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1

The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

2008-01-01

2

Comparing actual to estimated base rates of "abnormal" scores on neuropsychological test batteries: implications for interpretation.  

PubMed

Clinicians can use the prevalence of low scores to help interpret test performance. However, this information is limited for most test batteries. In 2007, Crawford, Garthwaite, and Gault presented Monte Carlo simulation software for estimating the base rates of low scores for any battery of tests. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation program for estimating the base rates of low scores. Base rates of low scores were: (a) calculated from large normative samples (actual base rates) for the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition and compared to (b) Monte Carlo estimations (estimated base rates). Monte Carlo estimations of the base rates of low scores had good accuracy when compared with the actual base rates of low scores for the two batteries. However, estimated base rates lose considerable accuracy in those with low or high intelligence. Monte Carlo simulation software is a potential option for clinicians to compute the base rates of low scores for any battery with published intercorrelations. However, the Monte Carlo program underestimates the base rates for those with low intelligence and overestimates the base rates for those with high intelligence. PMID:20015965

Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L

2010-02-01

3

Methods of Expressing Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The simplicity of standard score systems, percentile equivalents, and their relation to the ideal normal distribution are discussed and illustrated. Standard scores are z-scores, the T-scores, College Entrance Examination Board scores, and Army General Classification Test scores. A derivative of the general standard score system is the stanine…

Seashore, Harold G.

1955-01-01

4

Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

5

A User's Guide To BRILLIANT! TEST SCORING AND ITEM ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

A User's Guide To BRILLIANT! TEST SCORING AND ITEM ANALYSIS August, 2008 Program Brilliant!: Test ....................................................................................................2 Test Scoring Enhancements.............................................................................................................................................................2 Scoring different test forms

6

Cultural Standards and Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two features limit the value of legislatively mandated high-stakes tests such as Alaska's Benchmark and High School Graduation Qualifying Exam as accountability tools in the current standards-driven environment. First, the sheer numbers of tests administered have led to a reliance on multiple choice and short-answer questions, with only minimal…

Barnhardt, Ray; Kawagley, Angayuqaq Oscar; Hill, Frank

2000-01-01

7

What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

2014-01-01

8

The Test Score Decline: Meaning and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of original papers, first published in the June and July, 1976 issues of Educational Technology Magazine, was prompted by the enormous public outcry which greeted the general public realization that achievement and college aptitude test scores were continuing in recent months and years the steady erosion which began in the…

Lipsitz, Lawrence, Ed.

9

Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

Usiskin, Zalman

2012-01-01

10

The Relationship between Testing Condition and Student Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between testing condition and student test scores. The testing conditions studied were: independent, cheat sheet, homogenous grouping with cheat sheet, and heterogeneous group without cheat sheet. Participants were 141 undergraduates in a course required for entry into the teacher…

Skidmore, Ronald L.; Aagaard, Lola

11

The Relationship between Testing Condition and Student Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active student engagement with course materials, such as note-taking and cooperative learning, is associated with greater performance. This study investigated the relationship between scores achieved by students in an undergraduate course and active engagement during testing, whether using a cheat sheet or engaging in a form of cooperative…

Skidmore, Ronald L.; Aagaard, Lola

2004-01-01

12

Making sense of divergent career test scores  

E-print Network

counseling their clients. To do this, the researcher conducted one study using canonical correlation to study the relationships and interrelationships between scores on the MBTI dichotomies and the SII GOTs. A second study utilized MANOVA to increase our...

Rodriguez, Steven

2009-05-15

13

Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF  

E-print Network

Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF Green+ ACT 33-34 USF International Student Scholarship (Freshmen only) $2,000 ($500 per year) 3.50+ GPA USF International Transfer Student Scholarship (Transfers only) $1,000 ($500 per year) Cumulative

Meyers, Steven D.

14

Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

2011-01-01

15

Estimating the Reliability of a Test Battery Composite or a Test Score Based on Weighted Item Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.

Feldt, Leonard S.

2004-01-01

16

Low Test Scores + High Retention Rates = More Dropouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest efforts in reform and accountability, most of which are replays of efforts enacted in the early 1980s, include the use of required minimum standardized test scores to end the practice of social promotion. Greater reliance is being placed on the use of single test scores in making all or a large part of the retention decision, despite…

Holmes, C. Thomas

2006-01-01

17

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics  

E-print Network

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S, Canada {kevin.jalbert, jeremy.bradbury}@uoit.ca Abstract--Mutation testing has traditionally been used to evaluate the effectiveness of test suites and provide confidence in the testing process. Mutation testing

Bradbury, Jeremy S.

18

The Non-Credible Score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: Is It Better at Predicting Non-Credible Neuropsychological Test Performance Than the RAVLT Recognition Score?  

PubMed

The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ?9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated. PMID:25599723

Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

2015-03-01

19

Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

Tanner, John R.

2011-01-01

20

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

21

Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

Issitt, Steve

2008-01-01

22

Relationship of Scores and Times of Test Administration via Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between scores and the times that medical students choose to take a computer-administered test. The results indicate that students who choose to take a test later within a given time period tend to perform less well than students who take the test earlier. Although the magnitude…

Gorney, Barbara; Maury, Marcia

23

The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test

Echternacht, Gary

24

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Dakota's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentage of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

25

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

26

State Test Score Trends Through 2007-08, Part 2: Is There a Plateau Effect in Test Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many in the research and policy worlds have taken for granted the existence of a phenomenon known as the "plateau effect," wherein test scores rise in the early years of a test-based accountability system and then level off. Drawing from our database of reading and math test results from all 50 states going back as far as 1999, the Center on…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2009-01-01

27

High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

Baker, Keith

2011-01-01

28

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

29

Propensity score matching and variations on the balancing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing tests are diagnostics designed for use with propensity score methods, a widely used non-experimental approach in\\u000a the evaluation literature. Such tests provide useful information on whether plausible counterfactuals have been created. Currently,\\u000a multiple balancing tests exist in the literature but it is unclear which is the most useful. This article highlights the poor\\u000a size properties of commonly employed balancing

Wang-Sheng Lee

30

Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background…

Paulson, Sharon E.; Marchant, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

31

Study Finds Link between Quality Music Programs, Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study found that students in high-quality school music education programs score higher on standardized tests compared to students in schools with deficient music education programs. The study, which was published in the Winter 2006 issue of MENC's Journal for Research in Music Education, is the first to examine the quality of school music…

Teaching Music, 2007

2007-01-01

32

What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

Jorgenson, Olaf

2012-01-01

33

Benefits of Coaching on Test Scores Seen as Negligible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: A new study by a pair of Harvard University researchers discounts earlier findings that coaching can substantially improve student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). "There is simply insufficient evidence that large score increases are a result of a coaching program," write Rebecca…

Report on Education Research, 1983

1983-01-01

34

Grade Level Expectations and Grade Equivalent Scores in Reading Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical methods and test writing for reading comprehension have been based on the assumption that certain reading tasks or levels are appropriate at one age level that would be too difficult at another. A clear-cut determination of grade levels for reading materials has, however, not been defined. Grade and age equivalent scores on silent…

Tucker, Elizabeth Sulzby

35

School Choice in Suburbia: Test Scores, Race, and Housing Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home buyers exercise school choice when shopping for a private residence due to its location in a public school district or attendance area. In this quantitative study of one Connecticut suburban district, we measure the effect of elementary school test scores and racial composition on home buyers' willingness to purchase single-family homes over…

Dougherty, Jack; Harelson, Jeffrey; Maloney, Laura; Murphy, Drew; Smith, Russell; Snow, Michael; Zannoni, Diane

2009-01-01

36

How To Raise Test Scores. K-College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet illustrates proven instructional strategies to help teachers help students raise their test scores. Techniques are outlined that will help students improve their communication skills, learn how to mediate their thinking strategies, and understand the best way to attack a question. The advice is developed in the structure of an…

Fogarty, Robin

37

Manual for Scoring the Test of Directed Imagination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scoring manual for the Directed Imagination Test, a projective technique wherein the subject is instructed to write four fictional stories (four minutes are allowed for each) about teachers and their experiences, is presented. The manual provides detailed instructions for rating each story by fifteen dimensions relevant to teacher education…

Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

38

Assessment Test Scores of Incoming Students, Fall 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This assessment of placement test scores in reading, math, and sentence skills from incoming students at College of the Desert (California) shows that students are overwhelmingly underprepared for study at the college. Only 15% of students were prepared in sentence skills, 27% in reading skills, 7% in math skills; only 3% were prepared in all 3…

Negron, Maggie; Breindel, Matthew

39

What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper by Stephen P. Klein, et al., was at the center of the Presidential campaign last week as Al Gore seized on its conclusion that the great disparity in Texas between student scores on state (Texas Assessment of Academic Skills) vs. federal (NAEP) tests suggested that the improvements claimed by Governor Bush in the state's education system were in fact inflated, possibly due to a policy of teachers teaching to the Texas tests.

40

Scoring Multiple True False Items: A Comparison of Summed Scores and Response Pattern Scores at Item and Test Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The additive and response patterns scoring methods within and between multiple true-false (MTF) items were examined using data for 5,000 students for each of 2 years from the mathematics portion of the national college entrance examination in Taiwan. For additive scoring at item level, response to each option was scored dichotomously and added up…

Wu, Brad C.

41

Project MINI-SCORE: Some Preliminary Implications for Vocational Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the 6-year Minnesota Student Characteristics and Occupationally related Education Project (MINI-SCORE) is to identify criteria which are useful to counselors and others in the selection and counseling of post-high school vocational-technical students as they choose specific vocational-technical curriculums. Data were collected on…

Pucel, David J.; Nelson, Howard F.

42

Predicting Grades in Specific College Freshman Courses from ACT Test Scores and Self-Reported High School Grades. November 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of American College Testing Program (ACT) test scores and self-reported high school grades for predicting grades in specific college freshman courses was studied. Specific course grades are typically used to place students in remedial, standard, or advanced classes. These placement decisions, in turn, have immediate implications for…

Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard

43

Improving Student Achievement: What NAEP State Test Scores Tell Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the RAND organization analyzes results from the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state test scores of 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. The report is unique in offering comparative data on similar student demographics across states, allowing the authors to examine the impact of state educational reforms on comparable populations. The results show that some states are doing much better than others with similar populations. For instance, states such as Texas and North Carolina showed remarkable gains in scores of minority and disadvantaged students, while states such as California and Louisiana did not. The authors conclude that "the most efficient and effective use of education dollars is to target states with higher proportions of minority and disadvantaged students with funding for lower pupil-teacher ratios, more widespread prekindergarten efforts, and more adequate teaching resources." Teacher salaries did not seem to be a key factor in test score improvements, though the authors suggest this may be a result of the fact that current salary structures do not differentiate between high- and low-quality teachers.

Flanagan, Ann.; Grissmer, David W. (David Waltz), 1941-.; Kawata, Jennifer H., 1955-.; Williamson, Stephanie, 1969-.

2000-01-01

44

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. 866...Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device...

2011-04-01

45

School accountability and the black-white test score gap.  

PubMed

Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. PMID:24468431

Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

2014-03-01

46

Step 2: Click on the test title Step 3: Click on the test score  

E-print Network

Step 2: Click on the test title Step 3: Click on the test score Step 1: Click on "My Grades test results in HuskyCT Instructors apply settings that determine the extent of the feedback that students see after taking a test in HuskyCT and when that information becomes available. Minimal

Alpay, S. Pamir

47

Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

Meijer, Rob R.

2004-01-01

48

Schoolwide Test Preparation: One Elementary School's Instructional Approach That Dramatically Raised Standardized Test Scores. ERS Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how educators at Harrison Elementary School in Twin Falls, Idaho, used the Standardized Timed Curriculum (STC) to raise students' standardized test scores. The monograph, which is divided into eight chapters, opens with an overview of testing in schools, the growth of the test-preparation business, and the need for school…

Smith, Steven H.

49

Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

2007-01-01

50

EXPERIMENTAL SCORING MANUALS FOR MINNESOTA TESTS OF CREATIVE THINKING AND WRITING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES PROPOSED SCORING PROCEDURES FOR THE MINNESOTA TEST OF CREATIVE THINKING AND WRITING. TEST FORMS FOR SIX VERBAL TASKS AND THREE NONVERBAL TASKS ARE PRESENTED. FOR MOST TASKS, THIS SCORING MANUAL HAS EXTRACTED FROM THE TEST PROTOCOLS FOUR SCORES TO REPRESENT FOUR ABILITIES OF CREATIVE THINKING-- FLUENCY, FLEXIBILITY,…

YAMAMOTO, KAORU

51

Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

2012-01-01

52

The Persisting Racial Scoring Gap on Graduate and Professional School Admission Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the racial scoring gap on tests for admission to medical, business, law, and other graduate programs, noting that in the highest-scoring brackets on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the racial gap is even larger. Whites are five times, twelve times, and seven times more likely, respectively, to score higher on the MCAT, Law…

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

2003-01-01

53

Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

2009-01-01

54

Using Subpopulation Invariance to Assess Test Score Equity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Score equity assessment (SEA) is introduced, and placed within a fair assessment context that includes differential prediction or fair selection and differential item functioning. The notion of subpopulation invariance of linking functions is central to the assessment of score equity, just as it has been for differential item functioning and…

Dorans, Neil J.

2004-01-01

55

The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with moderate to strong relationships, validation studies and development of expectancy tables, which estimate the probability of successful performance on these AP exams, are recommended. Also, findings established a need to examine other related research issues including, but not limited to, extensive longitudinal studies and analyses of other available or prospective standardized test scores.

Urbina, Josue N.

56

Student Test Scores Are Improved in a Virtual Learning Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study conducted that shows that students learn well and score higher on exams in a "Virtual Learning Environment" where the students are presented the same material that is traditionally presented in lecture.

PhD Harry R. Goldberg (Johns Hopkins University Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute and Department of Biology); Guy M. McKhann (Johns Hopkins University Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute and Dept. of Neurology)

2000-06-01

57

Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex-ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex-post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

2015-01-01

58

Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.  

PubMed

Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

2001-01-01

59

Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

60

Improving the Predictive Ability of Placement Tests Using the Rasch Model for Scoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the accuracy of college placement, Rasch scoring and person-fit statistics on the Comparative Guidance and Placement test (CGP) was compared to the traditional right-only scoring. Correlations were calculated between English and mathematics course grades and scores of 1,448 entering freshmen on the reading, writing, and mathematics…

Smith, Richard M.; Mitchell, Virginia P.

61

School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

2011-01-01

62

NCME 2007 Presidential Address: The Concordance Table--An Invitation to Misuse Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a particular type of concordance table and the potential for test score misuse that may result from employing such a table. The concordance that is discussed is typically created between scores on different, nonequatable versions of a test that share the same or close to the same test title. These concordance tables often…

Eignor, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

63

A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

64

Transiency, Test Scores, and the Public: One School District's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research documents that transient students who change schools frequently oftensuffer from low academic achievement. This article investigates standardized group measures by disentangling elementary achievement scores. Located in a highly transient area outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Main Street School had their fifth grade Pennsylvania…

Sanderson, D.R.

2004-01-01

65

Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores  

Cancer.gov

About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

66

Comparison of scores on two recent editions of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.  

PubMed

Standard scores on the third and fourth editions of the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration (VMI-3 and VMI-4) were compared for a sample of 120 children (4-17 years of age) referred to an outpatient diagnostic clinic for developmental learning, attention, mood, and behavior problems. The two editions of the test have the same items, so the test was administered only once to each child, but the editions differ in their scoring systems and norms. The correlation between the pairs of standard scores on the two editions was .99, and the absolute mean difference between scores was only 1.5 points. PMID:10075539

Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L

1998-12-01

67

Comparison of subjective and objective intradermal allergy test scoring methods in dogs with atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

An intradermal allergy test (IDT) is an important diagnostic tool for identifying offending allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. No standardized method of scoring an IDT has been described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between a conventional, subjective IDT scoring method based on perceived wheal diameter, erythema, and turgor (0-4+) and an objective scoring method based on measuring wheal diameter alone. Thirty-four atopic dogs were skin tested with 68 different allergens. All skin tests were performed according to standard procedures, and any IDT score ?2+ was considered clinically significant. When the subjective IDT scores were compared with the objective IDT scores in all dogs, there was a moderate level of correlation overall (r=0.457; P <0.0001). The highest level of agreement between subjective and objective scores was noted with the reactions assigned subjective scores of "0" and "2+." Overall, there was a slight level of agreement between subjective and objective scores based on clinical significance (i.e., subjective scores ?2+; ?=0.20; P <0.0001). In conclusion, the authors believe that the objective scoring method used in this study may provide a point of reference for inexperienced individuals (dermatology residents, veterinarians, technicians) when learning to grade an IDT. PMID:22058346

Hubbard, Tomeshia L; White, Patricia D

2011-01-01

68

Testing: Implications for the Discipline of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of poor teaching and low national test scores have spawned a back to basics movement and a shift from the use of tests as predictors and models to that of assessment and achievement. This movement may have positive impact on the teaching of English, which previously has not lent itself well to standardized testing. Although many English…

Cantrell, D. Dean

69

The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

Springer, Matthew G.

2008-01-01

70

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

2006-01-01

71

TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). MANUAL FOR ADMINISTRATION, SCORING AND INTERPRETATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PRELIMINARY MANUAL OUTLINES CONTENT, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SCORING PROCEDURES, ANTECEDENT RESEARCH, AND AVAILABLE NORM DATA FOR THE TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). THE TACA, A COMBINED TEST AND ANSWER SHEET ADAPTED FOR VISUAL SCORING BY AN OPTICAL SCANNER, CONSISTS OF 22 ITEMS ON BIOGRAPHICAL DATA (AGE, SEX, OCCUPATION, FAMILY AND MARITAL…

DUBOIS, PHILIP H.; WIENTGE, KING M.

72

Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

2011-01-01

73

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

74

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, a substantial gap in test scores between white and black students persists, even after controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics. Using a newly available data set (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), we demonstrate that in stark contrast to earlier studies, the black-white test score gap among incoming kindergartners disappears when we control for a small

Roland G. Fryer Jr; Steven D. Levitt

2004-01-01

75

Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Strategies for Data-Driven Instructional Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help K-12 teachers and administrators understand the nature of standardized tests and, in particular, the scores that result from them. This useful manual helps teachers develop the skills necessary to incorporate these test scores into various types of instructional decision making--a process known as "data-driven…

Mertler, Craig A.

2007-01-01

76

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

77

The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

Sohn, Kitae

2012-01-01

78

The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

Shaw, Tommetta

2010-01-01

79

Locus of control and aptitude test scores as predictors of academic achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimenters studied the relationships among academic achievement in graduate school, perceived locus of control, and a relevant aptitude test. Grades in 15 individual courses and overall grade point average (GPA) were used as the criteria of academic success. Three I-E scores (total scores and ideological and personal control subscores) and the Admissions Test for Graduate Study in Business (ATGSB)

Walter R. Nord; Francis Connelly; George Daignault

1974-01-01

80

Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

Sawyer, Richard

2013-01-01

81

Test Score Stability and Construct Validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores among College Students: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of the…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

2005-01-01

82

Arkansas Teacher Testing: A Penny for Your Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher testing began in Arkansas when the governor threatened to veto a 1% sales tax if a teacher testing bill were not passed. With enactment of Act 76 in 1983, an instrument was developed for field testing in 1984 over objections of the Arkansas Education Association. The test, the Arkansas Educational Skills Assessment, is comprised of 50…

Kennedy, Robert L.

83

A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for planning seismic risk reduction strategies and they are key elements of seismic regulation. Due to its importance, it is mandatory to select most effective estimates among the available ones. A possible empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. Scoring is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models providing outcomes that contrast observations and thus should be discarded. The analysis shows that most of hazard estimates so far proposed for Italy do not contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than the others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better that the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best performing one. This implies that time-by-time, the most suitable model must be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

2014-09-01

84

An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

2013-01-01

85

Effect of Self-Assessment on Test Scores: Student Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied…

Ramirez, Beatriz U.

2010-01-01

86

A "Rearrangement Procedure" for Scoring Adaptive Tests with Review Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in…

Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Reckase, Mark D.

2007-01-01

87

Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

2011-01-01

88

TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

2012-01-01

89

Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No one can dispute that tests should measure important content, and for many (but not all) purposes, tests should be aligned with curricular goals. Thus in many cases, alignment is clearly better than the alternative, and nothing that follows here argues otherwise. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that alignment is sufficient protection…

Koretz, Daniel

2005-01-01

90

Test Score Stability and the Relationship of Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores to External Variables among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.

2007-01-01

91

Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  

PubMed

Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

2005-06-01

92

A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting. PMID:22912343

Kosinski, Andrzej S

2013-03-15

93

Evaluating the equal-interval hypothesis with test score scales.  

PubMed

The axioms of additive conjoint measurement provide a means of testing the hypothesis that testing data can be placed onto a scale with equal-interval properties. However, the axioms are difficult to verify given that item responses may be subject to measurement error. A Bayesian method exists for imposing order restrictions from additive conjoint measurement while estimating the probability of a correct response. In this study an improved version of that methodology is evaluated via simulation. The approach is then applied to data from a reading assessment intentionally designed to support an equal-interval scaling. PMID:24532164

Domingue, Ben

2014-01-01

94

The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics--race, poverty, and ability--on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math…

Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie

2007-01-01

95

Improving Test Scores through Environmental Education: Is It Possible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the impact of environmental education (EE) programs on student achievement in math, reading, and writing by comparing student performances on two standardized tests for environmental education schools and schools with traditional curriculum. Quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the EE programs.…

Bartosh, Oksana; Tudor, Margaret; Ferguson, Lynne; Taylor, Catherine

2006-01-01

96

Raising Standardized Test Scores and the Role of PeaceBuilders®: A School Climate Shift Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Definition: Having a low performing school academically, where only 16.1% of students were meeting or exceeding standards, the school needed to change not only academics but its entire environment. Therefore CES 132 in the Bronx brought in PeaceBuilders to change the social-emotional environment. 2. Method The method was to follow the pre implementation test scores and the test scores

Max L. Vosskuhler; Steve Issman

97

Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

2012-01-01

98

Item Response Theory for Scores on Tests Including Polytomous Items with Ordered Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item response theory (IRT) provides procedures for scoring tests including any combination of rated constructed-response and keyed multiple-choice items, in that each response pattern is associated with some modal or expected a posteriori estimate of trait level. However, various considerations that frequently arise in large-scale testing make response-pattern scoring an undesirable solution. Methods are described based on IRT that pro-vide

David Thissen; Mary Pommerich; Kathleen Billeaud; Valerie S. L. Williams

1995-01-01

99

Commentary: Student Cognition, the Situated Learning Context, and Test Score Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…

La Marca, Paul M.

2006-01-01

100

The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

East, Pam C.

