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1

Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

Xie, Qin

2013-01-01

2

Comparability of Test Scores for the Same Individual: Implications for Vertical Equating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for equating test scores between two standardized achievement testing programs was developed. The first test was the Survey of Basic Skills (SBS) published by Science Research Associates. The second was the Tests of Individual Performance (TIP) of the Portland Public Schools in Oregon. Scores reported in Rasch units (RIT) from the TIP…

Forster, Fred; Karr, Chad

3

Test Scoring [book review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

Meijer, Rob R.

2003-01-01

4

The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

2008-01-01

5

Relationship of Friends, Physical Education, and State Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…

Hollingsworth, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

6

Cash for Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cash incentives for high school students to perform better in school are growing in popularity, but not everyone understands them. Does paying students for better Advanced Placement (AP) test scores encourage enrollment in AP classes? The author set out to determine the impact of a cash incentive program operating in a number of Texas high…

Jackson, C. Kirabo

2008-01-01

7

Score test variable screening.  

PubMed

Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. PMID:25124197

Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

2014-12-01

8

Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

Pisano, Mark C.

9

BAYES, BANJOS, BAD TEST SCORES,  

E-print Network

and similar tests · What to do with a zero or a 100%?? · Big Science · Big data in science, scalableBAYES, BANJOS, BAD TEST SCORES, AND BIG SCIENCE Brian W Junker Department of Statistics Carnegie Carlo estimation". It was first named and applied to difficult problems by the Manhattan Project folks

Junker, Brian

10

Using Test Score Data to Focus Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in technology available to access test data coupled with the challenges of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) are pushing schools to grapple with the complexities of test score data. With the current frenzy to raise test scores, there is little attention being paid to teacher development in learning to use data to improve learning. For the past…

Trimble, Susan; Gay, Anne; Matthews, Jan

2005-01-01

11

School enrollment, selection and test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong association between schooling attained and test scores in many settings. If this association is causal, one might expect that programs that increase school enrollment and attainment would also improve test scores. However, if there is self-selection into school based on expected gains, marginal children brought into school by such programs may be drawn disproportionately from the

Deon Filmer; Norbert Schady

2009-01-01

12

Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic achievement suggests a potential explanation for the lack of an

Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

13

Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.  

PubMed

In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®) . In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. PMID:25773314

Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

2015-05-01

14

META-TEST To Improve SAT Scores!.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores metacognitive strategies that can help students with learning disabilities significantly raise their Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores. META-TEST SAT contracts that outline a student's personal test-taking strategy are explained, along with possible test accommodations, test-taking tips, and practice strategies. A mini-case study is…

Bellafiore, Gayle

1998-01-01

15

An automated scoring system for educational testing  

E-print Network

AN AUTOMATED SCORING SYSTEM FOR EDUCATIONAL TESTING A Thesis By Erik P. Verret Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major... Subject: COMPUTER SCIENCE AN AUTONATED SCORING SYSTEN FOR EDUCATIONAL TESTING A Thesis By Erik P. Verret Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Comm ttee) H a of art ) (Member) August 1967 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION...

Verret, Erik Phillip

1967-01-01

16

What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

2014-01-01

17

Using Microcomputers to Score Placement Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California (Irvine) has automated its scoring of placement tests to incoming freshmen and women with specialized administrative software that interfaces a microcomputer with an optical card reader. The university's placement testing program, the computerized system, and advantages of the system are explained. (JN)

Shoemaker, Judith S.; St. John, Elizabeth A.

1985-01-01

18

Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

2009-01-01

19

Test score disclosure and school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we test whether the disclosure of test scores has direct impacts on studentperformance, school composition and school inputs. We take advantage of the discontinuityon the disclosure rules of The National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM) run inBrazil by the Ministry of Education: In 2006 it was established that the 2005 mean scoreresults would be disclosed for schools with

Braz Ministério de Camargo; Sergio Pinheiro Firpo; Vladimir Pinheiro Ponczek

2011-01-01

20

Generalized score tests for missing covariate data  

E-print Network

,Ir)U(?) +Rn3, (2.9) where A = E(?U2?? 1 )E(?U1?? 1 )?1, Rn3 is a negligible remainder with order Op(1), and Ir is the r?r identity matrix. Therefore, Boos obtained one version of generalized score statistic U2(??)prime braceleftBig (??A,Ir) ?JU...(??A,Ir)prime bracerightBig?1 U2(??), (2.10) where ?A = A|??, JU = summationtextni=1 ui(?)uprimei(?) and ?JU = JU|??. The test statistic follows ?2r asymptotically under H0 and regularity conditions. The efficiency of generalized score tests is another important issue...

Jin, Lei

2009-05-15

21

Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

Bracey, Gerald W.

2002-01-01

22

Better decisions through science: exercise testing scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical tools can be used to create scores for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and assessing prognosis. General practitioners and internists frequently function as gatekeepers, deciding which patients must be referred to the cardiologist. Therefore, they need to use the basic tools they have available (ie, history, physical examination and the exercise test) in an optimal fashion.

Victor Froelicher; Katerina Shetler; Euan Ashley

2003-01-01

23

Better decisions through science: Exercise testing scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical tools can be used to create scores for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and assessing prognosis. General practitioners and internists frequently function as gatekeepers, deciding which patients must be referred to the cardiologist. Therefore, they need to use the basic tools they have available (ie, history, physical examination and the exercise test) in an optimal fashion.

Victor Froelicher; Katerina Shetler; Euan Ashley

2002-01-01

24

Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

Usiskin, Zalman

2012-01-01

25

Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

Miller, Steven C.

2012-01-01

26

ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing

Allalouf, Avi

2014-01-01

27

Making sense of divergent career test scores  

E-print Network

Super (1994) has been chosen to as the framework to be used to understand differences in relationships between career test scores. This is because his is the only theory among many others that relates to careers, has been extensively researched... are those of Linda Gottfredson (1981, 1996, 2002) and Donald Super (1957). Gottfredson?s (1981, 1996, 2002) theory of career circumscription describes a theory of career development relative to children and adolescents. The four stages in her theory...

Rodriguez, Steven

2009-05-15

28

Funding, school specialisation and test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the effect on test scores of a UK education reform which has increased funding of schools and encouraged their specialisation in particular subject areas, enhancing pupil choice and competition between schools. Using several data sets, we apply cross-sectional and difference-in-differences matching models, to confront issues of the choice of an appropriate control group and different forms of selection

S Bradley; G Migali; Jim Taylor

2011-01-01

29

The components of a computerized test-scoring service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the systems, human and computer, that make up the Oregon State University Computer Center Test-Scoring Service. The Test-Scoring Service makes it possible for faculty members from OSU and elsewhere to have their objective tests scored quickly and accurately by computer at a relatively low cost. The service offers the instructor an unusual degree of flexibility in test

George Beekman

1978-01-01

30

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2003-01-01

31

The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

32

The Effect of Schooling and Ability of Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the e!ect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We ,nd

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

33

A table of color distance scores for quantitative scoring of the Lanthony Desaturate color vision test.  

PubMed

The Lanthony Desaturate Panel D-15 (D-15d) color vision test is used in neurotoxicological testing to assess acquired color vision deficits. The original test design included a qualitative scoring method. Quantitative scoring requires mapping the colored objects used in the test into a color space describing perceptual distances. A table of these distances has previously been published for the saturated version of this color vision test, but not the desaturate test. This communication includes a table of color distances for the calculation of Bowman's Total Color Distance Score (TCDS) for the D-15d. This table should be useful for non-computerized scoring under field test conditions or for devising one's own computerized scoring methods using the tabulated color distances for a look-up table. Data analysis programs using SAS or Matlab are available from the author. PMID:11418268

Geller, A M

2001-01-01

34

The Effect of Instructions on Multiple-Choice Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most standardized tests instruct subjects to guess under scoring procedures that do not correct for guessing or correct only for expected random guessing. Other scoring rules, such as offering a small reward for omissions or punishing errors by discounting more than expected from random guessing, have been proposed. This study was designed to test the effects of these four instruction\\/scoring

Gerardo Prieto; Ana R. Delgado

1999-01-01

35

Do gains in test scores explain labor market outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this article investigates whether students who made relatively large test score gains during high school had larger earnings 7 years after high school compared to students whose scores improved little. In models that control for pre-high school test scores, family background, and demographic characteristics, employed women who gain one standard

Heather Rose

2006-01-01

36

How Teachers Use the Group IQ Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers use group I.Q. test scores for planning instruction. Teachers were surveyed on: 1) use of I.Q. tests, 2) reasons for nonuse of I.Q. tests, and 3) instructional strategies based on test results. The widest use of test scores was in parent teacher conferences. The major reasons for not…

Fields, Jacqueline P.; Kumar, V. K.

37

Sensitivity of Rao's score test, the Wald test and the likelihood ratio test to nuisance parameters  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of Rao's score test, the Wald test and the likelihood ratio test to nuisance parameters of the likelihood ratio test, Rao's score test, and the Wald test to the change of the nuisance parameters. The main. Some key words: Edgeworth expansion; Factorization; Likelihood ratio test; Nuisance parameter; Rao

Li, Bing

38

Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in central tendency, variability, and numbers of high scores on mental tests have been extensively studied. Research has not always seemed to yield consistent results, partly because most studies have not used representative samples of national populations. An analysis of mental test scores from six studies that used national probability samples provided evidence that although average sex differences

Larry V. Hedges; Amy Nowell

1995-01-01

39

Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic  

E-print Network

Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic Gordon K. Smyth Abstract For any generalized linear model, the Pearson goodness of fit statistic is the score test statistic for testing; exponential family nonlinear model; saturated model. 1 Introduction Goodness of fit tests go back at least

Smyth, Gordon K.

40

Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

2006-01-01

41

Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized evaluation in rural Kenya finds, contrary to the previous literature, that providing textbooks did not raise average test scores. Textbooks did increase the scores of the best students (those with high pretest scores) but had little effect on other students. Textbooks are written in English, most students' third language, and many students could not use them effectively. More

Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

2009-01-01

42

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nevada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Nevada's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in both subjects. Trends in average (mean) test scores

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

43

Do Parents Value Changes in Test Scores? High Stakes Testing in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas evaluates, accredits, and financially rewards schools based on student test scores. Test scores increased dramatically following this implementation of high stakes testing. This paper examines whether homebuyers valued these test score increases. The results show little or no relation between changes in test scores and changes in total housing value in a district. Strikingly, improved performance on college entrance

Angela K. Dills

2004-01-01

44

Within-group norming and other forms of score adjustment in preemployment testing.  

PubMed

Various forms of score adjustment have been suggested and used when mean differences by gender, race, or ethnicity are found using preemployment tests. This article examines the rationales for score adjustment and describes and compares different forms of score adjustment, including within-group norming, bonus points, separate cutoffs, and banding. It reviews the legal environment for personnel selection and the circumstances leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. It examines score adjustment in the use of cognitive ability tests, personality inventories, interest inventories, scored biographical data, and physical ability tests and outlines the implications for testing practice of various interpretations of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. PMID:7985886

Sackett, P R; Wilk, S L

1994-11-01

45

Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF  

E-print Network

Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF Green+ ACT 33-34 USF International Student Scholarship (Freshmen only) $2,000 ($500 per year) 3.50+ GPA USF International Transfer Student Scholarship (Transfers only) $1,000 ($500 per year) Cumulative

Meyers, Steven D.

46

Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

2011-01-01

47

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

48

The Racial Test Score Gap and Parental Involvement in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the racial gap in test scores between black and white students in Britain both in levels and differences across the school years. We find that there is an increasing racial gap in test scores between ages 7 and 11, and a decreasing one between ages 11 and 16. Using the richness of information of the National Child Development

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2007-01-01

49

Can doctors predict patients' abbreviated mental test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: the abbreviated mental test is widely used in the assessment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. However, many doctors do not administer the full 10 questions, preferring to estimate the patient's score instead. We have studied the accuracy of doctors in predicting patients' abbreviated mental test scores. Methods: we assessed 102 patients in the geriatric unit. We asked doctors

ELIZABETH BURLEIGH; I AN REEVES; C HRISTINE MCALPINE; J AMES DAVIE

50

Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students? initial academic achievement suggests a potential explanation for the lack of an

Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

2007-01-01

51

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics  

E-print Network

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S, Canada {kevin.jalbert, jeremy.bradbury}@uoit.ca Abstract--Mutation testing has traditionally been used to evaluate the effectiveness of test suites and provide confidence in the testing process. Mutation testing

Bradbury, Jeremy S.

52

The Non-Credible Score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: Is It Better at Predicting Non-Credible Neuropsychological Test Performance Than the RAVLT Recognition Score?  

PubMed

The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ?9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated. PMID:25599723

Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

2015-03-01

53

Evidence of Test Score Use in Validity: Roles and Responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper has three goals. The first goal is toclarify the role thatthe consequences,of test score use play in validity judgments by reviewing the role that modern,writers on validity have ascribed for consequences,insupporting validity judgments. The second goal is to assign responsibility for collecting evidence of test score use consequences,by attempting to separate the responsibilities of the test developer

Paul D. Nichols; Natasha Williams

54

Treadmill test scores: Attributes and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As a general rule, clinicians should attempt to isolate those patient subsets whose posttest patient management may be optimally\\u000a changed by the test referral. Use of testing in a heterogeneous population will lead to an increase in the false-positive\\u000a rate with a resultant increase in the rate of normal catheterization and higher costs of care.14,16 By providing imprecise test results

Leslee J. Shaw; Rory Hachamovitch; Ami E. Iskandrian

1997-01-01

55

Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

Tanner, John R.

2011-01-01

56

Prediction of Metropolitan Readiness Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficiency of several visual and auditory predictors of the Metropolitan Readiness Test was examined utilizing 106 grade 1 subjects considered by their teachers to show learning difficulties. (Author/JC)

Blowers, E. A.

1977-01-01

57

Choosing Passing Scores for Tests Required for High School Graduation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators were asked to read a description of a minimum proficiency test required for high school graduation and select a cutoff score for it. The 24 descriptions used were formed as all possible combinations of a test content, a level of student performance, a penalty for failing the test, and a community response to the test. Of the 223…

McLarty, Joyce R.

58

Test Scores: Can Year-Round School Raise Them?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study of San Diego (California) elementary schools indicate that students in year-round schools outperformed those in traditional schools in the degree of achievement in reading, language, and math test scores. (MLF)

Alcorn, Richard D.

1992-01-01

59

Accountability Is More than a Test Score  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

2015-01-01

60

Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

Jacks, Meredith

2011-01-01

61

Score tests for zero inflation in generalized linear models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop score tests of goodness-of-fit for discrete generalized linear modelsagainst zero-inflation. The binomial and Poisson models are treated as examples and inthe latter case, the proposed test reduces to that of Broek (1995). Some simulation resultsand an illustrative example are presented.R ESUM ELes auteurs developpent des procedures scores permettant de tester l'adequation de modeleslineaires generalises discrets lorsque la

Dianliang Deng; Sudhir R. Paul

2000-01-01

62

Relationship of Scores and Times of Test Administration via Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between scores and the times that medical students choose to take a computer-administered test. The results indicate that students who choose to take a test later within a given time period tend to perform less well than students who take the test earlier. Although the magnitude…

Gorney, Barbara; Maury, Marcia

63

Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In mastery testing a linear relationship between an optimal passing score and test length is presented with a new optimization criterion. The usual indifference zone approach, a binomial error model, decision errors, and corrections for guessing are discussed. Related results in sequential testing and the latent class approach are included. (CM)

van der Linden, Wim J.

1982-01-01

64

Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

Tully, Susannah

2008-01-01

65

The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test

Echternacht, Gary

66

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

67

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Louisiana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Louisiana's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, trends on state tests and NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) sometimes differed. On the state test, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. On NAEP, the percentage of…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

68

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

69

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Dakota's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentage of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

70

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

71

Microcomputer Card Reader System for Test Scoring and Item Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test scoring system was developed, composed of an optical mark sense card reader (Chatsworth Data Corporation) interfaced with a microcomputer (TRS-80 Model I) that provided the opportunity to do extensive diagnostic and course material testing with item analysis. This system reduced the amount of time required to determine the suitability of…

Anderson, David E.

