estimates yielded by the one- (1PL), two- (2PL), and three-parameter (3PL) models and the nominal response model (NRM) were compared with the number-right (NR) scoring model using items not susceptible to test-wiseness (NTW) and items susceptible to the ID1 test-wiseness strategy. These items were contained in grade 12 diploma examinations…

  19. A Comparison Study of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores between Students in Indiana, the Midwestern Region, and the Nation. Includes Test Scores, High School Records, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and College Plans. Monograph 80-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.

    Selected data from three of the latest summary reports of the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP) are presented. They are: College Bound Seniors, 1980-National, Midwestern, and Indiana. Data including Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) scores, and information from the Student Descriptive…

  20. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  1. A Comparison of Three Scoring Methods for Tests with Selected-Response and Constructed-Response Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Gary A.; Henderson-Montero, Diane; Julian, Marc; Bene, Nancy H.

    2002-01-01

    A number of methods for scoring tests with selected-response (SR) and constructed-response (CR) items are available. The selection of a method depends on the requirements of the program, the particular psychometric model and assumptions employed in the analysis of item and score data, and how scores are to be used. This article compares 3 methods:

  2. On the Use of Composition Scoring Techiniques, Objective Measures, and Objective Tests to Evaluate ESL Writing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes and evaluates the major direct methods of assessing writing ability (holistic scoring, analytical scoring, and primary trait scoring) and the most popular indirect methods of predicting students' ability to write (T-unit analysis and a variety of published standardized tests). (EKN)

  3. Admissions Testing at Career College and Trade School Training Programs. Test Score Guidelines, Norms, and Student Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlic, Charles F.; And Others

    This report provides a method for determining minimum score by vocational program based on the use of the Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam (SLE). The SLE has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate and reliable measure of adult cognitive ability. It is currently in use as an admissions test at many career colleges and trade schools. The SLE test…

  4. Bayesian and Empirical Bayes Approaches to Setting Passing Scores on Mastery Tests. Publication Series in Mastery Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh; Saunders, Joseph C., III

    The Bayesian approach to setting passing scores, as proposed by Swaminathan, Hambleton, and Algina, is compared with the empirical Bayes approach to the same problem that is derived from Huynh's decision-theoretic framework. Comparisons are based on simulated data which follow an approximate beta-binomial distribution and on real test results from…

  5. Changes in scores on the Mental Rotations Test during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Moody, M S

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine changes in performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test during the menstrual cycles of college women. Participants were 12 male and 34 female students recruited from undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes at a large southeastern university. Each woman was tested once during the menstrual phase and once during the luteal phase of her menstrual cycle. Phases in which the testings occurred were counterbalanced. Men were also tested twice. For all participants, the two testing sessions were held exactly 14 days apart. Women who were contraceptive pill users did not perform significantly differently during either phase from women who were nonusers, and there was no interaction for pill use by phase. Therefore, users and nonusers were combined for a paired-sample t test which indicated that women scored significantly higher during the menstrual phase (Days 2-7) than during the luteal phase (Days 16-22 for 31 women and Days 24-26 for three women with longer cycles). The 12 men scored significantly higher than the 34 women during the initial testing; but not significantly higher than the 17 women who were in the menstrual phase during the first testing. Therefore, that the effect of the phase of menstrual cycle influences the sex difference in performance on the Mental Rotations Test was supported. PMID:9172209

  6. A glance at quality score: implication for de novo transcriptome reconstruction of Illumina reads.

    PubMed

    Mbandi, Stanley Kimbung; Hesse, Uljana; Rees, D Jasper G; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Downstream analyses of short-reads from next-generation sequencing platforms are often preceded by a pre-processing step that removes uncalled and wrongly called bases. Standard approaches rely on their associated base quality scores to retain the read or a portion of it when the score is above a predefined threshold. It is difficult to differentiate sequencing error from biological variation without a reference using quality scores. The effects of quality score based trimming have not been systematically studied in de novo transcriptome assembly. Using RNA-Seq data produced from Illumina, we teased out the effects of quality score based filtering or trimming on de novo transcriptome reconstruction. We showed that assemblies produced from reads subjected to different quality score thresholds contain truncated and missing transfrags when compared to those from untrimmed reads. Our data supports the fact that de novo assembling of untrimmed data is challenging for de Bruijn graph assemblers. However, our results indicates that comparing the assemblies from untrimmed and trimmed read subsets can suggest appropriate filtering parameters and enable selection of the optimum de novo transcriptome assembly in non-model organisms. PMID:24575122

  7. A glance at quality score: implication for de novo transcriptome reconstruction of Illumina reads

    PubMed Central

    Mbandi, Stanley Kimbung; Hesse, Uljana; Rees, D. Jasper G.; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Downstream analyses of short-reads from next-generation sequencing platforms are often preceded by a pre-processing step that removes uncalled and wrongly called bases. Standard approaches rely on their associated base quality scores to retain the read or a portion of it when the score is above a predefined threshold. It is difficult to differentiate sequencing error from biological variation without a reference using quality scores. The effects of quality score based trimming have not been systematically studied in de novo transcriptome assembly. Using RNA-Seq data produced from Illumina, we teased out the effects of quality score based filtering or trimming on de novo transcriptome reconstruction. We showed that assemblies produced from reads subjected to different quality score thresholds contain truncated and missing transfrags when compared to those from untrimmed reads. Our data supports the fact that de novo assembling of untrimmed data is challenging for de Bruijn graph assemblers. However, our results indicates that comparing the assemblies from untrimmed and trimmed read subsets can suggest appropriate filtering parameters and enable selection of the optimum de novo transcriptome assembly in non-model organisms. PMID:24575122

  8. Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

  9. Gender-Related Differences in Academically Talented Students' Scores and Use of Time on Tests of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich

    1998-01-01

    A study of 1,283 academically talented junior high students found that males had higher scores on three of the four subtests of the Spatial Test Battery of the Institute for the Academic Advancement of Youth. Females scored higher on the visual memory test and spent more time on the tests. (Author/CR)

  10. The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

  11. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  12. Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

  13. The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

    Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee Putnam County area. The study should be reproduced in various school districts in the state of Tennessee to compare the findings.