2005-01-01

101

A method to incorporate prior information into score test for genetic association studies  

PubMed Central

Background The interest of the scientific community in investigating the impact of rare variants on complex traits has stimulated the development of novel statistical methodologies for association studies. The fact that many of the recently proposed methods for association studies suffer from low power to identify a genetic association motivates the incorporation of prior knowledge into statistical tests. Results In this article we propose a methodology to incorporate prior information into the region-based score test. Within our framework prior information is used to partition variants within a region into several groups, following which asymptotically independent group statistics are constructed and then combined into a global test statistic. Under the null hypothesis the distribution of our test statistic has lower degrees of freedom compared with those of the region-based score statistic. Theoretical power comparison, population genetics simulations and results from analysis of the GAW17 sequencing data set suggest that under some scenarios our method may perform as well as or outperform the score test and other competing methods. Conclusions An approach which uses prior information to improve the power of the region-based score test is proposed. Theoretical power comparison, population genetics simulations and the results of GAW17 data analysis showed that for some scenarios power of our method is on the level with or higher than those of the score test and other methods. PMID:24450486

2014-01-01

102

Clinical Factors Affecting Discrepant Correlation Between Asthma Control Test Score and Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) score is widely used in asthma clinics, particularly with the recent emphasis on achievement and maintenance of optimal asthma control. However, this self-assessment score does not always correspond with lung function parameters, leading to uncertainty about each patient's control status; therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics that are associated with discrepant correlation between the ACT score and pulmonary function. The 252 adult asthmatic subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their changes in FEV1% predicted values and ACT scores between 2 consecutive visits three months apart. The data were retrospectively reviewed and several clinical variables were compared. Elderly, non-eosinophilic, non-atopic asthma patients were more likely to show paradoxical changes of pulmonary function and ACT score. Female patients were prone to report exaggerated changes of ACT score compared with baseline lung function and changes in FEV1 levels. This group was using more medications for rhinosinusitis. Male patients seemed less sensitive to changes in lung function. From these findings, we conclude that when assessing asthma control status, physicians should carefully consider patient age, gender, atopy status, blood eosinophil levels, and comorbidities along with their ACT scores and pulmonary function test results. PMID:25553267

Park, So Young; Yoon, Sun-Young; Shin, Bomi; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom

2015-01-01

103

Clinical factors affecting discrepant correlation between asthma control test score and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) score is widely used in asthma clinics, particularly with the recent emphasis on achievement and maintenance of optimal asthma control. However, this self-assessment score does not always correspond with lung function parameters, leading to uncertainty about each patient's control status; therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics that are associated with discrepant correlation between the ACT score and pulmonary function. The 252 adult asthmatic subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their changes in FEV1% predicted values and ACT scores between 2 consecutive visits three months apart. The data were retrospectively reviewed and several clinical variables were compared. Elderly, non-eosinophilic, non-atopic asthma patients were more likely to show paradoxical changes of pulmonary function and ACT score. Female patients were prone to report exaggerated changes of ACT score compared with baseline lung function and changes in FEV1 levels. This group was using more medications for rhinosinusitis. Male patients seemed less sensitive to changes in lung function. From these findings, we conclude that when assessing asthma control status, physicians should carefully consider patient age, gender, atopy status, blood eosinophil levels, and comorbidities along with their ACT scores and pulmonary function test results. PMID:25553267

Park, So Young; Yoon, Sun-Young; Shin, Bomi; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

2015-01-01

104

Semi-quantitative scoring of an immunochromatographic test for circulating filarial antigen.  

PubMed

Abstract. The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ? 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations. PMID:24019435

Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D S; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel

2013-11-01

105

Semi-Quantitative Scoring of an Immunochromatographic Test for Circulating Filarial Antigen  

PubMed Central

The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ? 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations. PMID:24019435

Chesnais, Cédric B.; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel

2013-01-01

106

Relating Scores on the Enhanced ACT Assessment and the SAT Test Batteries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the appropriateness of two methods for relating the enhanced American College Testing Program (ACT) Assessment Composite and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) total scores: equipercentile concordance and regression. Study results, potential inaccuracies, and the usefulness of institutional concordances based on their own data are…

Houston, Walter; Sawyer, Richard

1991-01-01

107

76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...test systems to restrict these devices so that a prescribed warning...Scott McFarland, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food...assessment score test system is a device that measures one or more proteins...in the context of a negative primary clinical and radiological...

2011-12-30

108

A study of platelet Count, body fat and Harvard Step Test Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between platelet count, bodyfat, and Harvard step test score was examined in 15 post-absorptive male subjects. Subjects rested for five minutes at the beginning of the testing period. A fingertip blood sample was then obtained and the platelet count determined by the method of Brecher and Cronkite. One-percent ammonium oxalate was employed as the dilution fluid. Bodyfat was

W. P. Marley; A. C. Linnerud

1973-01-01

109

Observations on the Use of Test Scores as a Basis for Allocating Educational Funds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test-based funding (TBF) is the concept that allocations of educational funds from one political unit to another should be larger as the proportion of pupils in the receiving unit tho have low test scores is larger. The arguments offered in support of TBF are presented. The most serious acknowledged drawback to TBF is its potential disincentive…

Feldmesser, Robert A.

110

Detection of Invalid Test Scores: The Usefulness of Simple Nonparametric Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent guidelines for fair educational testing it is advised to check the validity of individual test scores through the use of person-fit statistics. For practitioners it is unclear on the basis of the existing literature which statistic to use. An overview of relatively simple existing nonparametric approaches to identify atypical response…

Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.

2014-01-01

111

Low intelligence test scores in 18 year old men and risk of suicide: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between intelligence test scores in men, measured at age 18, and subsequent suicide. Design Record linkage study of the Swedish military service conscription register (1968-94) with the multi-generation register, cause of death register and census data. Four tests were performed at conscription covering logic, language, spatial, and technical skills. Setting Sweden. Participants 987 308 Swedish

D Gunnell; F Rasmussen

2004-01-01

112

Gains in Standardized Test Scores: Evidence of Diminishing Returns to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many states, standardized tests are used to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement. To motivate improvement in test scores, financial awards are given to teachers and administrators in schools that show the greatest gains. However, failure to adjust for initial conditions may put awards out of the reach of some schools and…

Driscoll, Donna; Halcoussis, Dennis; Svorny, Shirley

2008-01-01

113

Qualitative Dimensions in Scoring the Rey Visual Memory Test of Malingering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new qualitative scoring system for the Rey Visual Memory Test was tested for its ability to distinguish between malingerers and nonmalingerers. The new system, based on the types of errors made, was able to distinguish between 53 psychiatrically disabled and 64 normal nonmalingerers, and between nonmalingerers and 91 possible malingerers. (SLD)

Griffin, G. A. Elmer; And Others

1996-01-01

114

A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints  

PubMed Central

It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

2013-01-01

115

A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints.  

PubMed

It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

2013-01-01

116

The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

2003-01-01

117

Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings  

PubMed Central

I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

Chamberlain, Gary E.

2013-01-01

118

Impact of a standardized test package on exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN. PMID:23413805

Homard, Catherine M

2013-03-01

119

Admissions Testing at Career College and Trade School Training Programs. Test Score Guidelines, Norms, and Student Demographics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a method for determining minimum score by vocational program based on the use of the Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam (SLE). The SLE has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate and reliable measure of adult cognitive ability. It is currently in use as an admissions test at many career colleges and trade schools. The SLE test

Wonderlic, Charles F.; And Others

120

The Effect of School Poverty on Racial Gaps in Tests Scores: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data from 1996,1998 and 1999 Minnesota comprehensive statewide testing on eight graders is used to analyze whether African American students perform worse than the white students who attend the poverty schools. The analyses conclude that African American-White test score gap is attributed more to the racial discriminations and racial treatments…

Myers, Samuel L.; Kim, Hyeoneui; Mandala, Cheryl

2004-01-01

121

The reliability and validity of qualitative scores for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test.  

PubMed

The reliability and validity of two qualitative scoring systems for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test [Benton, A. L., Hamsher, de S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1983). Multilingual aplasia examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates] were examined in 108 healthy young adults. The scoring systems developed by Troyer et al. [Troyer, A. K., Moscovich, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11, 138-146] and by Abwender et al. [Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001a). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323-336] each demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (all indices at or above r(icc)=.9). Consistent with previous research [e.g., Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the COWAT. Archives of Clinical Psychology, 18, 153-164), test-retest reliability coefficients (N=53; M interval 44.6 days) for the qualitative scores were modest to poor (r(icc)=.6 to .4 range). Correlations among COWAT scores, measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, working memory, and vocabulary were examined. The idea that qualitative scores represent distinct executive functions such as cognitive flexibility or strategy utilization was not supported. We offer the interpretation that COWAT performance may require the ability to retrieve words in a non-routine manner while suppressing habitual responses and associated processing interference, presumably due to a spread of activation across semantic or lexical networks. This interpretation, though speculative at present, implies that clustering and switching on the COWAT may not be entirely deliberate, but rather an artifact of a passive (i.e., state-dependent) process. Ideas for future research, most noticeably experimental studies using cognitive methods (e.g., priming), are discussed. PMID:17317094

Ross, Thomas P; Calhoun, Emily; Cox, Tara; Wenner, Carolyn; Kono, Whitney; Pleasant, Morgan

2007-05-01

122

Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

Singh, Abhijeet

2014-01-01

123

A Follow-Up of Suspect Sophomore Scores on the COMP Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Outcome Measures Program (COMP) objective test is used by colleges and universities to monitor the success of their undergraduate programs and as part of general assessment efforts. At Northeast Missouri State University (Kirksville), 102 students were identified as having suspect COMP scores based on the three criteria of: (1) COMP…

Olsen, Scott A.; Wilson, Kim

124

Factors affecting milk ELISA scores of cows tested for Johne’s disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) has been estimated to cost dairy producers over $1.5 billion per year. The objective of this study was to examine the influence a number of environmental and genetic factors have on ELISA milk test scores for Johne’s diseas...

125

California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

Diamond, Sandra M.

2013-01-01

126

Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

McEnroe, James D.

2010-01-01

127

Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

2013-01-01

128

The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

Avila, JuliAnna

2012-01-01

129

Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

2011-01-01

130

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series The Black-White Test Score Gap  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #05-09 June 2005 The Black-White Test Score Gap This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency

Shyy, Wei

131

Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

2011-01-01

132

Relationships among High School Grades, ACT Test Scores, and College Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the utility of using both the American College Testing (ACT) Program composite score and high school grade point average (GPA) as predictors of students' success in college, as measured by the GPA at the end of the students' first semester in college. Data were obtained from 420 first-time entering freshmen at a medium-sized…

Myers, Richard S.; Pyles, Michelle R.

133

Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

Linn, Robert L.; And Others

134

Pyramid Power: Searching for an Error in Test Scoring with 830,000 Helpers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematics question that was asked on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test was scored incorrectly. This subsequently was discovered and became the subject of national attention. In this article we examine the data generated by this item from almost 830,000 examinees and find that detailed statistical analysis with even this enormous sample size would not have yielded clues to the

Howard Wainer

1983-01-01

135

Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

2007-01-01

136

Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

Almond, Russell G.

2014-01-01

137

Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

Wright, Robert J.

2009-01-01

138

Evaluation of Score Interpretive Information from the Perspective of Failed and Passed Test-Takers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Candidates who had taken examinations for certification required by the American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) were surveyed to acquire feedback about the effectiveness of score interpretive information given to test takers. Those sampled included 488 passers and 389 failers of the Inventory Management (IM) examination and 457…

Shannon, Gregory A.

139

Statistical Approaches to Achieving Sufficiently High Test Score Reliabilities for Research Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides statistical approaches to aid investigators in assuring that sufficiently high test score reliabilities are achieved for specific research purposes. The statistical approaches use tests of statistical significance between the obtained reliability and lowest population reliability that an investigator will tolerate. The statistical approaches work for coefficient alpha and related coefficients and for alternate-forms, split-half (2-part alpha), and

Richard A. Charter

2008-01-01

140

Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

2014-06-01

141

Relation between renal function tests and a retrospective organic solvent exposure score.  

PubMed Central

In case-control studies on glomerulonephritis and organic solvents several authors have assessed exposure to organic solvents with a score based on the self reported occupational history. The underlying principle is that all exposures can be weighted by an intensity factor and then added to get one number representative of lifetime exposure. As this score has hitherto not been validated the relation between this exposure score and kidney function tests in a population of workers with past or present exposure to organic solvents was examined. The results suggest that such relations do exist for the N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, erythrocyturia, and, perhaps, albuminuria but not for the protein creatinine ratio or for leucocyturia. PMID:2590648

Hotz, P; Pilliod, J; Söderström, D; Rey, F; Boillat, M A; Savolainen, H

1989-01-01

142

Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

2014-01-01

143

Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.  

PubMed

The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

2012-06-01

144

Investigating Differences in Mean Score on Adaptive and Paper and Pencil Versions of the College Level Academic Skills Reading Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible causes of a 16-point mean score increase for the computer adaptive form of the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) in reading over the paper-and-pencil test (PPT) in reading are examined. The adaptive form of the CLAST was used in a state-wide field test in which reading, writing, and computation scores for approximately 1,000…

Legg, Sue M.; Buhr, Dianne C.

145

An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…

Allalouf, Avi

2007-01-01

146

Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

2004-01-01

147

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

E-print Network

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated...

Hooten, Regina

2010-07-14

148

Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.  

PubMed

The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information. PMID:15648409

Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

2004-07-01

149

A glance at quality score: implication for de novo transcriptome reconstruction of Illumina reads  

PubMed Central

Downstream analyses of short-reads from next-generation sequencing platforms are often preceded by a pre-processing step that removes uncalled and wrongly called bases. Standard approaches rely on their associated base quality scores to retain the read or a portion of it when the score is above a predefined threshold. It is difficult to differentiate sequencing error from biological variation without a reference using quality scores. The effects of quality score based trimming have not been systematically studied in de novo transcriptome assembly. Using RNA-Seq data produced from Illumina, we teased out the effects of quality score based filtering or trimming on de novo transcriptome reconstruction. We showed that assemblies produced from reads subjected to different quality score thresholds contain truncated and missing transfrags when compared to those from untrimmed reads. Our data supports the fact that de novo assembling of untrimmed data is challenging for de Bruijn graph assemblers. However, our results indicates that comparing the assemblies from untrimmed and trimmed read subsets can suggest appropriate filtering parameters and enable selection of the optimum de novo transcriptome assembly in non-model organisms. PMID:24575122

Mbandi, Stanley Kimbung; Hesse, Uljana; Rees, D. Jasper G.; Christoffels, Alan

2014-01-01

150

Correcting Two-Sample "z" and "t" Tests for Correlation: An Alternative to One-Sample Tests on Difference Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…

Zimmerman, Donald W.

2012-01-01

151

Pediatric Residents' Learning Styles and Temperaments and Their Relationships to Standardized Test Scores  

PubMed Central

Background Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. Results The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P ?=? .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. Conclusions The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents. PMID:23205211

Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Kelly, Maria N.; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S.

2011-01-01

152

The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

Guzeller, Cem Oktay

2012-01-01

153

Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on "Praxis II" Licensure Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerns the "highly qualified teacher" provisions of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA," 2002), as reauthorized, and other policies at the federal, state and local levels, which have aimed to elevate the content knowledge of teachers. This examination of "Praxis II" score trends was not meant to serve as an evaluation…

Gitomer, Drew H.; Qi, Yi

2010-01-01

154

The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

Powell, P. E.

155

Development and validation of a self-scoring test for coronary heart disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-administered tests to assess an individual's coronary heart disease risk are common in the popular press. However, delusion and inaccuracy in self-scoring may impair their utility as educational tools. Self-assessment questions concerning dietary cholesterol, weight, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure were administered several days prior to risk measurement to 246 randomly selected adults aged twenty-five to sixty-four. A standard risk

Phyllis L. Pirie; Russell V. Luepker; David R. Jacobs; James W. Brown; Nancy Hall

1983-01-01

156

Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first\\u000a grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher-\\u000a and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist\\u000a (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about

Maria Paz Guzman; Michael Jellinek; Myriam George; Marcela Hartley; Ana Maria Squicciarini; Katia M. Canenguez; Karen A. Kuhlthau; Recai Yucel; Gwyne W. White; Javier Guzman; J. Michael Murphy

157

Extended Homozygosity Score Tests to Detect Positive Selection in Genome-wide Scans  

E-print Network

and chromosome 2 of the HapMap Phase II data. ? marked new regions; abbreviations: Chrms | Chromosome, Popu. | Population, Pct | percentile. In the flrst column, the Genes provided names and positions of genes which were located in a region.... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 32 IX One region and SNPs which had highest EHHT scores, strongest difierentiations, and high derived allele frequency in the tested population (> 0.5) on chromosome 2 of the HapMap Phase II data. ? marked new regions; abbreviations: Chrms...

Zhong, Ming

2011-08-08

158

Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

2010-01-01

159

The Relationship Between Nelson-Denny Test Scores and Academic Performance of Educational Opportunity Program Students. EAC Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores and an English course placement recommendation to academic success of Educational Opportunity Program students at the University of Washington was studied. The placement recommendation was based on a writing sample and test scores. The 207 freshmen students who entered in either 1976 or 1978…

Yamagishi, Midori; Gillmore, Gerald M.

160

Relationships of Teacher-Assigned Grades in High School Chemistry to Taxonomy-Type Objective Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study designed (1) to investigate the relationship between teacher-assigned chemistry grades and the scores obtained on a multiple-choice chemistry test built on taxonomic principles, and (2) to compare the contributions of various predictor variables to the explainable variance of the grades and the total test scores. The sample…

Even, Alexander

161

Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

162

The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of…

Hooten, Regina Gay

2009-01-01

163

Genome-wide association study of rheumatoid arthritis by a score test based on wavelet transformation  

PubMed Central

Background We have conducted a genome-wide association study on the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 16 rheumatoid arthritis data using a multilocus score test based on wavelet transform proposed recently by the authors. The wavelet-based test automatically adjusts for the amount of noise suppressed from the data. The power of the test is also increased by using the genetic information contained in the spatial ordering of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chromosome. Results After adjusting for the effect of population stratification, the test identified some previously discovered rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (HLA-DRB1 and rs3761847) as well as some loci (rs2076530 and rs3130340) known to have association with sarcoidosis and bone mineral density. It was previously reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis have elevated prevalence of sarcoidosis and have reduced bone mass. Conclusion This new test provides a useful tool in genome-wide association studies. PMID:20018075

2009-01-01

164

A score-type test for heterogeneity in zero-inflated models in a stratified population.  

PubMed

We propose a score-type statistic to evaluate heterogeneity in zero-inflated models for count data in a stratified population, where heterogeneity is defined as instances in which the zero counts are generated from two sources. Evaluating heterogeneity in this class of models has attracted considerable attention in the literature, but existing testing procedures have primarily relied on the constancy assumption under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we extend the literature by describing a score-type test to evaluate homogeneity against general alternatives that do not neglect the stratification information under the alternative hypothesis. The limiting null distribution of the proposed test statistic is a mixture of chi-squared distributions that can be well approximated by a simple parametric bootstrap procedure. Our numerical simulation studies show that the proposed test can greatly improve efficiency over tests of heterogeneity that ignore the stratification information. An empirical application to dental caries data in early childhood further shows the importance and practical utility of the methodology in using the stratification profile to detect heterogeneity in the population. PMID:24488881

Cao, Guanqun; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David

2014-05-30

165

Bayes' Theorem to estimate population prevalence from Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim in this methodological paper is to demonstrate, using Bayes' Theorem, an approach to estimating the difference in prevalence of a disorder in two groups whose test scores are obtained, illustrated with data from a college student trial where 12-month outcomes are reported for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Method Using known population prevalence as a background probability and diagnostic accuracy information for the AUDIT scale, we calculated the post-test probability of alcohol abuse or dependence for study participants. The difference in post-test probability between the study intervention and control groups indicates the effectiveness of the intervention to reduce alcohol use disorder rates. Findings In the illustrative analysis, at 12-month follow-up there was a mean AUDIT score difference of 2.2 points between the intervention and control groups: an effect size of unclear policy relevance. Using Bayes' Theorem, the post-test probability mean difference between the two groups was 9% (95% confidence interval 3–14%). Interpreted as a prevalence reduction, this is evaluated more easily by policy makers and clinicians. Conclusion Important information on the probable differences in real world prevalence and impact of prevention and treatment programmes can be produced by applying Bayes' Theorem to studies where diagnostic outcome measures are used. However, the usefulness of this approach relies upon good information on the accuracy of such diagnostic measures for target conditions. PMID:19438421

Foxcroft, David R; Kypri, Kypros; Simonite, Vanessa

2009-01-01

166

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

E-print Network

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing D. Richard Kuhn, Senior Member. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system can be triggered that all faults in a system are triggered by a combination of n or fewer parameters, then testing all n

Perkins, Richard A.

167

Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

168

Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

Weigle, Sara Cushing

2010-01-01

169

Differential Item Functioning for a Test with a Cutoff Score: Use of Limited Closed-Interval Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) is introduced that is suitable for tests with a cutoff score. DIF is assessed on a limited closed interval of thetas in which a cutoff score falls. How this approach affects the identification of DIF items is demonstrated with real data sets. (SLD)

Oshima, T. C.; And Others

1994-01-01

170

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the  

E-print Network

Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the cutoff for Math 231. Statistical data from previous semesters shows that students with placement scores of 22 and below (out of 45) have a much higher W/D/F rate in Math 231

Taalman, Laura

171

Sorting and Supporting: Why Double-Dose Algebra Led to Better Test Scores but More Course Failures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…

Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

172

Participation in a coteaching classroom and students' end-of-course test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General education students consistently perform poorly on standardized science tests. Coteaching is an instructional strategy that improves the achievement of students with disabilities, but very little research exists that examines the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The constructivist theoretical framework provided the foundation for this research. The research question examined the effect that coteaching classrooms had on the performance of general education biology students. In this experimental design utilizing a posttest-only control group, coteaching instructional strategy was the treatment, and student performance was measured using the scores obtained from the biology end-of-course test. Data for this study was analyzed using an independent t-test. The results of this study revealed that there was not a statistically significant difference in student performance on the biology end-of-course test between treatment and control groups. More than half of the general education biology students enrolled in coteaching classrooms failed the end-of-course test. Researchers may use this study as a catalyst to examine other instructional practices that may improve student performance in science courses. The results of this study may be used to persuade coteachers of the importance of attending frequent professional development opportunities that examine a variety of coteaching instructional strategies. Improving the performance of general education students in science may improve standardized test scores, afford more students the opportunity to attend college, and ensure that students are able to compete on a global level.

Debro, Ava

173

The Factorial Validity of Scores from a Cognitively Designed Test: The Spatial Learning Ability Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies of the factorial validity of the Spatial Learning Ability Test (SLAT), involving 431 undergraduates, were summarized to elaborate nomothetic span. These studies support the SLAT as a spatial processing measure. The SLAT, compared to a test with the same item type, was a more pure measure of spatial ability. (SLD)

Embretson, Susan E.

1997-01-01

174

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

2007-01-01

175

Sex differences in Cognitive Abilities Test scores: A UK national picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods. The sheer size of the sample ensures that any sex difference will achieve statistical significance. Therefore, effect sizes (d) and variance ratios (VR) are employed to evaluate the magnitude of sex differences in mean scores and in score variability, respectively. Results. The mean verbal reasoning score for girls was 2.2 standard score points higher than the mean for boys,

Steve Strand; Ian J. Deary; Pauline Smith

2006-01-01

176

Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

Educational Testing Service, 2008

2008-01-01

177

Prediction of mathematics 102 grades from high school algebra grades and the cooperative elementary algebra test scores  

E-print Network

PREDICTION OF MATHEMATICS 102 GRADES FROM HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELEMENTARY ALGEHRA TEST SCORES A thesis by ELDRED SEAMON OLDHAM Subaitted to the Graduate School oi the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Dsrtisl fulfillaent of the requirenents for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May I 962 Ma/or Subject Education PREDICTION OF MATHENAT ICE 102 GRADES PRON HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELENENTARY ALGEBRA TEST SCORES A thesis...

Oldham, Eldred Beamon

2012-06-07

178

Policy Implications: Replacing the Reading TAKS Cut Scores with the Common Core Curriculum Reading Cut Scores on Three Middle School Campuses  

E-print Network

must still prepare students for academic success. This study determined how the use of more rigorous Lexile standards found in other states and associated with the Common Core Curriculum Standards would affect passing scores on Texas reading assessments...