72

Increase in Spatial Visualization Test Scores During Engineering Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to discover if there was change or growth in the students' ability as measured by the spatial visualizing test. If so, we were also concerned in finding those experiential factors which were related to the change. High school and college counselors will note with interest that while high scores on the spatial visualization test

Mary F. Blade; Walter S. Watson

1955-01-01

73

RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

74

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

75

Propensity score matching and variations on the balancing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing tests are diagnostics designed for use with propensity score methods, a widely used non-experimental approach in\\u000a the evaluation literature. Such tests provide useful information on whether plausible counterfactuals have been created. Currently,\\u000a multiple balancing tests exist in the literature but it is unclear which is the most useful. This article highlights the poor\\u000a size properties of commonly employed balancing

Wang-Sheng Lee

76

Procedure for obtaining six part scores from answer sheets in one run through the IBM test scoring machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two methods of getting 6 different part scores from one side of an answer sheet in a single run through the IBM test scoring machine. The procedure applies to items scored for right responses only. Preliminary data are presented which show the new methods to be faster, without loss of accuracy, than the usual method of getting

G. B. Simon

1942-01-01

77

Using Student Test Scores to Measure Principal Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion of the use of student test score data to measure teacher performance has fueled recent policy interest in using those data to measure the effects of school administrators as well. However, little research has considered the capacity of student performance data to uncover principal effects. Filling this gap, this article identifies…

Grissom, Jason A.; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna

2015-01-01

78

Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

2010-01-01

79

Score Tests for Zero-Inflation in Overdispersed Count Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative binomial (NB) model and the generalized Poisson (GP) model are common alternatives to Poisson models when overdispersion is present in the data. Having accounted for initial overdispersion, we may require further investigation as to whether there is evidence for zero-inflation in the data. Two score statistics are derived from the GP model for testing zero-inflation. These statistics, unlike

Zhao Yang; James W. Hardin; Cheryl L. Addy

2010-01-01

80

What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

Jorgenson, Olaf

2012-01-01

81

Schooling and the Norming of Intelligence Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of schooling on the development of intelligence in children and how the amount of schooling should be considered when developing norms for turning intelligence test performance into IQ scores. Suggests that because of differences in schooling among same-age children, use of age-based norms results in biased deviation IQS.…

Cahan, Sorel

2000-01-01

82

A Mathematical Programming Model for Test Construction and Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model is presented for test construction and scoring that utilizes the knapsack model of mathematical programing. The method applies to examinations of the type in which a choice exists in the number of questions the examinee is required to answer. The method has been utilized with respect to a mathematics examination, and computer-generated…

Feuerman, Martin; Weiss, Harvey

1973-01-01

83

A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

2011-01-01

84

The secular increase in test scores is a “Jensen effect”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Jensen effect” results from the correlation between the g factor and a huge number of psychological and biological variables. Although Rushton (Rushton, J. P. (1999). Secular gains in IQ not related to the g factor and inbreding depression — unlike Black–White differences: a reply to Flynn. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 381–389) proposed that the secular increase in test scores

Roberto Colom; Manuel Juan-Espinosa; Lu??s F. Garc??a

2001-01-01

85

Significance Testing of Subtest Score Differences: The Case of Nonsignificant Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the testing for the statistical significance of subtest score differences yields a considerable proportion of nonsignificant results (e.g., about two-thirds of the V-P IQ differences on the WISC-R, assuming &agr; = .05), the interpretation of such results has been neglected. This paper examines the implications of the decision rule as they concern statistically nonsignificant results. The acceptance of the

Sorel Cahan; Nora Cohen

1988-01-01

86

Meeting Targets, Missing People: The Energy Security Implications of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article examines the energy security implications of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy in Malaysia (SCORE), a US$105 billion infrastructure development plan in Sarawak on the island of Borneo. SCORE aims to build a series of hydroelectric dams along a 320-kilometer corridor by 2030. The article begins by explaining the methodology utilized for its research interviews and site visits.

L. C. Bulan; Benjamin K. Sovacool

2011-01-01

87

Meeting Targets, Missing People: The Energy Security Implications of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the energy security implications of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy in Malaysia (SCORE), a US$105 billion infrastructure development plan in Sarawak on the island of Borneo. SCORE aims to build a series of hydroelectric dams along a 320-kilometer corridor by 2030. The article begins by explaining the methodology utilized for its research interviews and site visits.

L. C. Bulan; Benjamin K. Sovacool

2011-01-01

88

Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores  

PubMed Central

We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades. PMID:19805049

Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

2009-01-01

89

Score Tests for Zero-Inflated Poisson Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many situations count data have a large proportion of zeros and the zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIP) model may be appropriate. A simple score test for zero-inflation, comparing the ZIP model with a constant proportion of excess zeros to a standard Poisson regression model, was given by van den Broek (Biometrics, 51 (1995) 738–743). We extend this test to the

N. Jansakul; J. P. Hinde

2002-01-01

90

What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper by Stephen P. Klein, et al., was at the center of the Presidential campaign last week as Al Gore seized on its conclusion that the great disparity in Texas between student scores on state (Texas Assessment of Academic Skills) vs. federal (NAEP) tests suggested that the improvements claimed by Governor Bush in the state's education system were in fact inflated, possibly due to a policy of teachers teaching to the Texas tests.

91

Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998-2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2006-01-01

92

Racial segregation and the black–white test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998–2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

David Card; Jesse Rothstein

2007-01-01

93

Source country differences in test score gaps: evidence from Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native–immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student?level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find that second?generation students from Lebanon and Pakistan

Beatrice Schindler Rangvid; Nina Smith

2010-01-01

94

Correlation of modified radioallergosorbent test scores and skin test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to a significantly increased sensitivity as compared with the initial Phadebas radioallergosorbent test, a major advantage of the Fadal-Nalebuff modified RAST is its correlation with skin testing using skin end point titration. This correlation allows physicians to use both these modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders. However, it has been anecdotally believed that the correlation

JAMES R. TANDY; RICHARD L. MABRY; CYNTHIA S. MABRY

1996-01-01

95

Effect of Milk Age, Storage, and Testing Temperatures upon the Wisconsin Mastitis Test Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin MasLitis Test (WMT) scores were determined on milk samples of vary- ing cell counts for five days. The samples were subjected to different conditions of storage and testing, and irrespective of these conditions, the daily decrease of WMT score was, with one exception, significant (p --~ .05). After a 29-hr storage period, there was no significant (p ~ .05)

D. Kroger; D. E. Jasper

1967-01-01

96

Score-based tests of measurement invariance: use in practice  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations). The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (1) how the tests can be employed for their data, and (2) whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification). After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios. PMID:24936190

Wang, Ting; Merkle, Edgar C.; Zeileis, Achim

2014-01-01

97

School accountability and the black-white test score gap.  

PubMed

Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. PMID:24468431

Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

2014-03-01

98

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

99

A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for seismic risk reduction strategies and they are a key element of seismic regulation. Thus, it is important to select the most effective estimates among the available ones. An empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. The scoring test is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models that, providing outcomes that are in contrast with observations, should thus be discarded. The analysis shows that most of the hazard estimates proposed for Italy are not in contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better than the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best-performing one. This implies that, moving along the hazard curve, the most suitable model should be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

2015-01-01

100

Use of Practice Tests in the Prediction of GED Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the relationship between success on the two new practice-test forms (EE and FF) developed by Steck-Vaughn and success on the General Educational Development (GED) test. Success with practice-form EE correlated with GED test scores; form FF failed to correlate. (JOW)

Herring, Warren

1999-01-01

101

Schoolwide Test Preparation: One Elementary School's Instructional Approach That Dramatically Raised Standardized Test Scores. ERS Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how educators at Harrison Elementary School in Twin Falls, Idaho, used the Standardized Timed Curriculum (STC) to raise students' standardized test scores. The monograph, which is divided into eight chapters, opens with an overview of testing in schools, the growth of the test-preparation business, and the need for school…

Smith, Steven H.

102

Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

2007-01-01

103

Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

2012-01-01

104

Multistate mark-recapture model selection using score tests.  

PubMed

Although multistate mark-recapture models are recognized as important, they lack a simple model-selection procedure. This article proposes and evaluates a step-up approach to select appropriate models for multistate mark-recapture data using score tests. Only models supported by the data require fitting, so that over-complicated model structures with too many parameters do not need to be considered. Typically only a small number of models are fitted, and the procedure is also able to identify parameter-redundant and near-redundant models. The good performance of the technique is demonstrated using simulation, and the approach is illustrated on a three-region Canada goose data set. In this case, it identifies a new model that is much simpler than the best model previously considered for this application. PMID:20486927

McCrea, Rachel S; Morgan, Byron J T

2011-03-01

105

The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

2013-01-01

106

Not Your Parents’ Test Scores: Cohort Reduces Psychometric Aging Effects  

PubMed Central

Increases over birth cohorts in psychometric abilities may impact effects of aging. Data from 2 cohorts of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, matched on age but tested 16 years apart, were modeled over ages 55–87 to test the hypothesis that the more fluid abilities of reasoning, list and text recall, and space would show larger cohort differences than vocabulary. This hypothesis was confirmed. At age 74, average performance estimates for people from the more recently born cohort were equivalent to those of people from the older cohort when they were up to 15 years younger. This finding suggests that older adults may perform like much younger ones from the previous generation on fluid measures, indicating higher levels of abilities than expected. This result could have major implications for the expected productivity of an aging workforce as well as for the quality of life of future generations. However, cohort improvements did not mitigate age declines. PMID:17874953

Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Kennison, Robert F.

2014-01-01

107

A Simulation Study of Reliability and Validity of Multiple-Choice Test Scores Under Six Response-Scoring Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a 40-item, four-choice test were simulated for 120 examinees under six response-scoring modes including number-right, corrected-for-guessing and answer-until-correct. Separate score sets were generated to reflect five levels of prevalence of misinformation (belief that an answer is a distractor) and five levels of propensity-to-guess contrary to instructions for modes designed to inhibit guessing. Criteria were simulated using the number-right

Robert B. Frary

1982-01-01

108

Estimating Test Score Reliability When No Examinee Has Taken the Complete Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops formulas to cope with the situation in which the reliability of test scores must be approximated even though no examinee has taken the complete instrument. Develops different estimators for part tests that are judged to be classically parallel, tau-equivalent, or congeneric. Proposes standards for differentiating among these three models.…

Feldt, Leonard S.

2003-01-01

109

The Relationship Between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders. Error response patterns revealed a steady, age-related increase in the ability to use

John D. Rich; William Fullard; Willis Overton

2011-01-01

110

The Persisting Racial Scoring Gap on Graduate and Professional School Admission Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the racial scoring gap on tests for admission to medical, business, law, and other graduate programs, noting that in the highest-scoring brackets on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the racial gap is even larger. Whites are five times, twelve times, and seven times more likely, respectively, to score higher on the MCAT, Law…

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

2003-01-01

111

Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

1994-01-01

112

Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success  

PubMed Central

Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828

Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

113

Using Subpopulation Invariance to Assess Test Score Equity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Score equity assessment (SEA) is introduced, and placed within a fair assessment context that includes differential prediction or fair selection and differential item functioning. The notion of subpopulation invariance of linking functions is central to the assessment of score equity, just as it has been for differential item functioning and…

Dorans, Neil J.

2004-01-01

114

Using MCW-APM Test Scoring to Evaluate Economics Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that explored the use of a scoring procedure called Modified Confidence Weighted-Admissible Probability Measurement (MCW-APM) to evaluate curriculum design and to assess students' knowledge of economic concepts. Concluded that the MCW-APM scoring method can help teachers develop curricula to meet specific student needs. (SLM)

Bruno, James E.

1989-01-01

115

The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with moderate to strong relationships, validation studies and development of expectancy tables, which estimate the probability of successful performance on these AP exams, are recommended. Also, findings established a need to examine other related research issues including, but not limited to, extensive longitudinal studies and analyses of other available or prospective standardized test scores.

Urbina, Josue N.

116

The role of test scores in explaining race and gender differences in wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that skills reflected in test-score performance on tests such as the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) can account for some of the racial differences in average wages. I use a more complete set of test scores available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort to reconsider this evidence, and the results suggest a conclusion

McKinley L. Blackburn

2004-01-01

117

Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex- ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex- post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

2015-03-01

118

Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex-ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex-post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

2015-01-01

119

Standardized Testing of Special Education Students: A Comparison of Service Type and Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Modified Academic Achievement Standards (TCAP MAAS) achievement test scores for special education students who receive their instruction in the resource classroom or in an inclusion classroom. The study involved third, fourth, and…

Hogan-Young, Christine

2013-01-01

120

Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.  

PubMed

Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Espańol (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

2001-01-01

121

Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

2014-01-01

122

Improving the Predictive Ability of Placement Tests Using the Rasch Model for Scoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the accuracy of college placement, Rasch scoring and person-fit statistics on the Comparative Guidance and Placement test (CGP) was compared to the traditional right-only scoring. Correlations were calculated between English and mathematics course grades and scores of 1,448 entering freshmen on the reading, writing, and mathematics…

Smith, Richard M.; Mitchell, Virginia P.

123

The Expanding Racial Scoring Gap between Black and White SAT Test Takers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1976-88, the black-white scoring gap on the Scholastic Assessment Test closed significantly. The improvement in black scores was so strong that some educators predicted that within a generation, the gap would disappear. However, since 1988, the racial gap in SAT scores has become wider, with no compelling evidence that any improvement is…

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

2002-01-01

124

Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

125

A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

1976-01-01

126

Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

Zavodny, Madeline

2013-01-01

127

Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

2013-01-01

128

Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

Klesch, Heather S.

2010-01-01

129

School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

2011-01-01

130

Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

Washburn, Gail

131

A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

132

Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores  

Cancer.gov

About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

133

The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School, and Racial Test Score Gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of children’s scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents’ ability and

Petra E. Todd; Kenneth I. Wolpin

2007-01-01

134

Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic…

Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie

2007-01-01

135

The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

Shaw, Tommetta

2010-01-01

136

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

2006-01-01

137

Preschool Television Viewing and Adolescent Test Scores: Historical Evidence from the Coleman Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores during adolescence. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average adolescent test scores by about 0.02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects larger than about

Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

2008-01-01

138

Graduate Students' Administration and Scoring Errors on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of cognitive test scores often leads to decisions concerning the diagnosis, educational placement, and types of interventions used for children. Therefore, it is important that practitioners administer and score cognitive tests without error. This study assesses the frequency and types of examiner errors that occur during the…

Ramos, Erica; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Schermerhorn, Susan M.

2009-01-01

139

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

140

Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

2010-01-01

141

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

142

Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

143

The Effects of Spanish-Language Background on Completed Schooling and Aptitude Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the eect of speaking Spanish at home as a child on completed schooling and aptitude test scores using data on Hispanics who grew up in the U.S. from the NLSY79. We model the accumulation of traditional human capital and English uency, leading to the joint determination of schooling and test scores. We nd that speaking Spanish at home

Luis Locay; Tracy L. Regan; Arthur M. Diamond Jr.

2007-01-01

144

Changes in student populations and average test scores of Dutch primary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean test scores. Path analysis findings indicate

Hans Luyten; Inge de Wolf

2011-01-01

145

The Effects of Historical Settlement Patterns on Oklahoma Student Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This research demonstrates how cultural differences affect the efficiency of increased public school district expenditures on students’ achievement,test scores. Results indicate that equality of outcome as measured by achievement test scores may be impossible to achieve using school district expenditures. 1

B. Wade Brorsen; Charles Jacques

1997-01-01

146

Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

2011-01-01

147

Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

Sawyer, Richard

2013-01-01

148

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

149

The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

Sohn, Kitae

2012-01-01

150

A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for planning seismic risk reduction strategies and they are key elements of seismic regulation. Due to its importance, it is mandatory to select most effective estimates among the available ones. A possible empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. Scoring is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models providing outcomes that contrast observations and thus should be discarded. The analysis shows that most of hazard estimates so far proposed for Italy do not contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than the others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better that the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best performing one. This implies that time-by-time, the most suitable model must be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

2014-09-01

151

An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

2013-01-01

152

The value of bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.  

PubMed

The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates-along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment-to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale -4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. (JINS, 2015, 21, 1-9). PMID:25784058

Gavett, Brandon E

2015-03-01

153

Test scores of urban and rural bank workers in Nigeria: an analysis of the effect of location on test performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature relating to job-related testing, and describes a specific study which examined the test scores, on written tests, of urban and rural bank workers in a national bank. The purpose of the test was to determine the effect of location on test performance of the two sets of bank workers. Also compares the test performance of individual bank

P. B. Johnnie

1996-01-01

154

From #2 Pencils to the World Wide Web: A History of Test Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the need…

Zytowski, Donald G.

2008-01-01

155

Differential reproduction: Its relation to IQ test score, education, and occupation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlations among IQ test score, educational attainment rating, socioeconomic status, total number of children in the family of origin, total number of offspring in completed families, and mean age at birth of live?born children are examined for a representative sample of the Minnesota white population. Natural selection appears to be favoring an increase in the mean IQ score in

Jerome H. Waller

1982-01-01

156

TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

2012-01-01

157

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No one can dispute that tests should measure important content, and for many (but not all) purposes, tests should be aligned with curricular goals. Thus in many cases, alignment is clearly better than the alternative, and nothing that follows here argues otherwise. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that alignment is sufficient protection…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

158

The Effect of Concept Formulation on Concept Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

While concept testing is a mainstay of the new product development process, there is little empirical evidence on the variation in consumer responses due to alternative concept formulations, particularly for those tests undertaken early in the product development process. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by using a split sample mail survey to compare stripped, embellished, and

Gavin Lees; Malcolm Wright

2004-01-01

159

Increases in Test Scores as a Function of Material Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the entire population (N=341) of grades 7 and 8 in a rural Indiana junior high school, 160 subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and the control groups. Form A of the Nelson Reading Test was administered twice with a 4-week interval. While the control group was told only that the post-test was given to measure how…

Tuinman, J. Jaap; And Others

160

Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

Kim, Seonghoon

2013-01-01

161

Too Much Homework May Hurt Teens' Test Scores  

MedlinePLUS

... minutes a night linked to lower performance in math, science (*this news item will not be available ... about their homework habits, and their performance in math and science was assessed using a standardized test. ...

162

Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

2012-01-01

163

Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

Farnsworth, Tim

2013-01-01

164

Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the scoring process. An analysis of this data suggests that raters using alternative rubrics may have employed different strategies to score student responses.

Creighton, Susan Dabney

165

76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

2011-03-23

166

76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

2011-12-30

167

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

2012-04-01

168

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

2013-04-01

169

Evaluating the equal-interval hypothesis with test score scales.  

PubMed

The axioms of additive conjoint measurement provide a means of testing the hypothesis that testing data can be placed onto a scale with equal-interval properties. However, the axioms are difficult to verify given that item responses may be subject to measurement error. A Bayesian method exists for imposing order restrictions from additive conjoint measurement while estimating the probability of a correct response. In this study an improved version of that methodology is evaluated via simulation. The approach is then applied to data from a reading assessment intentionally designed to support an equal-interval scaling. PMID:24532164

Domingue, Ben

2014-01-01

170

Can Schools Reduce the Indigenous Test Score Gap? Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, indigenous students obtain lower test scores, on average, than non-indigenous students. Between two cohorts of eighth-graders in the late 1990s, the test score gap declined by 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviations. An Oaxaca decomposition and related descriptive evidence suggest that the most plausible explanation is related to Chile's large-scale school reforms that were targeted at low-achieving schools and

Patrick J. McEwan

2008-01-01

171

Raising Standardized Test Scores and the Role of PeaceBuilders®: A School Climate Shift Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Definition: Having a low performing school academically, where only 16.1% of students were meeting or exceeding standards, the school needed to change not only academics but its entire environment. Therefore CES 132 in the Bronx brought in PeaceBuilders to change the social-emotional environment. 2. Method The method was to follow the pre implementation test scores and the test scores

Max L. Vosskuhler; Steve Issman

172

The dynamics of the evolution of the Black–White test score gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca?Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS?K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however, the gap at the top shrinks whereas

Kitae Sohn

2010-01-01

173

The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

East, Pam C.