  14. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  15. SCORE Study Report 8: Closed Tests for All Pair-Wise Comparisons of Means

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Neal; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Ip, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    We compare five closed tests for strong control of family-wide type I error (FWE) while making all pair-wise comparisons of means in clinical trials with multiple arms such as the SCORE Study. We simulated outcomes of the SCORE Study under its design hypotheses, and used p-values from chi-squared tests to compare performance of a “pairwise” closed test described below to Bonferroni and Hochberg adjusted p-values. “Pairwise” closed testing was more powerful than Hochberg’s method by several definitions of multiple-test power. Simulations over a wider parameter space, and considering other closed methods, confirmed this superiority for p-values based on normal, logistic, and Poisson distributions. The power benefit of “pair-wise” closed testing begins to disappear with 5 or more arms, and with unbalanced designs. For trials with 4 or fewer arms and balanced designs, investigators should consider using “pair-wise” closed testing in preference to Shaffer’s, Hommel’s, and Hochberg’s approaches when making all pairwise comparisons of means. If not all p-values from the closed family are available, Shaffer’s method is a good choice. PMID:21660119

  16. Characterization of a Phenotype-Based Genetic Test Prediction Score for Unrelated Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bos, J. Martijn; Will, Melissa L.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Kruisselbrink, Teresa M.; Ommen, Steve R.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and spectrum of mutations and genotype phenotype relationships in the largest hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort to date and provide an easy, clinically applicable phenotype-derived score that provides a pretest probability for a positive HCM genetic test. Patients and Methods Between 1999 and 2007, 1053 unrelated patients with the clinical diagnosis of HCM (60% male, age at diagnosis 44.4 ± 19 years) had HCM genetic testing for the HCM-associated myofilament genes. Phenotyping was performed by review of electronic medical record. Results Overall, 359 patients (34%) were genotype positive for a putative HCM associated mutation in ≥ 1 HCM-associated gene. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated echocardiographic reverse curve morphology, age at diagnosis < 45 years, MLVWT ≥ 20 mm, family history of HCM, and family history of SCD to be positive predictors of positive genetic test while hypertension was a negative predictor. A score, based on the number 6 predictors of a positive genetic test, predicted a positive genetic test ranging from 6% when only hypertension was present to 80% when all 5 positive predictor markers were present. Conclusions In this largest HCM cohort published to date, the overall yield of genetic testing was 34%. Although all patients were diagnosed clinically with HCM, the presence or absence of six simple clinical/echocardiographic markers predicted the likelihood of mutation-positive HCM. Phenotype-guided genetic testing with the use of the Mayo HCM Genotype Predictor score provides an easy tool for an effective genetic counseling session. PMID:24793961

  17. The Contribution of Test-Takers' Speech Content to Scores on an English Oral Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    The content that test-takers attempt to convey is not always included in the construct definition of "general" English oral proficiency tests, although some English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) speaking tests and most writing tests tend to place great emphasis on the evaluation of the content or ideas in the performance. This study investigated the…

  18. Sensitivity of the Halstead Category Test factor scores to brain damage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel N; Caron, Joshua E; Duke, Lisa A; Goldstein, Gerald

    2007-07-01

    Recent factor-analytic studies of the Halstead Category Test (HCT) indicate that its seven subtests form three factors including a Counting factor (subtests I and II), a Spatial Positional Reasoning factor (subtests III, IV, and VII), and a Proportional Reasoning factor (subtests V, VI, and VII). The sensitivity and specificity of these factors to heterogeneous forms of brain damage was examined in a large sample of patients and a normal comparison sample. A prorated Impairment Index, which excluded the HCT error score, was used to assign participants with brain damage into mild, moderate, and severe impairment groups. Also, groups with various forms of neuropathology were contrasted. Results indicated that both the Spatial Positional Reasoning and the Proportional Reasoning factors were sensitive to brain damage. However, in all of the brain-damage groups, a greater percentage of errors were made on the Spatial Positional factor, suggesting that of the two it was more difficult for those with brain damage. The sensitivity and specificity of the Spatial Positional factor score for detection of brain damage was comparable to that of the total error score, which has been previously demonstrated to be an excellent indicator of brain damage. Findings provide further support for the validity of the HCT factors, and are consistent with the view that factor scores may be useful in interpreting the HCT. PMID:17613982

  19. The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooten, Regina Gay

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of…

  20. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments – Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H.; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are—at the same time—measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  1. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  2. Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

  3. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  4. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)

  5. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test

  6. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

  7. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  8. Providing Subscale Scores for Diagnostic Information: A Case Study when the Test Is Essentially Unidimensional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…

  9. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course. PMID:26838577

  10. Effects of Knowledge of Cognitive-Moral Development and Request to Fake on Defining Issues Test P-Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Support claims that the "Defining Issues Test" of cognitive-moral development cannot be faked higher. Finds that instruction about cognitive-moral development affected the scores of the teacher trainees who were tested. (RL)

  11. A Score Test for Association of a Longitudinal Marker and an Event with Missing Data

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Wang, Rui; Ficociello, Linda H.; Schoenfeld, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Often clinical studies periodically record information on disease progression as well as results from laboratory studies that are believed to reflect the progressing stages of the disease. A primary aim of such a study is to determine the relationship between the lab measurements and disease progression. If there were no missing or censored data, these analyses would be straightforward. However, often patients miss visits, and return after their disease has progressed. In this case, not only is their progression time interval-censored, but their lab test series is also incomplete. In this paper, we propose a simple test for the association between a longitudinal marker and an event time from incomplete data. We derive the test using a very intuitive technique of calculating the expected complete data score conditional on the observed incomplete data (CEST). The problem was motivated by data from an observational study of patients with diabetes. PMID:19754923

  12. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  13. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  14. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in predicting student…

  15. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  16. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  17. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  18. Differential Item Functioning for a Test with a Cutoff Score: Use of Limited Closed-Interval Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) is introduced that is suitable for tests with a cutoff score. DIF is assessed on a limited closed interval of thetas in which a cutoff score falls. How this approach affects the identification of DIF items is demonstrated with real data sets. (SLD)

  19. Sorting and Supporting: Why Double-Dose Algebra Led to Better Test Scores but More Course Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…

  20. Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus Improvement Plan,…

  1. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  2. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…

  3. Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing

    2010-01-01

    Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

  4. The Effect of Having Previously Attended Junior Kindergarten on "Draw-A-Classroom" Test Scores Obtained in Senior Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rex S.

    Data are presented which show the degree to which specific prior exposure to a learning situation (Junior Kindergarten) is reflected in the scores of children who had this experience compared to a group of their peers who did not. Scores obtained in Senior Kindergarten on the Draw-a-Classroom Test (DAC) are used as the measurement method. The…

  5. A multivariate spatial mixture model for areal data: examining regional differences in standardized test scores

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Brian; Gelfand, Alan E.; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Summary Researchers in the health and social sciences often wish to examine joint spatial patterns for two or more related outcomes. Examples include infant birth weight and gestational length, psychosocial and behavioral indices, and educational test scores from different cognitive domains. We propose a multivariate spatial mixture model for the joint analysis of continuous individual-level outcomes that are referenced to areal units. The responses are modeled as a finite mixture of multivariate normals, which accommodates a wide range of marginal response distributions and allows investigators to examine covariate effects within subpopulations of interest. The model has a hierarchical structure built at the individual level (i.e., individuals are nested within areal units), and thus incorporates both individual- and areal-level predictors as well as spatial random effects for each mixture component. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors on the random effects provide spatial smoothing and allow the shape of the multivariate distribution to vary flexibly across geographic regions. We adopt a Bayesian modeling approach and develop an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo model fitting algorithm that relies primarily on closed-form full conditionals. We use the model to explore geographic patterns in end-of-grade math and reading test scores among school-age children in North Carolina. PMID:26401059