Thaemlitz, Kristi

2013-07-30

179

Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

Papp, Klara K.; And Others

1987-01-01

180

Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in predicting student…

Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

1980-01-01

181

Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p < 0.05), the difference between the means was statistically significant. This project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

Page, Purlie M.

182

Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

2010-04-01

183

Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

2014-12-01

184

The Relationship between Students’ Verbal and Nonverbal Test Scores within the Context of Poverty  

E-print Network

–achievement relationship within the context of poverty. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the verbal and the nonverbal scores of students within the context of poverty. The study investigated how students’ verbal and nonverbal scores...

Kaya, Fatih

2013-03-13

185

Metric-Free Measures of Test Score Trends and Gaps with Policy-Relevant Examples. CSE Report 665  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of scale typically arise when comparing test score trends, gaps, and gap trends across different tests. To overcome some of these difficulties, we can express the difference between the observed test performance of two groups with graphs or statistics that are metric-free (i.e., invariant under positive monotonic transformations of the…

Ho, Andrew D.; Haertel, Edward H.

2006-01-01

186

Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

Kim, Kyung Hee

2008-01-01

187

Breed differences in pig temperament scores during a performance test and their phenotypic relationship with performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleus populations of Chester White, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars and gilts (n=4774) were used to estimate breed differences in temperament and the relationship with performance. Adjusted backfat, adjusted loin depth, days to 113.4 kilograms (DAYS), estimated percent fat-free lean (LEAN), and three temperament scores: load score, scale score, and vocal score were recorded, on a scale of 1 (calm)

C. L. Yoder; C. Maltecca; J. P. Cassady; W. L. Flowers; S. Price; M. T. See

2011-01-01

188

Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.  

PubMed

The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color. PMID:9777483

Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

1998-04-01

189

Relationship of Admission Test Scores to Writing Performance of Native and Nonnative Speakers of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four writing samples were obtained from 638 foreign college applicants who represented three major foreign language groups (Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish), and from 60 native English speakers. All four were scored holistically, two were also scored for sentence-level and discourse-level skills, and some were scored by the Writer's Workbench…

Carlson, Sybil B.; And Others

190

[Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

Solomon, Robert J.

191

Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination Scores and Verbal Memory Performance at a Memory Center: Implications for Cognitive Screening.  

PubMed

Memory decline is often among the first signs heralding the emergence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia regardless of etiology. Despite its limited inclusion of memory screening, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) continues to be the most ubiquitous, first-line screening tool for dementia and cognitive decline. In response to well documented problems with the sensitivity of this instrument and the growing importance of cognitive screening, we assessed the utility of the MMSE as a screening tool among older adults presenting for evaluation at a memory clinic. The Standardized MMSE and a standardized verbal memory test - the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) - were administered to 304 consecutive referrals at a university-based outpatient memory clinic. Among patients scoring above 25 on the MMSE (n = 169), over half exhibited at least moderate memory impairment (HVLT-R delayed recall z ? -2.0) and more than 25% showed severe impairment (delayed recall z ? -3.0). Perhaps even more striking was that among those who achieved perfect (30/30) or near perfect (29/30) scores on the MMSE (n = 70), 43% displayed moderate to severe memory impairment. Although newer screening measures have shown improved sensitivity, more in-depth memory testing appears to be a vital component of successful screening and early detection. PMID:24990889

Lacy, Maureen; Kaemmerer, Tobias; Czipri, Sheena

2014-07-01

192

The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

193

Testing Implications of the Adaptive Market Hypothesis via Computational Intelligence  

E-print Network

Testing Implications of the Adaptive Market Hypothesis via Computational Intelligence Matthew Butler and Dimitar Kazakov Abstract--This study analyzes two implications of the Adaptive Market with the Efficient Market Hypothesis. Variable efficiency has been a popular topic amongst econometric researchers

Kazakov, Dimitar

194

Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

2010-01-01

195

How Out-of-Level Testing Affects the Psychometric Quality of Test Scores. Out-of-Level Testing Report 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a review and analysis of the psychometric literature on the topic of out-of-level testing. Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of using a level of the test other than the test taken by most of the students in a student's current grade level. Much of the research on out-of-level testing was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s,…

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Minnema, Jane; Scott, Jim

196

The Token and Reporter's Tests--Using Two Scoring Conventions: A Normative Study with 286 Grade and Junior High Students and Use with 123 Language-Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance of 286 normal children (grades K-9) on the De Renzi and Faglioni form of the Token Test and the De Renzi and Ferrari Reporter's Test were analyzed. Two different scoring conventions were compared: number correct versus weighted scores. Normative data are presented by grade level and age. Specific administration and scoring procedures…

Jordan, Linda S.; Hall, Penelope K.

1985-01-01

197

The impact of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score on treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in patients with early breast cancer: the Maccabi Healthcare Services experience with a unified testing policy  

PubMed Central

The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score is a validated prognosticator in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Our retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort summarises the clinical implications associated with Oncotype DX testing according to the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) policy. The MHS eligibility criteria for testing included ER+ N0/pN1mic invasive tumours, discussion of test implications with an oncologist, ductal carcinoma 0.6–1 cm Grade 2–3, HER2 negative ductal carcinomas with 1.1–4.0 cm Grade 1–2, or lobular carcinoma. Large (> 1 cm) Grade 3 tumours could have grade reassessed. We linked Recurrence Score results with patients’ information and used chi-squared tests to assess the associations thereof. Between January 2008 and December 2011, tests were performed on 751 patients (MHS-eligible, 713); 54%, 38%, and 8% of patients had low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively. Recurrence Score distribution varied significantly with age (P = 0.002), with increasing Recurrence Score values with decreasing age. The proportion of patients with high Recurrence Score results varied by grade/size combination and histology, occurring in 32% of small (? 1 cm) Grade 3 and 3% of larger (1.1–4 cm) Grade 1 ductal tumours and only in 2% of lobular carcinomas. Chemotherapy was administered to 1%, 13%, and 61% of patients with low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively (P < 0.0001), but only to 2% of intermediate score patients ? 65 years. Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists with tamoxifen were used in 27% of low Recurrence Score patients ? 50 years. With a median follow-up of 26 months, no systemic recurrences were documented, whereas four patients exhibited locoregional recurrences. In summary, in this low-to-moderate risk patient population, testing identified 46% of patients as intermediate/high risk. Treatment decisions were influenced by Recurrence Score results and patients’ age. The current MHS policy seems to achieve the goal of promoting chemotherapy use according to the test results in a prespecified patient population. PMID:24386009

Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Silverman, Barbara; Zick, Aviad; Beit-Or, Anat; Katzir, Itzhak; Porath, Avi

2013-01-01

198

The impact of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score on treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in patients with early breast cancer: the Maccabi Healthcare Services experience with a unified testing policy.  

PubMed

The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score is a validated prognosticator in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Our retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort summarises the clinical implications associated with Oncotype DX testing according to the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) policy. The MHS eligibility criteria for testing included ER+ N0/pN1mic invasive tumours, discussion of test implications with an oncologist, ductal carcinoma 0.6-1 cm Grade 2-3, HER2 negative ductal carcinomas with 1.1-4.0 cm Grade 1-2, or lobular carcinoma. Large (> 1 cm) Grade 3 tumours could have grade reassessed. We linked Recurrence Score results with patients' information and used chi-squared tests to assess the associations thereof. Between January 2008 and December 2011, tests were performed on 751 patients (MHS-eligible, 713); 54%, 38%, and 8% of patients had low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively. Recurrence Score distribution varied significantly with age (P = 0.002), with increasing Recurrence Score values with decreasing age. The proportion of patients with high Recurrence Score results varied by grade/size combination and histology, occurring in 32% of small (? 1 cm) Grade 3 and 3% of larger (1.1-4 cm) Grade 1 ductal tumours and only in 2% of lobular carcinomas. Chemotherapy was administered to 1%, 13%, and 61% of patients with low, intermediate, and high Recurrence Score results, respectively (P < 0.0001), but only to 2% of intermediate score patients ? 65 years. Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists with tamoxifen were used in 27% of low Recurrence Score patients ? 50 years. With a median follow-up of 26 months, no systemic recurrences were documented, whereas four patients exhibited locoregional recurrences. In summary, in this low-to-moderate risk patient population, testing identified 46% of patients as intermediate/high risk. Treatment decisions were influenced by Recurrence Score results and patients' age. The current MHS policy seems to achieve the goal of promoting chemotherapy use according to the test results in a prespecified patient population. PMID:24386009

Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Silverman, Barbara; Zick, Aviad; Beit-Or, Anat; Katzir, Itzhak; Porath, Avi

2013-01-01

199

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

200

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

201

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

202

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

203

An Investigation of Calculator Use on Employment Tests of Mathematical Ability: Effects on Reliability, Validity, Test Scores, and Speed of Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Handheld calculators have been used on the job for more than 30 years, yet the degree to which these devices can affect performance on employment tests of mathematical ability has not been thoroughly examined. This study used a within-subjects research design (N = 167) to investigate the effects of calculator use on test score reliability, test

Bing, Mark N.; Stewart, Susan M.; Davison, H. Kristl

2009-01-01

204

Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.  

PubMed

The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

2013-12-01

205

Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score  

PubMed Central

Background The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT) could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice. Objective To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit. Results A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], ?0.37–0.46) and 0.18 (95% CI, ?0.23–0.60), respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19). There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6.63] and 8.84 [95% CI, 6.29–11.39], respectively), as assessed by physicians. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CAT score change for the detection of acute deterioration in health status was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84–0.94), and the optimum cut-off point score was at 4, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 76.8%, 83.6%, and 82.4%, respectively. Conclusions Change in CAT score during monitoring visits is useful for detecting acute deterioration in health status, and a change of 4 units could make a moderate prediction of acute deterioration in health status.

Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chaiwong, Warawut; Limsukon, Atikun; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn; Phetsuk, Nittaya

2015-01-01

206

Symposium of Scores on the California Test of Personality with Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to examine the relationship of certain personality factors to certain reading and reading related scores of children referred to a reading clinic because of presumed reading difficulties. (Authors)

Callaway, Byron; And Others

1972-01-01

207

Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the responses of 997 students in Grades 2 to 6 on the TAS-E. The results of the EFA produced a four-factor solution: Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Grumbein, Matthew J.; Raad, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

208

Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District. Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of supplemental educational services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) tutoring services. The sample used includes information on students enrolled in 3rd through 8th grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

2009-01-01

209

Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

Pullin, Diana

2013-01-01

210

Incomplete Psychometric Equivalence of Scores Obtained on the Manual and the Computer Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assesses executive and frontal lobe function and can be administered manually or by computer. Despite the widespread application of the 2 versions, the psychometric equivalence of their scores has rarely been evaluated and only a limited set of criteria has been considered. The present experimental study (N =…

Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Brunner, Martin; Loarer, Even; Houssemand, Claude

2010-01-01

211

Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

2014-01-01

212

Changes in the Black-White Test score Gap in the Elementary School Grades. CSE Report 715  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a pair of recent studies, Fryer and Levitt (2004a, 2004b) analyzed the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to explore the characteristics of the Black-White test score gap in young children. They found that the gap grew markedly between kindergarten and the third grade and that they could predict the gap from…

Koretz, Daniel; Kim, Young-Suk

2007-01-01

213

Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

Haberman, Shelby J.

2011-01-01

214

How Close Is Close Enough? Testing Nonexperimental Estimates of Impact against Experimental Estimates of Impact with Education Test Scores as Outcomes. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the performance of nonexperimental estimators of impacts applied to a class size reduction intervention with achievement test scores as the outcome. Nonexperimental estimates of impacts were compared to "true impact" estimates provided by a random-assignment design that assessed intervention effects. Data came from Project STAR,…

Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Hollister, Robinson

215

Effects of Testing Accommodations on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores: An Experimental Analysis of the Performances of Students with and without Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of testing accommodations on the mathematics test scores of a sample of fourth-grade students, which included students with disabilities (SWD) and students without disabilities (SWOD). Primary analyses indicated that SWDs experienced a larger effect in the accommodated condition than did SWODs. The SWDs profited more than…

Schulte, Aleta A. Gilbertson; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

2001-01-01

216

Brain syndrome and WAIS PIO VIO difference scores corrected for test artifact.  

PubMed

Found an artifactual discrepancy of six units between VIQ and PIQ in Ss (N = 62) of low and bright, but not of mid-range IQ. Despite the matching of psychiatric cases for dominant and nondominant cognitive function, the discrepancy took the form of a lowered PIQ. The application of an equivalent correction to the PIQs of consecutive and unmatched psychiatric cases failed to improve the neurological predictive utility of the VIQ PIQ difference score. The latter failed statistically as an alerting device for abnormal CT and EEG results and whether a neurological event was recorded in the file. Despite the observation of a strong relationship between CT outcome and VIQ PIQ difference score evidence of cognitive intactness, it was concluded that difference score, whether corrected or not, should be used with extreme caution as a screening device for psychiatric cases who might be harboring an underlying brain syndrome. PMID:6746941

Kljaji?, I; Berry, D

1984-01-01

217

Thrombophilias--practical implications and testing caveats.  

PubMed

This review summarizes recent information about the major thrombophilic conditions, their clinical relevance, and practical aspects pertaining to testing for these thrombophilias, such as when to test and what assays are appropriate. Conditions covered include factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210 mutation, proteins C and S, antithrombin, antiphospholipid antibodies, homocysteine, and methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase enzyme mutation. Additional comments focus on education of patients and educational resources for patients, such as the National Alliance for Thrombosis and Thrombophilia (www.nattinfo.org). PMID:16475036

Moll, Stephan

2006-02-01

218

Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2014-01-01

219

Psychiatric implications of cancer genetic testing.  

PubMed

As genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes has transitioned from research to clinical settings, research regarding its accompanying psychosocial effects has grown. Men and women being tested for hereditary cancer syndromes may experience some psychological distress while going through the process of testing or after carrier status is identified. Psychological distress appears to decrease over the course of the first year and it is typically not clinically significant. Longer term studies show mixed results with some mutation carriers continuing to experience elevated distress. Baseline distress is the greatest risk factor for both immediate (weeks-12 months) and long-term psychological distress (18 mo-8 years post genetic testing). In addition to baseline psychological distress, other risk factors can be identified to help identify individuals who may need psychosocial interventions during the genetic testing process. The challenges of providing clinical care to the growing population of individuals identified to be at increased risk for heritable cancers present opportunities for research and new models of care. Cancer 2015;121:341-360. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25234846

Hirschberg, April Malia; Chan-Smutko, Gayun; Pirl, William F

2015-02-01

220

Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology) to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1) encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2) leverage the design of molecular description languages to facilitate the identification of relevant structural attributes of the molecules over different problem domains. PMID:21034429

2010-01-01

221

The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

Jones, Tracy Anne

2010-01-01

222

Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

2008-01-01

223

Optimal Calibration Designs for Tests of Polytomously Scored Items Described by Item Response Theory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied calibration designs that maximize the determinants of Fisher's information matrix on the item parameters for sets of polytomously scored items. Analyzed these items using a number of item response theory models. Results show that for the data and models used, a D-optimal calibration design for an answer or set of answers can reduce the…

Holman, Rebecca; Berger, Martijn P. F.

2001-01-01

224

Interpreting the Implications of DNA Ancestry Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Shopping for genetic information has become popular, but consumers may not understand what exactly they are buying. The retail DNA industry is forcing laypersons, academics, and medical and legal professionals alike to face the crossroads of genetics, law, and society. How will we decipher the meanings of the tests, determine the value of the information provided, or appropriately encourage or

Jennifer K. Wagner

2010-01-01

225

Interpreting the Implications of DNA Ancestry Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shopping for genetic information has become popular, but consumers may not understand what exactly they are buying. The retail DNA industry is forcing laypersons, academics, and medical and legal professionals alike to face the crossroads of genetics, law, and society. How will we decipher the meanings of the tests, determine the value of the information provided, or appropriately encourage or

Jennifer K. Wagner

2010-01-01

226

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

227

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

228

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

229

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

230

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

231

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

232

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

233

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

234

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

235

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

236

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

237

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

238

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

239

State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

240

Development and Psychometric Testing of a Quality of Recovery Score After General Anesthesia and Surgery in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

a significant negative relationship between QoR Score and female gender (P 5 0.048) and older age (P 5 0.041). There was also good interrater agreement (r 5 0.55, P , 0.0001), test-retest reliability (median r 5 0.61, P , 0.0001), and internal consistency (a 5 0.57 and 0.90, P , 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the groups of

Paul S. Myles; Jennifer O. Hunt; Claire E. Nightingale; Helen Fletcher; Terence Beh; Deral Tanil; Attila Nagy; Alan Rubinstein; Jennie L. Ponsford

1999-01-01

241

Stated vocational aims and Strong interest test scores of high school senior girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-fourth of the stated vocational choices of 297 girl senior students from the pre-college, commercial, and general and home economics groups of two Flint, Michigan, high schools was in office work. The concentration of highest Strong scores was in stenography, office work, home-making, and nursing––4 occupations between which the Strong Blank does not discriminate adequately. Therefore the Strong Blank is

M. Skodak; O. L. Crissey

1942-01-01

242

The Impact of Scholastic Instrumental Music and Scholastic Chess Study on the Standardized Test Scores of Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of instrumental music study and group chess lessons on the standardized test scores of suburban elementary public school students (grades three through five) in Levittown, New York. The study divides the students into the following groups and compares the standardized test scores of each: a) instrumental music…

Martinez, Edwin E.

2012-01-01

243

The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.  

PubMed

Bodden, JG, Needham, RA, and Chockalingam, N. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 219-225, 2015-This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A ? analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (? = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (? = 5.2, p ? 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs. PMID:23860293

Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

2015-01-01

244

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

245

An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

2006-01-01

246

A standardized scoring method for the copy of cube test, developed to be suitable for use in psychiatric populations  

PubMed Central

Background Although the 'copy of cube test', a version of which is included in the Short Test of Mental Status (STMS), has existed for years, little has been done to standardize it in detail. The aim of the current study was to develop a novel and detailed standardized method of administration and scoring this test. Methods The study sample included 93 healthy control subjects (53 women and 40 men) aged 35.87 ± 12.62 and 127 patients suffering from schizophrenia (54 women and 73 men) aged 34.07 ± 9.83 years. The psychometric assessment included the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Results A scoring method was developed based on the frequencies of responses of healthy controls. Cronbach's ? was equal to 0.75 and inter-rater reliability was 0.90. Three indices and five subscales of the Standardized Copy of the Cube Test (SCCT) were eventually developed. They included the Deficit Index (DcI), which includes the Missing Elements (ME) Mirror Image (M) subscales, the Deformation Index (DfI) which includes the Deformation (D) and the Rotation (R) subscales and the Closing-In Index (CiI). Discussion The SCCT seems to be a reliable, valid and sensitive to change instrument for the testing of psychiatric patients. The great advantage of this instrument is the fact that it only requires paper and a pencil, and is this easily administered and brief. Further research is necessary to test its usefulness as a neuropsychological test. PMID:21745404

2011-01-01

247

Relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Scores and Success in Air Weapons Controller Training. Interim Report for the Period November 1982-February 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project investigated the relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) composite scores and student performance in Air Force air weapons controller training. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using AFOQT scores as one selection criteria for entry to the air weapons controller field. An analysis of…

Finegold, Lawrence S.; Rogers, Deborah

248

Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

2013-01-01

249

SCORe-CT: a new method for testing effectiveness of sulfide-control chemicals used in sewer systems.  

PubMed

A new method for testing the effectiveness of chemical products for sulfide control in sewers is reported. The method, called SCORe-CT (Sewer Corrosion and Odour Research - Chemical Testing), consists of two specially designed laboratory-scale systems that mimic sulfide production in real rising main sewers, and a multi-phase and multi-facet testing protocol. The monitoring tools/methods include both routine chemical analysis of various sulfurous and carbonaceous compounds in liquid and their on-line monitoring using advanced sensors. Molecular methods and microelectrodes can also be employed to examine the microbial structure and activity of sewer biofilms. The SCORe-CT method is not proposed to replace field trials but to screen chemicals prior to their often costly trials/applications in field conditions. For effective chemicals the method helps to reveal the mechanisms involved, and assists with the design of optimal dosage strategies, which would significantly reduce application costs. In this paper, the method is explained in detail and demonstrated with several case studies. PMID:22170831

Gutierrez, Oriol; Sudarjanto, Gatut; Sharma, Keshab R; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

2011-01-01

250

Wisconsin-Milesky Test of Lip Reading Potential: A Composite of Subtest Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is noted that the Wisconsin-Milesky Battery, which includes such tests as subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test, provides a profile of elements predictive of the young deaf child's lip reading potential. (SBH)

Milesky, Samuel D.

1977-01-01

251

NAEP tests show that general economics students who participated in a stock market simulation score significantly  

E-print Network

free staff development and on-going technical support for teachers. For more information, complete NAEP literacy. * Activities listed: FBLA, DECA, Junior Achievement, economics-related clubs, academic test or economics questions on a broader test gathering information on personal finance, local, US

Hardy, Christopher R.

252

The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

Airola, Denise Tobin

2011-01-01

253

The Impact of Intensive Reading Interventions on Student Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the impact intensive reading instruction had for 28 students with learning disabilities at the middle school level on standardized tests. National Assessment of Education Progress testing indicates that across the United States, learning disabled students literacy skills are decreasing annually, and these…

Munoz, Carolyn Sue

2010-01-01

254

8/2013 O:\\Orientation\\BLANCHE\\placementtestscores.doc Placement Test Scores  

E-print Network

once, after two weeks have passed. After the second test, a calendar year must pass before that test can be repeated again. #12;8/2013 O:\\Orientation\\BLANCHE\\placementtestscores.doc Chinese Placement Students with any background in Chinese, formal or informal, who wish to take Chinese language courses must

Kaminsky, Werner

255

Test based on a normal score for efficient edge detection in image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current paper proposes an efficient method for edge detection in original and noisy images using Waerden's statistic. Edges represent a significant amount of information on an image. For example, edges reveal the location of objects, their shape and size, and something about their texture. Since edges represent where the intensity of an image moves from a low value to a high value or vice versa, edge detection is often the first step in image segmentation. As a field of image analysis, image segmentation groups pixels into regions to determine the image composition. Therefore, the current paper describes the nonparametric Wilcoxon test and parametric T test based on statistical hypothesis testing for edge detection. Here, the threshold is determined by specifying a significance level, whereas Bovik, Huang, and Munson considered a range of possible test statistic values for the threshold. In the current study, the test statistic is calculated based on pixel gray levels obtained using an edge-height parameter and compared with the threshold determined by a significance level. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods in both original and noisy images. As a result, the Wilcoxon and T test was found to be sensitive to a noisy image, whereas the proposed Waerden test was robust in both noisy and noise-free images under ?=0.0005. Furthermore, when compared with Sobel, LoG, and Canny operators, the proposed Waerden test was also more effective in both noisy and noise-free images.

Choi, Myong H.; Lee, Ho-Keun; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2003-05-01

256

The Effects of a Translation Bias on the Scores for the "Basic Economics Test"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International comparisons of economic understanding generally require a translation of a standardized test written in English into another language. Test results can differ based on how researchers translate the English written exam into one in their own language. To confirm this hypothesis, two differently translated versions of the "Basic…

Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

2012-01-01

257

Time-Score Analysis in Criterion-Referenced Tests. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family of Weibull distributions was investigated as a model for the distributions of response times for items in computer-based criterion-referenced tests. The fit of these distributions were, with a few exceptions, good to excellent according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For a few relatively simple items, the two-parameter gamma…

Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

258

Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: Cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.  