2005-01-01

174

Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

Poplin, Beth D.

2010-01-01

175

A Program To Help College Bound Students Improve Their Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the verbal scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) of a group of 20 high school juniors was addressed by the implementation of an SAT coaching program. A computer program, "SAT Success," and a video, "SAT Prep Video," along with practice tests from the Educational Testing Service were employed. Students were self-paced through a…

Teague, Alan B.

176

Deriving Comparable Scores for Computer Adaptive and Conventional Tests: An Example Using the SAT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures used to establish the comparability of scores derived from the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) computer adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prototype and the paper-and-pencil SAT are described in this report. Both the prototype, which is made up of Verbal and Mathematics computer adaptive tests (CATs), and a form of…

Eignor, Daniel R.

177

Block Scheduling Effectiveness: A 10Year Longitudinal Study of One Georgia School System's Test Score Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of the effectiveness of high school block scheduling in an urban school system was examined by considering whether the changed schedule resulted in an increase in test scores on several measures such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), Advanced Placement Tests (AP), and state mandated graduation examinations. Ten years of data were gathered from the public report

Ellen H. Reames; Carol Bradshaw

178

Comparing score tests and other local dependence diagnostics for the graded response model.  

PubMed

Score tests for identifying locally dependent item pairs have been proposed for binary item response models. In this article, both the bifactor and the threshold shift score tests are generalized to the graded response model. For the bifactor test, the generalization is straightforward; it adds one secondary dimension associated only with one pair of items. For the threshold shift test, however, multiple generalizations are possible: in particular, conditional, uniform, and linear shift tests are discussed in this article. Simulation studies show that all of the score tests have accurate Type I error rates given large enough samples, although their small-sample behaviour is not as good as that of Pearson's ?2 and M2 as proposed in other studies for the purpose of local dependence (LD) detection. All score tests have the highest power to detect the LD which is consistent with their parametric form, and in this case they are uniformly more powerful than ?2 and M2 ; even wrongly specified score tests are more powerful than ?2 and M2 in most conditions. An example using empirical data is provided for illustration. PMID:25286229

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2014-11-01

179

Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. Methods The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0–12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. Results African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Conclusions Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. PMID:23880156

Peters, Kristen E.; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

2013-01-01

180

Testing the reliability of Grade, Roughness and Breathiness scores by means of synthetic speech stimuli.  

PubMed

This article describes a synthesizer of disordered voices and reports a test of the reliability of Grade, Roughness, and Breathiness scores assigned to synthetic stimuli by eight expert listeners in two sessions. Speech stimuli [a], [i], [u], [ai], and [ia] were synthesized with three values of vocal frequency and four levels of vocal jitter and pulsatile additive noise each. The agreement and correlation of scores assigned by the same rater in different sessions, or by different raters in the same session, accord with published data. Only a small part of the variance of the arithmetic differences between the scores that are assigned to the same stimulus is explained by the stimuli properties. The conclusion is that differences between scores that are assigned to the same stimulus are not attributable to biases of individual raters; such biases would shift all the scores assigned on a scale, and the shift would be interpretable in terms of the properties of the stimuli. PMID:24117123

Schoentgen, Jean; Fraj, Samia; Lucero, Jorge C

2015-04-01

181

Implications of cognitive psychology for educational testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine views about learning and the learner grounded in cognitive psychology and to discuss their implications for educational testing. The new perspectives about learning and the learner suggested by cognitive psychology imply changes in educational testing. The first part of this paper compares perspectives about learning and the learner in cognitive psychology with

Sun-Geun Baek I

1994-01-01

182

Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years.  

PubMed

This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger children. Concurrent validity was assessed by means of comparison with the manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2; correlations were significant. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest and interrater reliability measures were .85 and .99, respectively. The Box and Block Test is an easy, feasible, valid, and reliable measurement for gross manual dexterity in young children. The obtained norms can be used in clinical settings to compare the gross manual dexterity of atypically developing children with that of age-related peers and to evaluate efficacy of interventions. A larger international reference population is needed to increase generalizability. PMID:23597689

Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

183

The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test

Loewen, David Allen

2013-01-01

184

Beating the Odds: A Low Equalized Assessed Valuation Elementary School with High Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study examines what makes Bluffview Elementary School a success as measured by the ISAT, the mandated state test of Illinois. Despite national reports of achievement gaps and low test scores, Bluffview Elementary has shown sustained success in educating children. This paper reviews how Bluffview Elementary students are achieving…

Levin, Brian

2011-01-01

185

A Factor Analytic Item Response Theory Approach for Relating Item Content to Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scaling procedure is proposed, based on item response theory (IRT), to fit non-hierarchical test structure as well. The binary scores of a test of English were used for calculating the probabilities of answering each item correctly. The probability matrix was factor analyzed, and the difficulty intervals or estimates corresponding to the factors…

Abdel-fattah, Abdel-fattah A.

186

Context Clues: The Most Important Factor in Improving Reading Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study ascertained the degree of relationships between scores on each of various reading subskills and overall reading success. Reading subskills were measured by locally developed reading skills tests. Overall reading success was measured by the reading subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). In each of three southern Indiana school…

Gilman, David; Prewitt, Joseph

187

Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

1986-01-01

188

Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

189

Exercise testing scores as an example of better decisions through science  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ASHLEY, E., J. MYERS, and V. FROELICHER. Exercise testing scores as an example of better decisions through science. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1391–1398, 2002. Introduction: The application of common statistical techniques to clinical and exercise test data has the potential to become a useful tool for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease,

EUAN ASHLEY; JONATHAN MYERS; VICTOR FROELICHER

2002-01-01

190

Detection of Invalid Test Scores: The Usefulness of Simple Nonparametric Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent guidelines for fair educational testing it is advised to check the validity of individual test scores through the use of person-fit statistics. For practitioners it is unclear on the basis of the existing literature which statistic to use. An overview of relatively simple existing nonparametric approaches to identify atypical response…

Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.

2014-01-01

191

Asymptotic Score-Statistic Processes and Tests for Constant Hazard Against a Change-Point Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of testing for a constant failure rate against alternatives with failure rates involving a single change-point is considered. The asymptotic significance level for tests based on maximal score statistics are shown to involve the solution to a first passage time problem for an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An example illustrates the methodology.

D. E. Matthews; V. T. Farewell; R. Pyke

1985-01-01

192

Score Reliability of a Test Composed of Passage-Based Testlets: A Generalizability Theory Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of local item dependence (LID) in passage-based testlets on the test score reliability of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension test from the perspective of generalizability (G) theory. Definitions and causes of LID in passage-based testlets are reviewed within the…

Lee, Yong-Won

193

Examining the stability of Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) baseline test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized neuropsychological (NP) testing has evolved into an important tool for clinicians in the assessment of sport-related concussions. The importance of having a reliable baseline test score for comparison post concussion is critical; yet, the stability of these baseline measurements has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of the measurements derived from

Thomas W. Kaminski; Rachel M. Groff; Joseph J. Glutting

2009-01-01

194

Low intelligence test scores in 18 year old men and risk of suicide: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between intelligence test scores in men, measured at age 18, and subsequent suicide. Design Record linkage study of the Swedish military service conscription register (1968-94) with the multi-generation register, cause of death register and census data. Four tests were performed at conscription covering logic, language, spatial, and technical skills. Setting Sweden. Participants 987 308 Swedish

D Gunnell; F Rasmussen

2004-01-01

195

Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings  

PubMed Central

I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

Chamberlain, Gary E.

2013-01-01

196

Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?  

PubMed

The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy. PMID:18273398

Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony

2007-02-01

197

The Tower of London Test: different scoring criteria for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The Tower of London (TOL) is used for evaluating planning skills, which is a component of the executive functions. Different versions and scoring criteria were developed for this task, and some of them present with different psychometrical properties. This study aimed to evaluate two specific scoring methods of the TOL in diagnosing Mild Cognitive Impairment and probable Alzheimer's disease. The TOL total scores from 60 patients of each diagnosis were compared with the performance of 60 healthy-aged controls using receiver operating characteristics analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Krikorian method better diagnosed Alzheimer's disease, while Portellas's was better at discriminating healthy controls from Mild Cognitive Impairment, but were not efficient at comparing this last group with Alzheimer's patients. Regression analysis indicates that in addition to screening tests, TOL improves the classification of the three groups. The results suggest the two scoring methods used for this task may be useful for different diagnostic purposes. PMID:22662402

de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Moreira, Lafaiete; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Marco, Luiz Armando; Côrrea, Humberto; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

2012-04-01

198

Implications of Changing Answers on Objective Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen studies of the effects of changing initial answers to objective test items are reviewed. While students throughout the total test score range tended to gain more points than they lost, higher scoring students gain more than did lower scoring students. Suggestions for further research are made. (Author/JKS)

Mueller, Daniel J.; Wasser, Virginia

1977-01-01

199

Relationships between Inquiry-Based Teaching and Physical Science Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory case study investigates relationships between use of an inquiry-based instructional style and student scores on standardized multiple-choice tests. The study takes the form of a case study of physical science classes taught by one of the authors over a span of four school years. The first 2 years were taught using traditional…

Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

2003-01-01

200

Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

Eklof, Hanna

2006-01-01

201

Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

2007-01-01

202

Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

2013-01-01

203

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

204

Teachers' Responses to Test-Driven Accountability Pressures: "If I Change, Will My Scores Drop?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines why seven third-grade teachers modified their skills-based reading and language arts program, and describes the instructional changes they made over a two-year period. Examines changes in students' reading and language arts standardized achievement test scores (increases in 4 classrooms), special education referrals (81% decrease), and…

Miller, Samuel D.

1995-01-01

205

California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

Diamond, Sandra M.

2013-01-01

206

Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

2011-01-01

207

Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

2011-01-01

208

Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2001-01-01

209

Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

Cresswell, Mike

2010-01-01

210

The Impact of Inclusion and Pullout on Middle School Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in students' standardized test scores based on the instructional model their teachers used. One group of students was served under a pullout instructional model. The other was served under an inclusive model. It is not known whether or not the pullout instructional model or the…

Herriott, Tavita S.

2010-01-01

211

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) Scores: Testing the Expanded Nigrescence Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors tested the viability of the expanded nigrescence (NT-E) model as operationalized by Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores using confirmatory factor analyses. Participants were 594 Black college students from the Southeastern United States. Results indicated a good fit for NT-E's proposed six-factor structure.…

Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

2008-01-01

212

Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

2001-01-01

213

SPATIAL AND VERBAL MEMORY TEST SCORES FOLLOWING YOGA AND FINE ARTS CAMPS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their

MANJUNATH N. K; SHIRLEY TELLES

214

A Generalizability Approach To Evaluating the Reliability of Testlet-Based Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have indicated that the reliability of test scores composed of testlets might be overestimated by conventional item-based reliability estimation methods (R. Thorndike, 1953; A. Anastasi, 1988; S. Sireci, D. Thissen, and H. Wainer, 1991; H. Wainer and D. Thissen, 1996). This study used generalizability theory to investigate the…

Lee, Guemin; Frisbie, David A.

215

Factors affecting milk ELISA scores of cows tested for Johne’s disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) has been estimated to cost dairy producers over $1.5 billion per year. The objective of this study was to examine the influence a number of environmental and genetic factors have on ELISA milk test scores for Johne’s diseas...

216

Textbooks and Test Scores: Evidence from a Prospective Evaluation in Kenya Work-in-Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is intense debate about the effect of increased expenditure on education in developed countries, there is widespread consensus that provision of textbooks can substantially increase test scores in developing countries. This paper evaluates a program through which a Dutch non-profit organization provided textbooks to 25 rural Kenyan primary schools that were chosen randomly from a group of 100

Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

217

Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?: Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent report, Solmon, Paark, and Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions about the interpretation of the results reported and some questions about

Christopher Nelson; Kevin Hollenbeck

2001-01-01

218

The black–white test score gap and early home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black–white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black–white test score differences among children of all ages even before children

Wei-Jun Jean Yeung; Kathryn M. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

219

The Decomposition of Racial Differences in Reading Test Scores Using Multilevel Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies multi-level modeling techniques to decompose the racial gap in reading test scores at the individual and school level using the NELS 1988 baseline survey of eighth graders. The analysis proceeded stepwise, first estimating individual level explanations then adding school level social characteristics to predict variation in individual level racial gap coefficients. Analysis was performed on the black\\/white

Charles L. Cappell; Carrie Ippel

220

Funding, school specialisation and test scores: An evaluation of the specialist schools policy using matching models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the effect on test scores of a UK education reform which has increased funding of schools and encouraged their specialisation in particular subject areas, en- hancing pupil choice and competition between schools. Using several data sets we apply matching methods to confront issues of the choice of an appropriate control group and selection bias. We demonstrate a statistically

Steve Bradley; Giuseppe Migali; Jim Taylor

2009-01-01

221

Applicant Reactions to Test Score Banding in Entry-Level and Promotional Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series of field studies used a fairness framework to investigate applicant reactions to test score banding in 3 police selection contexts. Studies 1 (N = 85) and 2 (N = 369) involved applicants for entry-level positions, and Study 3 (N = 39) involved applicants for promotion. Across all 3 studies, race interacted with applicants' belief that banding is associated

Donald M. Truxillo; Talya N. Bauer

1999-01-01

222

The eect of potential time in school on early test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study exploits two features of the Dutch schooling system to es- timate the eect of expanding enrollment possibilities on test scores of young children. One of these features is that children are allowed to enroll in school on their fourth birthday. The other that children having their birthday before, during and after the summer holiday are placed in the

Edwin Leuven; Mikael Lindahl; Hessel Oosterbeek; Dinand Webbink

2003-01-01

223

The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

Cryder, Rebecca E.

2012-01-01

224

Raise Test Scores without Selling Your Soul: An Interview with Scott Mandel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With his 10th book, Improving Test Scores: A Practical Approach for Teachers and Administrators, Scott Mandel outlines steps educators can take to boost achievement on standardized exams while maintaining the integrity of their day-to-day teaching. Mandel, who holds a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from USC, teaches history and English at…

Curriculum Review, 2006

2006-01-01

225

Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

Almond, Russell G.

2014-01-01

226

A Comparison Study of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores between Students in Indiana, the Midwestern Region, and the Nation. Includes Test Scores, High School Records, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and College Plans. Monograph 80-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected data from three of the latest summary reports of the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP) are presented. They are: College Bound Seniors, 1980-National, Midwestern, and Indiana. Data including Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) scores, and information from the Student Descriptive…

Lisack, J. P.

227

The comparison question polygraph test: A contrast of methods and scoring.  

PubMed

We conducted a mock crime experiment with 250 paid participants (126 females, Mdn age=30years) contrasting the validity of the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the comparison question test (CQT) for the detection of deception. Subjects were assigned at random to one of eight conditions in a Guilt (Guilty/Innocent)×Test Type (Probable-Lie/Directed-Lie)×Stimulation (Between Repetition Stimulation/No Stimulation) factorial design. The data were scored by an experienced polygraph examiner who was unaware of subject assignment to conditions and with a computer algorithm known as the Objective Scoring System Version 2 (OSS2). There were substantial main effects of guilt in both the OSS2 computer scores F(1, 241)=143.82, p<.001, ?p(2)=0.371, and in the human scoring, F(1, 242)=98.92, p<.001, ?p(2)=.29. There were no differences between the test types in the number of spontaneous countermeasure attempts made against them. Although under the controlled conditions of an experiment the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the CQT produced equivocal results in terms of detection accuracy, the directed-lie variant has much to recommend it as it is inherently more standardized in its administration and construction. PMID:25703188

Honts, Charles R; Reavy, Racheal

2015-05-01

228

Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

2014-06-01

229

Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

2014-01-01

230

Investigating Differences in Mean Score on Adaptive and Paper and Pencil Versions of the College Level Academic Skills Reading Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible causes of a 16-point mean score increase for the computer adaptive form of the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) in reading over the paper-and-pencil test (PPT) in reading are examined. The adaptive form of the CLAST was used in a state-wide field test in which reading, writing, and computation scores for approximately 1,000…

Legg, Sue M.; Buhr, Dianne C.

231

An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…

Allalouf, Avi

2007-01-01

232

Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

2004-01-01

233

The impact of familial environment on depression scores after genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

The associations between characteristics of family relationships and family trends in cancer worry and the psychological adjustment of recipients of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility were investigated. Data provided by 178 individuals from 24 families with Lynch syndrome who participated in a cohort study investigating psychological and behavioral outcomes of genetic testing were used. Responses from multiple family members were aggregated to construct family trends representing norms and departure from norms in cancer worry. Lower perceived family cohesion at baseline and decrease in this variable at 6 months after receipt of test results were associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. More variability in cancer worry among family members at baseline was also associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. Increase in family conflict was associated with decrease in depression scores among individuals from families with higher levels of cancer worry on average and less variability among the members. Family relationships and family trends in levels of cancer worry may play important roles in the psychological adjustment of genetic test recipients. The findings highlight the complexity of familial environment surrounding individuals that undergo genetic testing and suggest the benefits of considering these factors when providing genetic services. PMID:19021640

Ashida, S; Hadley, D W; Vaughn, B K; Kuhn, N R; Jenkins, J F; Koehly, L M

2009-01-01

234

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

E-print Network

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated...