  6. Proposal of a clinical score for the molecular test for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Giuseppe; Ricciardi, Stefania; Orteschi, Daniela; Tenconi, Romano; Monica, Matteo Della; Scarano, Gioacchino; Battaglia, Domenica; Lettori, Donatella; Vasco, Gessica; Zollino, Marcella

    2012-07-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is an emerging condition characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), typical facial gestalt, and additional features, such as breathing abnormalities. Because of the overlapping phenotype of severe ID with absent speech, epilepsy, microcephaly, large mouth, and constipation, differential diagnosis of PTHS with respect to Angelman, Rett, and Mowat-Wilson syndromes represents a relevant clinical issue, and many patients are currently undergoing genetic tests for different conditions that are assumed to fall within the PTHS clinical spectrum. During a search for TCF4 mutations in 78 patients with a suspected PTHS, haploinsufficiency of TCF4 was identified in 18. By evaluating clinical features of patients with a proven TCF4 mutation with those of patients without, we noticed that, in addition to the typical facial gestalt, the PTHS phenotype results from the various combination of the following characteristics: ID with severe speech impairment, normal growth parameters at birth, postnatal microcephaly, breathing abnormalities, motor incoordination, ocular anomalies, constipation, seizures, typical behavior, and subtle brain abnormalities. On the basis of these observations, here we propose a clinically based score system as useful tool for driving a first choice molecular test for PTHS. This scoring system is also proposed for a clinically based diagnosis of PTHS in absence of a proven TCF4 mutation. PMID:22678594

  7. The Dutch version of the Forgotten Joint Score: test-retesting reliability and validation.

    PubMed

    Shadid, M B; Vinken, N S; Marting, L N; Wolterbeek, N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) into the Dutch language. This -questionnaire was tested for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)). 159 patients were included in this study; 74 with a total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 85 with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The FJS showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.957; ICC = 0.943). The FJS showed a significant correlation (r = 0.751) with the WOMAC and low ceiling effects (3.1%). This study proved the Dutch FJS to be highly discriminative in patients treated with a THA or TKA. This makes the FJS a reliable patient related outcome measurement, measuring a new dimension in arthroplasty: the ability to forget an artificial joint in everyday life. PMID:26984663

  8. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  9. The IVH Score: A novel tool for estimating intraventricular hemorrhage volume: Clinical and research implications*

    PubMed Central

    Hallevi, Hen; Dar, Nabeel S.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Morales, Miriam M.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Abraham, Anitha T.; Walker, Kyle C.; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Illoh, Kachikwu; Grotta, James C.; Savitz, Sean I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Intraventricular extension of intracerebral hemorrhage (IVH) is an independent predictor of poor outcome. IVH volume may be important in outcome prediction and management; however, it is difficult to measure routinely. Design and Patients We reviewed the charts and computed tomographies of a cohort of consecutive patients with IVH. The cohort was divided into two groups: index and validation by random sampling. IVH and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume were measured manually in all patients. IVH was also graded using a simple classification system termed IVH score (IVHS). Clinical outcome was determined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge and in-hospital death. Poor outcome was defined as mRS 4–6. Main Results One hundred seventy-five patients were analyzed, 92 in the index group and 83 in the validation group. Exponential regression yielded the following formula for estimating IVH volume (mL): eÎVHS/5 (R2 = .75, p < 0.001). The IVH estimation formula was then verified in the validation group (R2 = .8, p < 0.001). The following correlations with mRS were obtained: IVH volume R = .305; ICH volume R = .468; total volume [TV] R = .571 (p < 0.001 for all three correlations). Partial correlation of TV with mRS controlling for ICH volume yielded R = .3 for TV (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model comparing ICH and TV association with poor outcome yielded the following: ICH odds ratio = 5.2, 95% confidence interval 2.3–11.6, p < 0.001; TV odds ratio = 41.6, 95% confidence interval 9.6–180.6, p < 0.001. Substituting TV for ICH volume in the ICH score resulted in a significant increase in the specificity from 64% to 87% for predicting mortality. Conclusions IVHS enables clinicians to rapidly estimate IVH volume. The addition of IVH to ICH volume increases its predictive power for poor outcome and mortality significantly. IVHS and TV may be used in clinical practice and clinical trials of patients with ICH. PMID:19237905

  10. Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Purlie M.

    At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p < 0.05), the difference between the means was statistically significant. This project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

  11. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  12. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  13. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, Zakiyah Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Raduan, Farhana E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Sagap, Ismail E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com; Aziz, Nazrina

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  14. Sensitivity of the Balance Error Scoring System and the Sensory Organization Test in the Combat Environment.

    PubMed

    Haran, F Jay; Slaboda, Jill C; King, Laurie A; Wright, W Geoff; Houlihan, Daniel; Norris, Jacob N

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) as tools for the screening and monitoring of Service members (SMs) with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a deployed setting during the acute and subacute phases of recovery. Patient records (N = 699) were reviewed for a cohort of SMs who sustained a blast-related mTBI while deployed to Afghanistan and were treated at the Concussion Restoration Care Center (CRCC) at Camp Leatherneck. On initial intake into the CRCC, participants completed two assessments of postural control, the BESS, and SOT. SMs with mTBI performed significantly worse on the BESS and SOT when compared with comparative samples. When the SOT data were further examined using sensory ratios, the results indicated that postural instability was primarily a result of vestibular and visual integration dysfunction (r > 0.62). The main finding of this study was that the sensitivity of the SOT composite score (50-58%) during the acute phase was higher than previous sensitivities found in the sports medicine literature for impact-related trauma. PMID:26560740

  15. Should We Stop Looking for a Better Scoring Algorithm for Handling Implicit Association Test Data? Test of the Role of Errors, Extreme Latencies Treatment, Scoring Formula, and Practice Trials on Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Perugini, Marco; Schönbrodt, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of D scores for the Implicit Association Test, few studies have examined whether there is a better scoring method. In this contribution, we tested the effect of four relevant parameters for IAT data that are the treatment of extreme latencies, the error treatment, the method for computing the IAT difference, and the distinction between practice and test critical trials. For some options of these different parameters, we included robust statistic methods that can provide viable alternative metrics to existing scoring algorithms, especially given the specificity of reaction time data. We thus elaborated 420 algorithms that result from the combination of all the different options and test the main effect of the four parameters with robust statistical analyses as well as their interaction with the type of IAT (i.e., with or without built-in penalty included in the IAT procedure). From the results, we can elaborate some recommendations. A treatment of extreme latencies is preferable but only if it consists in replacing rather than eliminating them. Errors contain important information and should not be discarded. The D score seems to be still a good way to compute the difference although the G score could be a good alternative, and finally it seems better to not compute the IAT difference separately for practice and test critical trials. From this recommendation, we propose to improve the traditional D scores with small yet effective modifications. PMID:26107176

  16. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population. PMID:24770610

  18. Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Score of Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Zeynep; Ulug, Naime; Yuksel, Inci

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The Upper Quarter Y Balance Test (UQYBT) is a reliable upper extremity closed kinetic chain test that can be used to assess unilateral upper extremity performance in a closed chain manner. However, UQYBT was tested only in recreational athletes and there are no studies investigating UQYBT scores in patients with various upper extremity musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in performance on the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test between patient with shoulder impingement syndrome and healthy controls. Methods: A sample of fifteen patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (mean age 32.2±4.2 years) and fifteen healthy control (mean age 33.8±6.2 years) performed the UQYBT. UQYBT was collected bilaterally in three directions (medial, inferolateral, and superolateral). The maximum reach distance for each direction was normalized to upper extremity length (spinous process of C7 to tip of middle finger) and used for analysis Results: A significant difference in performance between patients with shoulder impingement syndrome and healthy controls existed in the medial direction (P<0.05) and the inferolateral direction (P<0.05) where the healthy controls performed better. There was no significant difference in superolateral performance. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with shoulder impingement syndrome will perform worse on the UQYBT in the medial and inferolateral directions than healthy controls. Thus, upper extremity closed kinetic chain exercises should be added in shoulder rehabilitation programs.