PubMed

Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150378

Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

2015-01-01

259

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass...

2013-04-01

260

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass...

2012-04-01

261

Validating Placement Tests in the Community College: The Role of Test Scores, Biographical Data, and Grading Variation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns over equity, access, and fairness of placement testing have resulted in state regulations requiring validity evidence of the placement test with respect to a criterion variable, such as final course grades. A study was conducted to assess the validity of placement tests used to place students in pre-collegiate and college-level English…

Armstrong, William B.

262

21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.  

...is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum or plasma. It yields a single result for the likelihood that an adnexal pelvic mass in a woman, for whom surgery is planned, is malignant. The test is for adjunctive use, in the context of a...

2014-04-01

263

Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

2012-01-01

264

LIBIDO TEST SCORES, BODY CONFORMATION AND TESTICULAR TRAITS IN BOER AND KIKO GOAT BUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent of whether natural mating or artificial insemination is used for breeding, libido (sex drive) is evidently crucial to reproductive competence in all male meat animal species. Breeding goat bucks vary in their levels of libido; therefore, there is a need for the development of a predictive standardized test for estimating sex drive. The objective of this study was to

D. Ford Jr.; C. Okere; O. Bolden-Tiller

265

A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

Jones, Dorothy L.

1976-01-01

266

The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

Ho, Andrew

2013-01-01

267

Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

2005-01-01

268

A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test

Allen, Denise A.

2014-01-01

269

Cognitive Style as a Factor Affecting Task-Based Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For purposes of the present study, it was hypothesized that field (in)dependence would introduce systematic variance into Iranian EFL learners' overall and task-specific performance on task-based reading comprehension tests. 1743 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior students all majoring in English at different Iranian universities and colleges…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2005-01-01

270

76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determine whether or not to proceed with surgery. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal...intended for use in those patients for whom surgery is planned, and should not be used to...whether or not a patient should receive surgery. The test is used in conjunction...

2011-03-23

271

Test Methods for Score-Based Interactive Music Systems Clement Poncelet  

E-print Network

software like SBIMS: (i) the generation of relevant input data for testing, including delay values and will continue. However, IMS practitioners know that a crash or misbehavior of an THIS WORK HAS BEEN PARTLY, checking that the system is not crashing and that the result sounds in a satis- fiable way. The problem

Boyer, Edmond

272

The Influences of Linguistic Demand and Cultural Loading on Cognitive Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing diversity of the U.S. population has resulted in increased concerns about the psychological assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. To date, little empirical research supports recommendations in test selection and interpretation, such as those presented in the Culture-Language Interpretative…

Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

2014-01-01

273

An Evaluation of an Innovation: Standardized Test Scores Were Not Valid Indicators of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the evaluation of the Lighthouse Project, an education enhancement project that began in one urban and two suburban districts. Its methodology was the context for showing how the focus on the results of a standardized achievement test in mathematics inhibited the implementation of mathematics reform in the elementary…

Uslick, JoAnn; Walker, Carole

274

Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

Boudreaux, Wilbert

2011-01-01

275

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential formisdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

276

A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

2011-01-01

277

Standard Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the authors will discuss the following types of standard scores: percentile ranks , z-scores , and T-scores . All are based on concepts--such as the mean, the normal distribution, and the standard deviation--already

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

278

Changes in rod and frame test scores recorded in schoolchildren during development--a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The Rod and Frame Test has been used to assess the degree to which subjects rely on the visual frame of reference to perceive vertical (visual field dependence-independence perceptual style). Early investigations found children exhibited a wide range of alignment errors, which reduced as they matured. These studies used a mechanical Rod and Frame system, and presented only mean values of grouped data. The current study also considered changes in individual performance. Changes in rod alignment accuracy in 419 school children were measured using a computer-based Rod and Frame test. Each child was tested at school Grade 2 and retested in Grades 4 and 6. The results confirmed that children displayed a wide range of alignment errors, which decreased with age but did not reach the expected adult values. Although most children showed a decrease in frame dependency over the 4 years of the study, almost 20% had increased alignment errors suggesting that they were becoming more frame-dependent. Plots of individual variation (SD) against mean error allowed the sample to be divided into 4 groups; the majority with small errors and SDs; a group with small SDs, but alignments clustering around the frame angle of 18°; a group showing large errors in the opposite direction to the frame tilt; and a small number with large SDs whose alignment appeared to be random. The errors in the last 3 groups could largely be explained by alignment of the rod to different aspects of the frame. At corresponding ages females exhibited larger alignment errors than males although this did not reach statistical significance. This study confirms that children rely more heavily on the visual frame of reference for processing spatial orientation cues. Most become less frame-dependent as they mature, but there are considerable individual differences. PMID:23724139

Bagust, Jeff; Docherty, Sharon; Haynes, Wayne; Telford, Richard; Isableu, Brice

2013-01-01

279

Effects of Testing Accommodations on Math and Reading Scores: An Experimental Analysis of the Performance of Students with and without Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on the mathematics and reading test scores of a sample of 119 fourth graders and 78 eighth graders. The sample included 49 fourth-grade students diagnosed with a disability and 39 eighth-grade students diagnosed with a disability. All students were tested under two conditions (i.e.,…

Kettler, Ryan J.; Niebling, Bradley C.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Feldman, Elizabeth S.; Newell, Markeda L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

2005-01-01

280

Community pharmacists’ attitudes towards clinical utility and ethical implications of pharmacogenetic testing  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine community pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, including their views of the clinical utility of PGx and the ethical, social, legal and practical implications of PGx testing. Methods A web-based survey administered to 5600 licensed community pharmacists in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania (USA). Results Of 580 respondents, 78% had a Bachelor of Science degree in pharmacy and 58% worked in a chain drug store. Doctors of pharmacy-trained pharmacists had a significantly higher knowledge score than those with a Bachelor of Science in pharmacy (3.2 ± 0.9 vs 2.6 ± 0.6; p < 0.0001). All pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx and most (87%) felt it would decrease the number of adverse events, and optimize drug dosing. More than half (57%) of pharmacists felt that it was their role to counsel patients regarding PGx information. Many (65%) were concerned that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance. Conclusion Regardless of the type of education, all pharmacists had positive attitudes towards PGx. There is still a concern among pharmacists that PGx test results may be used to deny health insurance and, thus, there is a need to educate pharmacists about legal protections prohibiting certain forms of unfair discrimination based on genotype. PMID:24409195

Tuteja, Sony; Haynes, Kevin; Zayac, Cara; Sprague, Jon E; Bernhardt, Barbara; Pyeritz, Reed

2013-01-01

281

Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis to…

Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

2013-01-01

282

The ethical implications of genetic testing in the classroom.  

PubMed

The development of classroom experiments where students examine their own DNA is frequently described as an innovative teaching practice. Often these experiences involve students analyzing their genes for various polymorphisms associated with disease states, like an increased risk for developing cancer. Such experiments can muddy the distinction between classroom investigation and medical testing. Although the goals and issues surrounding classroom genotyping do not directly align with those of clinical testing, instructors can use the guidelines and standards established by the medical genetics community when evaluating the ethics of human genotyping. We developed a laboratory investigation and discussion which allowed undergraduate science students to explore current DNA manipulation techniques to isolate their p53 gene, followed by a dialogue probing the ethical implications of examining their sample for various polymorphisms. Students never conducted genotyping on their samples because of the ethical concerns presented in this paper, so the discussion replaced the actual genetic testing in the class. A science faculty member led the laboratory portion, while a genetic counselor facilitated the discussion of the ethical concepts underlying genetic counseling: autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and justice. In their final papers, students demonstrated an understanding of the practice guidelines established by the genetics community and acknowledged the ethical considerations inherent in p53 genotyping. Given the burgeoning market for personalized medicine, teaching undergraduates about the psychosocial and ethical dimensions of human genetic testing is important and timely. Moreover, incorporating a genetic counselor in the classroom discussion provided a rich and dynamic discussion of human genetic testing. PMID:21774053

Taylor, Ann T S; Rogers, Jill Cellars

2011-07-01

283

Relationships of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality Characteristics and Self-Reported Academic Problems and Skill Ratings with Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of students' Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores with their Myers-Briggs Type Indicator characteristics, self-reported academic problems, and self-ratings in 14 skill areas were studied for 1,902 college students. The purpose was to determine if such personality variables could explain variability in the SAT scores that was independent of gender and high school and college classroom achievement. Results of

K. Terry Schurr; Virgil E. Ruble; L. W. Henriksen

1988-01-01

284

Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

2014-01-01

285

The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

2012-01-01

286

What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

2012-01-01

287

TRACKING Trounces Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

2004-01-01

288

Scoring Package  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

289

Propensity Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

2005-01-01

290

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

291

Score 2009  

Cancer.gov

Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

292

Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

Smith, Feon M.

2012-01-01

293

A Pilot Study of SPINE Test Scores and Measures of Tongue Deviancy in Speakers with Severe-to Profound Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that clinician-generated SPINE (Speech Intelligibility Evaluation) test scores were correlated with objective computer-generated measures of tongue deviancy during vowel production in 28 persons (ages 14-20) with severe/profound hearing loss. Data suggest that subjects were more deviant in their production of front vowels than…

Wold, Donald C.; And Others

1994-01-01

294

The Relationship of GRE General Test Scores to First-Year Grades for Foreign Graduate Students: Report of a Cooperative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) was examined for foreign students enrolled in U.S. graduate schools. Subjects included 1,353 foreign students for whom English was a second language (ESL) and 42 foreign students whose native language was English. The relationships between college departments' scores on the GRE General Test

Wilson, Kenneth M.

295

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

296

A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

2011-01-01

297

What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education. CEE DP 102  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a test score? There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the exact contribution of school quality, pupil background, and peers in educational achievement. If peers make most of the difference, then diversity and heterogeneous classrooms may narrow the gap between high- and low-performing students. If pupil background is the first…

Kramarz, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Ouazad, Amine

2009-01-01

298

Smoothing and Equating Methods Applied to Different Types of Test Score Distributions and Evaluated with Respect to Multiple Equating Criteria. Research Report. ETS RR-11-20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In equating research and practice, equating functions that are smooth are typically assumed to be more accurate than equating functions with irregularities. This assumption presumes that population test score distributions are relatively smooth. In this study, two examples were used to reconsider common beliefs about smoothing and equating. The…

Moses, Tim; Liu, Jinghua

2011-01-01

299

Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

2013-01-01

300

Choosing among Tucker or Chained Linear Equating in Two Testing Situations: Rater Comparability Scoring and Randomly Equivalent Groups with an Anchor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tucker and chained linear equatings were evaluated in two testing scenarios. In Scenario 1, referred to as rater comparability scoring and equating, the anchor-to-total correlation is often very high for the new form but moderate for the reference form. This may adversely affect the results of Tucker equating, especially if the new and reference…

Puhan, Gautam

2012-01-01

301

The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

Licata, L.

1992-01-01

302

Prediction of Mortality Using On-Line, Self-Reported Health Data: Empirical Test of the Realage Score  

PubMed Central

Objective We validate an online, personalized mortality risk measure called “RealAge” assigned to 30 million individuals over the past 10 years. Methods 188,698 RealAge survey respondents were linked to California Department of Public Health death records using a one-way cryptographic hash of first name, last name, and date of birth. 1,046 were identified as deceased. We used Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to estimate the relative scales and predictive accuracies of chronological age, the RealAge score, and the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (HCHD) in this data. To address concerns about selection and to examine possible heterogeneity, we compared the results by time to death at registration, underlying cause of death, and relative health among users. Results The RealAge score is accurately scaled (hazard ratios: age 1.076; RealAge-age 1.084) and more accurate than chronological age (age c-statistic: 0.748; RealAge c-statistic: 0.847) in predicting mortality from hard coronary heart disease following survey completion. The score is more accurate than the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (c-statistic: 0.814), perhaps because self-reported cholesterol levels are relatively uninformative in the RealAge user sample. RealAge predicts deaths from malignant neoplasms, heart disease, and external causes. The score does not predict malignant neoplasm deaths when restricted to users with no smoking history, no prior cancer diagnosis, and no indicated health interest in cancer (p-value 0.820). Conclusion The RealAge score is a valid measure of mortality risk in its user population. PMID:24466068

Hobbs, William R.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

303

Accuracy of clinical stroke scores for distinguishing stroke subtypes in resource poor settings: A systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death globally. Computerized tomography is used to distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes, but it is expensive and unavailable in low and middle income countries. Clinical stroke scores are proposed to differentiate between stroke subtypes but their reliability is unknown. Materials and Methods: We searched online databases for studies written in English and identified articles using predefined criteria. We considered studies in which the Siriraj, Guy's Hospital, Besson and Greek stroke scores were compared to computerized tomography as the reference standard. We calculated the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the clinical stroke scores using a bivariate mixed effects binomial regression model. Results: In meta-analysis, sensitivity and specificity for the Siriraj stroke score, were 0.69 (95% CI 0.62-0.75) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.88) for ischemic stroke and 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-0.73) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.91) for hemorrhagic stroke. For the Guy's hospital stroke score overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.70 (95% CI 0.53-0.83) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.87) for ischemic stroke and 0.54 (95% CI 0.42-0.66) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.94) for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: Clinical stroke scores are not accurate enough for use in clinical or epidemiological settings. Computerized tomography is recommended for differentiating stroke subtypes. Larger studies using different patient populations are required for validation of clinical stroke scores. PMID:25288833

Mwita, Clifford C.; Kajia, Duncan; Gwer, Samson; Etyang, Anthony; Newton, Charles R.

2014-01-01

304

Walk Score®  

PubMed Central

Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

2013-01-01

305

Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.  

PubMed

A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively. PMID:25258285

Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

2014-11-01

306

Validation of the accuracy of pretest and exercise test scores in women with a low prevalence of coronary disease: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecently revised American College of Cardiology\\/American Heart Association guidelines have suggested that exercise test scores be used in decisions concerning patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Pretest and exercise test scores derived for use in women without known CAD have not been tested in women with a low prevalence of CAD.

Anthony P Morise; Marian B Olson; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Sunil Mankad; William J Rogers; Carl J Pepine; Steven E Reis; Barry L Sharaf; George Sopko; Karen Smith; Gerald M Pohost; Leslee Shaw

2004-01-01

307

Syncope diagnostic scores.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of syncope poses unique challenges. Syncope has multiple etiologies, with most carrying benign prognoses, and a few less common causes carrying a risk of serious morbidity or death. The history at first glance carries few clues. Faced with this many patients are heavily investigated with tests known to be both useless and expensive. For these reasons considerable emphasis has been placed on developing evidence-based and quantitative histories that might distinguish among the main causes of syncope. Quantitative histories were first developed in populations of several hundred patients with definite diagnoses of various losses of consciousness. Their derivation and use mirror those of experienced clinicians. The first score - the Calgary Syncope Seizures Score - discriminates between epileptic convulsions and syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 94%. The second score, the Calgary Syncope Score for normal hearts, discriminates between vasovagal syncope and other causes of syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 90%. The third score, the Calgary Syncope Score for Structural Heart Disease, diagnoses ventricular tachycardia with 98% sensitivity and 71% specificity. It also accurately predicts serious arrhythmic outcomes and all cause death. Gaps in the accuracy of the second score have been identified and are being addressed. These scores are proving useful in the clinic, and as entry criteria for observation studies, genetic studies, and randomized clinical trials. A very simple score predicts vasovagal syncope recurrences, based on the number of faints in the preceding year. Work from several centres indicates that scores will distinguish among competing causes of syncope in select populations, such as those with bifascicular heart block, Brugada syndrome, and Long QT syndrome. PMID:23472776

Sheldon, Robert

2013-01-01

308

Relationships between Speech Intelligibility and Word Articulation Scores in Children with Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Purpose This investigation sought to determine whether scores from a commonly used word-based articulation test are closely associated with speech intelligibility in children with hearing loss. If the scores are closely related, articulation testing results might be used to estimate intelligibility. If not, the importance of direct assessment of intelligibility would be reinforced. Methods Forty-four children with hearing losses produced words from the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 and sets of 10 short sentences. Correlation analyses were conducted between scores for seven word-based predictor variables and percent-intelligible scores derived from listener judgments of stimulus sentences. Results Six of seven predictor variables were significantly correlated with percent-intelligible scores. However, regression analysis revealed that no single predictor variable or multi- variable model accounted for more than 25% of the variability in intelligibility scores. Implications The findings confirm the importance of assessing connected speech intelligibility directly. PMID:20220022

Ertmer, David J.

2012-01-01

309

Differential Variability of Test Scores among Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Fifth-Grade INVALSI Test Using Heteroscedastic Random Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…

Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

2011-01-01

310

The Relationship of Scores Based on GRE General Test Item Types to Undergraduate Grades: An Exploratory Study for Selected Subgroups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to assess differences among subgroups defined in terms of sex and undergraduate major area, and ethnic group and undergraduate major area, with respect to patterns of performance on Graduate Record Examination (GRE) item-type part scores. Special subscores based on item types included in the…

Wilson, Kenneth M.

311

Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

2012-01-01

312

Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2010-01-01

313

Infrared telescope design - Implications from cryogenic tests of fused-silica mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of results from recent cryogenic tests of fused-silica mirrors is given with consideration of the implications for the design of cooled infrared telescopes. Implications include optical performance with a discusion of the top-down optical error budgeting for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), thermal properties of the mirrors, and mirror mounting.

Melugin, R. K.; Miller, J. H.

1983-01-01

314

Keeping Score  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conductor Michael Tilson Thomas has embarked on a number of intriguing and worthy projects during his career, including a series of ambitious recordings with the San Francisco Symphony and a number of well-received concerts with the late Sarah Vaughan in the 1980s. Most recently, he has teamed up with PBS (and his colleagues in the San Francisco Symphony) to create the âÂÂKeeping Score: Revolutions in Musicâ television series. Visitors to this site can explore the very fine multimedia presentations that are meant to accompany and enhance the entire educational and aesthetic experience of the television programs. Currently, there are multimedia profiles of StravinskyâÂÂs âÂÂRite of SpringâÂÂ, BeethovenâÂÂs âÂÂEroicaâ Symphony and the development of CoplandâÂÂs approach to creating an âÂÂAmericanâ sound. Each site features a brief introduction by Thomas, and then visitors are invited into the score to follow along as the piece progresses. In the top left-hand corner of the score, visitors can watch Thomas as he conducts. Overall, the experience of this website is stimulating and edifying, without being visually (or aurally) overwhelming.

315

Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual\\/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally-

Angela Tirino Sullivan

1999-01-01

316

A Lower Bound to the Probability of Choosing the Optimal Passing Score for a Mastery Test When There is an External Criterion [and] Estimating the Parameters of the Beta-Binomial Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mastery test is frequently described as follows: an examinee responds to n dichotomously scored test items. Depending upon the examinee's observed (number correct) score, a mastery decision is made and the examinee is advanced to the next level of instruction. Otherwise, a nonmastery decision is made and the examinee is given remedial work. This…

Wilcox, Rand R.

317

Health System Implications of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genome Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing is now widely available to consumers. Proponents argue that knowledge is power but critics worry about consumer safety and potential harms resulting from misinterpretation of test information. In this article, we consider the health system implications of direct-to-consumer personal genome testing, focusing on issues of accountability, both corporate and professional.

Amy L. McGuire; Wylie Burke

2011-01-01

318

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

319

Course of COPD assessment test (CAT) and clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) scores during recovery from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD?=?9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD?=?7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD?=?1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD?=?5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD?=?1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation. PMID:23987232

2013-01-01

320

Expectancy in melody: tests of the implication-realization model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implication-realization model's description of tone-to-tone expectancies for continuations of melodies was examined. The model's predictions for expectancies are described with a small number of principles specified precisely in terms of interval size and direction of pitch. These principles were quantified and used to predict the data from three experiments in which listeners were required to judge how well individual

E. Glenn Schellenberg

1996-01-01

321

Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.  

PubMed

Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design. PMID:25000882

Root Kustritz, Margaret V

2014-01-01

322

Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

2013-01-01

323

Variance between walking speed and neuropsychological test scores during three gait tasks across the Irish Longitudinal study on Aging (TiLDA) dataset.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and gait speed in three gait tasks using baseline cross-sectional data from 4694 healthy adults (54% women, age (mean±sd) 62.4±8.2) from The Irish Longitudinal study on Aging (TiLDA). Global cognition, short term memory, speed of processing, executive function and sustained attention were measured by a detailed battery of neuropsychological tests. Gait speed was recorded from a GaitRite™ pressure sensing mat during a single walk and two dual walking tasks; dual cognitive walk (alternate letters) and dual motor walk (carrying a glass of water). Correlations between neuropsychological test scores and the three gait speed outcomes were investigated using univariate and multiple linear regressions models; firstly adjusting for age, gender, height, education and depression only and then including all neuropsychological test scores in the same regression model and adjusting as previously. It was found that short term memory, speed of processing and attention were significantly correlated with gait speed in all three gait conditions, with global cognition and executive function also significantly correlated with gait speed in the dual cognitive walk. The nature and complexity of the task performed affected gait speed with the addition of the cognitive task while walking causing a larger reduction in gait speed than the addition of the motor task. This indicates that for this healthy nationally representative population sample there is a link between neural processes involved in movement and cognition and this association differs depending on the gait task performed. PMID:24111336

Killane, Isabelle; Donoghue, Orna A; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B

2013-01-01

324

The Role of GRE General and Subject Test Scores in Graduate Program Admission. ETS Research Report 84-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To learn more about graduate program selectivity, admission test requirements, and the role that the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) play in the admission process, a two-phase study was conducted. First, the GRE General Test and Subject Test requirements of a broad range (over 12,000) of graduate programs were summarized by examining data in…

Oltman, Philip K.; Hartnett, Rodney T.

325

The Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on WISC-IV Spanish Domain Scores in Its Standardization Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of individually administered measures of intelligence and other cognitive abilities requires clinicians to monitor a client's test behaviors, given the need for a client to be engaged fully, attentive, and cooperative during the testing process. The use of standardized and norm-referenced measures of test-taking behaviors facilitates this…

Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Harris, Josette G.

2012-01-01

326

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

327

Questionnaire Design: Carry-Over Effects of Overall Acceptance Question Placement and Pre-evaluation Instructions on Overall Acceptance Scores in Central Location Tests.  

PubMed

Question placement and usage of pre-evaluation instructions (PEI) in questionnaires for food sensory analysis may bias consumers' scores via carry-over effects. Data from consumer sensory panels previously conducted at a central location, spanning 11 years and covering a broad range of food product categories, were compiled. Overall acceptance (OA) question placement was studied with categories designated as first (the first evaluation question following demographic questions), after nongustation questions (immediately following questions that do not require panelists to taste the product), and later (following all other hedonic and just-about-right [JAR] questions, but occasionally before ranking, open-ended comments, and/or intent to purchase questions). Each panel was categorized as having or not having PEI in the questionnaire; PEI are instructions that appear immediately before the first evaluation question and show panelists all attributes they will evaluate before receiving test samples. Postpanel surveys were administered regarding the self-reported effect of PEI on panelists' evaluation experience. OA scores were analyzed and compared (1) between OA question placement categories and (2) between panels with and without PEI. For most product categories, OA scores tended to be lower when asked later in the questionnaire, suggesting evidence of a carry-over effect. Usage of PEI increased OA scores by 0.10 of a 9-point hedonic scale point, which is not practically significant. Postpanel survey data showed that presence of PEI typically improved the panelists' experience. Using PEI does not appear to introduce a meaningful carry-over effect. PMID:25604650

Bastian, Mauresa; Eggett, Dennis L; Jefferies, Laura K

2015-02-01

328

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

329

Developmental tasks of childhood and adolescence: implications for genetic testing.  