Hooten, Regina

2010-07-14

235

Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on "Praxis II" Licensure Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerns the "highly qualified teacher" provisions of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA," 2002), as reauthorized, and other policies at the federal, state and local levels, which have aimed to elevate the content knowledge of teachers. This examination of "Praxis II" score trends was not meant to serve as an evaluation…

Gitomer, Drew H.; Qi, Yi

2010-01-01

236

The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

Powell, P. E.

237

The Relationship between Students’ Verbal and Nonverbal Test Scores within the Context of Poverty  

E-print Network

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS? VERBAL AND NONVERBAL TEST SCORES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF POVERTY A Dissertation by FATIH KAYA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Subject: Educational Psychology Copyright 2013 Fatih Kaya ABSTRACT The association between intelligence and achievement has been investigated by many researchers, and a moderate to strong correlation between the two has been repeatedly found. Few...

Kaya, Fatih

2013-03-13

238

The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee Putnam County area. The study should be reproduced in various school districts in the state of Tennessee to compare the findings.

Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

239

Development and validation of a self-scoring test for coronary heart disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-administered tests to assess an individual's coronary heart disease risk are common in the popular press. However, delusion and inaccuracy in self-scoring may impair their utility as educational tools. Self-assessment questions concerning dietary cholesterol, weight, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure were administered several days prior to risk measurement to 246 randomly selected adults aged twenty-five to sixty-four. A standard risk

Phyllis L. Pirie; Russell V. Luepker; David R. Jacobs; James W. Brown; Nancy Hall

1983-01-01

240

Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984–2004. Conscripts, mostly 18–19 years of age, were born to women for whom almost complete reproductive histories were obtained.

Tor Bjerkedal; Petter Kristensen; Geir A. Skjeret; John I. Brevik

2007-01-01

241

Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test: An Old Problem Appraoched Anew. Twente Educational Report Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classical problem in mastery testing is the choice of passing score and test length so that the mastery decisions are optimal. This problem has been addressed several times from a variety of viewpoints. In this paper, the usual indifference zone approach is adopted, with a new criterion for optimizing the passing score. Specifically,…

van der Linden, Wim J.

242

Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

1976-01-01

243

Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

244

Using Test-Taking Strategies to Maximize Multiple-Choice Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to answer two questions: (1) Can cognitive strategies to increase testwiseness be taught? (2) Can the testwiseness strategies be generalized by students so they can improve their scores on examinations other than those measuring testwiseness? Fifty-four undergraduate education students served as subjects. The treatment consisted of a one-hour lecture\\/discussion presentation covering four cognitive strategies identified as

John P. Dolly; Kathy S. Williams

1986-01-01

245

Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

2010-01-01

246

A score test for overdispersion in zero-inflated poisson mixed regression model.  

PubMed

Count data with extra zeros are common in many medical applications. The zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model is useful to analyse such data. For hierarchical or correlated count data where the observations are either clustered or represent repeated outcomes from individual subjects, a class of ZIP mixed regression models may be appropriate. However, the ZIP parameter estimates can be severely biased if the non-zero counts are overdispersed in relation to the Poisson distribution. In this paper, a score test is proposed for testing the ZIP mixed regression model against the zero-inflated negative binomial alternative. Sampling distribution and power of the test statistic are evaluated by simulation studies. The results show that the test statistic performs satisfactorily under a wide range of conditions. The test procedure is applied to pancreas disorder length of stay that comprised mainly same-day separations and simultaneous prolonged hospitalizations. PMID:16794991

Xiang, Liming; Lee, Andy H; Yau, Kelvin K W; McLachlan, Geoffrey J

2007-03-30

247

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of…

Hooten, Regina Gay

2009-01-01

248

A score-type test for heterogeneity in zero-inflated models in a stratified population.  

PubMed

We propose a score-type statistic to evaluate heterogeneity in zero-inflated models for count data in a stratified population, where heterogeneity is defined as instances in which the zero counts are generated from two sources. Evaluating heterogeneity in this class of models has attracted considerable attention in the literature, but existing testing procedures have primarily relied on the constancy assumption under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we extend the literature by describing a score-type test to evaluate homogeneity against general alternatives that do not neglect the stratification information under the alternative hypothesis. The limiting null distribution of the proposed test statistic is a mixture of chi-squared distributions that can be well approximated by a simple parametric bootstrap procedure. Our numerical simulation studies show that the proposed test can greatly improve efficiency over tests of heterogeneity that ignore the stratification information. An empirical application to dental caries data in early childhood further shows the importance and practical utility of the methodology in using the stratification profile to detect heterogeneity in the population. PMID:24488881

Cao, Guanqun; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David

2014-05-30

249

A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

2012-01-01

250

Analysis of comorbid factors that increase the COPD assessment test scores  

PubMed Central

Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) is a concise health status measure for COPD. COPD patients have a variety of comorbidities, but little is known about their impact on quality of life. This study was designed to investigate comorbid factors that may contribute to high CAT scores. Methods An observational study at Keio University and affiliated hospitals enrolled 336 COPD patients and 67 non-COPD subjects. Health status was assessed by the CAT, the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and all components of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item (SF-36) version 2, which is a generic measure of health. Comorbidities were identified based on patients’ reports, physicians’ records, and questionnaires, including the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Results The CAT showed moderate-good correlations with the SGRQ and all components of the SF-36. The presence of GERD, depression, arrhythmia, and anxiety was significantly associated with a high CAT score in the COPD patients. Conclusions Symptomatic COPD patients have a high prevalence of comorbidities. A high CAT score should alert the clinician to a higher likelihood of certain comorbidities such as GERD and depression, because these diseases may co-exist unrecognized. Trial registration Clinical trial registered with UMIN (UMIN000003470). PMID:24502760

2014-01-01

251

A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).  

PubMed

This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n?=?84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information. PMID:25773894

Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

2015-04-01

252

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the  

E-print Network

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the cutoff for Math 231. Statistical data from previous semesters shows that students with placement scores of 22 and below (out of 45) have a much higher W/D/F rate in Math 231

Taalman, Laura

253

The Mote In Thy Brother's Eye, and The Beam in Thine Own: Predicting One's Own and Others' Personality Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the similarity between subjects' (N=63) ratings of themselves and others, on various tests of personality. Results revealed that subjects correctly estimated several of their own scores, but only two scores of another person. They believed themselves to be similar to their friend, thereby showing attributional errors. (JAC)

Furnham, Adrian; Henderson, Monika

1983-01-01

254

Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

Weigle, Sara Cushing

2010-01-01

255

An Examination of the Relationship Between School Scores Derived From Commercial Achievement Tests and Those From Statewide Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An apparent discrepancy between building level scores in basic skills produced by Pennsylvania's state assessment program (EQA) and building summary scores, generally a grade equivalent, provided by commercial standardized achievement tests is investigated. The impetus for the study came from occasional reports by school administrators that their…

Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

256

Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

257

The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

Vaca, James L., Jr.

258

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

E-print Network

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing D. Richard Kuhn, Senior Member. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system can be triggered that all faults in a system are triggered by a combination of n or fewer parameters, then testing all n

Perkins, Richard A.

259

The Factorial Validity of Scores from a Cognitively Designed Test: The Spatial Learning Ability Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies of the factorial validity of the Spatial Learning Ability Test (SLAT), involving 431 undergraduates, were summarized to elaborate nomothetic span. These studies support the SLAT as a spatial processing measure. The SLAT, compared to a test with the same item type, was a more pure measure of spatial ability. (SLD)

Embretson, Susan E.

1997-01-01

260

Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

Educational Testing Service, 2008

2008-01-01

261

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

262

Tissue pretreatment with formic acid might lower HercepTest scores in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other prion diseases are diseases with yet not well-defined routes of transmission and infection. The safe processing of potentially contaminated tissue material remains a challenge for histologic laboratories. Formic acid pretreatment is considered to be effective in prion inactivation. We evaluated the c-erbB2 and the hormone receptor-status in potentially prion infectious breast cancer tissue after pretreatment with formic acid. Paired breast cancer tissue samples were immunostained with commercially available antibodies against c-erbB2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor with 1 tissue sample of each pair being pretreated with 98% formic acid. Staining was evaluated either according to the HercepTest score or using an immunoreactive score. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed for 7 of these cases. Untreated tissues showed strong circumferential staining for c-erbB2 (HercepTest score 3+), whereas the membranous staining of the tissues pretreated with formic acid was significantly weaker. FISH analyses showed no differences in both groups. The hormone receptor expression was not significantly influenced and positivity was maintained in all cases. In breast cancer patients, the pretreatment of tissue with formic acid for prion-decontamination in the case of suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or other prion diseases can lead to underestimation of the immunohistologically determined c-erbB2 status. In these cases, a c-erbB2-FISH analysis should be performed. For the immunostaining of hormone receptors in breast cancer, formic acid pretreatment can be applied without negative effects on the sensitivity or specificity of the assay. PMID:17122652

Fritzsche, Florian R; Kristiansen, Glen; Boesl, Andreas; Burkhardt, Mick; Pahl, Stefan; Dankof, Anja; Dietel, Manfred; Dahl, Edgar

2006-12-01

263

CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

2013-01-01

264

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine who to admit (and, in some cases, to award merit-  

E-print Network

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine-prepared for these tests. Some are tests of aptitude in quantitative skills, verbal and analytical reasoning and/or writing ability (e.g., GRE, LSAT, GMAT), while others are tests of content knowledge (e.g., GRE Subject Tests

Hampton, Randy

265

Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. Methods The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2±0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70) was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9–48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03–0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. Conclusion The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult. PMID:24940880

Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

2014-01-01

266

The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

267

Do reductions in class size raise students’ test scores? Evidence from population variation in Minnesota's elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–ş Consistent estimation of the impact of class size on student learning is difficult. â–ş This paper uses a method introduced by Hoxby (2000). â–ş It estimates impacts of class size on test scores of grade 3 and 5 pupils in Minnesota. â–ş Reductions in class size increase mathematics and reading test scores in Minnesota. â–ş But the effect is

Hyunkuk Cho; Paul Glewwe; Melissa Whitler

2012-01-01

268

Upgrading the Gleason Score in Extended Prostate Biopsy: Implications for Treatment Choice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the incidence of overestimation of Gleason score (GS) in extended prostate biopsy, and consequently circumventing unnecessary aggressive treatment. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective study of 464 patients who underwent prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy between January 2001 and November 2007. The GS from biopsy and radical prostatectomy were compared. The incidence of overestimation of GS in biopsies and tumor volume were studied. Multivariate analysis was applied to find parameters that predict upgrading the GS in prostate biopsy. Results: The exact agreement of GS between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy occurred in 56.9% of cases. In 29.1% cases it was underestimated, and it was overestimated in 14%. One hundred and six (22.8%) patients received a diagnosis of high GS (8, 9, or 10) in a prostate biopsy. In 29.2% of cases, the definitive Gleason Score was 7 or lower. In cases in which GS was overestimated in the biopsy, tumors were significantly smaller. In multivariate analysis, the total percentage of tumor was the only independent factor in overestimation of GS. Tumors occupying less than 33% of cores had a 5.6-fold greater chance of being overestimated. Conclusion: In the extended biopsy era and after the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus on GS, almost one third of tumors considered to have high GS at the biopsy may be intermediate-risk cancers. In that condition, tumors are smaller in biopsy. This should be remembered by professionals involved with prostate cancer to avoid overtreatment and undesirable side effects.

Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: katiaramos@uol.com.br; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.A. [Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dall'Oglio, Marcos F.; Cury, Jose; Antunes, Alberto A.; Sanudo, Adriana; Srougi, Miguel [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2009-02-01

269

Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

Papp, Klara K.; And Others

1987-01-01

270

Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in predicting student…

Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

1980-01-01

271

Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition, characteristics of test items themselves and/or opportunities to learn. Suggestions for future research are made.

Gordon, Janet Victoria

272

Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

2010-04-01

273

Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

2014-12-01

274

Metric-Free Measures of Test Score Trends and Gaps with Policy-Relevant Examples. CSE Report 665  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of scale typically arise when comparing test score trends, gaps, and gap trends across different tests. To overcome some of these difficulties, we can express the difference between the observed test performance of two groups with graphs or statistics that are metric-free (i.e., invariant under positive monotonic transformations of the…

Ho, Andrew D.; Haertel, Edward H.

2006-01-01

275

Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

2010-01-01

276

A Ten-Year Study of Test Scores for College-Bound Students in the State of Washington.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test results (1968-1977) on the English and mathematics achievement subtests of the Washington Precollege Test (WPC), administered annually to the vast majority of college bound students in the state of Washington, were examined for evidence of test score decline. The following information from 300,000 students was analyzed by both sex and total…

Noeth, Richard J.

277

A Comparative Study of the Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) Test Scores of Pre-Service Teachers at Mankato State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study tested commonly held beliefs concerning gender differences in mental ability. People tend to believe that female pre-service teachers will score significantly higher in verbal ability (reading and writing) than male pre-service teachers, and that male pre-service teachers will score significantly higher in mathematics. The…

Daly, Richard F.

278

The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

279

Psychometric Analyses of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TASE) Scores among Singapore Primary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined among Singapore\\u000a primary school students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the factor structure\\u000a of the TAS-E in a sample of 540 Singapore students. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the\\u000a TAS-E scores in

Patricia A. Lowe; Rebecca P. Ang; Stephen W. Loke

280

Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons  

PubMed Central

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Caucasians received neuropsychological testing; volumetric MRI measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Caucasians. Latent variable modeling was used to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age and education adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables and adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI in the combined sample and in Hispanics, made no difference in Caucasians, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

281

Effects of Mayfield's Four Questions (M4Q) on Nursing Students' Self-Efficacy and Multiple-Choice Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of being taught the Mayfield's Four Questions multiple-choice test-taking strategy on the perceived self-efficacy and multiple-choice test scores of nursing students in a two-year associate degree program. Experimental and control groups were chosen by stratified random sampling. Subjects completed the 10-statement…

Mayfield, Linda Riggs

2010-01-01

282

Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

1978-01-01

283

Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

2010-01-01

284

Age and Education Effects on Relationships of Cognitive Test Scores With Brain Structure in Demographically Diverse Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available

Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Charles DeCarli

2009-01-01

285

Triple Test Score for the Evaluation of Invasive Ductal and Lobular Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to compare the preoperative sum score diagnostics of invasive ductal and lobular cancers using three\\u000a or four diagnostic methods. The novelty of this study is the examination of this phenomenon based on sum score, no such papers\\u000a can be found in the literature. Ductal cancers have higher score values indicating easier diagnostics, but the

Zsofia Egyed; Balázs Járay; Janina Kulka; Zoltán Péntek

2009-01-01

286

Prediction of mathematics 102 grades from high school algebra grades and the cooperative elementary algebra test scores  

E-print Network

tests before his registration. These tests are used for purposes of placement and counseling. The tests used in this battery include s college ability test, achieve- ment tests in algebra, chemistry, and English' snd a diagnos- tic reading test. A... variables were scores made on s aultipls test battery given to students as seniors in high school, high school grads point average, ond high school rash, His work showed no difference in predictive power as the vines of the high schools were varied. He...

Oldham, Eldred Beamon

1962-01-01

287

Is High School GPA Better than Admission Test Scores for Predicting Academic Success in College?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of high school GPA and ACT score for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. We estimated predictions of achieving first-year GPA levels ranging from 2.00 to 3.75 at 84 post secondary institutions. Both high school GPA and ACT score were effective predictors of achieving moderate levels of…

Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard L.

2004-01-01

288

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

289

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

290

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

291

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

292

Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography  

PubMed Central

Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

2014-01-01

293

Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.  

PubMed

The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

2013-12-01

294

The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

Turner, Sherry L.

2011-01-01

295

Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score  

PubMed Central

Background The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT) could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice. Objective To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit. Results A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], ?0.37–0.46) and 0.18 (95% CI, ?0.23–0.60), respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19). There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6.63] and 8.84 [95% CI, 6.29–11.39], respectively), as assessed by physicians. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CAT score change for the detection of acute deterioration in health status was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84–0.94), and the optimum cut-off point score was at 4, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 76.8%, 83.6%, and 82.4%, respectively. Conclusions Change in CAT score during monitoring visits is useful for detecting acute deterioration in health status, and a change of 4 units could make a moderate prediction of acute deterioration in health status. PMID:25678783

Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chaiwong, Warawut; Limsukon, Atikun; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn; Phetsuk, Nittaya

2015-01-01

296

Extended Homozygosity Score Tests to Detect Positive Selection in Genome-wide Scans  

E-print Network

are able to replicate findings reported in the literature. We can also identify new candidate regions that may undergo recent selection through a set of filtering criteria including highest EHHT scores, high derived allele frequency and large population...

Zhong, Ming

2011-08-08

297

The Effect of Socioeconomic Levels and Similar Instruction on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores of Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores of Asian, Hispanic, Black, and White students with similar socioeconomic backgrounds and access to similar instruction in the same large midwestern school district were compared. Income levels were determined by using federal guidelines for free and reduced school lunches. The population of the study consisted…

Bolinger, Rex W.

298

Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

2012-01-01

299

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2009-01-01

300

School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative

Robert Bifulco; Helen F. Ladd

2007-01-01

301

Sparse kernel density construction using orthogonal forward regression with leave-one-out test score and local regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient construction algorithm for obtaining sparse kernel density estimates based on a regression approach that directly optimizes model generalization capability. Computational efficiency of the density construction is ensured using an orthogonal forward regression, and the algorithm incrementally minimizes the leave-one-out test score. A local regularization method is incorporated naturally into the density construction process to further

Sheng Chen; Xia Hong; Chris J. Harris

2004-01-01

302

The Performance of Latinos in Rural Public Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Test Scores in Grades 3, 6, and 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the lastfew decades, California 's rural communities have experienced a sociodemographic transformation as the percentage of Latinos in these towns increased dramatically. These high concentrations of Latinos are correlated with poverty and low educational achievement. Using multiple regression analysis, this study examines how socioeconomic status, school funding, English proficiency, and Latino concentration affect test scores. This study's major findings

Steve Hampton; Javier M. Ekboir; Refugio I. Rochin

1995-01-01

303

Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

Pullin, Diana

2013-01-01

304

Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

Haberman, Shelby J.