  19. Metric-Free Measures of Test Score Trends and Gaps with Policy-Relevant Examples. CSE Report 665

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Haertel, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Problems of scale typically arise when comparing test score trends, gaps, and gap trends across different tests. To overcome some of these difficulties, we can express the difference between the observed test performance of two groups with graphs or statistics that are metric-free (i.e., invariant under positive monotonic transformations of the…

  20. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  1. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  2. The IWQOL-Kids(©): establishing minimal clinically important difference scores and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H

    2011-06-01

    This study presents additional psychometric testing of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) with aims to establish distribution-based minimal clinically important difference scores (MCIDs) and evaluate test-retest reliability. Participants (N=263) represent a pooled sample of treatment-seeking obese adolescents (aged 11-19 years) from four large studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes (Mz(BMI)=2.6 ± 0.4; M(age)=15.1 ± 1.9; 64% female; 51% Black, 46% White). Adolescents completed the IWQOL-Kids©. Standard errors of measurement, which represent the MCID for each scale, were: Physical Comfort=8.8; Body Esteem=7.7; Social Life=8.1; Family Relations=6.2; Total QOL =4.8. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.75-0.88. These data provide further support for the excellent psychometric properties of the IWQOL-Kids. In addition, preliminary MCIDs for IWQOL-Kids scales have now been established, which can be used in clinical trials. PMID:20883106

  3. Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. Methods The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2±0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70) was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9–48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03–0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. Conclusion The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult. PMID:24940880

  4. A Comparison of Scores on the WISC-R and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test for Disadvantaged Black Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, James D.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1976-01-01

    It is indicated that, although the scores [obtained on both tests] are significantly correlated, the tests yield significantly different scores with the Lorge-Thorndike consistently overestimating the WISC-R full scale I.Q. (Author)

  5. Standardized mini-mental state examination scores and verbal memory performance at a memory center: implications for cognitive screening.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Maureen; Kaemmerer, Tobias; Czipri, Sheena

    2015-03-01

    Memory decline is often among the first signs heralding the emergence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia regardless of etiology. Despite its limited inclusion of memory screening, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) continues to be the most ubiquitous, first-line screening tool for dementia and cognitive decline. In response to well documented problems with the sensitivity of this instrument and the growing importance of cognitive screening, we assessed the utility of the MMSE as a screening tool among older adults presenting for evaluation at a memory clinic. The Standardized MMSE and a standardized verbal memory test - the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) - were administered to 304 consecutive referrals at a university-based outpatient memory clinic. Among patients scoring above 25 on the MMSE (n = 169), over half exhibited at least moderate memory impairment (HVLT-R delayed recall z ≤ -2.0) and more than 25% showed severe impairment (delayed recall z ≤ -3.0). Perhaps even more striking was that among those who achieved perfect (30/30) or near perfect (29/30) scores on the MMSE (n = 70), 43% displayed moderate to severe memory impairment. Although newer screening measures have shown improved sensitivity, more in-depth memory testing appears to be a vital component of successful screening and early detection. PMID:24990889

  6. SEX DIFFERENCES IN SCORES on THE DRAW-A-PERSON TEST ACROSS CHILDHOOD: DO THEY RELATE TO GRAPHIC FLUENCY?

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine

    2015-02-01

    Girls are said to outperform boys in the human figure drawing, but some disagreement exists among studies regarding such sex differences, and the reasons for these sex differences are unclear. The study examined how sex, age, and graphic fluency affect scores at the human figure drawing in large sample of children aged five to 12 years. To that end, the Draw-a-Person Test was administered to 336 boys and girls from kindergarten to Grade 6, using Goodenough's scoring method. Graphic fluency was measured using Torrance's Parallel Lines Test. Results showed a sex by age interaction on scores at the Draw-a-Person test, with girls outperforming boys at Grades 3 and 6. Split-sample regression analyses indicated that for boys both age and graphic fluency were relevant predictors for scores on the Draw-a-Person test; by contrast, for girls age, but not fluency, predicted the drawing scores. It was concluded that graphic fluency differently affected boys' and girls' scores. PMID:25539019

  7. Assessment of the HNF1B Score as a Tool to Select Patients for HNF1B Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Clissold, Rhian; Shields, Beverley; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew; Bingham, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Diagnosing hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1B)-related disease is a challenging task due to the phenotypic variability and frequent absence of a family history. An HNF1B score has recently been developed to help select appropriate patients for genetic testing with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99%. We aimed at testing the clinical utility of this score in a large number of referrals for HNF1B genetic testing to the UK diagnostic testing service for the HNF1B gene. Methods An HNF1B score was assigned for 686 UK referrals for HNF1B genetic testing using clinical information available at referral. The performance of the score was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The relative discriminatory ability of different clinical features for making a genetic diagnosis of HNF1B-related disease were estimated in the UK dataset alone and pooled with French data. Results The HNF1B score discriminated between patients with and without a mutation reasonably well with an area under the curve of 0.72. Applying the suggested cut-off score of ≥8 gave a NPV of 85%. In a pooled analysis, antenatal renal abnormalities, renal hyperechogenicity and cysts were discriminatory in children, whereas renal hypoplasia and cysts were discriminatory in adults. Pancreatic abnormalities were discriminatory in both, whereas other extra-renal characteristics had a large effect size only in adults. Conclusion The HNF1B score was discriminatory for HNF1B mutations in a large cohort of individuals tested in a single UK centre. The lower NPV (85 vs. 99%) reduces its clinical utility in selecting patients for HNF1B genetic testing, although validation in a prospective cohort is required. PMID:26022541

  8. USAT: A Unified Score-Based Association Test for Multiple Phenotype-Genotype Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debashree; Pankow, James S; Basu, Saonli

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for complex diseases often collect data on multiple correlated endo-phenotypes. Multivariate analysis of these correlated phenotypes can improve the power to detect genetic variants. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) can perform such association analysis at a GWAS level, but the behavior of MANOVA under different trait models has not been carefully investigated. In this paper, we show that MANOVA is generally very powerful for detecting association but there are situations, such as when a genetic variant is associated with all the traits, where MANOVA may not have any detection power. In these situations, marginal model based methods, however, perform much better than multivariate methods. We investigate the behavior of MANOVA, both theoretically and using simulations, and derive the conditions where MANOVA loses power. Based on our findings, we propose a unified score-based test statistic USAT that can perform better than MANOVA in such situations and nearly as well as MANOVA elsewhere. Our proposed test reports an approximate asymptotic P-value for association and is computationally very efficient to implement at a GWAS level. We have studied through extensive simulations the performance of USAT, MANOVA, and other existing approaches and demonstrated the advantage of using the USAT approach to detect association between a genetic variant and multivariate phenotypes. We applied USAT to data from three correlated traits collected on 5, 816 Caucasian individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC, The ARIC Investigators []) Study and detected some interesting associations. PMID:26638693

  9. Alaska, National SAT Scores Increase; Has the Quality of Education Improved? Assessment Report 12: An Update on the Alaska Statewide Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Evaluation, Assessment and Research.