PubMed

Many reports have recently recommended a careful weighing of the potential benefits and harms of genetic testing (carrier or predisposition) of children and adolescents [Andrews et al., Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1994; Wertz et al., JAMA, 272:875-881, 1994; Clinical Genetics Society (UK), J Med Genet, 31:785-797, 1994; ASHJ/ACMG, Am J Hum Genet, 57:1233-1241, 1995]. Despite this, youngsters are currently being tested for late-onset disorders as well as for carrier status [Reilly and Wertz, Am J Hum Genet, 57:A57, 1995]. Many children to be tested will be those in at-risk families, who may already have experienced the chronic illness or death of a close relative. Thus, reactions to testing will be influenced by prior family experiences. Emotional reactions to testing will be determined by both the child's cognitive and psychosocial development. Testing of adolescents may alter the achievement of developmental tasks, including seeking freedom from parental figures, establishment of personal identity, handling of sexual energies, and remodeling of former idealizations of self and others. There are many potential dilemmas in deciding whether to test a child or adolescent for genetic status. If parents choose not to test, the risk is for later difficulty integrating such information into the self concept. If parents test and do not tell results, the risk is for creating a climate of family secrecy. If parents test and tell results, the risk is robbing the child of the autonomy of his or her own later decision. Perhaps the question of whether to test is not the real question. More than genetic testing, genetic counseling is of crucial importance in thoughtful decisions concerning whether to test an individual child or adolescent. A more important question may be how to provide unaffected children in at-risk families with appropriate counseling. Provision of psychosocial support to at-risk families will enable the child to encounter genetic testing, if necessary, supported with the best possible resources. PMID:9215763

Fanos, J H

1997-07-11

330

(14C)Aminopyrine breath test in chronic liver disease: preliminary diagnostic implications  

SciTech Connect

The (14C)aminopyrine breath test (APBT) score, an estimate of hepatic mixed-oxidase function, was evaluated in 21 consecutive patients wih active nonalcoholic chronic liver diseases. Ten had primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 11 had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). The APBT score was normal or elevated in patients with PBC (P less than 0.001), and lower than normal in CAH patients (P less than 0.01); 10.5 +/- 1.6 and 3.5 +/- 1.86, respectively, vs control 7.65 +/- 1.15 (mean +/- SD). The 11 patients with CAH included two middle-aged women who displayed ambiguous severe intrahepatic cholestasis. There was no overlap between the APBT scores of the 10 PBC and 11 CAH patients. These initial data suggest that the APBT may be helpful in the differentiation of PBC and CAH, including misleading cholestatic forms of CAH.

Burnstein, A.V.; Galambos, J.T.

1981-12-01

331

Practicing Accounting Profession Criterial Skills in the Classroom: A Study of Collaborative Testing and the Impact on Final Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study (Creswell, 2008) was designed to test the influence of collaborative testing on learning using a quasi-experimental approach. This study used a modified embedded mixed method design in which the qualitative and quantitative data, associated with the secondary questions, provided a supportive role in a study based primarily…

VanderLaan, Ski R.

2010-01-01

332

Scoring Correction for MMPI-2 Hs Scale with Patients Experiencing a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Measurement Invariance.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that MMPI-2 scoring requires removal of some items when assessing patients after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Gass (1991. MMPI-2 interpretation and closed head injury: A correction factor. Psychological assessment, 3, 27-31) proposed a correction procedure in line with the hypothesis that MMPI-2 endorsement may be affected by symptoms of TBI. This study assessed the validity of the Gass correction procedure. A sample of patients with a TBI (n = 242), and a random subset of the MMPI-2 normative sample (n = 1,786). The correction procedure implies a failure of measurement invariance across populations. This study examined measurement invariance of one of the MMPI-2 scales (Hs) that includes TBI correction items. A four-factor model of the MMPI-2 Hs items was defined. The factor model was found to meet the criteria for partial measurement invariance. Analysis of the change in sensitivity and specificity values implied by partial measurement invariance failed to indicate significant practical impact of partial invariance. Overall, the results support continued use of all Hs items to assess psychological well-being in patients with TBI. PMID:25413486

Alkemade, Nathan; Bowden, Stephen C; Salzman, Louis

2014-11-20

333

HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across Canada, including AIDS service organizations, health centers, community organizations, and friendship centers. Youth who had tested for HIV ranged in age from 15 to 30 years of age (20% were <20), and came from First Nations (75%), Metis (14%), and Inuit (9%) backgrounds. Participants lived in all provinces and one territory. Over half (62%) were female. While the majority of survey respondents indicated at their last HIV test they had been treated with care (80%), respect (77%), or kindness (76%), some reported being treated with hostility (19%), fear (12%), discrimination (11%), avoidance (10%), or being treated in a bored way (15%). When asked about information they had received, 28% of survey respondents could not remember; 23% said they were not given any information, and 24% said their questions were not answered. Emotional reactions to testing ranged from anxiety/apprehension (64% of survey respondents) to being "calm" (19%). When asked for suggestions to improve testing services, participants indicated emotional support, compassion, professional yet personable services, and personalized HIV information were important. Study results suggest that to facilitate HIV testing for Aboriginal youth, testing services and counseling must be respectful, compassionate, non-judgmental, and culturally responsive in order to provide emotional support and HIV information that is meaningful and memorable. PMID:20635240

Worthington, Catherine; Jackson, Randy; Mill, Judy; Prentice, Tracey; Myers, Ted; Sommerfeldt, Susan

2010-10-01

334

Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics-implications for testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various forms of bifurcations that can occur between steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate the various ways in which bifurcations may intervene to influence the outcome of dynamics tests involving unsteady aerodynamics. The presence of bifurcation phenomena in such tests must be taken into consideration to ensure the proper interpretation of results, and some recommendations are made to that end.

Chapman, Gary T.; Tobak, Murray

1988-01-01

335

The Relationship between Scores on a Diagnostic Writing Skills Test and Success in a Basic Business Communication Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that the Diagnostic Writing Skills Test, used as a diagnostic grammar pretest for students in a basic business communication course, shows positive correlations between the pretest and the final course grade, but does not predict that grade. (SR)

Richerson, Virginia; Sutrick, Kenneth

1992-01-01

336

The Influence of Spatial Ability on Gender Differences in Mathematics College Entrance Test Scores Across Diverse Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between mental rotation ability and gender differences in Scholastic Aptitude Test—Math (SAT–M) across diverse samples was investigated. Talented preadolescents, college students, and high- and low-ability college-bound youths, totaling 760, were administered the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Gender comparisons showed male outperforming female students in both mental rotation and SAT–M for all 3 high-ability groups but not for the

M. Beth Casey; Ronald Nuttall; Elizabeth Pezaris; Camilla Persson Benbow

1995-01-01

337

The Machine Scoring of Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

338

Neural network credit scoring models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the credit scoring accuracy of five neural network models: multilayer perceptron, mixture-of-experts, radial basis function, learning vector quantization, and fuzzy adaptive resonance. The neural network credit scoring models are tested using 10-fold crossvalidation with two real world data sets. Results are benchmarked against more traditional methods under consideration for commercial applications including linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression,

David West

2000-01-01

339

Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

Krashen, Stephen

2005-01-01

340

Legal and Ethical Implications of Opt?Out HIV Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that opt-out screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without written patient consent be part of routine clinical care and imply that state HIV-associated laws in conflict with this approach should be amended. However, HIV testing and treatment issues are governed by a range of federal and state laws, common

Catherine Hanssens

2007-01-01

341

Mediators of Gender Differences in Mathematics College Entrance Test Scores: A Comparison of Spatial Skills with Internalized Beliefs and Anxieties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used path analysis to examine effects of spatial skill, math anxiety, and math self-confidence as mediators of gender differences in Mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-M) in upper third of college-bound adolescents. Found that mental rotation and math self-confidence indirectly mediated the gender-SAT-M relationship. Most of the mediational…

And Others; Casey, M. Beth

1997-01-01

342

The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

2014-01-01

343

Something That Test Scores Do Not Show: Engaging in Community Diversity as a Local Response to Global Education Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Smith Street Elementary School, the globalizing education trends that English language learner (ELL) teachers face focus on measuring student achievement through testing and the English mainstreaming of non-dominant students as opposed to the cultivation of the students' linguistic and cultural diversity. The ELL teachers at Smith Street…

Valdiviezo, Laura A.

2014-01-01

344

State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

2010-01-01

345

The Effect of a Reading Accommodation on Standardized Test Scores of Learning Disabled and Non Learning Disabled Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the Read Aloud accommodation on the performances of learning disabled in reading (LD-R) and non-learning disabled (non LD) middle school students was studied using selected texts from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement battery. Science, Usage and Expression, Math Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, and Reading…

Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David

346

Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

347

Estimating the Effect of Changes in Criterion Score Reliability on the Power of the "F" Test of Equality of Means  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a simple, computer-assisted method of determining the extent to which increases in reliability increase the power of the "F" test of equality of means. The method uses a derived formula that relates the changes in the reliability coefficient to changes in the noncentrality of the relevant "F" distribution. A readily available…

Feldt, Leonard S.

2011-01-01

348

Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

2014-01-01

349

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

350

Mediators of Gender Differences in Mathematics College Entrance Test Scores: A Comparison of Spatial Skills With Internalized Beliefs and Anxieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether spatial skill, math anxiety, and math self-confidence functioned as mediators of a significant gender difference in the Mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-M) among the top third of a college-bound sample. Using path analytic techniques, the decomposition of the significant gender–SAT-M correlation into direct and indirect effects indicated that there were no direct effects

M. Beth Casey; Ronald L. Nuttall; Elizabeth Pezaris

1997-01-01

351

Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*  

PubMed Central

Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

2014-01-01

352

Testing international dental maturation scoring system and population-specific Demirjian versions on Saudi sub-population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the Demirjian method and revised versions for estimating chronological age (CA) from dental age (DA) in a sample of children. Study Design: A sample of 252 individuals of known age (4 to 14 yrs), sex (males: 125, females: 127), and ethnicity (Saudi) was collected. Each individual was aged using the original Demirjian method and revised versions, including Saudi, Kuwaiti, Belgian, and revised international curves. The differences between dental age and chronological age were analyzed using paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections and multinomial regression tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results indicated an over-aging of the sample as a whole by about 10 months using Demirjian tables, 5.5 months using Kuwaiti tables, 24.7 months using Belgian tables, and 5 months using revised international tables. The sample was under-aged by 0.6 month using Saudi tables. The overall discrepancies between CA and DA were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) for all methods with the exception of Saudi curves. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the Saudi population method is most accurate on a Saudi population. Key words:Age estimation, juvenile, forensic dentistry, Saudi Arabia. PMID:24790713

2014-01-01

353

Mating stimulates female feeding: testing the implications for the evolution of nuptial gifts  

E-print Network

Mating stimulates female feeding: testing the implications for the evolution of nuptial gifts J. C Introduction Nuptial gifts are well-known mating phenotypes in which males transfer edible material to females provide females with a large and calorie-rich nuptial gift, and there is evidence that ingestion

Sokolowski, Marla

354

Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

2010-01-01

355

Widespread Nanoparticle-Assay Interference: Implications for Nanotoxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety has been hindered by conflicting reports demonstrating differential degrees of toxicity with the same nanoparticles. The unique properties of these materials increase the likelihood that they will interfere with analytical techniques, which may contribute to this phenomenon. We tested the potential for: 1) nanoparticle intrinsic fluorescence/absorbance, 2) interactions between nanoparticles and assay components, and 3) the effects of adding both nanoparticles and analytes to an assay, to interfere with the accurate assessment of toxicity. Silicon, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, and helical rosette nanotubes each affected at least one of the six assays tested, resulting in either substantial over- or under-estimations of toxicity. Simulation of realistic assay conditions revealed that interference could not be predicted solely by interactions between nanoparticles and assay components. Moreover, the nature and degree of interference cannot be predicted solely based on our current understanding of nanomaterial behaviour. A literature survey indicated that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 using biochemical techniques to assess nanotoxicity did not account for potential interference of nanoparticles, and this number had not substantially improved in 2012. We provide guidance on avoiding and/or controlling for such interference to improve the accuracy of nanotoxicity assessments. PMID:24618833

Ong, Kimberly J.; MacCormack, Tyson J.; Clark, Rhett J.; Ede, James D.; Ortega, Van A.; Felix, Lindsey C.; Dang, Michael K. M.; Ma, Guibin; Fenniri, Hicham; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Goss, Greg G.

2014-01-01

356

Widespread nanoparticle-assay interference: implications for nanotoxicity testing.  

PubMed

The evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety has been hindered by conflicting reports demonstrating differential degrees of toxicity with the same nanoparticles. The unique properties of these materials increase the likelihood that they will interfere with analytical techniques, which may contribute to this phenomenon. We tested the potential for: 1) nanoparticle intrinsic fluorescence/absorbance, 2) interactions between nanoparticles and assay components, and 3) the effects of adding both nanoparticles and analytes to an assay, to interfere with the accurate assessment of toxicity. Silicon, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, and helical rosette nanotubes each affected at least one of the six assays tested, resulting in either substantial over- or under-estimations of toxicity. Simulation of realistic assay conditions revealed that interference could not be predicted solely by interactions between nanoparticles and assay components. Moreover, the nature and degree of interference cannot be predicted solely based on our current understanding of nanomaterial behaviour. A literature survey indicated that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 using biochemical techniques to assess nanotoxicity did not account for potential interference of nanoparticles, and this number had not substantially improved in 2012. We provide guidance on avoiding and/or controlling for such interference to improve the accuracy of nanotoxicity assessments. PMID:24618833

Ong, Kimberly J; MacCormack, Tyson J; Clark, Rhett J; Ede, James D; Ortega, Van A; Felix, Lindsey C; Dang, Michael K M; Ma, Guibin; Fenniri, Hicham; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Goss, Greg G

2014-01-01

357

Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

2015-01-01

358

Clinical implications of BRAF mutation test in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about the clinical significance of V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing. BRAF encodes a protein kinase involved with intracellular signaling and cell division. The gene product is a downstream effector of Kirsten Ras 1(KRAS) within the RAS/RAF/MAPK cellular signaling pathway. Evidence suggests that BRAF mutations, like KRAS mutations, result in uncontrolled, non–growth factor-dependent cellular proliferation. Similar to the rationale that KRAS mutation precludes effective treatment with anti-EGFR drugs. Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced into routine clinical laboratories because its significance has become clearer in terms of effect on pathogenesis of CRC, utility in differentiating sporadic CRC from Lynch syndrome (LS), prognosis, and potential for predicting patient outcome in response to targeted drug therapy. In this review we describe the impact of BRAF mutations for these aspects. PMID:24834238

Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Farahani, Roya Kishani; Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Kuppen, Peter JK

2013-01-01

359

Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

2012-01-01

360

Xenograft models for preclinical drug testing: implications for adrenocortical cancer.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare but aggressive tumor, whose biological and cellular features and processes underlying the development, progression and metastatic evolution are still obscure. Despite many attempts to use general cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs, the only available drug therapy for advanced ACC is still represented by mitotane (MTT). However, the mechanism of action of this adrenolytic derivative of the pesticide DDT has still been poorly characterized. In this context, the development of more specific drugs for ACC treatment is based on the knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in the tumor growth. Xenograft models for the screening of such drugs at preclinical levels is mandatory. In the first part of this review, we will summarize the "pro" and "con" of the different xenograft models available for anticancer drug testing in different types of tumors in general and in the last part, we will focus on the preclinical evidence obtained so far with the use of such models applied to drug screening for anticancer effects in ACC. PMID:22056412

Luconi, Michaela; Mannelli, Massimo

2012-03-31

361

Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea: Implications for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Point-of-care (POC) testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection. Conclusions The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines. PMID:24956111

Natoli, Lisa; Maher, Lisa; Shephard, Mark; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Badman, Steven G.; Ward, James; Guy, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

362

Echinocandin resistance, susceptibility testing and prophylaxis: implications for patient management.  

PubMed

This article addresses the emergence of echinocandin resistance among Candida species, mechanisms of resistance, factors that promote resistance and confounding issues surrounding standard susceptibility testing. Fungal infections remain a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, especially among patients with underlying immunosupression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient management for acute and chronic diseases. Yet, therapeutic choices are limited due to only a few drug classes available to treat systemic disease. Moreover, the problem is exacerbated by the emergence of antifungal resistance, which has resulted in difficult to manage multidrug resistant strains. Echinocandin drugs are now the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. These drugs target and inhibit the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures involving acquisition of resistance among susceptible organisms like Candida albicans is largely a rare event. However, in recent years, there is an alarming trend of increased resistance among strains of Candida glabrata, which in many cases are also resistant to azole drugs. Echinocandin resistance is always acquired during therapy and the mechanism of resistance is well established to involve amino acid changes in "hot-spot" regions of the Fks subunits carrying the catalytic portion of glucan synthase. These changes significantly decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug resulting in higher MIC values. A range of drug responses, from complete to partial refractory response, is observed depending on the nature of the amino acid substitution, and clinical responses are recapitulated in pharmacodynamic models of infection. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant Fks strains involve complex stress response pathways, which yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Stress-adapted cells become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:25255923

Perlin, David S

2014-09-01

363

Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR movie modules. The comparison of the two sample group means of the examinations show that there was no difference in results between using QTVR movie modules to test gross anatomy knowledge versus using physical specimens. The results of this study are discussed to explain the benefits of using such computer based anatomy resources in gross anatomy assessments.

Maza, Paul Sadiri

364

Apparent effect of type of compensation seeking (disability versus litigation) on performance validity test scores may be due to other factors.  

PubMed

Neuropsychologists use performance validity tests (PVTs; Larrabee, 2012 ) to ensure that results of testing are reflective of the test taker's true neurocognitive ability, and their use is recommended in all compensation-seeking settings. However, whether the type of compensation context (e.g., personal injury litigation versus disability seeking) impacts the nature and extent of neurocognitive symptom feigning has not been adequately investigated. PVT performance was compared in an archival data set of noncredible individuals in either a personal injury litigation (n = 163) or a disability-seeking context (n = 201). Individuals were deemed noncredible based on meeting Slick, Sherman, and Iverson's ( 1999 ) criteria including failure on at least two PVTs and a lack of congruency between their low cognitive scores and normal function in activities of daily living (ADLs). In general, disability seekers tended to perform in a less sophisticated manner than did litigants (i.e., they failed more indicators and did so more extensively). Upon further investigation, these differences were in part accounted for by type of diagnoses feigned; those seeking compensation for mental health diagnoses were more likely to feign or exaggerate a wide variety of cognitive deficits, whereas those with claimed medical diagnoses (i.e., traumatic brain injury) were more targeted in their attempts to feign and/or exaggerate neurocognitive compromise. PMID:25157537

Cottingham, Maria Easter; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Ziegler, Elizabeth A; Zeller, Michelle

2014-01-01

365

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 4 New Jersey studies of 3,329 homeowners found that (1) thinking about radon testing is predicted by general radon knowledge; (2) decision to test is related to perceived likelihood of risk; and (3) actual testing is influenced by situational factors such as locating and choosing test kits. (SK)

Sandman, Peter M.; Weinstein, Neil D.

1993-01-01

366

Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members. PMID:19786390

Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

2009-01-01

367

Bayesian inference of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield, milk quality traits, and somatic cell score in Burlina cows.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to infer (co)variance components for daily milk yield, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Burlina cattle (a local breed in northeast Italy). Data consisted of 13,576 monthly test-day records of 666 cows (parities 1 to 8) collected in 10 herds between 1999 and 2009. Repeatability animal models were implemented using Bayesian methods. Flat priors were assumed for systematic effects of herd test date, days in milk, and parity, as well as for permanent environmental, genetic, and residual effects. On average, Burlina cows produced 17.0 kg of milk per day, with 3.66 and 3.33 percent of fat and protein, respectively, and 358,000 cells per mL of milk. Marginal posterior medians (highest posterior density of 95%) of heritability were 0.18 (0.09-0.28), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), 0.35 (0.25-0.49), and 0.05 (0.01-0.11) for milk yield, fat content, protein content, and SCS, respectively. Marginal posterior medians of genetic correlations between the traits were low and a 95 percent Bayesian confidence region included zero, with the exception of the genetic correlation between fat and protein contents. Despite the low number of animals in the population, results suggest that genetic variance for production and quality traits exists in Burlina cattle. PMID:21063066

Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Battagin, M; De Marchi, M; Pretto, D; Cassandro, M

2010-01-01

368

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

369

Local Linear Observed-Score Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of local linear observed-score equating for use with anchor-test and single-group designs are introduced. In an empirical study, the two methods were compared with the current traditional linear methods for observed-score equating. As a criterion, the bias in the equated scores relative to true equating based on Lord's (1980)…

Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.

2011-01-01

370

Office Construction in Singapore and Hong Kong: Testing Real Option Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advance the real-option-based empirical analysis of commercial real estate investment in three respects. First, we test\\u000a several real option implications for real estate construction that have not been examined in the commercial real estate investment\\u000a literature. In particular and in line with the predictions of real option models, we show that the effects of real interest\\u000a rate and the

Yuming Fu; Maarten Jennen

2009-01-01

371

Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

Davis, Edward

372

Knowing the Score  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before rehearsals begin, conductors need to thoroughly study the score. What elements go into a comprehensive score preparation? To learn music scores efficiently, having a detailed and systematic study method helps. The author has developed a score preparation guide that works for directors of bands, choruses, and orchestras, even when there's…

Strouse, Lewis H.

2009-01-01

373

Revised Aug 2011 Scoring Sheet for  

E-print Network

Revised Aug 2011 Scoring Sheet for Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale Name: Date of Test onto and over a 6-inch (15 cm) bench ( ) 0 Unable to step up onto the bench without loss of balance closed for 20 seconds Do not perform test item 8 if score is 2 or lower on test item 4. Also do

de Lijser, Peter

374

Revised Feb 2010 Scoring Sheet for  

E-print Network

Revised Feb 2010 Scoring Sheet for Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale Name: Date of Test onto and over a 6-inch (15 cm) bench ( ) 0 Unable to step up onto the bench without loss of balance closed for 20 seconds Do not perform test item 8 if score is 2 or lower on test item 4. Also do

de Lijser, Peter

375

Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

2012-01-01

376

Interest in Genetic Testing for Modest Changes in Breast Cancer Risk: Implications for SNP Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Advances in genomics may eventually lead to ‘personalized genetic medicine,’ yet the clinical utility of predictive testing for modest changes in risk is unclear. We explored interest in genetic testing for genes related to modest changes in breast cancer risk in women at moderate to high risk for breast cancer. Methods: Women (n = 105) with a negative breast

K. D. Graves; B. N. Peshkin; G. Luta; W. Tuong; M. D. Schwartz

2011-01-01

377

Student Perceptions of the Progress Test in Two Settings and the Implications for Test Deployment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Progress Test (PT) was developed to assess student learning within integrated curricula. Whilst it is effective in promoting and rewarding deep approaches to learning in some settings, we hypothesised that implementation of the curriculum (design and assessment) may impact on students' preparation for the PT and their learning.…

Wade, Louise; Harrison, Chris; Hollands, James; Mattick, Karen; Ricketts, Chris; Wass, Val

2012-01-01

378

Modern Advances in Genetic Testing: Ethical Challenges and Training Implications for Current and Future Psychologists  

PubMed Central

The ethical implications for psychological practice of genetic testing are largely unexplored. Predictive testing can have a significant impact on health and well-being, and increasing numbers of individuals with knowledge of their risk for various disorders are likely to present for psychotherapy. In addition, more people will struggle with the decision of whether to obtain information regarding their genetic material. Psychologists will need to have the appropriate knowledge and clinical skills to effectively counsel this population. This article highlights the relevant ethical issues surrounding psychological treatment of individuals pursuing or considering undergoing genetic testing. These issues are extended to psychologists working in research, education, and policy domains. Recommendations for graduate training programs to facilitate current and future practitioner competence are also discussed. PMID:24707160

Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S.