2011-01-01

305

A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

Sawilowsky, Shlomo

1985-01-01

306

Course of COPD Assessment Test (CAT) Scores During Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated in Outpatient Setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction : COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an 8-items questionnaire for assessment of health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective : To evaluate the course of CAT scores during bacterial exacerbations of COPD treated in outpatient setting. Methods : We performed an observational, prospective study including 81 outpatients (57 males and 24 females, aged 43 to 74 years) with bacterial exacerbation of COPD. All participants completed CAT at initial visit (i.e. at the time of diagnosis of exacerbation and beginning of its treatment), 10 and 30 days after initial visit. Mean scores of each item, as well as the overall mean score, at these time points were compared. Results : The mean scores for each CAT question at initial visit varied from 2.6 to 3.5, whereas the mean scores for each CAT question 10 days after initial visit varied from 1.7 to 2.6. We registered significant reduction of the mean overall CAT score 10 days after initial visit as compared to its value at initial visit of 6.9 ± 2.7 points (16.8 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). The mean scores for each CAT question 30 days after initial visit varied from 1.3 to 2.4. We registered reduction of mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit as compared to its score 10 days after initial visit of 2.9 ± 1.2 points (13.9 vs 16.8; P < 0.005). The mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit was reduced for 9.8 ± 4.5 points as compared to its value at initial visit (13.9 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). Conclusion : We found significant improvement in the patient’s health status during recovery from exacerbation as compared to their health status at the time of exacerbation confirming the CAT as an effective tool to measure health status in patients with COPD.

Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Vasilevska, Kristin; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

2015-01-01

307

Testing Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Scores across Spanish and Swiss Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M?=?16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M?=?15.94 years). Results The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. PMID:24349180

Ortuńo-Sierra, Javier; Badoud, Deborah; Knecht, Francesca; Paino, Mercedes; Eliez, Stephan; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Debbané, Martin

2013-01-01

308

Genetic testing: Psychological aspects and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of inherited disorders and risk factors that can be detected through genetic testing is increasing rapidly, and genetic testing may soon become a common component of routine medical care. Is behavioral medicine ready? For the first time, a sophisti- cated understanding of gene-environment interactions as mani- fested in the interactions among an individual's genetic predispo- sitions, behavior, and

Caryn Lerman; Robert T. Croyle; Kenneth P. Tercyak; Heidi Hamann

2002-01-01

309

Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2014-01-01

310

Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?  

E-print Network

- less, if an effective training method could be designed, it would have immense practical implications. Here we present novel evidence that suggests reasons for skepticism. The evidence is not definitive

Sederberg, Per B.

311

Touchdowns and test scores: exploring the relationship between athletics and academics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between college football success and SAT scores using an updated data series on football winning percentages. The finding here of a positive and significant relationship supports the idea that collegiate athletics, namely football, serves the institution's admissions process. Selective institutions are able to enhance the quality of their student populations. ?Some studies (e.g. Tucker, 1992;

F. G. Mixon; L. J. TreviŃO; T. C. Minto

2004-01-01

312

The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

Jones, Tracy Anne

2010-01-01

313

Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage…

Nagle, Barry T.

2013-01-01

314

Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

2008-01-01

315

Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

2010-01-01

316

IRT True-Score Test Equating: A Guide through Assumptions and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the assumptions required by the item response theory (IRT) true-score equating method (with Stocking & Lord, 1983; scaling approach), which is commonly used in the nonequivalent groups with an anchor data-collection design. More precisely, this article investigates the assumptions made at each step by the IRT approach to…

von Davier, Alina A.; Wilson, Christine

2007-01-01

317

Alternative Methods to Curriculum-Based Measurement for Written Expression: Implications for Reliability and Validity of the Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of alternative approaches to administering and scoring curriculum-based measurement for written expression. Specifically, three response durations (3, 5, and 7 minutes) and six score types (total words written, words spelled correctly, percent of words spelled correctly,…

Merrigan, Teresa E.

2012-01-01

318

Psychiatric implications of cancer genetic testing.  

PubMed

As genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes has transitioned from research to clinical settings, research regarding its accompanying psychosocial effects has grown. Men and women being tested for hereditary cancer syndromes may experience some psychological distress while going through the process of testing or after carrier status is identified. Psychological distress appears to decrease over the course of the first year and it is typically not clinically significant. Longer term studies show mixed results with some mutation carriers continuing to experience elevated distress. Baseline distress is the greatest risk factor for both immediate (weeks-12 months) and long-term psychological distress (18 mo-8 years post genetic testing). In addition to baseline psychological distress, other risk factors can be identified to help identify individuals who may need psychosocial interventions during the genetic testing process. The challenges of providing clinical care to the growing population of individuals identified to be at increased risk for heritable cancers present opportunities for research and new models of care. PMID:25234846

Hirschberg, April Malia; Chan-Smutko, Gayun; Pirl, William F

2015-02-01

319

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

320

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

321

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

322

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

323

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

324

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

325

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

326

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

327

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

328

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

329

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

330

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

331

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

332

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

333

Implications of laboratory tests of condom integrity.  

PubMed

This study examines the significance of test results on latex, polyurethane, and natural membrane condoms as barriers to virus passage. Data on three distinct concerns were analyzed: 1) passage of virus or microspheres through small holes or pores inherent in the material of "intact" condoms which are undetectable by the standard water leak quality assurance test; 2) passage of virus or microspheres through larger holes in "leaker" condoms detectable by the leak test but marketed because of the finite acceptable quality level of the test; and 3) passage of virus through condoms that break during use. The results showed that relative importance of breaks and holes is related to the volume of semen that contains an "infectious dose" of a sexually transmitted disease. When 0.1-1.0 ml exposures to semen are necessary for disease transmission, the risk during latex condom use primarily results not from holes but from breakage of condoms. For smaller volumes of semen exposure (0.00001 ml or less), the presence of holes can be as important as breaks. The same qualitative argument pertains to a comparison of "leaker" condoms to the large majority of "intact" condoms. PMID:10225589

Carey, R F; Lytle, C D; Cyr, W H

1999-04-01

334

Development and Psychometric Testing of a Quality of Recovery Score After General Anesthesia and Surgery in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

a significant negative relationship between QoR Score and female gender (P 5 0.048) and older age (P 5 0.041). There was also good interrater agreement (r 5 0.55, P , 0.0001), test-retest reliability (median r 5 0.61, P , 0.0001), and internal consistency (a 5 0.57 and 0.90, P , 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the groups of

Paul S. Myles; Jennifer O. Hunt; Claire E. Nightingale; Helen Fletcher; Terence Beh; Deral Tanil; Attila Nagy; Alan Rubinstein; Jennie L. Ponsford

1999-01-01

335

The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.  

PubMed

This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A ? analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (? = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (? = 5.2, p ? 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs. PMID:23860293

Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

2015-01-01

336

Use of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score by junior doctors on patients with fractured neck of femur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The mental state of patients with fractured neck of femur is important as a predictor of post-operative outcome. The Hodgkinson\\u000a Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) is a validated and simple method of assessing the pre-operative mental state of patients\\u000a with fractured neck of femur. This survey investigated whether or not orthopaedic junior doctors (SHOs) appreciated the importance\\u000a of mental state

N. P. M. Jain; P. M. Guyver; P. McCarthy; S. Sarasin; N. K. Rouholamin; M. J. H. McCarthy

2008-01-01

337

Stated vocational aims and Strong interest test scores of high school senior girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-fourth of the stated vocational choices of 297 girl senior students from the pre-college, commercial, and general and home economics groups of two Flint, Michigan, high schools was in office work. The concentration of highest Strong scores was in stenography, office work, home-making, and nursing––4 occupations between which the Strong Blank does not discriminate adequately. Therefore the Strong Blank is

M. Skodak; O. L. Crissey

1942-01-01

338

Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

2013-01-01

339

Bad Tests, Good Outcomes: Using State Teacher Licensing Scores to Improve the Curriculum, Help Students Meet Their Professional Goals, and Keep Relationships Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As universities become more invested in assessment and outcomes, department chairs and deans increasingly are asked to figure out why some departments score well on tests, and others dismally low. In this article, the author sets out some guidelines and processes for examining test score data, in order to save time for faculty members and…

Olwell, Russell

2008-01-01

340

Looking Beyond Test Score Gains: State Accountability's Effect on the Differential Black-White Levels of Education Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers in the accountability literature have attempted to document whether accountability programs have played a role in producing higher test scores. However, given that test scores are not the appropriate measure to gauge accountability programs' success for a number of reasons, this paper seeks to determine whether they may have had larger impacts on more significant measures of student

Kathleen N. Wong

341

Does It Matter if You "Kill" the Patient or Order Too Many Tests? Scoring Alternatives for a Test of Clinical Reasoning Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares five scoring approaches for a test of clinical reasoning skills. All of the approaches incorporate information about the correct item responses selected and the errors, such as selecting too many responses or selecting a response that is inappropriate and/or harmful to the patient. The approaches are combinations of theoretical…

Childs, Ruth A.; Dunn, Jennifer L.; van Barneveld, Christina; Jaciw, Andrew P.

2007-01-01

342

Comparability of Examinee Proficiency Scores on Computer Adaptive Tests Using Real and Simulated Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In measurement research, data simulations are a commonly used analytical technique. While simulation designs have many benefits, it is unclear if these artificially generated datasets are able to accurately capture real examinee item response behaviors. This potential lack of comparability may have important implications for administration of…

Evans, Josiah Jeremiah

2010-01-01

343

On the Efficiency of Score Tests for Homogeneity in Two-Component Parametric Models for Discrete Data  

PubMed Central

Summary In many applications of two-component mixture models for discrete data such as zero-inflated models, it is often of interest to conduct inferences for the mixing weights. Score tests derived from the marginal model that allows for negative mixing weights have been particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures often rely on restrictive assumptions such as the constancy of the mixing weights and typically ignore the structural constraints of the marginal model. In this article, we develop a score test of homogeneity that overcomes the limitations of existing procedures. The technique is based on a decomposition of the mixing weights into terms that have an obvious statistical interpretation. We exploit this decomposition to lay the foundation of the test. Simulation results show that the proposed covariate-adjusted test statistic can greatly improve the efficiency over test statistics based on constant mixing weights. A real-life example in dental caries research is used to illustrate the methodology. PMID:22348298

Todem, David; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Kim, Kyung Mann

2013-01-01

344

TESTING MODELS FOR BASALTIC VOLCANISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

E-print Network

TESTING MODELS FOR BASALTIC VOLCANISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Eugene Smith 1 The determination of volcanic risk to the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain requires, then volcanism in the future may not be a significant threat to Yucca Mountain. On the other hand, if melting

Conrad, Clint

345

Scoring Best on All Life's Tests--By Using Your "Whole Brain."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of documents contains advice on doing well on tests by preparing and using the whole brain. The first sheet contains general tips for helping students become fact-smart, how to improve test-smartness, and how to build test-smartness. The combination of these three approaches assures that students will do their best on tests. The…

Rubenzer, Ronald L.

346

Number Right Scores as a Function of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, and Test Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of item arrangement (easy-hard, uniform, and random), test anxiety, and sex on a 48-item multiple-choice mathematics test assembled from items of the American College Testing Program and taken by motivated upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students were investigated. Four measures of anxiety were used: the Achievement Test

Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

347

Scoring neuropsychological tests using the Rasch model: an illustrative example with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure.  

PubMed

Parametric statistical methods are typically used for analyzing test scores, even though they are ordinal at best. The Meyers and Meyers' Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure four-category scoring system has been evaluated with the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and disordered thresholds have been found. However, Rasch-modeling dichotomized data led to good fit for both normal (n = 219) and Traumatic Brain Injury (n = 54) samples and generalized validity for these groups, as well as for male and female groups. The logarithmic transformation of the item and person data performed by the model converts the ordinal data to yield interval scaled data. This is desirable not only from a scientific perspective, but also from the point of view of interpretability and communicability. PMID:19658034

Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R; Perea, Maria V; Ladera, Valentina

2010-01-01

348

Pass-Fail Reliability for Tests with Cut Scores: A Simplified Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-administration classification reliability index is described that estimates the probability of consistently classifying examinees to mastery or nonmastery states as if those examinees had been tested with two alternate forms. The procedure is applicable to any test used for classification purposes, subdividing that test into two…

Breyer, F. Jay; Lewis, Charles

349

The Effect of Variations of the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test upon Scores of Culturally Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Word Meaning section of the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A, was questioned as a true measure of the capabilities of culturally disadvantaged children. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test with a test in which as many objects as possible were renamed to coincide with the language of the students…

Gray, Lois A.; Guthrie, Larry F.

350

The MDT Innovation: Machine-Scoring of Fill-in-the-Blank Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multi-Digit Technologies (MDT) testing technique is discussed as the first major advance in computer assisted testing in several decades. The MDT testing method uses fill-in-the-blank or completion-type questions, with an alphabetized long list of possible responses. An MDT answer sheet is used to record the code number of the answer. For…

Anderson, Paul S.

351

The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personal- ity tests).

CORNELIUS J. KÖNIG; KLAUS G. MELCHERS; MARTIN KLEINMANN; GERALD M. RICHTER; UTE-CHRISTINE KLEHE

2006-01-01

352

How Do Shocks to Non-Cognitive Skills Affect Test Scores?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the extent to which test performance is affected by shocks to non-cognitive skills. 440 students took a low stakes mathematics test. About half of them were exposed to positive affirmation while being given test instructions, whereas the other half served as controls. The students were allocated to 14 tutorials and randomisation was conducted at the tutorial level.

Stefanie Behncke

2009-01-01

353

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the USA Testprep Intervention to Increase High School Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act emphasized the responsibility of states to improve student academic performance. In one state, students are required to take subject-area tests and master each test to graduate; however, in some schools, many students are failing the English II test administered during students' sophomore year. Two districts have…

Christian, Veronica Faye

2012-01-01

354

The relationship of noncredible performance to continuous performance test scores in adults referred for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder evaluation.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults is complicated by the fact that neither symptom report nor neuropsychological findings are specific to the diagnosis. Few studies have addressed the possibility that noncredible performance influences the effectiveness of neuropsychological test findings in ADHD assessment. The present study utilized archival data on Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores from young adults referred for concerns about ADHD at two different universities, who were divided into three groups: (1) those who failed a measure of noncredible performance (the Word Memory Test; WMT), (2) those who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD, and (3) controls with psychological symptoms who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. More individuals who failed the WMT were also clinically impaired on the CPT than individuals diagnosed with ADHD and individuals with psychological symptoms, who could not be distinguished from each other. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing for noncredible performance before interpreting neuropsychological test scores in ADHD assessment. Results also emphasize the importance of considering other disorders that can impact CPT performance prior to interpreting CPT impairment as indicative of ADHD. PMID:21159792

Suhr, Julie A; Sullivan, Brian K; Rodriguez, Jose Luis

2011-02-01

355

Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

2013-01-01

356

Correlates of Mexican American Students' Standardized Test Scores: An Integrated Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of standardized testing to evaluate academic achievement is a widely debated topic. Despite controversies, standardized testing is used in all educational levels from elementary school to college entrance examinations. One of the ethnic groups particularly affected by this is the Mexican-origin population. An integrated model (individual,…

Morales, M. Cristina; Saenz, Rogelio

2007-01-01

357

Predicting Success in Graduate School Using GRE and PAEG Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance of limited-English speaking graduate school applicants on the Prueba de Admision para Estudios Graduados aptitude test is compared with Graduate Record Examination results, and the validity of the two tests as predictors of academic success for bilingual doctoral students in the New York University Puerto Rico program is examined. (MSE)

Bornheimer, Deane G.

1984-01-01

358

The Relationship between English Language Learners' Language Proficiency and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally theorized that English Language Learner (ELL) students do not succeed on state standardized tests because ELL students lack the cognitive academic language skills necessary to function on the large scale content assessments. The purpose of this dissertation was to test that theory. Through the use of quantitative methodology, ELL…

Thakkar, Darshan

2013-01-01

359

The Impact of Intensive Reading Interventions on Student Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the impact intensive reading instruction had for 28 students with learning disabilities at the middle school level on standardized tests. National Assessment of Education Progress testing indicates that across the United States, learning disabled students literacy skills are decreasing annually, and these…

Munoz, Carolyn Sue

2010-01-01

360

Time-Score Analysis in Criterion-Referenced Tests. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family of Weibull distributions was investigated as a model for the distributions of response times for items in computer-based criterion-referenced tests. The fit of these distributions were, with a few exceptions, good to excellent according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For a few relatively simple items, the two-parameter gamma…

Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

361

Making the Cut: How States Set Passing Scores on Standardized Tests. Explainer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current climate of accountability in American public education, tests get more attention and carry more importance than ever before. Both state accountability systems and the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) hold schools accountable for whether students pass standardized state tests. NCLB requires that schools and school districts…

Rotherham, Andrew J.