    Alaskan students' scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) increased nine points between 1984 and 1985, matching the national gain. These scores marked the fourth year of increases following 17 years of consistently declining scores. Thirty-three percent of Alaska's high school seniors took the SAT in 1985. The combined score of 923 was 17…

  10. Mental Help: Test-Prep Products Promise To Boost Your Students' Scores, but Do They Really Deliver?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    SkillsTutor and its competitors (including dot.com companies) are tapping a potentially lucrative market--kids wanting academic coaching to improve test scores. Some experts worry that test-prep could overemphasize skill-building materials or usurp broader-based, critical-thinking classroom activities. The jury is still out. (MLH)

  11. Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

  12. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Critical Thinking Test Scores of Associate's Degree Graduates in Southwest Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, James Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that the teaching technique known as cooperative learning had on the changes between pre- and post-test scores on all sub-categories ("induction, deduction, analysis, evaluation, inference", and "total composite") associated with the "California Critical Thinking Skills Test" (CCTST) for…

  13. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Critical Thinking Test Scores of Associate's Degree Graduates in Southwest Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, James Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that the teaching technique known as cooperative learning had on the changes between pre- and post-test scores on all sub-categories ("induction, deduction, analysis, evaluation, inference", and "total composite") associated with the "California Critical Thinking Skills Test" (CCTST) for

  14. Aptitude Test Scores of Prospective Graduate Students in Science Remained Essentially the Same from 1970 to 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented is a summary of an Educational Testing Service (ETS) review of mean scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) of candidates for graduate study in science and engineering fields for the period 1970-1975. Test results were found to have remained essentially stable over the period within each particular field. Significant differences

  15. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  16. A Comparison of Paper and Online Tests Using a within-Subjects Design and Propensity Score Matching Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottridge, Susan M.; Nicewander, W. Alan; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry had 2 components: (1) the first was substantive and focused on the comparability of paper-based and computer-based test forms and (2) the second was a within-study comparison wherein a quasi-experimental method, propensity score matching, was compared with a credible benchmark method, a within-subjects design. The tests used in the…

  17. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…

  18. Effects on Score Distributions of Deleting an Unkeyable Item from a Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorans, Neil J.

    A formal analysis is presented of the effects of item deletion on equating/scaling functions and reported score distributions. The phrase "item deletion" refers to the process of changing the original key of a flawed item to either all options correct, including omits, or to no options correct, i.e., not scoring the flawed item. There are two…

  19. Categorical Differences in Statewide Standardized Testing Scores of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Ellen L.

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires all students be proficient in reading and mathematics by 2014, and students in subgroups to make Adequate Yearly Progress. One of these groups is students with disabilities, who continue to score well below their general education peers. This quantitative study identified scoring differences between disability

  20. Efforts to Produce Relevant Score Reports to School, District, and State Officials on National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patelis, Thanos; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the Annual National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego in April 2009. This presentation explores how the College Board strives to ensure the relevance and utility of score reporting practices and methods for the PSAT/NMSQT and SAT scores. The new reporting methods allow for greater interaction and intervention at…

  1. Evaluating Analytic Scoring for the TOEFL[R] Academic Speaking Test (TAST) for Operational Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the utility of analytic scoring for TAST in providing useful and reliable diagnostic information for operational use in three aspects of candidates' performance: delivery, language use and topic development. One hundred and forty examinees' responses to six TAST tasks were scored analytically on these three aspects of speech. G…

  2. A Comparison of Special Education Teacher and Psychologist Scoring of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Glen G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Ten special education teachers and two school psychologists scored the Bender-Gestalt protocals of elementary school children using the Koppitz scoring system. The reported correlations between teachers and school psychologists compared favorably to correlations between school psychologists as well as to interrater reliabilities reported in the…

  3. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-01-01

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil. PMID:26782564

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Readiness Test Scores for Kindergarten Children and Achievement Scores Obtained at the End of Grades One and Two. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Lena

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores in kindergarten (MRTK) and grade one (MRT1) with the reading scores of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) at the end of grades one (CTBSR1) and two (CTBSR2). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether the…

  5. A hidden Markov model to predict early mastitis from test-day somatic cell scores.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J C

    2011-02-01

    In many countries, high somatic cell scores (SCS) in milk are used as an indicator for mastitis because they are collected on a routine basis. However, individual test-day SCS are not very accurate in identifying infected cows. Mathematical models may improve the accuracy of the biological marker by making better use of the information contained in the available data. Here, a simple hidden Markov model (HMM) is described mathematically and applied to SCS recorded monthly on cows with or without clinical mastitis to evaluate its accuracy in estimating parameters (mean, variance and transition probabilities) under healthy or diseased states. The SCS means were estimated at 1.96 (s.d. = 0.16) and 4.73 (s.d. = 0.71) for the hidden healthy and infected states, and the common variance at 0.83 (s.d. = 0.11). The probability of remaining uninfected, recovering from infection, getting newly infected and remaining infected between consecutive test days was estimated at 78.84%, 60.49%, 11.70% and 15%, respectively. Three different health-related states were compared: clinical stages observed by farmers, subclinical cases defined for somatic cell counts below or above 250 000 cells/ml and infected stages obtained from the HMM. The results showed that HMM identifies infected cows before the appearance of clinical and subclinical signs, which may critically improve the power of the studies on the genetic determinants of SCS and reduce biases in predicting breeding values for SCS. PMID:22440761