2014-01-01

379

Super Bowl Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Illumination activity focuses on analyzing the scores for football games. Students study combinations of numbers to produce possible scores for football games. The lesson includes a student worksheet and extension questions.

2009-01-01

380

Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

Yao, Lihua

2012-01-01

381

The PCA3 test for guiding repeat biopsy of prostate cancer and its cut-off score: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early intervention in repeat biopsy is unsatisfactory. Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) may be more accurate in outcome prediction than other methods for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the results were inconsistent in repeated biopsies. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of PCA3 in outcome prediction. A systematic bibliographic search was conducted for articles published before April 2013, using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase and other databases from health technology assessment agencies. The quality of the studies was assessed on the basis of QUADAS criteria. Eleven studies of diagnostic tests with moderate to high quality were selected. A meta-analysis was carried out to synthesize the results. The results of the meta-analyses were heterogeneous among studies. We performed a subgroup analysis (with or without inclusion of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP)). Using a PCA3 cutoff of 20 or 35, in the two sub-groups, the global sensitivity values were 0.93 or 0.80 and 0.79 or 0.75, specificities were 0.65 or 0.44 and 0.78 or 0.70, positive likelihood ratios were 1.86 or 1.58 and 2.49 or 1.78, negative likelihood ratios were 0.81 or 0.43 and 0.91 or 0.82 and diagnostic odd ratios (ORs) were 5.73 or 3.45 and 7.13 or 4.11, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85 or 0.72 and 0.81 or 0.69, respectively. PCA3 can be used for repeat biopsy of the prostate to improve accuracy of PCa detection. Unnecessary biopsies can be avoided by using a PCa cutoff score of 20. PMID:24713827

Luo, Yong; Gou, Xin; Huang, Peng; Mou, Chan

2014-01-01

382

The efficiency of tennis doubles scoring systems.  

PubMed

In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players. Key pointsA relatively straightforward expression or formula for the efficiency of a tennis doubles scoring system has been established.The expression for the relative efficiency of two tennis doubles scoring systems is a simple one, and is the same as that for two singles scoring systems.The methodology of this paper can be used and extended so that the efficiency of a scoring system for a match between two teams of doubles pairs can be measured. PMID:24149632

Pollard, Geoff; Pollard, Graham

2010-01-01

383

Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

2013-01-01

384

What are tests for? The implications of stuttering steps along the US patient pathway.  

PubMed

This article explores the implications of how US family physicians make decisions about ordering diagnostic tests for their patients. Data is based on a study of 256 physicians interviewed after viewing a video vignette of a presenting patient. The qualitative analysis of 778 statements relating to trustworthiness of evidence for their decision making, the use of any kind of technology and diagnostic testing suggests a range of internal and external constraints on physician decision making. Test-ordering for family physicians in the United States is significantly influenced by both hidden cognitive processes related to the physician's calculation of patient resources and a health insurance system that requires certain types of evidence in order to permit further tests or particular interventions. The consequence of the need for physicians to meet multiple forms of proof that may not always relate to relevant treatment delays a diagnosis and treatment plan agreed not only by the physician and patient but also the insurance company. This results in a patient journey that is made up of stuttering steps to a confirmed diagnosis and treatment undermining patient-centred practice, compromising patient care, constraining physician autonomy and creating additional expense. PMID:24602969

Tritter, Jonathan Q; Lutfey, Karen; McKinlay, John

2014-04-01

385

[Scores and stages in pneumology].  

PubMed

Useful scales and classifications for patients with pulmonary diseases are discussed. The modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scale (mMRC) is a measure of disability in lung patients. The GOLD classifications, the COPD-Assessment Test (CAT) and the BODE Index are important to classify the severity of COPD and to measure the disability of these patients. The Geneva score is a clinical prediction rule used in determining the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a scoring system used to predict 30 day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is intended to measure daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. The Asthma Controll Test (ACT) determines if asthma symptoms are well controlled. PMID:24091342

Kuhn, Max

2013-10-01

386

The Effects of a Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Environment on Elementary Mathematics TAKS Test Scores in Texas: An Overall Comparison and an Analysis of Questions With and Without a Visual Prompt  

E-print Network

. Cifuentes Head of Department, Dennie L. Smith May 2011 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction iii ABSTRACT The Effects of a Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Environment on Elementary Mathematics TAKS Test Scores in Texas: An Overall... effects of question type and group based on educational setting. A quasi-experimental design with static-group comparison was used for the purposes of this study. Data were collected from the Texas Education Agency [TEA] for all students who took...

Beck, Shari A.

2012-07-16

387

Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

388

More Issues in Observed-Score Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

van der Linden, Wim J.

2013-01-01

389

Mathematics Achievement Scale Score  

E-print Network

Saudi Arabia 410 Oman 385 Tunisia 359 Kuwait 342 Morocco 335 Yemen 248 Country Average Scale Score Sixth 438 Saudi Arabia 429 United Arab Emirates 428 Armenia 416 Qatar 394 Oman 377 Kuwait 347 Tunisia 346 Indonesia 386 Syrian Arab Republic 380 Morocco 371 Oman 366 Ghana 331 #12;Country Average Scale Score Ninth

Huang, Jianyu

390

fMRI responses to Jung's Word Association Test: implications for theory, treatment and research.  

PubMed

Jung's Word Association Test was performed under fMRI conditions by 12 normal subjects. Pooled complexed responses were contrasted against pooled neutral ones. The fMRI activation pattern of this generic 'complexed response' was very strong (corrected Z scores ranging from 4.90 to 5.69). The activation pattern in each hemisphere includes mirror neurone areas that track 'otherness' (perspectival empathy), anterior insula (both self-awareness and emotional empathy), and cingulated gyrus (self-awareness and conflict-monitoring). These are the sites described by Siegel and colleagues as the 'resonance circuitry' in the brain which is central to mindfulness (awareness of self) and empathy (sense of the other), negotiations between self awareness and the 'internal other'. But there is also an interhemispheric dialogue. Within 3?seconds, the left hemisphere over-rides the right (at least in our normal subjects). Mindfulness and empathy are central to good psychotherapy, and complexes can be windows of opportunity if left-brain hegemony is resisted. This study sets foundations for further research: (i) QEEG studies (with their finer temporal resolution) of complexed responses in normal subjects (ii) QEEG and fMRI studies of complexed responses in other conditions, like schizophrenia, PTSD, disorders of self organization. PMID:23750943

Petchkovsky, Leon; Petchkovsky, Michael; Morris, Philip; Dickson, Paul; Montgomery, Danielle; Dwyer, Jonathan; Burnett, Patrick

2013-06-01

391

Comparison of WPPSI and VMI Scores of Intellectually Bright Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the comparability of scores on two visual-motor measures for a sample of intellectually bright children ages 4 to 6. Standard scores on the Geometric Design sub-test of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) correlated significantly with standard sceres on the Development Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMi), but the VMI yielded significantly lower scores

Linda White Hawthorne; Sandra Kelley Speer; Leonard Buccellato

1983-01-01

392

Population genetic simulations of complex phenotypes with implications for rare variant association tests.  

PubMed

Demographic events and natural selection alter patterns of genetic variation within populations and may play a substantial role in shaping the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes and disease. However, the joint impact of these basic evolutionary forces is often ignored in the assessment of statistical tests of association. Here, we provide a simulation-based framework for generating DNA sequences that incorporates selection and demography with flexible models for simulating phenotypic variation (sfs_coder). This tool also allows the user to perform locus-specific simulations by automatically querying annotated genomic functional elements and genetic maps. We demonstrate the effects of evolutionary forces on patterns of genetic variation by simulating recently inferred models of human selection and demography. We use these simulations to show that the demographic model and locus-specific features, such as the proportion of sites under selection, may have practical implications for estimating the statistical power of sequencing-based rare variant association tests. In particular, for some phenotype models, there may be higher power to detect rare variant associations in African populations compared to non-Africans, but power is considerably reduced in regions of the genome with rampant negative selection. Furthermore, we show that existing methods for simulating large samples based on resampling from a small set of observed haplotypes fail to recapitulate the distribution of rare variants in the presence of rapid population growth (as has been observed in several human populations). PMID:25417809

Uricchio, Lawrence H; Torres, Raul; Witte, John S; Hernandez, Ryan D

2015-01-01

393

Kernel score statistic for dependent data.  

PubMed

The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency. PMID:25519324

Malzahn, Dörthe; Friedrichs, Stefanie; Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike

2014-01-01

394

Kernel score statistic for dependent data  

PubMed Central

The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency. PMID:25519324

2014-01-01

395

Can Administrative Claim File Review Be Used to Gather Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Psychology Payment Data and Functional Independence Measure Scores? Implications for Rehabilitation Providers in the Private Health Sector  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Rehabilitation costs for spinal-cord injury (SCI) are increasingly borne by Canada's private health system. Because of poor outcomes, payers are questioning the value of their expenditures, but there is a paucity of data informing analysis of rehabilitation costs and outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of using administrative claim file review to extract rehabilitation payment data and functional status for a sample of persons with work-related SCI. Methods: Researchers reviewed 28 administrative e-claim files for persons who sustained a work-related SCI between 1996 and 2000. Payment data were extracted for physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and psychology services. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were targeted as a surrogate measure for functional outcome. Feasibility was tested using an existing approach for evaluating health services data. Results: The process of administrative e-claim file review was not practical for extraction of the targeted data. Conclusions: While administrative claim files contain some rehabilitation payment and outcome data, in their present form the data are not suitable to inform rehabilitation services research. A new strategy to standardize collection, recording, and sharing of data in the rehabilitation industry should be explored as a means of promoting best practices. PMID:22654238

Jaglal, Susan; Boschen, Kathryn; Walker, Jan; Verrier, Molly

2011-01-01

396

The Effects of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning on Secondary Student ACT Science Scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine any significant difference on secondary school chemistry students' ACT Science Test scores between students taught by the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) method versus students taught by traditional, teacher-centered pedagogy. This study also examined any difference between students taught by the POGIL method versus students taught by traditional, teacher-centered pedagogy in regard to the three different types of questions on the ACT Science Test: data representation, research summaries, and conflicting viewpoints. The sample consisted of sophomore-level students at two private, suburban Christian schools. A pretest-posttest design was used to compare the mean difference in scores from ACT issued sample test booklets before and after each group had received instruction via the POGIL method or more traditional methods. This study found that there was no significant difference in the mean difference of test scores between the two groups. This study also found that there was not a significant difference in the mean difference of scores in regard to the three different types of questions on the ACT Science Test. Further implications of this study are discussed.

Judd, William Lindsey

397

Multiple Dichotomous-Scored Items in Second Language Testing: Investigating the Multiple True-False Item Type under Norm-Referenced Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the multiple true-false (MTF) test format in second language testing by comparing multiple-choice (MCQ) and multiple true-false (MTF) test formats in two language areas of general English: vocabulary and reading. Two counter-balanced experimental designs--one for each language area--were examined in terms of the number of MCQ…

Dudley, Albert

2006-01-01

398

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Scoring Rubrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use scoring rubrics to assess student learning. It is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Rubrics are a way of describing evaluation criteria based on the expected outcomes and performances of students. This site provides information about why scoring rubrics are beneficial to use and how to use them. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Ebert-May, Diane; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

399

Performance of three racial/ethnic groups on two tests of executive function: clinical implications for traumatic brain injury (TBI).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if race/ethnicity may influence performance of college students on the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), two different tests of executive function (EF). A total of 149 participants who self-identified as African American (AA), European American (EA), and Latina/o American (LA) constituted the three different racial/ethnic groups. Participants ranged in age range from 18 to 24 years old (SD = 1.29) and none reported histories of disabilities. The BADS was administered to 149 college students and the WCST was administered to 142 of the same participants. No statistically significant differences were found for race/ethnicity or gender on the WCST. Statistically significant differences were found for race/ethnicity on the Profile Scores (raw scores), standard scores (SS) and the Zoo Map subtest of the BADS, but no statistically significant differences were found for gender on these same tasks. While there should be less concern in administering WCST to diverse groups who are English speakers, caution should be taken in administering and interpreting the BADS for individuals from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. PMID:19127006

Proctor, Adele; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

400

The Relationship between Music and Visual Arts Formal Study and Academic Achievement on the Eighth-Grade Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the policy implications allowing administrators to exempt a student from required arts instruction if the student obtained unsatisfactory scores on the high-stake state mandated tests in English and mathematics. This study examined English language arts and math test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students…

Baker, Richard Allen, Jr.

2011-01-01

401

Longitudinal Consistency of Matching Familiar Figures Test Performance from Early Childhood to Preadolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal sample of three- through 11-year-olds, age-appropriate versions of the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) were administered. Uncorrected for attenuation, MFFT error scores were more consistent over time than MFFT latency scores for both girls and boys. Implications of results for validity of MFFT as a measure of cognitive…

Gjerde, Per F.; And Others

1985-01-01

402

Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections  

PubMed Central

In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon. PMID:25392566

Frenk, Steven M.; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

2014-01-01

403

Factor Structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) Scores across Gender among Students in Elementary and Secondary School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents, a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students, is examined across gender. The sample consisted of 696 elementary and secondary school students (391 girls and 305 boys). Coefficient of congruence and salient…

Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.

2008-01-01

404

The Case for Use of Simple Difference Scores to Test the Significance of Differences in Mean Rates of Change in Controlled Repeated Measurements Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous Monte Carlo study examined the relative powers of several simple and more complex procedures for testing the significance of difference in mean rates of change in a controlled, longitudinal, treatment evaluation study. Results revealed that the relative powers depended on the correlation structure of the simulated repeated measurements. Tests on dropout-weighted linear slope coefficients fitted to all of

John E. Overall; Scott Tonidandel

2010-01-01

405

Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the 10-mm diameter limestone cores was 5 to 5.8 lb-in. (0.56 to 0.66 N-m).

Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

2011-01-01

406

High-Stakes and Non-Stakes Testing States and the Transfer of Knowledge to Students' Advanced Placement Test, Advanced Placement U.S. History Test, and SAT Exam Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal education policy No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has initiated high-stakes testing among U.S. public schools. The premise of the NCLB initiative is that all students reach proficiency in reading and math by 2014. Under NCLB, individual state education departments were required to implement annual assessments in grades two through eight…

Lessler, Karen Jean

2010-01-01

407

The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

Velicer, Wayne F.

1976-01-01

408

Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol’s depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired test; p-value = 0.00149 for one-sided test). Albeit this being a small pilot, we are encouraged about these significant results, and caution any interpretation until larger controlled studies are executed. PMID:24273684

Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

2013-01-01

409

Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.  

PubMed

The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed. PMID:24266623

Carone, Dominic A

2014-01-01

410

The impact of retrieval processes, age, general achievement level, and test scoring scheme for children’s metacognitive monitoring and controlling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children’s metacognitive processes in relation to\\u000a and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N?=?150 9\\/10- and 11\\/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children\\u000a then solved a cloze test regarding the film content including answerable and unanswerable items and gave

Saskia Susanne Krebs; Claudia Maria Roebers

411

Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

Pauker, Jerome D.

412

Clinical Characteristics of Gastroallergic Anisakiasis and Diagnostic Implications of Immunologic Tests  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent studies have used the term "gastroallergic anisakiasis" to describe incidental gastrointestinal infection with Anisakis spp. larvae, proposed as a causative agent of food hypersensitivity. However, it is unknown whether this condition represents an independent disease entity distinguishable from acute gastric anisakiasis. To better understand the role of the allergic response in Anisakis infections we examined the clinical and immunological implications of Anisakis-specific IgE. Methods A prospective study was performed in a geographic region where the consumption of raw seafood is common. Case subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with gastroallergic anisakiasis were selected, along with controls who frequently ate raw seafood but had never experienced gastroallergic anisakiasis-like symptoms. Clinical and immunological features were compared based on atopic status, sensitization rates to Anisakis, and serum titer of Anisakis-specific IgE. Results Seventeen case subjects and 135 controls were included in this study. The case subjects had experienced gastrointestinal symptoms after raw seafood ingestion, along with additional mucocutaneous, respiratory, or multisystemic symptoms. Case subjects were significantly sensitized to Anisakis excretory-secretory product and crude extract compared with controls (76.5% vs 19.3%, P<0.001, and 88.2% vs 30.3%, P<0.001, respectively). Anisakis-specific serum IgE titers were also significantly higher in case subjects than in controls. Both the results of skin prick tests and elevated Anisakis-specific IgE titers (>17.5 kU/L) were found to be reliable indicators for the diagnosis of gastroallergic anisakiasis. Conclusions Among patients presenting acute gastric anisakiasis-like symptoms, a diagnosis of gastroallergic anisakiasis may be strongly supported by a high Anisakis-specific IgE titer. PMID:24843798

Chung, Young-Bae

2014-01-01

413

Genetic testing in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism: unexpected results and their implications  

PubMed Central

Familial hyperparathyroidism is not uncommon in clinical endocrine practice. It encompasses a spectrum of disorders including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 (MEN1) and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). Distinguishing among the five syndromes is often difficult but has profound implications for the management of patient and family. The availability of specific genetic testing for four of the syndromes has improved diagnostic accuracy and simplified family monitoring in many cases but its current cost and limited accessibility require rationalisation of its use. No gene has yet been associated exclusively with FIHP. FIHP phenotypes have been associated with mutant MEN1 and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) genotypes and, very recently, with mutation in the newly identified HRPT2 gene. The relative proportions of these are not yet clear. We report results of MEN1, CASR, and HRPT2 genotyping of 22 unrelated subjects with FIHP phenotypes. We found 5 (23%) with MEN1 mutations, four (18%) with CASR mutations, and none with an HRPT2 mutation. All those with mutations had multiglandular hyperparathyroidism. Of the subjects with CASR mutations, none were of the typical FHH phenotype. These findings strongly favour a recommendation for MEN1 and CASR genotyping of patients with multiglandular FIHP, irrespective of urinary calcium excretion. However, it appears that HRPT2 genotyping should be reserved for cases in which other features of the HPT-JT phenotype have occurred in the kindred. Also apparent is the need for further investigation to identify additional genes associated with FIHP. PMID:14985373

Warner, J; Epstein, M; Sweet, A; Singh, D; Burgess, J; Stranks, S; Hill, P; Perry-Keene, D; Learoyd, D; Robinson, B; Birdsey, P; Mackenzie, E; Teh, B; Prins, J; Cardinal, J

2004-01-01

414

Multifactor Screener: Scoring Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

415

Estimating one's own personality and intelligence scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eighty-seven university students completed the full NEO-PI-R assessing the é ve super-traits and 30 primary traits, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test of general intelligence. Two months later (before receiving feedback on their psychometric scores), they estimated their own scores on these variables. Results at the super-factor level indicated that participants could signié cantly predict\\/estimate their own Neuroticism,

Adrian Furnham; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

2004-01-01

416

Syncopation and the score.  

PubMed

The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N?=?10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J R; Harte, Christopher A; Pearce, Marcus T; Sandler, Mark B

2013-01-01

417

Utility of the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT): Implications for Admissions Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined significance of PCAT scores, prepharmacy GPA, math and science GPA, and attainment of a previous college degree in predicting first-year pharmacy GPA. Asserts that the best predictive model incorporated all variables, while the most parsimonious model included math and science GPA and the PCAT chemistry subscore. The PCAT was a…

Thomas, Michael C.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.

2002-01-01

418

A Brief Report on How Impossible Scores Affect Smoothing and Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equating under the external anchor design is frequently conducted using scaled scores on the anchor test. However, scaled scores often lead to the unique problem of creating zero frequencies in the score distribution because there may not always be a one-to-one correspondence between raw and scaled scores. For example, raw scores of 17 and 18 may…

Puhan, Gautam; von Davier, Alina A.; Gupta, Shaloo

2010-01-01

419

Effectiveness of sequential automatic-manual home respiratory polygraphy scoring.  

PubMed

Automatic home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) scoring functions can potentially confirm the diagnosis of sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) (obviating technician scoring) in a substantial number of patients. The result would have important management and cost implications. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic cost-effectiveness of a sequential HRP scoring protocol (automatic and then manual for residual cases) compared with manual HRP scoring, and with in-hospital polysomnography. We included suspected SAHS patients in a multicentre study and assigned them to home and hospital protocols at random. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for manual and automatic scoring. Diagnostic agreement for several cut-off points was explored and costs for two equally effective alternatives were calculated. Of 366 randomised patients, 348 completed the protocol. Manual scoring produced better ROC curves than automatic scoring. There was no sensitive automatic or subsequent manual HRP apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) cut-off point. The specific cut-off points for automatic and subsequent manual HRP scorings (AHI >25 and >20, respectively) had a specificity of 93% for automatic and 94% for manual scorings. The costs of manual protocol were 9% higher than sequential HRP protocol; these were 69% and 64%, respectively, of the cost of the polysomnography. A sequential HRP scoring protocol is a cost-effective alternative to polysomnography, although with limited cost savings compared to HRP manual scoring. PMID:22878873

Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Pereira, Ricardo; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso-Fernandez, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco-José; Montserrat, Jose M

2013-04-01

420

The Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative composite cognitive test score: Sample size estimates for the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease treatments in presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a need to identify a cognitive composite that is sensitive to tracking preclinical AD decline to be used as a primary endpoint in treatment trials. Method We capitalized on longitudinal data, collected from 1995 to 2010, from cognitively unimpaired presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers from the world’s largest known early-onset autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) kindred to identify a composite cognitive test with the greatest statistical power to track preclinical AD decline and estimate the number of carriers age 30 and older needed to detect a treatment effect in the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative’s (API) preclinical AD treatment trial. The mean-to-standard-deviation ratios (MSDRs) of change over time were calculated in a search for the optimal combination of one to seven cognitive tests/sub-tests drawn from the neuropsychological test battery in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers during a two and five year follow-up period, using data from non-carriers during the same time period to correct for aging and practice effects. Combinations that performed well were then evaluated for robustness across follow-up years, occurrence of selected items within top performing combinations and representation of relevant cognitive domains. Results This optimal test combination included CERAD Word List Recall, CERAD Boston Naming Test (high frequency items), MMSE Orientation to Time, CERAD Constructional Praxis and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Set A) with an MSDR of 1.62. This composite is more sensitive than using either the CERAD Word List Recall (MSDR=0.38) or the entire CERAD-Col battery (MSDR=0.76). A sample size of 75 cognitively normal PSEN1-E280A mutation carriers age 30 and older per treatment arm allows for a detectable treatment effect of 29% in a 60-month trial (80% power, p=0.05). Conclusions We have identified a composite cognitive test score representing multiple cognitive domains that has improved power compared to the most sensitive single test item to track preclinical AD decline in ADAD mutation carriers and evaluate preclinical AD treatments. This API composite cognitive test score will be used as the primary endpoint in the first API trial in cognitively unimpaired ADAD carriers within 15 years of their estimated age at clinical onset. We have independently confirmed our findings in a separate cohort of cognitively healthy older adults who progressed to the clinical stages of late-onset AD, described in a separate report, and continue to refine the composite in independent cohorts and compared with other analytical approaches. PMID:24816373

Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Hendrix, Suzanne B.; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Ward, Michael; Aguirre, Camilo; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Madrigal, Lucìa; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Moreno, Sonia; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

2014-01-01

421

Combination of a clinical risk assessment score and rapid whole blood D-dimer testing in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in symptomatic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is unreliable in more than 50% of cases, and, in recent years, plasma D-dimer assays have been used to predict the presence of DVT with high sensitivity and negative predictive values. This study investigated the use of a rapid whole blood test that could be performed and interpreted by the bedside

Andrew F. Lennox; Konstantinos T. Delis; Samuel Serunkuma; Zak A. Zarka; Styliani E. Daskalopoulou; Andrew N. Nicolaides

1999-01-01

422

Human and Financial Capital in the Rural Educational Environment: The Effects of Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Threshold on Standardized Test Scores in Rural Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Educational Environment (REE) is a complex mixture of demographic and economic forces that interact to impact the rural school corporation. The condition of REE financial and human capital indicates REE health and may influence student performance on standardized tests. This paper proposes an ecosystem model of the impact of financial,…

Peoples, Glenn

423

Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

2010-01-01

424

Estimating one's own personality and intelligence scores.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty-seven university students completed the full NEO-PI-R assessing the five super-traits and 30 primary traits, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test of general intelligence. Two months later (before receiving feedback on their psychometric scores), they estimated their own scores on these variables. Results at the super-factor level indicated that participants could significantly predict/estimate their own Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness scores. The correlation between estimated and psychometrically measured IQ was r=.30, showing that participants could, to some extent, accurately estimate their intelligence. In addition, there were a number of significant correlations between estimated intelligence and psychometrically assessed personality (particularly Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Extraversion). Disagreeable people tended to award themselves higher self-estimated intelligence scores. Similarly, stable people tended to award themselves higher estimates of intelligence (even when other variables were controlled). Regressing both estimated and psychometric IQ scores onto estimated and psychometric personality scores indicated that the strongest significant effect was the relationship between trait scores and self-estimated intelligence. PMID:15142299

Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2004-05-01

425

Developing Scoring Algorithms  

Cancer.gov

We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables (cup equivalents), dairy (cup equivalents), added sugars (tsp), whole grains (ounce equivalents), fiber (g), and calcium (mg) using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES. The following equations were estimated in the NHANES 2003-2006, using SAS PROC REG.