2006-01-01

362

Correlation of SPINE Test Scores to Judges' Ratings of Speech Intelligibility in Hearing-Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SPINE test (SPeech INtelligibility Evaluation), designed to measure speech intelligibility of severely to profoundly hearing-impaired children was administered to 30 hearing-impaired children (12-16 years old) to examine its validity. Results suggested that the SPINE test is a valid measure of speech intelligibility with hearing-impaired…

Kelly, Colleen; And Others

1986-01-01

363

Identifying Language Impairment in Children: Combining Language Test Scores with Parental Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who meet language test criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) are not necessarily the same as those who are referred to a speech and language therapist. Aims: To consider how far this discrepancy reflects insensitivity of traditional language tests to clinically important features of language impairment. Methods &…

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McDonald, David

2009-01-01

364

Test based on a normal score for efficient edge detection in image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current paper proposes an efficient method for edge detection in original and noisy images using Waerden's statistic. Edges represent a significant amount of information on an image. For example, edges reveal the location of objects, their shape and size, and something about their texture. Since edges represent where the intensity of an image moves from a low value to a high value or vice versa, edge detection is often the first step in image segmentation. As a field of image analysis, image segmentation groups pixels into regions to determine the image composition. Therefore, the current paper describes the nonparametric Wilcoxon test and parametric T test based on statistical hypothesis testing for edge detection. Here, the threshold is determined by specifying a significance level, whereas Bovik, Huang, and Munson considered a range of possible test statistic values for the threshold. In the current study, the test statistic is calculated based on pixel gray levels obtained using an edge-height parameter and compared with the threshold determined by a significance level. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods in both original and noisy images. As a result, the Wilcoxon and T test was found to be sensitive to a noisy image, whereas the proposed Waerden test was robust in both noisy and noise-free images under ?=0.0005. Furthermore, when compared with Sobel, LoG, and Canny operators, the proposed Waerden test was also more effective in both noisy and noise-free images.

Choi, Myong H.; Lee, Ho-Keun; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2003-05-01

365

Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

2006-01-01

366

Effects of an Online Instructional Application on Reading and Mathematics Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized tests have become commonly used tools for accountability in public education in the United States. In Florida, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is used to measure student achievement on grade-specific standards and benchmarks. Various agencies have developed computer-based and web-based software applications to improve…

Martindale, Trey; Pearson, Carolyn; Curda, L. K.; Pilcher, Janet

2005-01-01

367

Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.  

PubMed

Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. PMID:25150378

Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

2015-01-01

368

Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

2013-01-01

369

Test Gains Reigniting Old Debate: Did NCLB Law Play a Role in History, Civics Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school students have a stronger grasp of U.S. history, and what it means to be a knowledgeable citizen, than they did a few years ago, new test results suggest. Part of the reason they are better informed about history and citizenship, some argue, is that they are better readers. That was the view put forward by U.S. Secretary of…

Cavanagh, Sean

2007-01-01

370

LIBIDO TEST SCORES, BODY CONFORMATION AND TESTICULAR TRAITS IN BOER AND KIKO GOAT BUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent of whether natural mating or artificial insemination is used for breeding, libido (sex drive) is evidently crucial to reproductive competence in all male meat animal species. Breeding goat bucks vary in their levels of libido; therefore, there is a need for the development of a predictive standardized test for estimating sex drive. The objective of this study was to

D. Ford Jr.; C. Okere; O. Bolden-Tiller

371

The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

Ho, Andrew

2013-01-01

372

The Influences of Linguistic Demand and Cultural Loading on Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing diversity of the U.S. population has resulted in increased concerns about the psychological assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. To date, little empirical research supports recommendations in test selection and interpretation, such as those presented in the Culture-Language Interpretative…

Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

2014-01-01

373

A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test

Allen, Denise A.

2014-01-01

374

Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

Boudreaux, Wilbert

2011-01-01

375

The Relationship between Self-Perceptions of Accountability by High School Principals and Student Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high school principalship has been designated an area of professional shortage by many states. Resignations and terminations have been numerous as a result of poor student test performance. The purpose of this ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the self-perceptions of accountability by high school principals as they related to…

Koester, Edward L.

2010-01-01

376

Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

2012-01-01

377

Do achievement labels aect students' well-being? Evidence from discontinuities in test scores in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I estimate the eect of using achievement labels to grade school tests, e.g. bad or good, on a measure of well-being given by the event of a police contact or visit to parents due to the behaviour of children in secondary schools. Firstly I illustrate the potential spurious correlation that arises from unobservables aecting both achievement and

Marcello Sartarelli

378

The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one

P. E. Powell

2010-01-01

379

School finance reform, the distribution of school spending, and the distribution of student test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of school finance reforms on the distribution of school spending across richer and poorer districts, and the consequences of spending equalization for the relative test performance of students from different family backgrounds. We find that states where the school finance system was declared unconstitutional in the 1980s increased the relative funding of low-income districts. Increases

David Card; A. Abigail Payne

2002-01-01

380

Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

2005-01-01

381

A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

Jones, Dorothy L.

1976-01-01

382

An Evaluation of an Innovation: Standardized Test Scores Were Not Valid Indicators of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the evaluation of the Lighthouse Project, an education enhancement project that began in one urban and two suburban districts. Its methodology was the context for showing how the focus on the results of a standardized achievement test in mathematics inhibited the implementation of mathematics reform in the elementary…

Uslick, JoAnn; Walker, Carole

383

Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort

Sara Meadows; David Herrick; Anthony Feiler

2007-01-01

384

Improvement in National Test arithmetic scores at Key Stage 1: grade inflation or better achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the National Numeracy Strategy is to raise standards in numeracy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data come from performance on National Test assessments administered in schools or from Ofsted reports, and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over

Sara Meadows; David Herrick; Marcus Witt

2008-01-01

385

Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

Zajac, David J.

2013-01-01

386

Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol.  

PubMed

Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed. PMID:24933191

Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Crabbe, John C; Wahlsten, Douglas

2014-10-01

387

Variation in Wisconsin Mastitis Test Scores of Bucket Milk Samples and Relationship to Bacterial Infections1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of variation in the Wisconsin Mastitis Test were studied in 4739 bucket milk samples from 111 cows in one herd during 103 days. Quarters of cows were classified infected or uninfected through bacteriologic assays of quarter milk samples. Quarters were uninfected in 70.4% of the cow-quarter-days and infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in 1.4 and .9% of

G. W. Bodoh; R. E. Pearson; W. D. Schultze; R. H. Miller

1981-01-01

388

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

389

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential formisdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

390

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Post-Course Scores on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1990s, Claude Steele and others demonstrated that women mathematics students under-performed while men over-performed on selected GRE questions when told that the exam could differentiate by gender. Stereotype threat is triggered for these women when they fear someone else may negatively stereotype them, and therefore, their performance is affected. In a limited study involving 229 students, we investigated the effect of stereotype threat on performance on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT). The ADT was administered as a pre-test in four introductory astronomy classes intended for non-science majors. The same professors taught pairs of classes at the University of Maryland, a large research institution, and W. R. Harper College, a small liberal arts school. The classes were treated the same until the final day before the post-course ADT was given. One "threatened" class at each campus was told that gender mattered so they should be sure to include it on the ADT. The "control" classes were told that gender does not matter. The results show no stereotype threat effect on the women in these introductory classes. The university men did slightly over-perform at low statistical significance. As Steele suggested, students must identify with a subject in order to strongly invoke a stereotype threat. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 to GLD, DGE-97014489 to BH, and DGE-9714452 for AKH.

Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Landato, J. M.; Hodari, A. K.

2003-12-01

391

An examination of mathematics achievement as measured by standardized test scores and grade distribution among urban high schools to determine the relationship between student outcomes in key courses and standardized tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship between mathematics achievement as measured by standardized test scores and grade distribution among high schools in a large urban school district to determine if MEAP and MAT 7 scores reflect student outcomes in key courses. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between student outcomes in key courses and standardized tests. ^ An ex

Irene Gail Norde

2003-01-01

392

An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

Kokhan, Kateryna

2013-01-01

393

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Scores Generated From the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF Test Booklets: Internal Structure Comparability in a Sample of Criminal Defendants.  

PubMed

We investigated the internal structure comparability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores derived from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets in a sample of 320 criminal defendants (229 males and 54 females). After exclusion of invalid protocols, the final sample consisted of 96 defendants who were administered the MMPI-2-RF booklet and 83 who completed the MMPI-2. No statistically significant differences in MMPI-2-RF invalidity rates were observed between the two forms. Individuals in the final sample who completed the MMPI-2-RF did not statistically differ on demographics or referral question from those who were administered the MMPI-2 booklet. Independent t tests showed no statistically significant differences between MMPI-2-RF scores generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets on the test's substantive scales. Statistically significant small differences were observed on the revised Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales. Cronbach's alpha and standard errors of measurement were approximately equal between the booklets for all MMPI-2-RF scales. Finally, MMPI-2-RF intercorrelations produced from the two forms yielded mostly small and a few medium differences, indicating that discriminant validity and test structure are maintained. Overall, our findings reflect the internal structure comparability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores generated from MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets. Implications of these results and limitations of these findings are discussed. PMID:24934218

Tarescavage, Anthony M; Alosco, Michael L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Wood, Arcangela; Luna-Jones, Lynn

2015-04-01

394

Understanding and Using the Brief Implicit Association Test: Recommended Scoring Procedures  

PubMed Central

A brief version of the Implicit Association Test (BIAT) has been introduced. The present research identified analytical best practices for overall psychometric performance of the BIAT. In 7 studies and multiple replications, we investigated analytic practices with several evaluation criteria: sensitivity to detecting known effects and group differences, internal consistency, relations with implicit measures of the same topic, relations with explicit measures of the same topic and other criterion variables, and resistance to an extraneous influence of average response time. The data transformation algorithms D outperformed other approaches. This replicates and extends the strong prior performance of D compared to conventional analytic techniques. We conclude with recommended analytic practices for standard use of the BIAT. PMID:25485938

Nosek, Brian A.; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Sriram, N.; Axt, Jordan; Greenwald, Anthony G.

2014-01-01

395

Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis to…

Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

2013-01-01

396

The effects of Georgia's Choice curricular reform model on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that implemented Georgia's Choice and 105 randomly selected elementary schools that did not elect to use Georgia's Choice. The Georgia's Choice reading program used intensified instruction in an effort to increase reading levels for all students. The study used a non-equivalent control group with a pretest and posttest design to determine the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model. Findings indicated that third grade students in Non-Georgia's Choice schools outscored third grade students in Georgia's Choice schools across the span of the study.

Phemister, Art W.

397

An Update of "Implications of Changing Answers on Objective Test Items".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1977 review of the literature on test answer changing, Mueller and Wasser (EJ 163 236) cited 17 studies and concluded that students changing answers on objective tests gain more points than they lost by so doing. Higher scoring students tend to gain more than do the lower scoring students. Six additional studies not reported in the Mueller…

Mercer, Maryann

398

Community pharmacists’ attitudes towards clinical utility and ethical implications of pharmacogenetic testing  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine community pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, including their views of the clinical utility of PGx and the ethical, social, legal and practical implications of PGx testing. Methods A web-based survey administered to 5600 licensed community pharmacists in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania (USA). Results Of 580 respondents, 78% had a Bachelor of Science degree in pharmacy and 58% worked in a chain drug store. Doctors of pharmacy-trained pharmacists had a significantly higher knowledge score than those with a Bachelor of Science in pharmacy (3.2 ± 0.9 vs 2.6 ± 0.6; p < 0.0001). All pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx and most (87%) felt it would decrease the number of adverse events, and optimize drug dosing. More than half (57%) of pharmacists felt that it was their role to counsel patients regarding PGx information. Many (65%) were concerned that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance. Conclusion Regardless of the type of education, all pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx. There is still a concern among pharmacists that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance and, thus, there is a need to educate pharmacists about legal protections prohibiting certain forms of unfair discrimination based on genotype. PMID:24409195

Tuteja, Sony; Haynes, Kevin; Zayac, Cara; Sprague, Jon E; Bernhardt, Barbara; Pyeritz, Reed

2013-01-01

399

Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B??, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

2014-03-14

400

Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 symptom validity scale scores.  

PubMed

Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the extent to which FBS scores were able to correctly identify men and women who were divided into credible responders (n = 837) and noncredible responders (n = 372) on the basis of performance on symptom validity tests. Results indicated that women had slightly higher raw FBS scores than men (d = .29), and significant differences between men and women in item endorsement were demonstrated for 14 FBS items. Step-down hierarchical logistic regression procedures indicated predictive bias (?˛? = 23.72, p < .001). Follow-up analyses indicated intercept bias (?˛? = 23.51, p < .001) but not slope bias (?˛? = 0.22, p = .64). However, using the test publisher's recommended FBS cutoff scores (Ben-Porath, Graham, & Tellegen, 2009), classification accuracies were similar for women and men (T > 80, h = -.02; T > 100, h = -.22, respectively). On the basis of these results, we conclude there is no evidence of clinically meaningful bias in predictions of symptom validity test failure made using FBS scores for men and women. PMID:22309000

Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O

2012-09-01

401

Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

2014-01-01

402

What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2012-01-01

403

The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test

Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

2012-01-01

404

The Robustness of Mini Mental State Examination Scores at Different Baseline Times of Testing in Psychogeriatric Patients upon Admission to the Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible differences in MMSE scores due to the time of testing at admission to the hospital, we randomly stratified eligible patients into two groups, and tested on the first day (n = 28) or the third day (n = 26) of admission, respectively. Both groups were retested on day seven, and there was no significant difference in delta

Kari Midtbř Kristiansen; Fredrik A. Dahl; Bernhard Lorentzen; Lars Tanum

2010-01-01

405

The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

2012-01-01

406

What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas

Angela L. Duckworth; Patrick D. Quinn; Eli Tsukayama

2012-01-01

407

TRACKING Trounces Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

2004-01-01

408

Simulation model for enumeration of Salmonella on chicken as a function of PCR detection time score and sample size: implications for risk assessment.  

PubMed

A data gap commonly identified in risk assessments is the lack of quantitative information on the contamination of food with pathogens. A simulation model that predicts the incidence and distribution of Salmonella contamination on chicken as a function of PCR detection time score and sample size was developed with data from challenge studies with preenrichment samples that were composed of 25 g of chicken and 225 ml of buffered peptone water inoculated with 10(0.7) to 10(6) Salmonella and incubated at 37 degrees C. At 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h of incubation, subsamples were collected and tested for Salmonella by PCR, and a PCR detection time score based on the widths of the bands in the electrophoresis gel was obtained for each preenrichment sample. Standard curves relating PCR detection time score to initial density of Salmonella inoculated were developed for sterile and nonsterile preenrichment samples. Presence of other microorganisms in the preenrichment sample decreased the PCR detection time score at low (<10(2) per 25 g) but not at high (>10(2) per 25 g) initial densities of Salmonella and resulted in a nonlinear standard curve rather than the linear standard curve obtained for sterile samples. The predicted incidence and distribution of Salmonella contamination on chicken increased in a nonlinear manner as sample size increased from 25 to 500 g. The new method reduced the time and cost of Salmonella enumeration by eliminating the selective enrichment, selective plating, and confirmation steps of the traditional most-probable-number method. Results are useful for risk assessment because they consider the uncertainty of the standard curve predictions and because they provide distributions of Salmonella contamination for different size samples of chicken that can be directly used in risk assessment. PMID:15222550

Oscar, T P

2004-06-01

409

Do United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Scores Predict In-Training Test Performance for Emergency Medicine Residents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Residency selection committees commonly utilize USMLE scores as criteria to screen residency applicants. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training examination scores (ITEs). Methods: In an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited emergency medicine residency program, data were collected for

Josef G. Thundiyil; Renee F. Modica; Salvatore Silvestri; Linda Papa

2010-01-01

410

Use of Verbal Descriptors, Thermal Scores and Electrical Pulp Testing Scores as Predictors of Tooth Pain Before and After Application of Benzocaine Gels into Cavities of Teeth with Pulpitis  

PubMed Central

A double-blind pilot study was conducted on 27 consenting human volunteers who had irreversible pulpitis associated with persistent toothache pain from open carious lesions. Formulations tested contained either 0, 10%, or 20% benzocaine and were identified only by a numbered code. Before the experiment started, a small amount of a known 5% benzocaine gel was placed for 1 minute on the tongue of each patient to assure a sensation of numbness within the oral cavity. Then the test tooth was washed with a gentle stream of warm water and dried with gauze. A randomly selected test medication was placed into the open cavity and around the gingival margins for 5 minutes. Pre- and posttreatment tests were conducted at the following timed intervals: 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The tests included degree of pain (rated: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe); electrical pulp testing (EPT) by a modified, voltage-ramping instrument; and ice water testing (0.5 mL directed quickly onto sound enamel of the tooth and rated: 0 to 4, with 4 being intolerable). After testing, or when pain returned to baseline, endodontic procedures were performed. There was a significant increase (p < 0.032, Fisher exact test) in subjects obtaining pain relief, rated by verbal descriptors, from the benzocaine gels (14 out of 18 improved) compared to placebo (3 out of 9 improved). It was concluded that: 1) benzocaine gels are effective formulations for temporary relief of toothache pain, 2) there were no statistical differences in EPT scores between teeth having pulpitis and control teeth, 3) there were no correlations between direction of EPT scores and pain relief, 4) cold water testing was a good predictor of whether or not a tooth had pulpitis, and 5) changes in cold water testing scores after treatment could not be correlated to relief of pain according to verbal descriptors. The effectiveness of benzocaine in relieving toothache pain verifies previous studies; however, a difference between 10% and 20% benzocaine could not be demonstrated probably because of two factors: 1) the present experiment had a small sample size, and 2) there was no direct measurement of duration of local anesthesia. PMID:2490060

Gangarosa, Louis P.; Ciarlone, Alfred E.; Neaverth, Elmer J.; Johnston, Carey A.; Snowden, J. Douglas; Thompson, William O.

1989-01-01

411

The Missing Data Assumptions of the NEAT Design and Their Implications for Test Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design involves "missing data" that are "missing by design." Three nonlinear observed score equating methods used with a NEAT design are the "frequency estimation equipercentile equating" (FEEE), the "chain equipercentile equating" (CEE), and the "item-response-theory observed-score-equating" (IRT…

Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.

2010-01-01

412

A test of the construct validity of the elemental psychopathy assessment scores in a community sample of adults.  

PubMed

The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits. PMID:24548152

Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos

2014-06-01

413

Score 2009  

Cancer.gov

Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

414

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.  