  6. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

  7. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was

  8. Effect of locomotion score on sows' performances in a feed reward collection test.

    PubMed

    Bos, E-J; Nalon, E; Maes, D; Ampe, B; Buijs, S; van Riet, M M J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Sows housed in groups have to move through their pen to fulfil their behavioural and physiological needs such as feeding and resting. In addition to causing pain and discomfort, lameness may restrict the ability of sows to fulfil such needs. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which the mobility of sows is affected by different degrees of lameness. Mobility was measured as the sow's willingness or capability to cover distances. Feed-restricted hybrid sows with different gait scores were subjected to a feed reward collection test in which they had to walk distances to obtain subsequent rewards. In all, 29 group-housed sows at similar gestation stage (day 96.6 ± 7 s.d.) were visually recorded for gait and classified as non-lame, mildly lame, moderately lame or severely lame. All sows received 2.6 kg of standard commercial gestation feed per day. The test arena consisted of two feeding locations separated from each other by a Y-shaped middle barrier. Feed rewards were presented at the two feeders in turn, using both light and sound cues to signal the availability of a new feed reward. Sows were individually trained during 5 non-consecutive days for 10 min/day with increasing barrier length (range: 0 to 3.5 m) each day. After training, sows were individually tested once per day on 3 non-consecutive days with the maximum barrier length such that they had to cover 9.3 m to walk from one feeder to the other. The outcome variable was the number of rewards collected in a 15-min time span. Non-lame and mildly lame sows obtained more rewards than moderately lame and severely lame sows (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was found between non-lame and mildly lame sows (P=0.69), nor between moderately lame and severely lame sows (P=1.00). This feed reward collection test indicates that both moderately lame and severely lame sows are limited in their combined ability and willingness to walk, but did not reveal an effect of mild lameness on mobility. These findings suggest that moderately and more severely lame sows, but not mildly lame sows, might suffer from reduced access to valuable resources in group housing systems. PMID:26160227

  9. Effects of Repeated Testing on the Reliability of Fitness Scores of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aufsesser, Peter M.

    1979-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effects of repeated trials on the reliability of physical fitness performance scores of thirty-six 12- to 20-year-old institutionalized mentally retarded children. (Author)

  10. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  11. Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Sharon J.

    Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

  12. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences with the approach. By engaging in the argument-based classrooms where teachers value students' prior knowledge, encourage students to take control of their learning, and provide non-threatening environment for students to developing big ideas through negotiation, student's achievement can be enhanced. The results also started to shed some light on sustainability of the SWH approach within the school district.

  13. School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Working Paper Series. SAN08-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and…

  14. Comparing Standardized Test Scores among Arts-Integrated and Non-Arts Integrated Schools in Central Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    The topic of arts integration creates continuing dialog among educators and arts advocates. This study examined the degree to which student achievement was affected when arts education is limited or eliminated from schools to meet the mandates of NCLB (2001) legislation. Standardized test scores from 12 schools in Central Mississippi were used to…

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Student Placement Test Scores and Final Grades in Physics 121 at Pima College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    A study was conducted at Pima Community College to determine the relationship between the final grade received by students in an introductory, algebra-based physics course (PHY 121) and their scores on the reading, writing, and mathematics portions of the college's nonmandatory assessment test. Between 1983 and 1988, 639 students obtained a final…

  16. Test Score Measurement Error, Short-Term Knowledge, and Lagged Dependent Variables in Models of the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Brian; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are interested in the causal effects of educational inputs on student achievement. Unfortunately, it is not possible to directly observe student learning, so test score data is often used as an approximate measure. To measure their achievement at a given point in time (e.g., in the spring of the school year) students…

  17. Efficiency, Bias, and Classification Schemes: Estimating Private-School Impacts on Test Scores in the New York City Voucher Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Howell, William G.

    This report presents a fresh analysis of data from an earlier study (Brookings 2002) on the test scores of African American students in a small, targeted voucher program. This new analysis was undertaken in response to an unpublished paper by Krueger and Zhu (Princeton University) disputing some of the findings of the original study. In 1997 some…

  18. The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Schooling on Economic Success. Volume III. Supplementary Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher; And Others

    This volume contains eleven appendixes, varying from 5 to 165 pages, which describe the sample used in the analysis of ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and earnings in maturity. The appendixes are (1) 1970 Census 1/1000 Sample; (2) 1962…

  19. The Impact of Developmental Education on the Graduation Rate of Students with Low Combined Differential Aptitude Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, James

    Since 1974, Cincinnati Technical College (CTC) has offered a Developmental Education (DE) program designed to upgrade students' skills in mathematics, reading, English, and basic sciences, as well as study and interpersonal skills. The DE program offers students, particularly those with low combined Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) scores, a…

  20. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  1. Indian Students Outperform Blacks on NAEP: Federal Report Is First In-Depth Analysis of Such Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    American Indian students tend to lag behind their white and Asian-American peers on National Assessment of Educational Progress reading and mathematics tests in 4th and 8th grade, but they score higher on average than African-American students, according to a first-of-its-kind federal analysis. The U.S. Department of Education says the May 23…

  2. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Grumbein, Matthew J.; Raad, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the responses of 997 students in Grades 2 to 6 on the TAS-E. The results of the EFA produced a four-factor solution: Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task…

  3. Options in Education, Transcript for March 8, 1976: Parent Tutors, Feminization of the Teaching Profession, Test Score Controversy, and Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of volunteer parent tutors in a junior high school, the feminization of the teaching profession, the test score controversy, busing as an issue in the political primaries, and busing and the role of the social…

  4. Improving Secondary Practical Computer Skills: Logo Test Scores through Graphically Designed Computer Programs and Utilization of Multimedia and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Douglas S.

    The intent of this project was to improve test and programming scores of 9th through 12th grade students enrolled in the Practical Computer Skills: Logo course in a north central Florida high school. An implementation program that demonstrated teacher-designed graphical computer language Logo programs, utilized multimedia techniques, and used…

  5. The Effects of Georgia's Choice Curricular Reform Model on Third Grade Science Scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phemister, Art W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that

  6. Imputation of Test Scores in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokossa, Maxime C.; Huang, Gary G.

    This report describes the imputation procedures used to deal with missing data in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the only current National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) dataset that contains scores from cognitive tests given the same set of students at multiple time points. As is inevitable, cognitive test…

  7. Comparing Standardized Test Scores among Arts-Integrated and Non-Arts Integrated Schools in Central Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    The topic of arts integration creates continuing dialog among educators and arts advocates. This study examined the degree to which student achievement was affected when arts education is limited or eliminated from schools to meet the mandates of NCLB (2001) legislation. Standardized test scores from 12 schools in Central Mississippi were used to

  8. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  9. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  10. Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullin, Diana

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

  11. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

  12. Is the Test Score Decline Responsible for the Productivity Growth Decline? Working Paper No. 87-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    This paper presents evidence that recent aptitude test score decline is signaling a significant deterioration in the quality of entering cohorts of workers. The impact of general intellectual achievement (GIA) on productivity; trends in the GIA of the adult populations, students, and working adults; accounting for the labor quality growth when…

  13. Changes in the Black-White Test score Gap in the Elementary School Grades. CSE Report 715

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel; Kim, Young-Suk

    2007-01-01

    In a pair of recent studies, Fryer and Levitt (2004a, 2004b) analyzed the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to explore the characteristics of the Black-White test score gap in young children. They found that the gap grew markedly between kindergarten and the third grade and that they could predict the gap from…

  14. Will Teacher Value-Added Scores Change When Accountability Tests Change? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Value-added evaluations use student test scores to assess teacher effectiveness. How student achievement is judged can depend on which test is used to measure it. Thus it is reasonable to ask whether a teacher's value-added score depends on which test is used to calculate it. Would it change if a different test was used? Specifically, might a…