426

A Critical Analysis of the 2004 and 2005 SAT Scores of College Bound Students, with Implications for the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Law and the State of Virginia Standards of Learning ("SOLs")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical analysis of (1) the disparities between the SAT scores of Black and White students, and Hispanic and White students, for 2004 and 2005 and (2) what those disparities suggest about the effectiveness of the State of Virginia "SOL" program and the Federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) program. The…

Earl, Archie W.

2005-01-01

427

Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by ?2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed ?2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471

Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

2014-01-01

428

Estimating the Reliability of Aggregated and Within-Person Centered Scores in Ecological Momentary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure for estimating the reliability of test scores in the context of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was proposed to take into account the characteristics of EMA measures. Two commonly used test scores in EMA were considered: the aggregated score (AGGS) and the within-person centered score (WPCS). Conceptually, AGGS and WPCS represent…

Huang, Po-Hsien; Weng, Li-Jen

2012-01-01

429

Construct Implications of Including Still Image or Video in Computer-Based Listening Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, listening comprehension tests have been converting to computer-based tests that include visual input. However, little research is available to suggest how test takers engage with different types of visuals on such tests. The present study compared a series of still images to video in academic computer-based tests to determine…

Ockey, Gary J.

2007-01-01

430

Failure to test for HIV in rural Ethiopia: knowledge and belief correlates and implications for universal test and treat strategies.  

PubMed

Goals of universal "test and treat" will never be fully realized if testing acceptance remains low, including rural areas, where HIV is increasingly recognized. We surveyed 250 randomly selected households from a rural Ethiopian town (Arba Minch) and surrounding villages about HIV testing experience, knowledge, and attitudes. Of the 558 adults, 45% were never HIV tested. Those never tested for HIV were more likely to be (P < .05) ?45 years, rural villagers, and unaware of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy treatment and that persons with HIV can appear healthy; they were more likely to believe HIV-infected persons would be stigmatized and unsupported by their communities. Of those never tested, 70% were interested in HIV testing if offered. Despite recommendations that all persons be HIV tested, almost half of the adult residents in this rural community were never tested. Programs to increase HIV testing must include measures to address stigma/discrimination and knowledge deficits including benefits of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23744773

Lifson, Alan R; Demisse, Workneh; Ketema, Kassu; Tadesse, Alemayehu; May, Randy; Yakob, Bereket; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe

2013-01-01

431

NFL Scores and Pointspreads  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets described in this article, created by Robin H. Lock of St. Lawrence University, contain information for all National Football League (NFL) regular season and playoff games played from 1993 to 1996. In addition to game scores, the data give oddsmakers' pointspreads and over/under values for each game. The article itself contains: an introduction, a primer on pointspreads, pedagogical uses, information on obtaining the data, and references. The sets are in .dat formats. This is a great lesson for anyone interested in the statistics of American football.

Lock, Robin H.

2009-02-10

432

Predicting GED Scores on the Bases of Expectancy, Valence, Intelligence, and Pretest Skill Levels with the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prediction of General Educational Development (GED) scores from motivational variables derived from Vroom's expectancy-valence theorem was hypothesized. The Tests of Adult Basic Education score, General Aptitude Test Battery score, MD1 expectancy subscale score, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory defensiveness score accounted for…

Moore, Ray T.; Davies, Jon A.

1984-01-01

433

Robustness of Ability Estimation to Multidimensionality in CAST with Implications to Test Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Adaptive Sequential Testing (CAST) is a test delivery model that combines features of the traditional conventional paper-and-pencil testing and item-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The basic structure of CAST is a panel composed of multiple testlets adaptively administered to examinees at different stages. Current applications…

Zhang, Yanwei; Nandakumar, Ratna

2006-01-01

434

Predicting Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) Scores: A Recursive Partitioning Analysis Using Survey Data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users. Methods 59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden), n?=?2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed. Results Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65–73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p?=?0.01). Conclusion Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the most relevant variable. The identified variables may be considered for use in future screeners for cannabis use disorders. PMID:25264894

Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; van Laar, Margriet

2014-01-01

435

Line Lengths and Starch Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

Moriarty, Sandra E.

1986-01-01

436

Reliability of a common solution-based taste perception test: implications for validity and a briefer test.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess test-retest reliability of a common method for quantifying taste perception and its association with gustatory responses and individual risk for obesity and related health conditions. Forty-six healthy adults rated 20 mixtures comprised of 5 dairy beverages varied in fat content and mixed with sugar concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, following existing procedures. Individuals rated the sweetness, creaminess, and pleasantness of each mixture during two taste testing sessions occurring 7±2 days apart. Test-retest correlations were of the expected magnitudes (r?.50) only for the pleasantness ratings of mixtures with higher sugar concentrations. Correlations for sweetness and creaminess taste perception ratings were low, indicating that such ratings may not be reliable over approximately one week, and challenging the validity of such ratings for measuring trait taste perception. A shortened version of the test may be warranted. PMID:22177394

Coulon, S M; Miller, A C; Reed, J M; Martin, C K

2012-01-01

437

The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

1987-01-01

438

"Diverging" American and Japanese Science Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A book examining alleged American/Japanese test score divergences on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) suffers from "naive anthropology" and "adult- centric" thinking. Thicker U.S. textbooks may be the real problem. School performance is probably not linked to a nation's economic failures or successes. (MLH)

Bracey, Gerald W.

2000-01-01

439

Food quality effects on copepod growth and development: implications for bioassays in ecotoxicological testing.  

PubMed

We evaluated effects of six algal species in 25 combinations on growth and reproduction of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. In the first lifecycle test, Rhodomonas salina, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were used. The results showed that R. salina was the best food, whereas P. tricornutum (0% development success) and D. tertiolecta (41.7% malformations) were poor food items. In the second lifecycle test, a mixture of R. salina, Tetraselmis suecica, and Thalassiosira weisflogii (selected from screening tests) was tested together with a mono-diet of R. salina. Also in this test, copepods fed R. salina performed better (i.e. had higher survival and reproductive success) compared with the other treatment. We conclude that R. salina is appropriate to use as food in toxicity testing with N. spinipes, whereas some of the algae commonly used as feed in ecotoxicological tests with other copepods had detrimental effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of N. spinipes. PMID:18514311

Dahl, Ulrika; Lind, Charlotta Rubio; Gorokhova, Elena; Eklund, Britta; Breitholtz, Magnus

2009-02-01

440

Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response to head impacts and potential implications for athletic headgear testing.  

PubMed

The Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is the most widely used human impact testing surrogate and has historically been used in automotive or military testing. More recently, this ATD is finding use in applications evaluating athletic helmet protectivity, quantifying head impact dosage and estimating injury risk. But ATD head-neck response has not been quantified in omnidirectional athletic-type head impacts absent axial preload. It is probable that headgear injury reduction that can be quantified in a laboratory, including in American football, boxing, hockey, lacrosse and soccer, is related to a number of interrelated kinetic and kinematic factors, such as head center of gravity linear acceleration, head angular acceleration, head angular velocity, occipito-cervical mechanics and neck stiffness. Therefore, we characterized ATD head-neck dynamic response to direct head impacts in a series of front, oblique front and lateral head impacts. Key findings were: (1) impacts producing highest ATD resultant center of gravity linear acceleration resulted in the lowest resultant occipito-cervical spine bending moment/force. (2) Resultant ATD head angular velocity and angular acceleration did not appear coupled to impact direction at lower impact energy levels; these parameters were coupled at higher energy levels. (3) The ATD had progressively increasing occipito-cervical stiffness in extension, torsion and lateral bending, respectively. Because the ATD neck influenced head and neck impact dosage parameters, testing agencies, manufacturers and researchers should consider using the Hybrid III head form attached to a neck as a means to quantify head and neck injury risks as opposed to systems that do not utilize a neck. This heightened understanding of Hybrid III ATD head-neck response, and consideration of order of stiffest axes in the lateral, oblique and extension directions, respectively, should aid in the development of head and neck injury impact testing standards. PMID:22664692

Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Morr, Douglas; Prakash, Vikas

2012-09-01

441

Orthopaedic Examination, Tests and Clinical Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of publications in the last few years have shown the clinical efficacy of low dose radiotherapy in degenerative\\u000a and painful joint diseases [25, 29, 30, 35, 38, 39, 45, 46, 55, 56, 59-62, 64]. However, there are only few studies which have obtained a higher level of evidence [46, 62]. One major reason is the inaccurate and

Oliver Micke; Michael Heinrich Seegenschmiedt

442

A Guide to Lowering Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the adverse impact of poor classroom air quality on student performance and how school officials can eliminate the sources of indoor air pollution. Describes Environmental Protection Agency's "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" program downloadable at www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/index.html. (PKP)

Rosenblum, Shelly; Spark, Barbara

2002-01-01

443

Generational Change: Closing the Test Score Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 2003 Grutter v. Bollinger University of Michigan Law School affirmative action case, Sandra Day O'Connor declared on behalf of the majority of justices that, "We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary." As this amounts to no less than a mandate that affirmative action for college admissions…

Peterson, Paul E., Ed.

2006-01-01

444

Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic factors over…

Rothman, Robert

2010-01-01

445

Generalized score tests for missing covariate data  

E-print Network

evaluated at? = ?? and D is a positive definite matrix when?negationslash= ??. The asymptotic non-centrality parameter for TGS is G = 12n?primeCprime{KE(JU)Kprime}?1C? = 12n?primeCprime [K{E(J?U) +D}Kprime]?1 C? = 12n?primeCprime(KJ +KD)?1C?, where K = (?A...,Ir), KJ = KE(J?U)Kprime and KD = KDKprime. The matrix K is also free of ?. Because K is full row rank, KJ and KD are nonsingular when ?negationslash= ??. By Lemma 3.5.1, {KJ +KD}?1 = K?1J ?K?1J (K?1J +K?1D )?1K?1J . Hence, G = 12n...

Jin, Lei

2009-05-15

446

Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

2003-02-25

447

Validity and reliability of the SPORTS score for shoulder instability  

PubMed Central

Purpose athletes affected by shoulder instability cannot be judged solely according to the criteria used for non-athletes. In order to improve the assessment of shoulder instability surgery outcomes, the SPORTS score was tested in a cohort of athletes. Methods ninety-eight athletes at an average follow-up of 4.6 years (range 1–9.2) after open or arthroscopic surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability were included in this study. The patients were asked to complete the SPORTS score questionnaire twice, with an interval of 2–3 weeks between the two assessments. The Bland-Altman method and the intra-class correlation coefficient were used to measure reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient between the SPORTS score and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score, the Rowe score, the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Results the SPORTS score showed excellent test-retest reliability. The systematic error between the first and the second assessment was 0.3 points (95% upper limit of agreement = 2.3 points). The criterion validity was found to be strong for the SPORTS score, which correlated best with the SSV and the “sport, recreation, and work” component of the WOSI score. The SPORTS score had an acceptable floor effect (8%). The ceiling effect was 46%, which was better than the ceiling effects seen with the Rowe, OSIS and WOSI scores. Conclusions this study suggests that the SPORTS score is a valid score in the assessment of athletes after surgery for shoulder instability and that it adds important information to the currently available scores. Level of evidence Level III, diagnostic study of nonconsecutive patients.

BLONNA, DAVIDE; BELLATO, ENRICO; CARANZANO, FRANCESCO; BONASIA, DAVIDE E.; MARMOTTI, ANTONGIULIO; ROSSI, ROBERTO; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

2014-01-01

448

A field test for companded single sideband modulation Implications for capacity enhancement and transmission planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of field tests of companded single sideband modulation (CSSB) technique for use in the Intelsat system is described. A 12-channel circuit group was tested between switches in Pittsburgh, and the Deutsche Bundespost (DBP) in Frankfurt via the Etam and Raisting satellite earth stations. A transponder bulk that included existing FDM-FM carriers was chosen to match the typical, Intelsat operating conditions, thus permitting the compatibility of FDM/FM and CSSB to be examined simultaneously. Results of objective performance tests are discussed, and a description of several subjective testing techniques is also given.

Wallace, E.; Adams, C.; Arnstein, D.

449

Rater Cognition: Implications for Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scoring process is critical in the validation of tests that rely on constructed responses. Documenting that readers carry out the scoring in ways consistent with the construct and measurement goals is an important aspect of score validity. In this article, rater cognition is approached as a source of support for a validity argument for scores

Bejar, Issac I.

2012-01-01

450

The Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA): Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Scores of a New Multidimensional Measure of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new multidimensional measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA), specifically designed for U.S. adolescents in Grades 6 to 12 was developed and its psychometric properties were examined. The TAMA consists of five scales (Cognitive Interference, Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task Irrelevant Behavior,…

Lowe, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

451

Statewide Testing of Reading and Possible Implications for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on findings from a review of statewide large-scale test blueprints. The qualitative and descriptive numerical review of themes found in state blueprints provides information on trends in statewide reading assessments. These trends are then set against the backdrop of testing accommodations for students with disabilities.…

Johnstone, Christopher J.; Thurlow, Martha L.

2012-01-01

452

The Consistency of Detecting Item Bias across Different Test Administrations: Implications of Another Failure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The consistency of several item bias detection methods was studied across different test administrations of the same items using data from a mathematics test given to approximately 6,600 eighth grade students in all. The Mantel Haenszel and item-response-theory-based sum-of-squares methods were the most consistent. (SLD)

Skaggs, Gary; Lissitz, Robert W.

1992-01-01

453

The Influence of Vocational Interest Inventories: Some Implications for Psychological Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of psychological testing on the public is explored. Topics discussed include a review of the controversy over interest inventories, what has been learned from the research and from the political activity that was enacted relative to employment/admission testing, and some ideas for increasing the ability to cope more readily with current…

Holland, John L.

454

Practical implications of probe- and sample-related variables in puncture testing of clingstone peaches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit processors want to correlate processing-relevant field measurements (such as the Magness-Taylor penetrometer test) with similar measurements (such as the puncture test) obtained on laboratory instruments. The objective of this work was to compare a Magness-Taylor probe to standard, flat-tippe...

455

Relationships between homosexual and heterosexual interest and their implications for bisexuality: an empirical test.  

PubMed

Conceptualizing heterosexual and homosexual interest as reciprocal constructs can be a source of confusion, and may obstruct understanding of sexual orientation in counseling. We investigated the relationships between homosexual interest, heterosexual interest, and masculinity and femininity. Seventy-eight men attending a homophile organisation completed the Kinsey Scale, and two separate continua measuring degree of homosexual interest and degree of heterosexual interest independently. The correlation between the two continua was -.51, suggesting that homosexual and heterosexual interest are to some extent independent of one another, and that a single continuum which assumes homosexual interest to be the direct converse of heterosexual interest may not be an adequate measure of sexual orientation. No significant relationships between masculinity, femininity and sexual orientation were found. Implications for counseling people with concerns about sexual orientation and sex of partner are discussed. PMID:19835038

Ross, Michael W

2007-01-01

456

Effect of Genre on the Generalizability of Writing Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, aspects of the measurement of writing are disentangled in order to investigate the validity of inferences made on the basis of writing performance and to describe implications for the assessment of writing. To include genre as a facet in the measurement, we obtained writing scores of 12 texts in four different genres for each…

Bouwer, Renske; Béguin, Anton; Sanders, Ted; van den Bergh, Huub

2015-01-01

457

Reporting the Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to report test data to parents and the news media. Provides examples from the Evergreen School District in Vancouver, Washington. Includes specific suggestions on how to work with reports. (PKP)

Hendrickson, Peter

2002-01-01

458

Uptake of Tl-201 in the testes: Implications for radiation dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The radiation dose to the testes from Tl-201 chloride has been an outstanding question for a number of years. Previous studies have presented kinetic data for the testes with percentage uptake ranging over nearly an order of magnitude from 0.15% to 1.2%. Gupta et al. studied the uptake of Tl-201 in testes and reported an uptake of 0.9-1.2%, with no clearance to 24 hours. Use of the value reported by Gupta et al. results in an estimated dose to the testes in the adult of 0.82 mGy/MBq, and causes the testes to be identified as the highest dose organ. In our crossover study we evaluated Tl-201 uptake in the testes of 28 patients who received Tl-201 chloride plus D-Ribose, an experimental clearance agent, and Tl-201 chloride plus a placebo 7 to 14 days later. Quantitative measurements were made under a scintillation camera imaging protocol (following exercise and administration of D-Ribose or the placebo) at approximately 1.5, 4.5, 8, 24, and 48 hr, and 7 to 14 days post injection, during which the isolated testes were shielded from the body background. Images were acquired for 5 minutes at early times and 10 to 15 minutes at the latest time. The data were fit to a two component exponential curve. Uptake and clearance parameters were not significantly different between the two regimens. Mean uptake was 0.31 {plus_minus} 0.11%; the mean residence time in the testes was 0.26 {plus_minus}0.08 hr. The testes dose using this new residence time is about 0.20 mGy/MBq. This estimate should form the basis for testicular radiation dosimetry of Tl-201 chloride.

Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Thomas, S.R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wilson, R.A. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

459

Exploring liver mitochondrial function by ¹³C-stable isotope breath tests: implications in clinical biochemistry.  

PubMed

The liver plays a pivotal role in a myriad of metabolic processes, including detoxification, glycolipidic storage and export, and protein synthesis. Breath tests employing (13)C as stable isotope have been introduced to explore such energy-dependent pathways involving mitochondrial function in the liver. Specific substrates are ketoisocaproic acid, methionine, and octanoic acid. In humans, the application of (13)C-breath tests ranges from nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver diseases to liver cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma, preoperative and postoperative assessment of liver function, and drug-induced liver damage. Studying liver mitochondrial function by (13)C-breath tests represents a complementary tool to monitor complex metabolic processes in health and disease. PMID:25308494

Grattagliano, Ignazio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Lorusso, Michele; Castorani, Luigi; de Bari, Ornella; Portincasa, Piero

2015-01-01

460

An immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization-based comparison between the Oracle HER2 Bond Immunohistochemical System, Dako HercepTest, and Vysis PathVysion HER2 FISH using both commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and United Kingdom HER2 IHC scoring guidelines.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used as the frontline assay to determine HER2 status in invasive breast cancer patients. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the Leica Oracle HER2 Bond IHC System (Oracle) with the current most readily accepted Dako HercepTest (HercepTest), using both commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. A total of 445 breast cancer samples from 3 international clinical HER2 referral centers were stained with the 2 test systems and scored in a blinded fashion by experienced pathologists. The overall agreement between the 2 tests in a 3×3 (negative, equivocal and positive) analysis shows a concordance of 86.7% and 86.3%, respectively when analyzed using commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. There is a good concordance between the Oracle and the HercepTest. The advantages of a complete fully automated test such as the Oracle include standardization of key analytical factors and improved turn around time. The implementation of the modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines has minimal effect on either assay interpretation, showing that Oracle can be used as a methodology for accurately determining HER2 IHC status in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue. PMID:20661132

O'Grady, Anthony; Allen, David; Happerfield, Lisa; Johnson, Nicola; Provenzano, Elena; Pinder, Sarah E; Tee, Lilian; Gu, Mai; Kay, Elaine W

2010-12-01

461

The value of risk scores  

PubMed Central

Efforts to improve cardiovascular risk scoring should not be limited to broadening the biomarkers but should also include the individual's personal circumstances and socioeconomic status PMID:16757542

Jürgensen, J S

2006-01-01

462

Training Ircam's score follower [audio to musical score alignment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our attempt to make the hidden Markov model (HMM) score following system, developed at Ircam, sensible to past experiences in order to obtain better audio to score real-time alignment for musical applications. A new observation modeling based on Gaussian mixture models is developed which is trainable using a learning algorithm we would call automatic discriminative training. The

Arshia Cont; Diemo Schwarz; Norbert Schnell

2005-01-01

463

Sexually transmitted infection related stigma and shame among African American male youth: implications for testing practices, partner notification, and treatment.  

PubMed

A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38-1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41-0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37-0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34-0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501

Morris, Jessica L; Lippman, Sheri A; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B; Lightfoot, Marguerita

2014-09-01

464

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for epidemiology and therapy.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been under development since the early days of antimicrobial agents. However, it is rarely applied to clinical isolates today. The history of the various in vitro tests to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to antibiotics is rich with evidence that these results predict response to therapy for almost all agents tested. Further, AST is a useful and important aspect of strain characterization and disease epidemiology in conjunction with the more specific but laborious techniques of auxotyping, serotyping, and plasmid analysis. Current technology has overcome many of the objections to AST for N. gonorrhoeae with standardization of test media and the development of an accurate disk diffusion AST method that is suited to most clinical laboratories regardless of volume or level of technical expertise. Ironically, the very low level of resistance to the current primary treatment strategy in the United States, ceftriaxone or another potent cephalosporin, makes the use of AST somewhat superfluous. PMID:8457978

Fekete, T

1993-01-01

465

Bayes Analysis and Reliability Implications of Stress-Rupture Testing a Kevlar/Epoxy COPV using Temperature and Pressure Acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPVs) that have survived a long service time under pressure generally must be recertified before service is extended. Sometimes lifetime testing is performed on an actual COPV in service in an effort to validate the reliability model that is the basis for certifying the continued flight worthiness of its sisters. Currently, testing of such a Kevlar49(registered TradeMark)/epoxy COPV is nearing completion. The present paper focuses on a Bayesian statistical approach to analyze the possible failure time results of this test and to assess the implications in choosing between possible model parameter values that in the past have had significant uncertainty. The key uncertain parameters in this case are the actual fiber stress ratio at operating pressure, and the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime; the former has been uncertain due to ambiguities in interpreting the original and a duplicate burst test. The latter has been uncertain due to major differences between COPVs in the data base and the actual COPVs in service. Any information obtained that clarifies and eliminates uncertainty in these parameters will have a major effect on the predicted reliability of the service COPVs going forward. The key result is that the longer the vessel survives, the more likely the more optimistic stress ratio is correct. At the time of writing, the resulting effect on predicted future reliability is dramatic, increasing it by about one nine , that is, reducing the probability of failure by an order of magnitude. However, testing one vessel does not change the uncertainty on the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime since testing several would be necessary.

Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

2009-01-01

466

In vitro testing for diagnosis of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions: Implications for Pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) represent a major health problem, as they are unpredictable, often severe and can be life threatening. The low incidence of IDRs makes their detection during drug development stages very difficult causing many post marketing drug withdrawals and black box warnings. The fact that IDRs are always not predictable based on the drug's known pharmacology and have no clear dose-effect relationship with the culprit drug renders diagnosis of IDRs very challenging, if not impossible without the aid of a reliable diagnostic test. Drug provocation test (DPT) is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of IDRs but it is not always safe to perform on patients. In vitro tests have the advantage of bearing no potential ham to patients; however, available in vitro tests are not commonly used clinically because of lack of validation and their complex and expensive procedures. This review discusses the current role of in vitro diagnostic testing for diagnosis of IDRs and gives a brief account of their technical and mechanistic aspects. Advantages, disadvantages and major challenges that prevent these tests from becoming mainstream diagnostic tools are also discussed here. PMID:25199801

Elzagallaai, Abdelbaset A; Rieder, Michael J

2014-09-01

467

Comparison of commercially available Escherichia coli enumeration tests: implications for attaining water quality standards.  

PubMed

Many states are replacing microbiological water quality standards based on "fecal" or thermotolerant coliforms (ThCs) with new standards that employ Escherichia coli as the indicator organism. Implicit in these new standards are assumptions about the equivalence of E. coli enumeration tests and the E. coli levels that will provide protection equivalent to former ThC standards. To investigate these assumptions, E. coli levels in split samples (tests conducted on portions of the same grab sample) collected from small urban streams were determined using enzyme-specific media (Colilert, m-ColiBlue24, and nutrient agar with MUG) and compared to levels determined with conventional culture media (m-FC and m-TEC). Although levels observed with all tests were highly correlated, significantly fewer E. coli were enumerated with m-TEC than with enzyme-specific media (paired Student's t-test, alpha>99%). In addition, E. coli were found to comprise a larger fraction (84-104%, depending on the test) of the total presumptive ThC concentration than that suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (63%). Both of these observations (1) the improvement in E. coli yields observed with enzyme-specific media, and (2) the greater proportion of ThC organisms that are E. coli, indicate that more water quality violations will occur when enzyme-specific media are used for testing than if conventional culture media are used. PMID:16313941

Hamilton, William P; Kim, Moonil; Thackston, Edward L

2005-12-01

468

Leak Testing and Implications of Operations to Locate Leak Horizons at West Hackberry Well 108  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana has historically experienced casing leaks. Numerous West Hackberry oil storage caverns have wells exhibiting communication between the interior 10 3/4 x 20-inch (oil) annulus and the ''outer cemented'' 20 x 26-inch annulus. Well 108 in Cavern 108 exhibits this behavior. It is thought that one, if not the primary, cause of this communication is casing thread leaks at the 20-inch casing joints combined with microannuli along the cement casing interfaces and other cracks/flaws in the cemented 20 x 26-inch annulus. An operation consisting of a series of nitrogen leak tests, similar to cavern integrity tests, was performed on Cavern 108 in an effort to determine the leak horizons and to see if these leak horizons coincided with those of casing joints. Certain leaky, threaded casing joints were identified between 400 and 1500 feet. A new leak detection procedure was developed as a result of this test, and this methodology for identifying and interpreting such casing joint leaks is presented in this report. Analysis of the test data showed that individual joint leaks could be successfully identified, but not without some degree of ambiguity. This ambiguity is attributed to changes in the fluid content of the leak path (nitrogen forcing out oil) and possibly to very plausible changes in characteristics of the flow path during the test. These changes dominated the test response and made the identification of individual leak horizons difficult. One consequence of concern from the testing was a progressive increase in the leak rate measured during testing due to nitrogen cleaning small amounts of oil out of the leak paths and very likely due to the changes of the leak path during the flow test. Therefore, careful consideration must be given before attempting similar tests. Although such leaks have caused no known environmental or economic problems to date, the leaks may be significant because of the potential for future problems. To mitigate future problems, some repair scenarios are discussed including injection of sealants.

SATTLER, ALLAN R.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; PIECHOCKI, ALAN

2002-06-01

469

Sediment-contact and survival of fingernail clams: Implications for conducting short-term laboratory tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Porewater toxicity tests have been used as indicators of whole sediment toxicity. However, many species commonly tested in porewater predominately reside in the water column and otherwise have little to no direct contact with sediment and associated porewater. We assessed the feasibility of porewater toxicity tests with fingernail clams Musculium transversum, a benthic macroinvertebrate that inhabits soft bottom sediments and feeds by filtering surface and porewater. Fingernail clams were exposed to water or sediment in a 96 h laboratory test with a 5 x 2 factorial experimental design. The five treatments included sediments from four sites in the Mississippi River and one sediment-free control (well water). In all treatments, clams were exposed to the sediments or water either directly (no enclosure) or indirectly (enclosure, suspended above the sediment surface). There were three replicates for each of the ten treatment combinations. Overall, survival of fingernail clams did not vary among the five treatments (p = 0.36). In treatments without enclosures, survival of clams in the sediment-free control was not significantly different (p = 0.34) from the sediment-containing treatments. Survival of clams in the sediment-free control averaged 85 - suggesting that direct sediment contact is not necessary for survival in short-term tests. In contrast, survival of clams in the sediment-containing treatments differed significantly (p = 0.03) between exposures with (mean, 77) and without (mean, 89) enclosures. Thus, fingernail clams may provide an alternative species for evaluating benthic macroinvertebrates in short-term laboratory porewater tests. However, more information on their physiological requirements and the development of sublethal endpoints is recommended before their use in tests of longer duration. (C) 2000 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Naimo, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.

2000-01-01

470

Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

471

National Board Scores versus Student GPA's in Chiropractic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between student GPAs and scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners tests was investigated in an effort to determine if the chiropractic curriculum was properly preparing students to be licensed. The study found that there was a significant correlation between GPAs and board scores. (Author/MLW)

Kalthoff, Theodore J.

1985-01-01

472

Common Sense about SAT Scores: The Sky Is Not Falling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When properly understood, scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) support the hypothesis that the performance of American students as measured by the SAT is steadily improving. As the overall pool of SAT takers increases and as pressures to adopt SAT scores as an administrative measure of instructional performance mount, SAT averages at the…

Friedland, Edward I.; Friedland, Mark W.

473

Birth Order, Family Size, and Decline of SAT Scores  

E-print Network

Birth Order, Family Size, and Decline of SAT Scores R. B. ZAJONC JOHN BARGH University of Michigan variation with birth order and family size--much less than found in other data sets. The results are discussed in the light of surveys of younger populations, for which test scores parallel birth trends

Bargh, John A.

474

UNIVERSAL TRENDING RECORD PEDIATRIC ASTHMA SCORE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSAL TRENDING RECORD PEDIATRIC ASTHMA SCORE Age: ________ Ht: _________ Wt Auscultation Oxygen conc/ Oxygen sat Sensorium Total Asthma Score % Peak Flow Nebulizer: (Pre or Post) MD) >80 % 50 ­ 80 % Asthma Score by 2 points requires MD notification · A score

Acton, Scott

475

Decomposition of hydroxy amino acids in foraminiferal tests; kinetics, mechanism and geochronological implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The diagenesis of the hydroxy amino acids serine and threonine in foraminiferal tests has been investigated. The decomposition pathways of these amino acids are complex; the principal reactions appear to be dehydration, aldol cleavage and decarboxylation. Stereochemical studies indicate that the ??-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) detected in foraminiferal tests is the end product of threonine dehydration pathway. Decomposition of serine and threonine in foraminiferal tests from two well-dated Caribbean deep-sea cores, P6304-8 and -9, has been found to follow irreversible first-order kinetics. Three empirical equations were derived for the disappearance of serine and threonine and the appearance of ABA. These equations can be used as a new geochronological method for dating foraminiferal tests from other deep-sea sediments. Preliminary results suggest that ages deduced from the ABA kinetics equation are most reliable because "species effect" and contamination problems are not important for this nonbiological amino acid. Because of the variable serine and threonine contents of modern foraminiferal species, it is likely that the accurate age estimates can be obtained from the serine and threonine decomposition equations only if a homogeneous species assemblage or single species sample isolated from mixed natural assemblages is used. ?? 1978.

Bada, J.L.; Shou, M.-Y.; Man, E.H.; Schroeder, R.A.

1978-01-01

476

IMPLICATIONS FOR TOXICITY TESTS WITH AMPHIPOD GAMMARUS AEQUICAUDA: EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LIFE CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effect of temperature and salinity on the life cycle of Gammarus aequicauda in order to establish temperature and salinity ranges advantageous for chronic toxicity testing. A broad range of salinity?temperature conditions (salinities of 10, 20 and 36‰ and temperatures of 10, 18 and 24°C combined in nine different treatments) significantly influenced various reproductive aspects of G.

E. Prato; F. Biandolino; C. Scardicchio

2008-01-01

477

Testing a Model of Undergraduate Competence in Employability Skills and Its Implications for Stakeholders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the development of employability skills being firmly entrenched in higher education's strategic agenda worldwide; recent graduates' standards in certain skills are not meeting industry expectations. This paper presents and tests a model of undergraduate competence in employability skills. It highlights those factors which impact…

Jackson, Denise

2014-01-01

478

A comparison of five malaria transmission models: benchmark tests and implications for disease control  

PubMed Central

Background Models for malaria transmission are usually compared based on the quantities tracked, the form taken by each term in the equations, and the qualitative properties of the systems at equilibrium. Here five models are compared in detail in order to develop a set of performance measures that further illuminate the differences among models. Methods Five models of malaria transmission are compared. Parameters are adjusted to correspond to similar biological quantities across models. Nine choices of parameter sets/initial conditions are tested for all five models. The relationship between malaria incidence in humans and (1) malaria incidence in vectors, (2) man-biting rate, and (3) entomological inoculation rate (EIR) at equilibrium is tested for all models. A sensitivity analysis for all models is conducted at all parameter sets. Overall sensitivities are ranked for each of the five models. A set of simple control interventions is tested on two of the models. Results Four of these models behave consistently over a set of nine choices of parameters and initial conditions, with one behaving significantly differently. Two of the models do not match reported entomological inoculation rate data well. The sensitivity profiles, although consistently having similar top parameters, vary not only between models but among choices of parameters and initial conditions. A numerical experiment on two of the models illustrates the effect of these differences on control strategies, showing significant differences between models in predicting which of the control measures are more effective. Conclusions A set of benchmark tests based on performance measures are developed to be used on any proposed malaria transmission model to test its overall behaviour in comparison to both other models and data sets. PMID:25011942

2014-01-01

479

Habitat N Score Sum Score Mean (Mean -Mean0) Desert 10 124 12.4 2.532  

E-print Network

habitat should quit food patches earlier than desert foragers. This can be tested experimentally using. Predictions: 1) In the urban habitat birds will quit food patches earlier than desert foragers, since the MOCHabitat N Score Sum Score Mean (Mean - Mean0) Std0 Desert 10 124 12.4 2.532 Urban 8 47 5.8 -2

Hall, Sharon J.

480

Paleomagnetic Tests of Pacific Plate Reconstructions and Implications for Motion Between Hotspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plate-motion circuit through the South Pacific and Antarctica is shown to fail paleomagnetic tests of consistency. These failures imply that reconstructions of Pacific basin plates relative to surrounding plates inferred from this circuit are systematically in error and that estimates of motion between hotspots inferred from this circuit are probably too large. Therefore, the motions between hotspots remain poorly known and may be much smaller than previously estimated.

Acton, Gary D.; Gordon, Richard G.

1994-03-01

481

Disc cutting tests in Colorado Red Granite: Implications for TBM performance prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of full-scale laboratory disc cutting tests was conducted with a single disc cutter (432mm diameter and a constant cross-section profile) and a single rock type (a coarse-grained red granite). Normal, rolling, and side forces were measured for a series of spacings and penetrations, from which other cutting parameters also were calculated. Although the increases of normal and rolling

R. Gertsch; L. Gertsch; J. Rostami

2007-01-01

482

Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

2009-01-01

483

Clinical Implications of Referral Bias in the Diagnostic Performance of Exercise Testing for Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise testing with echocardiography or myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used to risk?stratify patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, reports of diagnostic performance rarely adjust for referral bias, and this practice may adversely influence patient care. Therefore, we evaluated the potential impact of referral bias on diagnostic effectiveness and clinical decision?making. Methods and Results Searching PubMed and EMBASE (1990–2012), 2 investigators independently evaluated eligibility and abstracted data on study characteristics and referral patterns. Diagnostic performance reported in 4 previously published meta?analyses of exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging was adjusted using pooled referral rates and Bayesian methods. Twenty?one studies reported referral patterns in 49 006 patients (mean age 60.7 years, 39.6% women, and 0.8% prior history of myocardial infarction). Catheterization referral rates after normal and abnormal exercise tests were 4.0% (95% CI, 2.9% to 5.0%) and 42.5% (36.2% to 48.9%), respectively, with odds ratio for referral after an abnormal test of 14.6 (10.7 to 19.9). After adjustment for referral, exercise echocardiography sensitivity fell from 84% (80% to 89%) to 34% (27% to 41%), and specificity rose from 77% (69% to 86%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Similarly, exercise myocardial perfusion imaging sensitivity fell from 85% (81% to 88%) to 38% (31% to 44%), and specificity rose from 69% (61% to 78%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Summary receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated only modest changes in overall discriminatory power but adjusting for referral increased positive?predictive value and reduced negative?predictive value. Conclusions Exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging are considerably less sensitive and more specific for coronary artery disease after adjustment for referral. Given these findings, future work should assess the comparative ability of these and other tests to rule?in versus rule?out coronary artery disease. PMID:24334965

Ladapo, Joseph A.; Blecker, Saul; Elashoff, Michael R.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Vieira, Dorice L.; Sharma, Gaurav; Monane, Mark; Rosenberg, Steven; Phelps, Charles E.; Douglas, Pamela S.

2013-01-01

484

Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Outcomes Measurement in Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate computerized adaptive testing (CAT) measures of rehabilitation outcomes.\\u000aStudy Design: Physical functioning questions were calibrated via item response theory (IRT) and administered with CAT software.\\u000aSubjects: 485 adults interviewed during postacute care rehabilitation (simulation study) and 26 adults who completed CAT and personal interviews (CAT pilot study).\\u000aMain Outcome Measures: Patient acceptance and respondent burden, reliability, and

Ware John E. Jr; Barbara Gandek; Samuel J. Sinclair; Jakob B. Bjorner

2005-01-01

485

Counseling College-Bound Students: Can ACT Scores Be Predicted?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between American College Testing Program (ACT) academic test and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and 1986 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV). Thirty college students for whom ACT scores were available took other tests. Concluded…

Carvajal, Howard; And Others

1989-01-01

486

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

487

Toxicity tests aiming to protect Brazilian aquatic systems: current status and implications for management.  

PubMed

The current status of toxicological tests performed with Brazilian native species was evaluated through a survey of the scientific data available in the literature. The information gathered was processed and an electronic toxicology database (http://www.inct-ta.furg.br/bd_toxicologico.php) was generated. This database provides valuable information for researchers to select sensitive and tolerant aquatic species to a large variety of aquatic pollutants. Furthermore, the toxicology database allows researchers to select species representative of an ecosystem of interest. Analysis of the toxicology database showed that ecotoxicological assays have significantly improved in Brazil over the last decade, in spite of the still relatively low number of tests performed and the restricted number of native species tested. This is because most of the research is developed in a few laboratories concentrated in certain regions of Brazil, especially in Southern and Southeast regions. Considering the extremely rich biodiversity and the large variety of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, this finding points to the urgent need for the development of ecotoxicological studies with other groups of aquatic animals, such as insects, foraminifera, cnidarians, worms, amphibians, among others. This would help to derive more realistic water quality criteria (WQC) values, which would better protect the different aquatic ecosystems in Brazil. Finally, the toxicology database generated presents solid and science based information, which can encourage and drive the Environmental Regulatory Agencies in Brazil to derive WQC based on native species. In this context, the present paper discusses the historical evolution of ecotoxicological studies in Brazil, and how they have contributed to the improvement of the Brazilian Federal and Regional regulations for environment. PMID:21643562

Martins, Samantha Eslava; Bianchini, Adalto

2011-07-01

488

Asthma Outcomes: Composite Scores of Asthma Control  

PubMed Central

Background Current asthma guidelines recommend assessing the level of a patient’s asthma control. Consequently, there is increasing use of asthma control as an outcome measure in clinical research studies. Several composite assessment instruments have been developed to measure asthma control. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose the most appropriate standardized composite score of asthma control instruments to be used in future asthma studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, using both the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and key terms to identify studies that attempted to develop and/or test composite score instruments for asthma control. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results We identified 17 composite score instruments with published validation information; all had comparable content. Eight instruments demonstrated responsiveness over time; 3 demonstrated responsiveness to treatment. A minimal clinically important difference has been established for 3 instruments. The instruments have demographic limitations; some are proprietary, and their use could be limited by cost. Conclusion Two asthma composite score instruments are sufficiently validated for use in adult populations, but additional research is necessary to validate their use in nonwhite populations. Gaps also exist in validating instruments for pediatric populations. PMID:22386507

Cloutier, Michelle M.; Schatz, Michael; Castro, Mario; Clark, Noreen; Kelly, H.W.; Mangione-Smith, Rita; Sheller, James; Sorkness, Christine; Stoloff, Stuart; Gergen, Peter

2014-01-01

489

Geotechnical Testing of Slope Sediments on the Nankai accretionary prism: Implications for Erosion and Unroofing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slump scars and mass transport deposits interpreted from seismic reflection data and drilling at the Nankai accretionary complex offshore SW Japan have been linked to submarine landslides and slope failures that may be associated with activity at a major out-of sequence thrust fault system, termed the "megasplay". As part of the Nankai Trough Seismigenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Integrated Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expeditions 315 and 316 drilled and sampled shallow sediments on the accretionary prism near the updip terminus of the megasplay. Previous geotechnical tests on these shallow sediments show evidence of overconsolidation consistent with the removal of overburden by slope failures. Analyses of porosity data from the drillsites also suggest overconsolidation at some locations, both directly above and downslope of the megasplay fault. We conducted a series of constant rate of strain (CRS) experiments on shallow samples (above 75 mbsf) from NanTroSEIZE Sites C0004 and C0008 to define maximum past preconsolidation stresses (Pc'), in order to further test this hypothesis and to quantify the amount of material removed by slope failures. These tests also provide information about sediment compressibility and permeability. Pc' values determined from our experiments are significantly higher than the present-day in situ effective vertical stress computed from shipboard bulk density data and assuming hydrostatic pore pressure; overconsolidation ratios (OCR, defined as the ratio of maximum past consolidation effective stress to the present overburden effective stress) are 2.08 - 2.83 at Site C0008, and are as high as ~4.2 at Site C0004. Comparison of our Pc' values with profiles of expected in situ stress indicates that approximately 60 and 75 meters of material was removed at sites C0008 and C0004 respectively. This is consistent with the amount of unroofing estimated from porosity data (Conin et al., 2011) and interpreted from seismic reflection data (Strasser et al., 2011). Sediment permeability in our experiments ranged from 6.1 x 10-17 m2 to 1.2 x 10-18 m2 over a range of effective stress from 3.3 to 13.5 MPa at Site C0008, and from 3.1 x 10-16 m2 to 1.7 x 10-17 m2 over a range of effective stresses from 0.5 to 14.1 MPa at Site C0004. Further geotechnical testing of samples from Sites C0004, C0006, and C0008 will be conducted to constrain estimates of sediment removal by slope failure, and to better understand the relationship between mass transport history and the consolidation state of the slope sediments.

Lipik, D. A.; Kitajima, H.; Saffer, D. M.

2011-12-01

490

Correlates of late HIV diagnosis. Implications for testing policy Delpierre C, Dray-Spira R, Cuzin L, Marchou B, Massip P, Lang T, Lert F and the VESPA  

E-print Network

1 Correlates of late HIV diagnosis. Implications for testing policy Delpierre C, Dray-Spira R-61-77-21-50 Fax: 05-61-77-99-33 Email: cyrildelpierre@yahoo.fr Word count: 2645 Key words HIV infection, Late.1258/095646207780749709 #12;2 Abstract To develop new strategies aimed to reduce the delay in seeking HIV diagnosis, we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

Twin Similarities in Holland Types as Shown by Scores on the Self-Directed Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree of similarity between scores on the Self-Directed Search from one set of identical twins. Predictably, a high congruence score was found. Results from a biographical sheet are discussed as well as implications of the results for career counselors.

Chauvin, Ida; McDaniel, Janelle R.; Miller, Mark J.; King, James M.; Eddlemon, Ondie L. M.

2012-01-01

492

A Validation of the Factor Structure of OQ-45 Scores Using Factor Mixture Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the Outcome Questionnaire's (OQ-45) factor structure and demonstrated the use of factor mixture modeling (FMM) for the purpose of score validation. OQ-45 scores did not fit the one-class, one- and three-factor models. Use of FMM to identify a two-class model is detailed. Implications for OQ-45 users are provided. (Contains…

Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Sherry, Alissa R.

2010-01-01

493

Dissection Videos Do Not Improve Anatomy Examination Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the effect and student perception of showing dissection videos on first-year medical students' performance in terms of test scores during a gross anatomy course. The article describes the methods and outcomes.

Waqas Mahmud (Rawalpindi Medical College Anatomy)

2011-01-03

494

Astrophysical tests for radiative decay of neutrinos and fundamental physics implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos was calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results were then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data were used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. Thus an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model may have been found.

Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.

1981-01-01

495

Genetic testing and Alzheimer's disease: implications for psychiatric-mental health nursing.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia, continues to grow in prevalence as well as public health impact. Extensive research into the genetic etiology of AD has yielded knowledge of some genetic factors that are causative and other genetic factors that increase risk for disease. Consequently, the possibility of genetic testing in individuals with or at risk for AD is a question that nurses may be asked. Psychiatric-mental health (PMH) professionals are in key positions to influence the care of individuals who are considering the effect of genetic information on their health care decisions. Whether by working within interdisciplinary genetic counseling teams to provide direct specialty services or by developing skills to identify and refer individuals at risk for or concerned about their risk for AD, PMH nurses can play an important role in the health care of individuals and families experiencing AD. PMID:24124693

Schutte, Debra L

2013-11-01

496

Astrophysical tests for radiative decay of neutrinos and fundamental physics implications  

SciTech Connect

The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of light neutrinos is calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results are then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data are used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approx.1700 A in the ultaviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approx.14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of ''standard'' models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. We may thus have found an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model.

Stecker, F.W.; Brown, R.W.

1982-06-01

497

Astrophysical tests for radiative decay of neutrinos and fundamental physics implications  

SciTech Connect

The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos was calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results were then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data were used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. Thus an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model may have been found.

Stecker, F.W.; Brown, R.W.

1981-12-01

498

Formulas for Image Factor Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

Hakstian, A. Ralph

1973-01-01

499