PubMed

Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

2014-12-01

415

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital  

PubMed Central

Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2014-01-01

416

A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

2011-01-01

417

Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

2013-01-01

418

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

419

A Pilot Study of SPINE Test Scores and Measures of Tongue Deviancy in Speakers with Severe-to Profound Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that clinician-generated SPINE (Speech Intelligibility Evaluation) test scores were correlated with objective computer-generated measures of tongue deviancy during vowel production in 28 persons (ages 14-20) with severe/profound hearing loss. Data suggest that subjects were more deviant in their production of front vowels than…

Wold, Donald C.; And Others

1994-01-01

420

Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

Smith, Feon M.

2012-01-01

421

Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2008-01-01

422

Self-Correction of Wrong Answers as an Alternative to the Arbitrary Setting of Observed-Score Standards in Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A solution is offered to problems associated with the inequality in the manipulability of probabilities of classification errors of masters versus nonmasters, based on competency test results. Eschewing the typical arbitrary establishment of observed-score standards below 100 percent, the solution incorporates a self-correction of wrong answers.…

Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

1990-01-01

423

Transitions in cognitive test scores over 5 and 10 years in elderly people: Evidence for a model of age-related deficit accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: On average, health worsens with age, but many people have periods of improvement. A stochastic model provides an excellent description of how such changes occur. Given that cognition also changes with age, we wondered whether the same model might also describe the accumulation of errors in cognitive test scores in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study,

Arnold Mitnitski; Kenneth Rockwood

2008-01-01

424

What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education. CEE DP 102  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a test score? There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the exact contribution of school quality, pupil background, and peers in educational achievement. If peers make most of the difference, then diversity and heterogeneous classrooms may narrow the gap between high- and low-performing students. If pupil background is the first…

Kramarz, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Ouazad, Amine

2009-01-01

425

Block Scheduled High School Achievement: Part II. Comparison of End-of-Course Test Scores for Blocked and Nonblocked High Schools (1993 through 1996). Evaluation Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling has grown rapidly in recent years. In North Carolina, 77 schools started block scheduling in 1995-96, bringing the total number of blocked schools in the state to 207. A previous evaluation compared 1995 End-of-Course (EOC) Test scores for block-scheduled (blocked) and nonblocked schools. This report presents results of the…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

426

The Different Characteristics of Aquifer Parameters and Their Implications on Pumping-Test Analysis  

E-print Network

The Different Characteristics of Aquifer Parameters and Their Implications on Pumping-Test Analysis and storativity, under constant-rate pumping conditions. A two-way coordinate is such that the conditions implications on pumping-test designs and interpretation. For example, to estimate the parameters

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

427

The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

Licata, L.

1992-01-01

428

Evaluation of confluence model variables on IQ and achievement test scores in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence model, proposed by R. B. Zajonc and G. B. Markus as a psychosocial model of cognitive development, was tested on a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7,060 male and female children born during a period of high and increasing birth rate. Family size, sibling order within family sizes, and hypothesized age-dependent effects were tested. Scores on subtests of

Soren Svanum; Robert G. Bringle

1980-01-01

429

Scoring methods and the predictive ability of working memory tasks.  

PubMed

Measures of working memory (WM) are useful predictors of cognitive skills and educational attainment in children. A number of scoring methods can be used for WM tasks-for example, the sum of all correctly recalled stimuli in perfectly recalled lists (absolute score) or the proportion of items recalled in the correct serial position during the task (proportion correct). The present study explored whether proportion correct scoring had an advantage over absolute scoring of WM tasks for predicting children's educational attainment. The participants were 81 primary school children aged 7-8 years. Each participant was tested on five measures of WM. Schools supplied national curriculum attainment levels for each child in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. The results revealed that proportion correct scoring resulted in WM tasks' being better predictors of children's achievement. The results are discussed in terms of both psychological theory and implications for research methods. PMID:21139163

St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Sykes, Sarah

2010-11-01

430

Validation of the accuracy of pretest and exercise test scores in women with a low prevalence of coronary disease: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecently revised American College of Cardiology\\/American Heart Association guidelines have suggested that exercise test scores be used in decisions concerning patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Pretest and exercise test scores derived for use in women without known CAD have not been tested in women with a low prevalence of CAD.

Anthony P Morise; Marian B Olson; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Sunil Mankad; William J Rogers; Carl J Pepine; Steven E Reis; Barry L Sharaf; George Sopko; Karen Smith; Gerald M Pohost; Leslee Shaw

2004-01-01

431

Visual assessment method of angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays by use of the ANG test pattern: effect of ambient illuminance and effectiveness of modified scoring.  

PubMed

A visual assessment method of the angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by use of the "ANG test pattern" was proposed by Badano and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Our goals were to examine the effect of ambient illuminance on the visual assessment, and to investigate whether our modified visual assessment (with the ANG test pattern) can be used instead of the conventional assessment based on luminance measurements. As the ambient illuminance increased, the original scores obtained with the visual assessment decreased. The modified score of the visual assessment was in reasonable agreement with the results of the luminance-based assessment. We conclude that the visual assessment with the ANG test pattern should be performed in a room with constant ambient illuminance, and the modified visual assessment could have the potential to be used instead of the luminance-based assessment for quality assurance of medical LCDs. PMID:23934325

Ikushima, Yoichiro; Morishita, Junji; Akamine, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Noriyuki

2014-01-01

432

Differential Variability of Test Scores among Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Fifth-Grade INVALSI Test Using Heteroscedastic Random Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…

Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

2011-01-01

433

Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

Knupp, Tawnya Lee

2009-01-01

434

The Relationship between Self Reports of College Experiences and Achievement-Test Scores. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the proposed use of student self-report data as proxies for College Basic Academic Subjects Examination (College BASE) scores and as policy indicators of good educational practice. A recent study by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems had recommended this use of student self-reports. For this study 540…

Pike, Gary R.

435

Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

2012-01-01

436

A Predictive Validity Study of the Metropolitan Readiness Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test Against First Grade Metropolitan Achievement Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples of entering first-grade students were used to examine the predictive validity of the group administered Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) and the individually administered Meeting Street School Screening Test (MSSST). The advantage of the latter was found to possibly outweigh the advantage of efficiency in group administration. (Author/GK)

Swanson, Beverly B.; And Others

1981-01-01

437

A Study of the Relationship Between Scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT Series II), the College English Placement Test (CEPT) and Academic Achievement in American History and Constitution (History 27).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of an investigation of the relationship between scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), the College English Placement Test (CEPT), and grades earned in American History and Constitution (History 27 at Cerritos College, California) in order to ascertain if predictability of "successful" or "unsuccessful"…

Schaumburg, Gary F.

438

Keeping Score  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conductor Michael Tilson Thomas has embarked on a number of intriguing and worthy projects during his career, including a series of ambitious recordings with the San Francisco Symphony and a number of well-received concerts with the late Sarah Vaughan in the 1980s. Most recently, he has teamed up with PBS (and his colleagues in the San Francisco Symphony) to create the â??Keeping Score: Revolutions in Musicâ?ť television series. Visitors to this site can explore the very fine multimedia presentations that are meant to accompany and enhance the entire educational and aesthetic experience of the television programs. Currently, there are multimedia profiles of Stravinskyâ??s â??Rite of Springâ?ť, Beethovenâ??s â??Eroicaâ?ť Symphony and the development of Coplandâ??s approach to creating an â??Americanâ?ť sound. Each site features a brief introduction by Thomas, and then visitors are invited into the score to follow along as the piece progresses. In the top left-hand corner of the score, visitors can watch Thomas as he conducts. Overall, the experience of this website is stimulating and edifying, without being visually (or aurally) overwhelming.

439

Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.  

PubMed

Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. PMID:22014834

Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

2012-01-01

440

Routine pathologic parameters can predict Onco type DX TM recurrence scores in subsets of ER positive patients: who does not always need testing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncotype DXTM is an RT-PCR-based assay used to predict chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers.\\u000a We were interested if routinely available pathologic parameters could predict Oncotype DXTM Recurrence Scores (RS) in subsets of patients. We identified 173 breast cancers with available RSs and used 104 of these\\u000a as a test set and 69 cases as

K. H. Allison; P. L. Kandalaft; C. M. Sitlani; S. M. Dintzis; A. M. Gown

441

Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally-

Angela Tirino Sullivan

1999-01-01

442

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

443

Computer administration of an open-ended test of Emotional Awareness: Testing the effect of administration method on response length and test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlan, 1990) is an open-ended measure of one's ability to describe emotions. Traditionally, the LEAS is administrated on paper, but recently a computerized form of the test has been created. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of administration method on response length and LEAS

Cory R. Zhong; Gizelle A. Romero; Melinda B. Cannon; Kimberly A. Barchard

444

Course of COPD assessment test (CAT) and clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) scores during recovery from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD?=?9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD?=?7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD?=?1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD?=?5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD?=?1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation. PMID:23987232

2013-01-01

445

Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

Looney, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

446

High Scores but Low Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

2011-01-01

447

Waterborne diseases prevention: evaluation of inspection scoring system for water sites according to water microbiological tests during the Athens 2004 pre?Olympic and Olympic period  

PubMed Central

Study objectives To evaluate the inspection grading system for water sites implemented during the Athens 2004 Olympic inspection programme. Design The relation between the standardised inspections results of 716 water supply systems and 289 public swimming pools, and microbiological test results of 2358 samples collected during inspections was examined. Setting Athens, Thessaloniki, Patra, Volos, and Iraklio, Greece. Inspections and sampling conducted during a two year period before the 2004 Olympics. Main results Swimming pools unsatisfactory inspection grading results were significantly associated with positive water microbiological test results (relative risk ?=?2.5, p<0.05). One of the six violations of swimming pools and five of the seven violations of water supply systems designated as “critical” water safety hazards in the inspection reports were significantly associated with positive microbiological test results. The receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the unsatisfactory score designed in the swimming pools standardised inspection report, as the ideal score (?15), in adequately producing positive microbiological test results (sensitivity 13.2%, specificity 89%). Conclusions This study shows the utility of standardised inspection grading systems in waterborne diseases prevention planning and implementation strategies of policy makers and regulators. Future water quality assessment should be based on the implementation of a robust standardised inspection system and reduce the need of microbiological tests. PMID:16973526

Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Konstantinidis, Athanasios; Petrikos, Philipos; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Boufa, Panagiota; Kremastinou, Jenny

2006-01-01

448

Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.  

PubMed

The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score. PMID:10068951

Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

1999-02-01

449

Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.  

PubMed

Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design. PMID:25000882

Root Kustritz, Margaret V

2014-01-01

450

Payload test philosophy. [implications of STS development at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of STS development for payload testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center are reviewed. The biggest impact of STS may be that instead of testing the entire payload, most of the testing may have to be limited to the subsystem or subassembly level. Particular consideration is given to the Goddard protoflight concept in which the test is geared to the design qualification levels, the test durations being those that are expected during the actual launch sequence.

Arman, A.

1979-01-01

451

Predicting Second Grade Achievement Scores with the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor and the Metropolitan Readiness Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Metropolitan Readiness Test was evaluated for use with kindergarten children. The criterion measure was the California Achievement Tests administered when the children…

Flynn, Timothy M.

452

Comparing and evaluating alternative ( in vitro) tests on their ability to predict the Draize maximum average score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Evaluation of Alternatives Program comprised a multi-phased study of the relationship between Draize eye irritation test data and comparable data from a selection of promising alternative (in vitro) tests. The CTFA Program was designed to determine the effectiveness and limitations of several in vitro tests over a range of different cosmetic and personal-care

R. A. Lordo; P. I. Feder; S. D. Gettings

1999-01-01

453

Changing World Patterns of Machine-Scored Objective Testing: The Expected Impact of the Multi-Digit Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of optical scanners and computers in educational testing is common where objective testing methods (such as true-false, matching, and multiple-choice items) are well-established means of evaluating educational achievement. Where non-objective testing methods (such as fill-in-the-blank, short-answer, and essay items) have been more common,…

Anderson, Paul S.; Saliba, Alcyone

454

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not outperform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation suggests an additional explanation: Girls are more self-disciplined,

Angela Lee Duckworth; Martin E. P. Seligman

2006-01-01

455

Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

2013-01-01

456

The Test of Standard Written English: A Revalidation with Writing Samples and Implications of Placement Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) is a 50-item multiple choice instrument designed to assess the ability of college students to use English. In this study, based upon a sample of 45 students, the TSWE was revalidated with writing samples. The coefficient of 0.54 was most impressive given that the TSWE scores were restricted to those…

Suddick, David E.; And Others

457

The Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT): Relationship of Interest Scale Scores to Fluid and Crystallized IQs at Ages 12 to 22 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six Holland-based Interest Scale scores yielded by the Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) (T. Harrington and A. O'Shea, 1982) were related to sex, race, and performance on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test for 254 adolescents and young adults. CDM scores did not relate to most of the variables studied, and…

McLean, James E.; Kaufman, Alan S.

1995-01-01

458

A Comparison of Teacher Rankings of Reading Readiness, Metropolitan Readiness Test Score Rankings, and Socioeconomic Status Rankings of First Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with reading readiness test results, (2) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with pupil socioeconomic status, and (3) to determine to what extent readiness test results compare with pupil socioeconomic…

Elijah, David V., Jr.

459

Practicing Accounting Profession Criterial Skills in the Classroom: A Study of Collaborative Testing and the Impact on Final Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study (Creswell, 2008) was designed to test the influence of collaborative testing on learning using a quasi-experimental approach. This study used a modified embedded mixed method design in which the qualitative and quantitative data, associated with the secondary questions, provided a supportive role in a study based primarily…

VanderLaan, Ski R.

2010-01-01

460

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

2011-01-01

461

Relationships of Intelligence Test Scores to Measures of Anxiety, Impulsiveness and Verbal Interests in Gifted Adolescents. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which potentially useful group intelligence tests were affected by personality characteristics such as anxiety, impulsiveness or caution, and verbal interests was investigated by a battery of intelligence, interest, and personality tests administered to 1,163 gifted adolescents in special summer programs. Intelligence was measured by…

Welsh, George S.

462

The basic skills movement in Tennessee and its impact on standardized test scores in mathematics in Rutherford County, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Basic Skills Program began in the 1970s with the creation of the Tennessee State Proficiency Test. To prepare students for the basic skills test and to provide a uniform curriculum, Basic Skills First was developed. The purpose of the reported study was to determine whether or not increased emphasis on basic skills has provided an effective means for

Phillip Gerald Boyd

1986-01-01

463

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

464

The test suite generation problem: Optimal instances and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the test suite generation problem (TSG) for software systems, I is a set of n input parameters where each I 2 I has (I) data values, and O is a collection of subsets ofI where the interactions of the parameters in each O 2O are thought to aect the outcome of the system. A test case for (I;O; )

Christine T. Cheng

2007-01-01

465

(14C)Aminopyrine breath test in chronic liver disease: preliminary diagnostic implications  

SciTech Connect

The (14C)aminopyrine breath test (APBT) score, an estimate of hepatic mixed-oxidase function, was evaluated in 21 consecutive patients wih active nonalcoholic chronic liver diseases. Ten had primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 11 had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). The APBT score was normal or elevated in patients with PBC (P less than 0.001), and lower than normal in CAH patients (P less than 0.01); 10.5 +/- 1.6 and 3.5 +/- 1.86, respectively, vs control 7.65 +/- 1.15 (mean +/- SD). The 11 patients with CAH included two middle-aged women who displayed ambiguous severe intrahepatic cholestasis. There was no overlap between the APBT scores of the 10 PBC and 11 CAH patients. These initial data suggest that the APBT may be helpful in the differentiation of PBC and CAH, including misleading cholestatic forms of CAH.

Burnstein, A.V.; Galambos, J.T.

1981-12-01

466

An approach to analyzing a single subject's scores obtained in a standardized test with application to the aachen aphasia test (AAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the analysis of a single subject's test profile(s) proposed by Huber (1973) are applied to the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The procedures are based on the classical test theory model (Lord&Novick, 1968) and are suited for any (achievement) test with standard norms from a large standardization sample and satisfactory reliability estimates. Two test profiles of a Wernicke's aphasic,

K. Willmes

1985-01-01

467

The Machine Scoring of Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

468

Neural network credit scoring models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the credit scoring accuracy of five neural network models: multilayer perceptron, mixture-of-experts, radial basis function, learning vector quantization, and fuzzy adaptive resonance. The neural network credit scoring models are tested using 10-fold crossvalidation with two real world data sets. Results are benchmarked against more traditional methods under consideration for commercial applications including linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression,

David West

2000-01-01

469

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

470

The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

2014-01-01

471

Estimating the Effect of Changes in Criterion Score Reliability on the Power of the "F" Test of Equality of Means  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a simple, computer-assisted method of determining the extent to which increases in reliability increase the power of the "F" test of equality of means. The method uses a derived formula that relates the changes in the reliability coefficient to changes in the noncentrality of the relevant "F" distribution. A readily available…

Feldt, Leonard S.

2011-01-01

472

Something That Test Scores Do Not Show: Engaging in Community Diversity as a Local Response to Global Education Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Smith Street Elementary School, the globalizing education trends that English language learner (ELL) teachers face focus on measuring student achievement through testing and the English mainstreaming of non-dominant students as opposed to the cultivation of the students' linguistic and cultural diversity. The ELL teachers at Smith Street…

Valdiviezo, Laura A.