  15. Need for validation of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in Indian Context: Implications for Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Priyamvada

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variety of smokeable and chewable tobacco products with diverse nicotine content are used in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has a direct bearing on developing tobacco dependence. The present work used this information to derive scores on the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). It was used to determine the dosing of nicotine replacement treatment (NRT). Materials and Methods: Nicotine score quantitation was taken from the previous study. This data was applied to FTND to determine the relationship of nicotine content to the potential degree of dependence. Results: Application of nicotine quantitation to FTND in a hypothetical experiment significantly altered the scores from medium to high depending on the brand the used. Conclusion: Application of qunatitation of nicotine content in FTND score has implications for the assessment of tobacco dependence and NRT dose. The study implies validation of FTND using nicotine quantity in the consumed tobacco product as a scorable parameter in the FTND. PMID:27114620

  16. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  17. How Close Is Close Enough? Testing Nonexperimental Estimates of Impact against Experimental Estimates of Impact with Education Test Scores as Outcomes. Discussion Paper No. 1242-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Hollister, Robinson

    2002-01-01

    In this study we test the performance of some nonexperimental estimators of impacts applied to an educational intervention--reduction in class size--where achievement test scores were the outcome. We compare the nonexperimental estimates of the impacts to "true impact" estimates provided by a random-assignment design used to assess the…

  18. How Close Is Close Enough? Testing Nonexperimental Estimates of Impact against Experimental Estimates of Impact with Education Test Scores as Outcomes. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Hollister, Robinson

    This study tested the performance of nonexperimental estimators of impacts applied to a class size reduction intervention with achievement test scores as the outcome. Nonexperimental estimates of impacts were compared to "true impact" estimates provided by a random-assignment design that assessed intervention effects. Data came from Project STAR,…

  19. Equity and High Stakes Testing: Implications for Computerized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Rosemary E.

    1997-01-01

    Considers equity issues of highstakes tests conducted by computer, including whether this new form of assessment actually helps level the playing field for students or represents a new cycle of assessment inequality. Two computer tests are assessed: Praxis I: Academic Skills Assessment; and the computerized version of the Graduate Record…

  20. The Effect of Linguistic Simplification of Science Test Items on Score Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene; Stansfield, Charles W.

    2004-01-01

    The use of accommodations has been widely proposed as a means of including English language learners (ELLs) or limited English proficient (LEP) students in state and districtwide assessments. However, very little experimental research has been done on specific accommodations to determine whether these pose a threat to score comparability. This…

  1. Teenage Self Test: cigarette smoking. Discussion Leader's Guide. How do you score?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health.

    This self-scoring questionnaire on attitudes related to smoking includes norms based upon the responses of 7,000 teenagers and a discussion of the meaning of eight subscores. The subscores are: (1) effect of smoking on health; (2) non-smoker's rights; (3) positive effects of smoking; (4) manufactured reasons for smoking; (5) reasons for starting;

  2. Contributions of Selected Perinatal Variables to Seven-Year Psychological and Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, N. B.; And Others

    Perinatal variables were used to predict 7-year outcome for 538 children, 32% Negro and 68% white. Mother's age, birthplace, education, occupation, marital status, neuropsychiatric status, family income, number supported, birth weight, one- and five-minute Apgar scores were regressed on 7-year Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ, Bender, Wide…

  3. Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Barry T.

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage…

  4. Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Barry T.

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage

  5. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  6. Using Propensity Score Matching to Test the Community College Penalty Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Cecile C.; Lichtenberger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Research studies have been ambivalent about whether enrolling in community college makes completing a bachelor's degree less likely than directly enrolling in a four-year institution. This study uses propensity score matching with a posttreatment adjustment to determine the treatment effect associated with taking the community college to…

  7. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  8. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,

  9. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

  10. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: a comparison of standard scoring and latent class analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Reboussin, Beth A; Anthony, James C

    2005-11-01

    The classification of being tobacco dependent obtained via the established scoring method of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) is compared to a method that bases classification on the pattern of item responses. Young adults participating in a longitudinal study, who indicated they had ever smoked, were asked six standardized items (n = 962; mean age 21 years). By standard scoring, the mean FTND score was 1.9 (S.E.= 2.3): 66% of the smokers qualified for a very low level of dependence, 17% low, 9% moderate, and 9% a high level of dependence. Response patterns detected by latent class analysis (LCA) indicated class differences based on severity gradations and of qualitative content. Three profiles of tobacco dependence were found: a non-dependent class (50%), a class manifesting a moderate number of dependence features (31%), and more severely affected class (19%). The vast majority of smokers (three-fourth) were classified congruently by these two methods. Discrepancies involved LCA classifying smokers into a higher level of dependence when compared to the conventional scoring classification. Patterns of dependence features obtained from population samples that include a wide range of smokers may provide insight into possible phenotypic differences among tobacco smokers, particularly when LCA methods are used to complement standard scoring methods. PMID:15908142

  11. Interpreting the implications of DNA ancestry tests.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    Shopping for genetic information has become popular, but consumers may not understand what exactly they are buying. The retail DNA industry is forcing laypersons, academics, and medical and legal professionals alike to face the crossroads of genetics, law, and society. How will we decipher the meanings of the tests, determine the value of the information provided, or appropriately encourage or discourage various applications of that genetic information? When it comes to understanding the signs at the crossroads of disciplines, something is always potentially lost in translation. This article provides an overview of the retail DNA industry, addressing a few questions ripe for misinterpretation and confusion. It argues that the challenges posed by the retail DNA industry are both intelligible and manageable; optimally, multidisciplinary individuals would guide the way, steering the courts, legislature, laboratories, and clinics toward an adequate balance of consumer protection, autonomy, and understanding. PMID:20495260

  12. Target-specific support vector machine scoring in structure-based virtual screening: computational validation, in vitro testing in kinases, and effects on lung cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liwei; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Wang, Fang; Ashpole, Nicole M; Hudmon, Andy; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-04-25

    We assess the performance of our previously reported structure-based support vector machine target-specific scoring function across 41 targets, 40 among them from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots (ROC-AUC) revealed that scoring with SVM-SP resulted in consistently better enrichment over all target families, outperforming Glide and other scoring functions, most notably among kinases. In addition, SVM-SP performance showed little variation among protein classes, exhibited excellent performance in a test case using a homology model, and in some cases showed high enrichment even with few structures used to train a model. We put SVM-SP to the test by virtual screening 1125 compounds against two kinases, EGFR and CaMKII. Among the top 25 EGFR compounds, three compounds (1-3) inhibited kinase activity in vitro with IC₅₀ of 58, 2, and 10 μM. In cell cultures, compounds 1-3 inhibited nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (H1299) cancer cell proliferation with similar IC₅₀ values for compound 3. For CaMKII, one compound inhibited kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner among 20 tested with an IC₅₀ of 48 μM. These results are encouraging given that our in-house library consists of compounds that emerged from virtual screening of other targets with pockets that are different from typical ATP binding sites found in kinases. In light of the importance of kinases in chemical biology, these findings could have implications in future efforts to identify chemical probes of kinases within the human kinome. PMID:21438548

  13. Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

  14. A quantitative examination of school configurations in Tennessee using sixth grade math, reading, science, and social studies standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Whitney J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in standardized test scores, expressed as percentage passing, in math, reading-language arts, science, and social studies by comparing 6th grade students in K--8 schools with those in 6--8 schools. The data were gathered from an analysis of 6th grade students' scores on the 2006--2007 TCAP standardized assessment test in the state of Tennessee. The relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient, proficient, or advanced level in each subject area was examined. The analysis was based on 5 research questions. A t-test for independent samples was used to identify the relationships between the independent variables, configuration of the school (K--8 or 6--8), and the dependent variables, the percent of students scoring below proficient, proficient, or advanced. A chi square analysis was used to identify the relationship between the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP. The study showed no relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level in math, reading-language arts, and social studies. Similarly, there was not a significant difference between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level in math and reading-language arts and the advanced level in math, reading-language arts, and science. However, there was a significant relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level and the proficient level in science and the percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level and advanced level in social studies. In science, a lower percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored below proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In science, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In social studies, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. However, a higher percentage of 6th grade students in 6--8 schools scored advanced than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. The study showed a significant difference in the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP.

  15. Cutoff scores in neurocognitive testing and symptom clusters that predict protracted recovery from concussions in high school athletes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lau BC; Collins MW; Lovell MR

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies address diagnosing concussions, but few look at predicting prognosis. A previous discriminant function analysis showed that symptom clusters derived from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale and Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing composite scores used together improved predictions of protracted recovery after a sports-related concussion.OBJECTIVE: To determine cutoff scores in neurocognitive and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale symptom cluster scores when classifying protracted recovery in concussed athletes.METHODS: 108 male high school football athletes completed a computer-based neurocognitive test battery (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) within a median of 2 days after injury. Patients completed graded exertional protocols requiring athletes to be symptom free at rest and during increasing levels of activity and had recovery of neurocognitive scores before return to play. After return to play, athletes were classified as protracted recovery (>14 days, n = 58) or short-recovery (≤14 days, n = 50). Receiver-operating characteristic curves analyzed each of the neurocognitive (verbal, visual, processing speed, and reaction time) and symptom cluster (migraine, cognitive, sleep, and neuropsychiatric) scores.RESULTS: Cutoffs for migraine cluster, cognitive cluster, visual memory, and processing speed were statistically significant. Cutoffs at 75%, 80%, and 85% sensitivity to predict protracted recovery for the migraine symptom cluster were 15 or greater, 18, 20; cognitive symptom cluster 18 or greater, 19, 22; visual memory 48 or less, 46, 44.5; and processing speed 24.5 or less, 23.46, 22.5, respectively. Eighty-percent sensitivity indicates that the corresponding cutoff correctly identify 80% of concussed athletes requiring protracted recovery.CONCLUSION: Specific cutoffs may help to set numerical thresholds for clinicians to predict which concussed athletes will have a protracted recovery.

  16. Co-Educational Tutorial Classes and Their Significance on Gendered Test Scores of Wollo University Students: A Before-After Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidey, Mu'uz

    2015-01-01

    This action research is carried out in a practical class room setting to devise an innovative way of administering tutorial classes to improve students' learning competence with particular reference to gendered test scores. A before-after test score analyses of mean and standard deviations along with t-statistical tests of hypotheses of second…

  17. Comparability of Examinee Proficiency Scores on Computer Adaptive Tests Using Real and Simulated Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Josiah Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    In measurement research, data simulations are a commonly used analytical technique. While simulation designs have many benefits, it is unclear if these artificially generated datasets are able to accurately capture real examinee item response behaviors. This potential lack of comparability may have important implications for administration of…

  18. Use of cardiac CT and calcium scoring for detecting coronary plaque: implications on prognosis and patient management

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, S; Cheezum, M K; Hulten, E A; Bittencourt, M S; Silverman, M G; Nasir, K

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians often use risk factor-based calculators to estimate an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging, particularly coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and coronary CT angiography (CTA), allows for direct visualization of coronary atherosclerosis. Among patients without prior coronary artery disease, studies examining CAC and coronary CTA have consistently shown that the presence, extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis provide additional prognostic information for patients beyond risk factor-based scores alone. This review will highlight the basics of CAC scoring and coronary CTA and discuss their role in impacting patient prognosis and management. PMID:25494818

  19. The ability of reaction time tests to detect simulation: an investigation of contextual effects and criterion scores.

    PubMed

    Reicker, Lindsay I

    2008-07-01

    Two experiments examined whether experience gained with a series of reaction time tests [Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP); Tombaugh, T. N. & Rees, L. (in press). Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP). Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems Inc.] influenced the performance of individuals instructed to simulate the cognitive effects of a traumatic brain injury. Experience with the tests was manipulated by varying the order and number of tests administered for simulator and control groups. Simulators responded significantly slower and exhibited increased variability compared to controls. Performance was not affected by order or number of tests. The results of a third experiment showed that criterion scores could be established that correctly classified members of control, simulator, mild TBI, and severe TBI groups. Overall, the results suggest that the performance of the simulators was based on a context-free, absolute judgment and that reaction time measures show considerable promise for detecting low effort. PMID:18420373

  20. Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.

    PubMed

    Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

    1988-03-01

    Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys. PMID:3373186

  1. The Case against Standardized Testing: Raising the Scores, Ruining the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    Drawing from the latest research, this book explains how little standardized test results really say and how harmful a test-driven curriculum can be. The central message is that the use of standardized tests can be reversed, and that teachers, parents, and students can reverse the trend toward testing to create classrooms that focus on student…

  2. Does It Matter if You "Kill" the Patient or Order Too Many Tests? Scoring Alternatives for a Test of Clinical Reasoning Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Dunn, Jennifer L.; van Barneveld, Christina; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares five scoring approaches for a test of clinical reasoning skills. All of the approaches incorporate information about the correct item responses selected and the errors, such as selecting too many responses or selecting a response that is inappropriate and/or harmful to the patient. The approaches are combinations of theoretical

  3. Does It Matter if You "Kill" the Patient or Order Too Many Tests? Scoring Alternatives for a Test of Clinical Reasoning Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Dunn, Jennifer L.; van Barneveld, Christina; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares five scoring approaches for a test of clinical reasoning skills. All of the approaches incorporate information about the correct item responses selected and the errors, such as selecting too many responses or selecting a response that is inappropriate and/or harmful to the patient. The approaches are combinations of theoretical…

  4. An Adaptive Algebra Test: A Testlet-Based, Hierarchically-Structured Test with Validity-Based Scoring. Technical Report No. 90-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; And Others

    The initial development of a testlet-based algebra test was previously reported (Wainer and Lewis, 1990). This account provides the details of this excursion into the use of hierarchical testlets and validity-based scoring. A pretest of two 15-item hierarchical testlets was carried out in which examinees' performance on a 4-item subset of each…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…