2014-01-01

473

Variance components for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield, and somatic cell score for analyzing management information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-day (TD) models are used in most countries to perform national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle. The TD models estimate lactation curves and their changes as well as variation in populations. Although potentially useful, little attention has been given to the application of TD models for management pur- poses. The potential of the TD model for management use depends on

M. Caccamo; R. F. Veerkamp; G. de Jong; M. H. Pool; R. Petriglieri; G. Licitra

2008-01-01

474

The formalin test: scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formalin test is increasingly used as a model of injury-produced pain but there is no generally accepted method of pain rating. To examine the properties of various pain rating methods we established dose-response relations for formalin injected in the plantar surface of one hind paw, and the analgesic effects of morphine and amphetamine using the most frequently reported behavioural

Frances V. Abbott; Keith B. J. Franklin; R. Frederick Westbrook

1995-01-01

475

The effect of classroom-based distraction on Continuous Performance Test scores of ADHD and nonADHD children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether a condition imposing naturalistic, classroom-based distraction affected performances of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to children not diagnosed with this disorder (nonADHD) on measures of sustained attention and impulse control. Changes in the testing condition of ADHD children were examined to determine if they could affect the ecological validity

David Lynn Rickman

2000-01-01

476

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2010-01-01

477

The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

Francis, Charles E.

478

HRCT in cystic fibrosis in patients with CFTR I1234V mutation: Assessment of scoring systems with low dose technique using multidetector system and correlation with pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Pulmonary changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with CFTR I1234V mutation have not been extensively documented. Impact of geographic influence on phenotypical expression is largely unknown. This descriptive clinical study presents the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary findings and computed tomography (CT) scoring with respect to pulmonary function tests (PFT) in a small subset of CF group. Materials and Methods: We examined 29 patients between 2 and 31 years of age with CFTR I1234V mutation. HRCT and PFT were performed within 2 weeks of each other. Imaging abnormalities on HRCT were documented and analyzed by utilizing the scoring system described by Bhalla et al., Brody et al., Helbich et al.,and Santamaria et al. Efficacy of the scoring system with respect to PFT was compared. Statistical Analysis: Inter-observer reliability of the scoring systems was tested using intraclass correlation (ICC) between the two observers. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the scoring systems and between the scoring systems and PFT results. Results: In our study, right upper and middle lobes were the most frequently involved sites of involvement. Bronchiectasis and peribronchial thickening were the most frequent imaging findings. Scores with all four scoring systems were reproducible, with good ICC coefficient of 0.69. There was good agreement between senior radiologists in all scoring systems. Conclusion: We noted pulmonary imaging abnormalities in a large majority (96%) of our CF patients. There was no significant difference in the CT scores observed from various systems. The CT evaluation system by Broody is detailed and time consuming, and is ideal for research and academic setup. On the other hand, the systems by Bhalla and Santamaria are easy to use, quick, and equally informative. We found the scoring system by Santamaria preferable over that of Bhalla by virtue of additional points of evaluation and ease of use, and therefore better suited for busy clinical practice. PMID:25709165

Bhat, Venkatraman; Wahab, Atiqa Abdul; Garg, Kailash C; Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajvir

2015-01-01

479

One generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male rat pups at weaning (21 days of age) were subjected to a diet deficient or adequate in n-3 polyunsatu- rated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for 15 weeks. Performance on tests of locomotor activity, depression, and aggression was measured in that order during the ensuing 3 weeks, after which brain lipid composition was determined. In the n-3 PUFA-deprived rats, compared

James C. DeMar; Kiazong Ma; Jane M. Bell; Miki Igarashi; Deanna Greenstein; Stanley I. Rapoport

2005-01-01

480

Usefulness of the Integrated Scoring Model of Treadmill Tests to Predict Myocardial Ischemia and Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Community-Dwelling Adults (from the Rancho Bernardo Study).  

PubMed

To investigate the association between analyses of submaximal treadmill exercise test (TMT) and long-term myocardial ischemia (Mis) and silent Mis in community-dwelling older adults, 898 Rancho Bernardo Study participants (mean age 55 years) without coronary heart disease underwent TMT and were followed up to 27 years. The main outcome measures are incidence of Mis and silent Mis. During follow-up, 97 Mis and 103 silent Mis events occurred. We measured ST change, inability to achieve target heart rate, abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), and chronotropic incompetence (ChI). Each parameter was a significant predictor for Mis and silent Mis. An integrated scoring model was based on these 4 parameters and defined as sum of numbers of abnormal parameters. After multiple adjustments, an integrated scoring model independently predicted Mis and silent Mis. The incidence rates of abnormalities of parameters are 36.5% for 1 abnormality, 9.1% for 2 abnormalities, and 2.0% for 3 or 4 abnormalities. Compared with those with normal results, participants with 1 or 2 abnormalities had significantly increased risk for Mis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79 or 2.34, respectively) and silent Mis (HR 1.80 or 2.64, respectively). Participants with 3 or more positive findings showed an even greater risk for Mis (HR 7.96 [3.02 to 21.00]) and silent Mis (HR 3.22 [0.76 to 13.60]). In conclusion, ST change, ChI, abnormal HRR, inability to achieve target heart rate, and integrated scoring model of TMT were independent predictors of long-term Mis and silent Mis in an asymptomatic middle-aged population. Management of ChI or abnormal HRR in an asymptomatic population may prevent future ischemic heart disease and thus improve the quality of life. PMID:25728643

Park, Joong-Il; Shin, So-Young; Park, Sue K; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2015-04-15

481

Concordance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fluoroquinolone resistance testing: implications for treatment.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolone (FQ) drug susceptibility testing (DST) is an important step in the design of effective treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Here we compare ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin (MFX) resistance results from 226 multidrug-resistant samples. The low level of concordance observed suggests that DST should be performed for the specific FQ planned for clinical use. The results also support the new World Health Organization recommendation for testing MFX at a critical concentration of 2.0 ?g/ml. PMID:25686144

Farhat, M R; Mitnick, C D; Franke, M F; Kaur, D; Sloutsky, A; Murray, M; Jacobson, K R

2015-03-01

482

Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*  

PubMed Central

Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

2014-01-01

483

Robert's Rules for Optimal Learning: Model Development, Field Testing, Implications!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of accelerated learning techniques developed by the national organization for Suggestive Accelerated Learning Techniques (SALT) was tested in a study using Administrative Policy students taking the capstone course in the Eastern Washington University School of Business. Educators have linked the brain and how it functions to various…

McGinty, Robert L.

484

D test: a simple test with big implication for Staphylococcus aureus macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB resistance pattern.  

PubMed

D test is a simple disc diffusion test giving high throughput results. It is used to study the macrolide lincosamide streptogramin resistance (MLSB), both constitutive and inducible as well as macrolide streptogramin resistance (MSB) in Staphylococcus aureus. In this test, erythromycin (macrolide) and clindamycin (lincosamide derivative) discs are placed adjacent to each other over the Mueller Hinton agar medium inoculated with the test organism. The growth of the organism up to the edges of the disc, flattening of the clindamycin zone (D test positive) near the erythromycin disc (resistant) and susceptible to both antibiotics implicate that the organism is having constitutive MLSB (CMLSB), inducible MLSB (IMLSB) and no resistance respectively. Further, the organism susceptible to clindamycin without any flattening of the zone (D test negative) near clindamycin disc (resistant) implicates that the organism is having macrolide streptogramin resistance (MSB). The test is performed in the same MHA plate in which the antibiotic sensitivity test is being done, taking into consideration that the discs are placed adjacent to each other maintaining the distance. Since clindamycin and streptogramin are among the few drugs of choice in the treatment of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, knowing the resistance to these antibiotics is imperative. PMID:25799821

Shrestha, B; Rana, S S

2014-09-01

485

Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

2015-01-01

486

Low-Power Design Techniques and Test Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a brief overview of the prevalent design techniques for dynamic and leakage power reduction in both\\u000a logic and memory circuits. It also provides an introduction to power specification format, which allows specification of circuit\\u000a properties with respect to power dissipation in a consistent manner. Next, it discusses the impact of existing low-power design\\u000a techniques on test. Finally,

Kaushik Roy; Swarup Bhunia

487

The Test Suite Generation Problem: Optimal Instances and Their Implications  

E-print Network

.6}, {North, South, East, West}, and {TDC, BDM}. Thus, there are a total of 2 Ă? 4 Ă? 2 = 16 test cases TDC BDM BDM TDC TDC BDM BDM TDC On the other hand, Schroeder and Korel noted that this program has two are enough as shown below. A 1.5 3.6 1.5 3.6 B North South East West C TDC BDM BDM TDC Solving TSG is likely

Cheng, Christine

488

Interlaboratory validation of the in vitro eye irritation tests for cosmetic ingredients. (1) Overview of the validation study and Draize scores for the evaluation of the tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-step interlaboratory validation of alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) was conducted by the co-operation of 27 organizations including national research institutes, universities, cosmetic industries, kit suppliers and others. Twelve alternative methods were evaluated using 38 cosmetic ingredients and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Draize tests were conducted according to the OECD guidelines using the same

Y Ohno; T Kaneko; T Inoue; Y Morikawa; T Yoshida; A Fujii; M Masuda; T Ohno; M Hayashi; J Momma; T Uchiyama; K Chiba; N Ikeda; Y Imanishi; H Itakagaki; H Kakishima; Y Kasai; A Kurishita; H Kojima; K Matsukawa; T Nakamura; K Ohkoshi; H Okumura; K Saijo; K Sakamoto; T Suzuki; K Takano; H Tatsumi; N Tani; M Usami; R Watanabe

1999-01-01

489

Scale Score Comparability across Two Levels of a Norm-Referenced Math Computation Test for Students with Learning Disabilities. Out-of-Level Testing Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, special education teachers identified students with learning disabilities who were working on math skills usually taught two grades below the grade in which the student was enrolled. Each student (n=33) took two levels of the MAT/7 math computation test, an on-grade test, and an out-of-level test intended for students two grades…

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Minnema, Jane; Scott, Jim

490

Commercial Office Space: Testing the Implications of Real Options Models with Competitive Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test the implications of real option pricing models with competitive interactions for commercial real estate development. The competitive nature of a local commercial real estate market relies on a Herfindahl ratio derived from individual developers' shares of total office construction in their market. All else being equal, greater competition among local developers is associated with more building starts. Other

Eduardo S. Schwartz; Walter N. Torous

2007-01-01

491

Widespread Nanoparticle-Assay Interference: Implications for Nanotoxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety has been hindered by conflicting reports demonstrating differential degrees of toxicity with the same nanoparticles. The unique properties of these materials increase the likelihood that they will interfere with analytical techniques, which may contribute to this phenomenon. We tested the potential for: 1) nanoparticle intrinsic fluorescence/absorbance, 2) interactions between nanoparticles and assay components, and 3) the effects of adding both nanoparticles and analytes to an assay, to interfere with the accurate assessment of toxicity. Silicon, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, and helical rosette nanotubes each affected at least one of the six assays tested, resulting in either substantial over- or under-estimations of toxicity. Simulation of realistic assay conditions revealed that interference could not be predicted solely by interactions between nanoparticles and assay components. Moreover, the nature and degree of interference cannot be predicted solely based on our current understanding of nanomaterial behaviour. A literature survey indicated that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 using biochemical techniques to assess nanotoxicity did not account for potential interference of nanoparticles, and this number had not substantially improved in 2012. We provide guidance on avoiding and/or controlling for such interference to improve the accuracy of nanotoxicity assessments. PMID:24618833

Ong, Kimberly J.; MacCormack, Tyson J.; Clark, Rhett J.; Ede, James D.; Ortega, Van A.; Felix, Lindsey C.; Dang, Michael K. M.; Ma, Guibin; Fenniri, Hicham; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Goss, Greg G.

2014-01-01

492

Can normal-score data transformations improve the Ensemble Kalman Filter? Application and test on a hydraulic tomography example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of hydrogeological parameters introduces uncertainty into predictions of groundwater flow and contaminant transport processes. Prediction uncertainty can be reduced by conditioning spatially distributed parameter fields to field measurements. In this work, we use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to condition random log-conductivity fields on available measurement data and quantify the remaining uncertainty of model predictions. The main drawback of EnKFs is their optimality in the sense of Bayesian updating only if all involved variables (parameters and data) are multivariate Gaussian. This is a major limitation when applying EnKFs to subsurface parameter estimation, since flow and transport variables generally do not show multivariate Gaussian dependence on the parameter log-conductivity and among each other, even if log-conductivity is assumed to be multi-Gaussian. To mitigate the effects of non-Gaussianity on the performance of the EnKF, we propose non-linear, monotonous transformations that render arbitrary marginal distributions of state variables univariate Gaussian. We show that this transformation (Gaussian anamorphosis, GA) leads to an implicit pseudo-linearization of the dependence of the state variable on the parameter field, which can be exploited more efficiently by the filter. The expected usefulness of GA can be evaluated beforehand by applying copula-based multivariate analysis tools. The transformation is followed by the classical updating scheme of the EnKF, thus we denote this procedure as tEnKF. The performance of the tEnKF is illustrated by an application to parameter estimation from synthetic 3-D and 2-D hydraulic tomography data in multi-Gaussian log-conductivity fields. Additionally, we compare the performance of the tEnKF with a reference solution obtained with a brute-force statistical filter for Bayesian updating. Comparing to the reference solution, we can assess the accuracy of both prediction quality and estimated prediction uncertainty. We prove the statistical significance of our results by analyzing 200 randomized 2-D test cases. Our results show that the linearized dependence of the transformed drawdown data on log-conductivity enhances the processing quality of the available information and this increases the accuracy of parameter identification and flow and transport prognosis. The tEnKF outperforms the traditional EnKF with regard to prediction quality; also the deviation from the prediction variance of the bootstrap filter is significantly reduced. Combining EnKFs with GA is found to be a computationally efficient tool for nonlinear inversion of measurement data with improved accuracy. The tEnKF is an attractive alternative to existing linearization-free methods such as particle filters that are computationally extremely demanding and therefore limited in their applicability to high-dimensional problems in subsurface hydrology.

Nowak, Wolfgang; Schöniger, Anneli; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie Jan

2013-04-01

493

Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea: Implications for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Point-of-care (POC) testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection. Conclusions The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines. PMID:24956111

Natoli, Lisa; Maher, Lisa; Shephard, Mark; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Badman, Steven G.; Ward, James; Guy, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

494

Validation of the accuracy of pretest and exercise test scores in women with a low prevalence of coronary disease: The NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Each score stratified women into 3 probability groups (P.001) according to the prevalence of coronary disease: Pretest: low 20\\/164 (12%), intermediate 53\\/245 (22%), high 75\\/154 (49%); Exercise test: low 11\\/83 (13%), intermediate 22\\/74 (30%), high 17\\/32 (53%). However, the Duke score did not stratify as well: low 7\\/46 (15%), inter- mediate 36\\/126 (29%), high 6\\/17 (35%); P.44. When pretest

Anthony P. Morise; Marian B. Olson; C. N. Bairey Merz

2004-01-01

495

Echinocandin resistance, susceptibility testing and prophylaxis: implications for patient management.  

PubMed

This article addresses the emergence of echinocandin resistance among Candida species, mechanisms of resistance, factors that promote resistance and confounding issues surrounding standard susceptibility testing. Fungal infections remain a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, especially among patients with underlying immunosupression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient management for acute and chronic diseases. Yet, therapeutic choices are limited due to only a few drug classes available to treat systemic disease. Moreover, the problem is exacerbated by the emergence of antifungal resistance, which has resulted in difficult to manage multidrug resistant strains. Echinocandin drugs are now the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. These drugs target and inhibit the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures involving acquisition of resistance among susceptible organisms like Candida albicans is largely a rare event. However, in recent years, there is an alarming trend of increased resistance among strains of Candida glabrata, which in many cases are also resistant to azole drugs. Echinocandin resistance is always acquired during therapy and the mechanism of resistance is well established to involve amino acid changes in "hot-spot" regions of the Fks subunits carrying the catalytic portion of glucan synthase. These changes significantly decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug resulting in higher MIC values. A range of drug responses, from complete to partial refractory response, is observed depending on the nature of the amino acid substitution, and clinical responses are recapitulated in pharmacodynamic models of infection. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant Fks strains involve complex stress response pathways, which yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Stress-adapted cells become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:25255923

Perlin, David S

2014-09-01

496

Evidence-based genetic counselling implications for Huntington disease intermediate allele predictive test results.  

PubMed

Intermediate alleles (IAs) for Huntington disease (HD) contain 27-35 CAG repeats, a range that falls just below the disease threshold of 36 repeats. While there is no firm evidence that IAs confer the HD phenotype, they are prone to germline CAG repeat instability, particularly repeat expansion when paternally transmitted. Consequently, offspring may inherit a new mutation and develop the disease later in life. Over the last 5?years there has been a renewed interest in IAs. This article provides an overview of the latest research on IAs, including their clinical implications, frequency, haplotype, and likelihood of CAG repeat expansion, as well as patient understanding and current genetic counselling practices. The implications of this growing evidence base for clinical practice are also highlighted. These evidence-based genetic counselling implications may help ensure individuals with an IA predictive test result receive appropriate support, education, and counselling. PMID:24256063

Semaka, A; Hayden, M R

2014-04-01

497

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 4 New Jersey studies of 3,329 homeowners found that (1) thinking about radon testing is predicted by general radon knowledge; (2) decision to test is related to perceived likelihood of risk; and (3) actual testing is influenced by situational factors such as locating and choosing test kits. (SK)

Sandman, Peter M.; Weinstein, Neil D.

1993-01-01

498

Local Linear Observed-Score Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of local linear observed-score equating for use with anchor-test and single-group designs are introduced. In an empirical study, the two methods were compared with the current traditional linear methods for observed-score equating. As a criterion, the bias in the equated scores relative to true equating based on Lord's (1980)…

Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.

2011-01-01

499

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

500

Arriving in Lake Woebegon: Are Standardized Tests Exaggerating Achievement and Distorting Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student test scores are increasingly used to judge the competence of the educational enterprise. Exaggeration of scores is the result of directing attention away from the individual student achievement to the average scores of schools, districts, and states. Implications and recommendations are discussed. (BJV)

Koretz, Daniel

1988-01-01